WorldWideScience

Sample records for polar colleague letter

  1. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  2. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Today, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Presents eight readers' letters and one editor's reply in which discussions are related to effects of zero-population growth on scientific creativity, employment crisis of industrial physicists, efficiency of ionic pumps, and the naming system of laws and effects in physics. (CC)

  3. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  4. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  5. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  8. Functional characterisation of letter-specific responses in time, space and current polarity using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilliams, L; Lewis, G A; Marantz, A

    2016-05-15

    Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that a hierarchical neural network of low-to-high level processing subserves written language comprehension. While a considerable amount of research has identified distinct regions and stages of processing, the relations between them and to this hierarchical model remain unclear. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a technique frequently employed in such investigations; however, no studies have sought to test whether the conventional method of reconstructing currents at the source of the magnetic field is best suited for such across-subject designs. The present study details the results of three MEG experiments addressing these issues. Neuronal populations supporting responses to low-level orthographic properties were housed posteriorly near the primary visual cortex. More anterior regions along the fusiform gyrus encoded higher-level processes and became active ~80ms later. A functional localiser of these early letter-specific responses was developed for the production of functional regions of interest in future studies. Previously established response components were successfully grouped based on proximity to the localiser, which characterised location, latency and functional sensitivity. Unconventional anatomically constrained signed minimum norm estimates of MEG data were most sensitive to the primary experimental manipulation, suggesting that the conventional unsigned unconstrained method is sub-optimal for studying written word processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016).

  10. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Codeço

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016. We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016.

  11. Ombuds' Corner: Between colleagues

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2010-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. 
     Following a reorganization in their Department, Don* and Sam* found themselves working in the same unit. Given their complementary competencies, they were asked to collaborate on the same project. At the beginning, they both appreciated being able to exchange ideas and progress as they learned to get to grips with their new challenge. After a few months, Don forgot to forward some urgent information to Sam, who was annoyed as it placed him in an awkward situation. Being unaware of the information caused Sam to make a wrong decision, for which he was criticized by his Management. Not wanting to point the finger at his colleague, he took the blame himself. Nevertheles...

  12. Letter: Meyerhofer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  13. Letters From Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Ann R

    2018-03-01

    Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars. Using content analysis, 24 letters received between 1990 and 1998 were read, reread, and coded. Recurring themes were identified. Three themes were identified. These include Peplau, the Person: Living a Life of Professional Balance; Lighting a Spark: Investing in the Next Generation; and Work in the Vineyards of Nursing: Maintaining a Life of Scholarship. The letters depict Peplau's keen intellect, her wide professional network, her leisure time spent with family and friends, and her own work to assure that her theoretical legacy continued. Peplau's insights continue to be relevant as psychiatric mental health nursing leaders engage in activities to support the next generation of scholars and leaders.

  14. Charles Wagley: mentor and colleague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine L. Margolis

    Full Text Available Professor Charles Wagley was my mentor at Columbia University, my colleague at the University of Florida and a dear friend. His influence on me can be summarized in one word: Brazil. From the time I took his course, "Peoples of Brazil", as a first semester graduate student at Columbia I was captivated and most of my subsequent field research and publications have had Brazilian themes. Under Dr. Wagley's direction I did field research for my dissertation in the coffee region of northern Paraná and focused on the shift from coffee cultivation to cattle ranching and the social and economic consequences of that change. My subsequent research in the area involved the impact of frost on this shift in economic base as well as one of its results: the flight of poor Brazilians to Paraguay. Then starting in the late 1980s my research shifted and I began focusing on Brazilian immigrants in New York City. This was part of a growing movement of Brazilians arriving in New York, elsewhere in the United States and in Europe and Japan. Since then most of my subsequent research and publications have been on this new wave of international migrants

  15. “VICO”, Visiting Colleagues

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    “Hello, I am your delegate” – have you heard this line? Maybe you have already had the pleasure of receiving a visit from a Staff Association delegate – then you know what this is all about. As for those of you, who have not yet heard these words, it’s time to get curious. The Staff Association has decided to embark upon an adventure called “VICO”, Visiting Colleagues. From past experience, we have understood the value of personal, direct contact with the people we represent. We believe that the best way to achieve this is to knock on your office door and pay you a short visit.  We do not want to make you fill in yet another online questionnaire and would much rather collect your feedback in a short conversation face to face. Of course, we have prepared ourselves thoroughly for these visit rounds, because we do not want to waste your time. We welcome criticism because it can make us aware of our shortcomings, tell us about how y...

  16. A Learning Community of Colleagues Enhancing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visone, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    This article shares a promising practice: collegial visits. During collegial visits, educators watch a colleague teach a lesson about a predetermined focus as a form of professional development. Educators, including the host teacher, debrief after the lesson. These visits are part of a cycle of learning that moves from theory to practice, and the…

  17. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  18. [Billroth and his time; selected passages from his letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budernik, A

    1986-04-18

    Billroth's life and work are illustrated by selected excerpts from his letters written to outstanding personalities and colleagues. Not only his medical activities, but also his initiative in the planning of the Rudolfinerhaus hospital, and the reconstruction of his own department and the building of the Medical Association house in the Frankgasse are described. In addition, his love of music and his deep friendship with Johannes Brahms are demonstrated by these letters.

  19. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  20. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  1. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  3. Male Colleagues\\' Attitudes and Professional Women\\'s Adjustment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a survey design set to determine the adjustment patterns of professional women to their male colleagues' attitude in their work setting. Data was collected from 450 respondents in Rivers state, using the stratified random sampling, and four variables were used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that there is ...

  4. Evaluating the Teaching Portfolio: A Role for Colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centra, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The teaching portfolio has been promoted as a vehicle for collecting and documenting information about an individual's teaching performance. The problem of how best to assess the information has not yet been addressed adequately. This article describes how a teacher's colleagues can provide assessments of portfolios. (JM)

  5. Learning from our international colleagues: a US plastic surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lee L Q

    2013-04-01

    With growing contribution to plastic surgery by our international colleagues, one may be wondering about what US plastic surgeons have learned from them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a single surgeon's experience to identify any specific areas of plastic surgery that one has learned substantially from our international colleagues. All plastic surgical procedures performed by a single US plastic surgeon at an academic medical center with an active plastic surgery residency training program during the past 10 years were reviewed. More frequently performed procedures by the author were identified. In each identified procedure, critical references used by the author were examined to find out whether these references were from domestic or international sources. More frequently performed procedures by the author were (1) free anterolateral thigh perforator flap and free-style free flap, (2) deep inferior epigastric perforator flap breast reconstruction, (3) implant-based breast reconstruction, (4) oncoplastic breast reduction or mastopexy for breast reconstruction, (5) vertical scar breast reduction, and (6) fat grafting for correction of contour deformity after breast reconstruction. Much more innovative procedures that the author had learned after his residency were published primarily by our international colleagues. The author has learned substantially from our international colleagues because many new procedures may be either first described by them or they have more extensive clinical experience. It is important to fully appreciate the significance of international scientific exchange in plastic surgery and its impact on a US plastic surgeon's clinical practice.

  6. Developing scale for colleague solidarity among nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslusoy, Esin Cetinkaya; Alpar, Sule Ecevit

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for an appropriate instrument to measure colleague solidarity among nurses. This study was carried out to develop a Colleague Solidarity of Nurses' Scale (CSNS). This study was planned to be descriptive and methodological. The CSNS examined content validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability. The trial form of the CSNS, which was composed of 44 items, was given to 200 nurses, followed by validity and reliability analyses. Following the analyses, 21 items were excluded from the scale, leaving an attitude scale made up of 23 items. Factor analysis of the data showed that the scale has a three sub-factor structure: emotional solidarity, academic solidarity and negative opinions about solidarity. The Cronbach's alpha reliability of the whole scale was 0.80. This study provides evidence that the CSNS possesses robust solidarity among nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. To José Pereira Lages, our friend and colleague

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    It was with great sadness that we learnt of the accidental demise of our colleague, José Pereira Lages, whilst he was transporting equipment for the LHC. José was the team leader for the LHC's general services at points 1 and 8, working on behalf of the firm DBS Transports. Determined and receptive, always ready to help those around him, he always did his best in his work. His smile, his kindness and his professionalism made him somebody who was unanimously appreciated, whether it was by his colleagues at DBS, his colleagues at CERN or any of the CERN users that he encountered. He leaves behind a large gap in our midst and we will all miss him. We will be reminded of his smile in this picture from the last issue of the Bulletin, taken to celebrate his win in the French Championships for fork-lift truck unloading. It was only a few days ago that we were so happy and proud of him, looking forward, in our minds, to the future competitions that lay ahead. We share the grief of his family and all his friend...

  8. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  9. Letterer siwe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anuja

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old boy presented with recurrent pyoderma-like lesions and purulent ear discharge of 6 months duration. The biopsy helped to confirm Letterer Siwe disease. Purpuric lesion on palms and soles which is a reputedly lethal sign of the disease was also present in the child who died within a few days.

  10. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The imaginary Sun? Harold Aspden Energy Science Ltd, PO Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, UK Difficult physics? Tim Akrill Chief Examiner, A-level Physics, Edexcel Foundation Was it a dream? Bill Jarvis 6 Peggy's Mill Road, Edinburgh EH4 6JY

  11. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  12. EPA Void Letter for Suzuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a certificate is voided, EPA issues a void letter to the manufacturer.November 30, 2016, letter from Byron Bunker to Suzuki Motor America Inc., voiding certificate of conformity for highway motorcycle engine family CSKXC.652VR1.

  13. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  14. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  15. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  16. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  17. THE ECONOMICS OF THERAPY - CLIENTS, COLLEAGUES, CASH AND COMPETITION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Daniel; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Ledger, Alison

    that meet culturally diverse practices and challenges. We have little control over the financial health of government budgets; however, we can be proactive in controlling the financial health of our own businesses. Music therapists have distinct skills including attunement, improvisation, and listening...... we arket and advertise our services responsibly and reliably? Should music therapy students be taught basic strategies for business development and reflect on their own qualities as potential entrepreneurs? Working within a “for-­‐profit” business model makes some people uncomfortable but perhaps......This roundtable features an international panel of music therapists exploring what happens when music therapy and business collide. Can 21st century music therapy care for clients, colleagues, cash and competitors? Thought-­‐provoking presentations will connect participants with approaches...

  18. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics, multifractal analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces, the fast-acting memory for multichannel converters of time to digital, an analysis of the anomalous Cherenkov radiation obtained in the relativistic lead ion beam at CERN SPS, the problem of consistency of the thermal-spike model with experimentally determined electron temperature, ATLAS calorimeter performance for charged pion as well as on collective flow in multifragmentation induced by relativistic helium and carbon ions variation of the coulomb repulsion in multifragmentation

  1. Honor in the Academic Profession: How Professors Want to Be Remembered by Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanowicz, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement in the professions is situated relationally. Work comes to constitute contribution only by the judgments of colleagues. This is paradigmatically the case in science and scholarship, where colleagues not only sanction others but also create their legacy. Normatively, it would stand to reason that colleagues would be held in high regard;…

  2. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  3. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    OpenAIRE

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  4. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on liquid argon pollution tests of the ATLAS detector materials at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, irradiation tests of readout chain components of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters, study of neutron induced outgassing from tungsten alloy for ATLAS FCAL, yields of nuclear reaction products from a thick beryllium target bombarded by beams of 7 Li, 11 B and 15 N ions as well as on the mass surface and the properties of nuclides close to hypothetic doubly magic lead-164, the Web-site of information-diagnostic system of IBR-2 pulsed neutron source state, discovery of η-mesic nuclei and calculation of the ion angular distributions after the ionization in ion-atom collisions

  5. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116 Cd double β decay study with 116 CdWO 4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40 Ca and 46 Ca by using low radioactive CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0 + and 2 + final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23 Na, 127 I and 129 Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  6. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  7. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  8. Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Klionsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, when I describe the use of an active-learning approach (1–3, my colleagues ask what size class is appropriate for this format. One of us has used this method in a class of over 200 students, but we would use the same format no matter what the class size. We think active learning is better than lecturing even for very large classes; the details of how the class is run might have to vary (e.g., how groups are formed, but otherwise it would be the same. When thinking about the effectiveness—or lack thereof—of lecturing, especially in a very large class, an anecdote by the late Neil A. Campbell, the author of a very popular introductory biology textbook, comes to mind. To paraphrase, Neil was giving a lecture to a large class and became concerned because no one seemed to be following what he was saying. Then it occurred to him that the problem might be that no one could hear him, as he was not using a microphone. So, he paused, faced the class and asked, “Is there anyone who cannot hear what I am saying?” A young man at the very back of the room stood up and shouted back, “Yeah, I haven’t been able to hear a single thing you’ve said.” At that point, a young woman in the front row stood up, turned around and replied to her classmate, “I’ll trade places with you!”

  9. Letters From Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2006 I returned to Lebanon for a third time. I had lived in Beirut for almost a year in 2002–2003, during which time I fell in love with the city, as so many people do—the generosity, resilience and joie de vivre of so many Lebanese people, the lively artistic scene, the intensity with which so many historical and international forces cross this small country. I built strong friendships then. I returned in 2004, and again in June 2006, this time to study Arabic at the American University of Beirut. On 14 July, in response to Hizballah’s action of taking two Israeli soldiers hostage and shooting across the Lebanese–Israeli border, Israel began an intense bombardment of Lebanese infrastructure, starting with the airport, as well as places where Hizballah supporters lived. A privileged outsider waiting to be evacuated, I was also helpless, afraid, and furious at the pro-Israeli tone of the international media. So I wrote daily letters to family, friends, and a growing email list of interested people. This is an edited version.

  10. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    OpenAIRE

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-01-01

    A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subj...

  11. Letters that made a journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-06-01

    "Here is the first issue of Physical Review Letters. We hope that it will gain the approval of authors and readers." It was with these words that Sam Goudsmit began his first editorial on 1 July 1958 in a new scientific-research journal published by the American Physical Society (APS). But with a small hint of caution, Goudsmit - a physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory - went on to say that "Physical Review Letters is an experiment... if we fail, we can return to the old 'Letters to the Editor' column in Physical Review".

  12. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  13. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  14. Record bid for Einstein letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-06-01

    A letter written by Albert Einstein the year before his death has sold for the staggering amount of £170 000 at an auction in London last month. The previously unrecorded letter, which has spent the past 50 years in a private collection, includes a discussion of Einstein's views on religion, bringing new material to the debate about whether or not he believed in God. The lot had been expected to fetch between £6000-£8000.

  15. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  16. Unit 2: Application Letters & The Job Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Aleson Carbonell, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Unit 2a_ Letters of Application and the CV: Reading the employment section. Unit 2b_Letters of Application and the CV:Writing Letters and the Job Hunting Process. Unit 2c_ Letters of Application and the CV: The Job Interview.

  17. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  18. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  19. Improving the letter of recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Jeremy D; Myer, Charles M; Pensak, Myles L

    2010-09-01

    The selection of applicants to otolaryngology training programs is a challenging task. Applicants and their evaluators rely on objective and subjective data to facilitate the selection process. Unfortunately, data are often less helpful than either side assumes, suffering from poor validity and reliability in predicting future performance. The traditional resume-based letter of recommendation bears some responsibility in this. It is often a lengthy reiteration of already available objective data and contains nonstandardized, superlative evaluations of personal attributes. As a result, many letters are similar, describing "excellent" candidates who have done well on previous examinations and clerkships. Research has indicated improved reliability and satisfaction as well as decreased time expenditure using standardized letters of recommendation. These letters demonstrate how basic, easy-to-implement improvements can create letters that provide accurate information, separate applicants, and improve the selection process. Consideration should be given to adopting these improvements at the program director and/or educational committee level. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic letters as relationally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Nathan R

    2009-02-01

    Therapeutic letters have become a practice adopted by many clinicians as an adjunct to therapeutic conversations. This article presents selected findings from a larger study that examined both the letter-writing practices of nine clinicians as well as the experiences of seven adult clients who received a therapeutic letter or letters during the course of individual or family therapy. A novel aspect of this study is that data from clients were gathered in the form of letters-eight letters written by the clients to the researcher about their experience of receiving a therapeutic letter or letters from their clinician. Thematic analysis guided the analysis of the data. Findings are placed within the context of relationally responsive (or relationally engaged) practice. An invitation is extended to conceptualize letters not as monologic documents but as a means of dialogically relating to clients and to the "goings-on" of therapeutic conversations.

  1. Ombuds' Corner: letter from Ombudsland

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Early this month, over 400 Ombuds met in Denver for their annual conference and networking event. It was an excellent opportunity to meet colleagues from all over the world and to share best practices and benefit from an ongoing exchange of professional experience.   Twenty-seven countries were represented at the 2014 annual conference of the International Ombudsman Association. Participants came from the private sector as well as from various universities and organisations. Networking and exchanging experience with all the different colleagues was extremely interesting, in particular as there was also an opportunity to meet a few people who were amongst the pioneers in the field and had contributed significantly to developing the Ombuds' role and practices into the established professional body it is today. The main focus of the conference was to review and underline the Ombuds' code of ethics and the common standards of practice, which are based on four basic principles, na...

  2. Letter to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    find it puzzling that the authors nonetheless claim in their conclusions that 'An evaluation of state occupations supports the proposal that the occupation of the 5f levels in bulk Pu must be near 5'. Apart from the aforementioned conceptual inconsistencies, there are a number of more technical aspects that are not discussed in sufficient detail. Among these are: (1) The authors use LDA to approximate the electron correlations. A lively debate takes place in the literature whether this approximation can adequately describe the electronic structure of Pu metal or not, yet the authors do not discuss the choice of the approximation at all, which they should, in my opinion. They should also specify if their solutions are spin polarized or whether they use spin-restricted LDA. (2) The quality of the employed basis set is not clear. Are the results converged with respect to the basis size? What is the estimated magnitude of the residual errors? (3) There are statements in the manuscript indicating that the cluster calculations depend somehow on the calculations of the diatomic molecule. Namely: 'Underpinning these calculations, there is a geometry optimization of diatomic molecules...' and 'Underlying the Pu cluster simulations is the calculation of the electronic structure of a Pu2 dimer with the bond length 3.28 (angstrom) corresponding to the inter-atomic distances in delta-Pu.' What does this underpinning/underlying mean in more technical terms? What role does the geometry optimization play when the cluster calculations seem to be performed at a fixed geometry corresponding to the delta-Pu? Lastly, the manuscript contains a lot of material that was previously (and often multiple times) published elsewhere, including the Physical Review journals. For instance, the experimental part of Fig. 2 was shown already in Refs. 26, 27 and 28 in essentially the same graphical form; the top part of Fig. 9 appeared in Refs. 19, 4 and in PRL 90, 196404 (2003). I think that reprinting

  3. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  4. EAMJ-March Scientific letter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... affluence has been linked with high mental health burden and alcohol use in adolescents (l-2). ... hungry owing to not enough food being present in home; we used data from the Global School-based .... Conflict of interest:Authors of original articles, reviews and letters to the editor should intimate a conflict ...

  5. Mapping Letters through Interaction Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iturrioz, T.; Cano, J.; Wachowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many kinds of text documents (e.g. newspapers, reports and letters) provide a potential source of geo-referenced information that is often underutilized. In interaction design, the use of dynamic icons and animation plays an important role in creating a sense of interactivity and feedback with

  6. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  7. Open Communication and Discussion Facilitate Reconciliation: The Maimonides Approach to Publication of Manduca’s Letter in The Lancet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] Dear Friends and Colleagues, In August of 2014, Manduca P et al. published “An open letter for the people in Gaza” in The Lancet. This letter was the response of those authors to their perspective of what was happening in Gaza during the summer-long conflict between Israel and Gaza. Israel was finally responding to years of bombardment from Gaza into civilian areas in the south of Israel. Two of the authors of the letters were known anti-Semites, and held connections with David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard in Louisiana and advocate of Nazism. Both these authors expressed sympathy and support for Duke’s rabidly anti-Jewish positions. In their letter they accused Israel’s medical community of complicity in committing terrible atrocities and even implied that chemical warfare was being used by Israel. ...

  8. Dear Colleagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Borup

    2010-01-01

    to radiochemistry, calls for both fundamental and applied contributions in this field of growing academic and industrial interests. Special attention will be paid to paper which has a high degree of novelty, which can contribute to making everyday life easier for radio chemists, which can have a (potential...

  9. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  11. Open letter to the Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience.

  12. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  13. Letter to European Science Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Département de Linguistique AppliquéeEt de Didactique des languesDirecteur : Claude Springerhttp://dladl.u-strasbg.fr Dr. Rüdiger KleinEUROCORES Programme CoordinatorEuropean Science Foundation1, quai Lezay MarnésiaBP 90015F-67080 Strasbourg Cedex Strasbourg, le 22 mai 2006 Dear colleague, The Editorial Board of the journal ALSIC (Apprentissage des langues et système d’information et de communication which comprises 45 people from universities in 9 different countries was astonished to note...

  14. A physician role typology: colleague and client dependence in an HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J K; Steinberg, M K

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on physicians' role definitions in one prepaid group practice, a health maintenance organization (HMO). Colleague and client dependence are reviewed and analyzed as separable dimensions of physician role definitions. Data are derived from documents, interviews, and staff questionnaires collected in 1979-1980. The evidence reported suggests widespread colleague dependence in the HMO. Physicians consulted with one another about patient care and engaged in informal referral and review, developing practice standards; and some of these physicians relied on colleagues for handling their patient visits when needed. In relation to their patients, some physicians viewed themselves as bureaucratic officials relatively dependent on client approval in carrying out their health care activities, while others saw themselves as trusted medical experts in a setting free of nonmedical constraints in patient care. The relationship of organizational structure to these different role definitions is discussed. Classifying these HMO physicians according to a fourfold typology of professional dependence shows that most are Organizational Physicians (Type I), who are both colleague and client dependent. Collegial Physicians (Type II) are colleague dependent and, at the same time, do not perceive clients as demanding. Implications for quality of care and physician satisfaction and turnover are considered.

  15. Linking Colleague Support to Employees’ Promotive Voice: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Promotive voice is essential for improving team and organization performance. Yet in the current literature, less was known regarding the psychological reasons why people engage in promotive voice. Through the lens of social exchange, we proposed that employees who received support from colleagues may develop higher level of felt obligation for constructive change which leads to promotive voice. Analyses of multi-source data from 51 cross-functional sources (51 team supervisors and 162 employees) showed that employees’ felt obligation for constructive change positively mediates the relationship between colleague support and promotive voice behavior. Moreover, the impact of colleague support on felt obligation for constructive change is stronger when there is a low level of subgroup formation in the team. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26148194

  16. Linking Colleague Support to Employees' Promotive Voice: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Yun; Ling, Chu-Ding; Mo, Shen-Jiang; Luan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Promotive voice is essential for improving team and organization performance. Yet in the current literature, less was known regarding the psychological reasons why people engage in promotive voice. Through the lens of social exchange, we proposed that employees who received support from colleagues may develop higher level of felt obligation for constructive change which leads to promotive voice. Analyses of multi-source data from 51 cross-functional sources (51 team supervisors and 162 employees) showed that employees' felt obligation for constructive change positively mediates the relationship between colleague support and promotive voice behavior. Moreover, the impact of colleague support on felt obligation for constructive change is stronger when there is a low level of subgroup formation in the team. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Linking Colleague Support to Employees' Promotive Voice: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Promotive voice is essential for improving team and organization performance. Yet in the current literature, less was known regarding the psychological reasons why people engage in promotive voice. Through the lens of social exchange, we proposed that employees who received support from colleagues may develop higher level of felt obligation for constructive change which leads to promotive voice. Analyses of multi-source data from 51 cross-functional sources (51 team supervisors and 162 employees showed that employees' felt obligation for constructive change positively mediates the relationship between colleague support and promotive voice behavior. Moreover, the impact of colleague support on felt obligation for constructive change is stronger when there is a low level of subgroup formation in the team. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Parafoveal letter-position coding in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Bertrand, Daisy; Grainger, Jonathan

    2018-01-08

    The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration. We present two lexical decision experiments that tested how the processing of six-letter target words is influenced by simultaneously presented flanking stimuli (each stimulus was presented for 150 ms). We manipulated the orthographic relatedness between the targets and flankers, in terms of both letter identity (same/different letters based on the target's outer/inner letters) and letter position (intact/reversed order of letters and of flankers, contiguous/noncontiguous flankers). Target processing was strongly facilitated by same-letter flankers, and this facilitatory effect was modulated by both letter/flanker order and contiguity. However, when the flankers consisted of the target's inner-positioned letters alone, letter order no longer mattered. These findings suggest that readers may code for the relative position of letters using words' edges as spatial points of reference. We conclude that the flanker paradigm provides a fruitful means to investigate letter-position coding in the fovea and parafovea.

  19. Charles Dickens and the Cat Paw Letter Opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Pyke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the sensory expectations around Victorian taxidermy, beginning with Charles Dickens’s letter opener made from the paw of his favourite cat and moving to a discussion of 'Our Mutual Friend'. I suggest that in a mid-Victorian moment in which work and laziness are polarized as the available moral, economic, and social categories, a desire for stillness, a space that is neither work nor laziness, exists in the encounter with taxidermied animals. The taxidermied animal allows energy and stillness to coexist.

  20. Classrooms, Colleagues, Communities, and Change: The Sociology of Teaching at the Turn of the Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the importance of emotions in relation to teachers' work in classrooms, to colleagues, and to communities, with implications for understanding the changing nature and organization of teaching in Japan. The paper analyzes five emotional geographies of teaching (moral, cultural, political, professional, and physical) in terms of Japanese…

  1. Some Limitations of the "H" Index: A Commentary on Ruscio and Colleagues' Analysis of Bibliometric Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Ludo; Costas, Rodrigo; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2012-01-01

    The literature on bibliometric indices for assessing scholarly impact, in particular the "h" index (Hirsch, 2005) and its many variants, is extensive, but nevertheless Ruscio and colleagues (this issue) succeed in making a valuable contribution. They have made the effort of collecting publication and citation data for no less than 1,750…

  2. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible

  3. Save the Last Bath for Me: Conveying Everyday Knowledge to a Colleague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marshall

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Author’s note: I have given my colleague a pseudonym. I rely on my own observations from the trip for evidence of what Veronica thought, and all the conclusions are my own. I did not interview Veronica for her version of events or her thinking at the time. All mistaken inferences are mine and mine alone.

  4. Am I Wearing the Right Hat? Navigating Professional Relationships between Parent-Teachers and Their Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Eliana; Friedman, Ilana Dvorin; Harkema, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing organizational role theory and cognitive role theory as a theoretical framework, this phenomenological study examined the experience of parent-teachers and colleague-teachers in small educational settings and their perceptions of these dynamic relationships and potential areas of conflict. Findings highlighted perceived strengths, yet…

  5. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  6. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  7. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  8. An Open Letter to Tomorrow's Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The article takes the form of a letter written to pre-service or beginning teachers at the secondary level in the public school system. The letter acknowledges the attributes they bring to the profession (enthusiasm, optimism, creativity, and open-mindedness) and calls on them to make the most of and work to sustain these traits as they begin…

  9. Genre Analysis of Business Letters of Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, V. B. M. Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey on genre analysis of 117 commercial letters in English exchanged by fax between a Brazilian company and two European companies. The letters were analyzed in terms of shared communicative purposes and rhetorical features that together contribute to the building-up of the resulting generic structure named "Business…

  10. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  11. Whistleblowing and boundary violations: exposing a colleague in the forensic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj-Taylor, Cindy

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of whistleblowing as it relates to a reconstructed case study of an erotic boundary violation that emerged from a clinical situation in forensic psychiatric nursing practice. The unique features of this case are illustrated with the help of a model for decision making. Although the ramifications of exposing a colleague are many, it is argued that, in this particular case, it was morally and ethically the right thing to do.

  12. A Multi-Island Situation Without the Ocean: Tutors' perceptions about working in isolation from colleagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ilse Fouche

    2006-01-01

    Distance education is generally seen as a very isolating experience for students, but one often forgets that it can be an equally isolating experience for teaching staff who oftentimes work in isolation from colleagues. This study examines the experiences of nine tutors at the Reading and Writing Centres of one of the 10 biggest universities in the world, Universtiy of South Africa (Unisa). The tutors work at different Regional Offices across South Africa. This study examines both quantitativ...

  13. Self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Azarkish, Fatemeh; Latifnejadroudsari, Robab; Shandiz, Fatemeh Homaei; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Kermani, Ali Taghizadeh; Esmaily, Habib Ollah

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common form of cancer in Iranian women, and it remains a major health problem. An increasing number of young women are being diagnosed with BC, and therefore, there is an increasing likelihood that more women will survive breast cancer for many years. Many opine that self-disclosure of BC diagnosis is important because talking about cancer helps people to make sense of their experiences; in fact, self-disclosure appears to play an important role in many health outcomes. However, this has not yet been studied in BC patients in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues. All BC records for 2001-2011 of employed women were studied at five hospitals in Mashhad. Data about the self-disclosure of BC diagnosis were gathered through telephone interviews, and the participants filled out a questionnaire about their status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis to various groups of people. The mean age of employed women at the time of diagnosis was 44.3 ± 6.7 years. Over 60% self-disclosed to work colleagues and over 90% to bosses/managers. Seventy per cent reported that they had support from their family and husband's family, while 95% reported that they had support from parents, siblings, children and friends. Most employed women self-disclosed freely to family, friends, colleagues and bosses/managers. Apparently, self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis may have negative effects at work. About half of patients reported that they had support from family, managers and colleagues; however, for nearly 28% of employed women, disclosure had less positive effects. In particular, it altered their perception of others, produced difficulties with work and family and diminished closeness with the people who were told. However, the stigma of BC is far less than it once was.

  14. TEFL University Instructors’ Emotional Attitudes towards Their Students, Colleagues and Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Hariri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to search TEFL university instructors’ emotional attitudes towards their students, colleagues and workplace. To accomplish this aim, a group of 30 Iranian university instructors majoring in one of the four disciplines of English language were participated. The instrument used in this study, was mainly based on a questionnaire designed by Karami and Barekat (2014 in order to ask attitudes of the participants. This questionnaire consists of 56 items under 10 categories: satisfaction, dissatisfaction, interaction with colleagues, anger towards the institutional context, anger towards students, being close to students, emotions and staff, creating rapport, collaboration and general feeling towards your career. In order to analyze the data, the descriptive statistics of each category is calculated. The analysis of data from questionnaire revealed teachers’ most significant emotions in each of the 10 categories, which were mostly positive when it came to their students, and more negative in regard of their colleagues and institutional contexts. Based on the obtained results, one can draw the conclusion that EFL teachers need to talk collaboratively about their experiences and emotions.

  15. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  16. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  17. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  18. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  20. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  1. Letter detection in very familiar texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S N; Tai, J

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether patterns of letter detection for function and content words in texts are affected by the familiarity of the material being read. In Experiment 1, subjects searched for target letters in sentences that had been rehearsed prior to performing the letter detection on them as well as on unfamiliar sentences. In Experiment 2, subjects searched for target letters in highly familiar verses (e.g., nursery rhymes) and in unfamiliar sentences that were matched to the familiar verses. A disadvantage in letter detection for function as compared with content words consistently found with unfamiliar passages was reduced significantly with the familiar material in both experiments. Specifically, letter detection for content words grew worse in familiar text, but letter detection for function words showed a contrasting modest, though nonsignificant, improvement. The results are consistent with the proposition that in very familiar texts, parafoveal analysis permits the identification of generally less familiar content words. Simultaneously, the normal pattern of weighing the structure and content elements of text changes so that more fixations on function words occur than when one is reading unfamiliar texts.

  2. In a series of studies some years ago, RE Young and his colleagues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    water to absorb shorter and longer wavelengths with increasing depth (e.g. Kampa 1970, Dartnall 1975). In addition, light is polarized at the air-water interface. (e.g. Waterman 1984). It has been demonstrated experi- mentally that polarization sensitivity is an important parameter of visual contrast in the eyes of cephalopods.

  3. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  4. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  5. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, H P; Harvey, S B; Rosvold, E O; Bruusgaard, D; Blonk, R; Mykletun, A

    2017-12-02

    General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice. Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates. The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent). This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Facebook addiction: concerns, criticism, and recommendations--a response to Andreassen and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides a brief critique of the Facebook addiction research field in relation to the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale developed by Andreaessen and colleagues (2012). Just like the term "Internet addiction," the term "Facebook addiction" may already be obsolete because there are many activities that a person can engage in on the Facebook website (e.g., messaging friends, playing games like Farmville, and gambling). What is needed is a new psychometric scale examining potential addiction to a particular online application (i.e., social networking) rather than activity on a particular website (i.e., Facebook).

  7. Global challenges keynote address in memoriam to colleagues lost in the Malaysia airlines 17 crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Six colleagues working in the HIV field were killed when their flight en route to Kuala Lumpur was shot down over the Ukraine. This report is drawn from the in memoriam keynote opening address given at the 12th International AIDS Impact conference in Amsterdam in 2015. It highlights their tangible and valued roles in the HIV response and looks forward to the road ahead. It describes the ways in which we can build on their legacy to address current global challenges in HIV prevention and treatment and to mobilise the intensified, focused resources that are needed to turn the HIV epidemic on its head.

  8. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2018-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Carl Von Clausewitz: Two Letters on Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paret, Peter; Moran, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    This edition of Carl von Clausewitz's Two Letters on Strategy was made possible by the Army War College Foundation and by the Art of War Colloquium of the Army War College, which sponsors the volume...

  10. Open letter to children going to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of things you should know and which I will explain in this small letter. To learn what you should do in school, and what you should ask them, their teachers and classmates.

  11. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  12. Jose Maria Arguedas’ letters to Abelardo Oquendo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Pinilla Cisneros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Four letters are included in this publication that Jose Maria Arguedas addressed to Abelardo Oquendo. They document Arguedas’ interest in choosing persons of great literary talent and solid judgemente as editors for his writings. These letters also reveal his personal interpretation of certain practices of Lima intellectual groups, as well as his committed defense in protecting the authenticity of artistic expressions of the Andean world.

  13. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  14. Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Keomany, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...

  15. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  16. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  17. Changes in Student Performance and Confidence with a Standardized Patient and Standardized Colleague Interprofessional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Marie L; Schonder, Kristine S; Meyer, Susan M; Hall, Deanne L

    2015-06-25

    To assess the impact of a standardized patient and standardized colleague interprofessional activity on student performance and perceived confidence in communicating with patients and physicians. Students in the third professional year were presented with a practice and final activity including a standardized patient interaction, SOAP note preparation, and standardized colleague interaction. Student performance was measured by assessment rubrics on practice and final activities. Students' perceived confidence was measured via presurvey and postsurvey. Students performed significantly better from the practice to the final activity with regard to communicating with patients, SOAP note, and the overall activity with a mean difference (95% CI) of 9.2 (6.9-11.5), 3.6 (1.3-5.8), and 3.9 (2.0-5.7), respectively. There was a positive significant change from presurvey to postsurvey in students' confidence talking to patients and physicians on majority of questions. This study demonstrates that active learning and integrated assessments improve overall student performance. Integration of interprofessional education also has positive effects on students' perceived confidence.

  18. Medical Deontology towards medical students, our colleagues and our patients. About meetings, medical journals, candidacy for higher posts and the "silent" society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately, today very few care about medical deontology-ethics that is about how to behave and respect others when we exercise our medical duties. Perhaps we do not show our real care and kind leadership to our students. We do not very much respect our medical colleagues. We are often tired to spend much time examining patients. We attend medical meetings for pleasure or because our expenses are covered by pharmaceutical firms. We write unimportant papers in order to have a rich curriculum. We consider the Impact Factor of a journal as awarded only to underline the importance of a letter to the Editor we publish in a prestigious journal. We refrain from useful research. We are not always truthful in publishing the results of our research. Many such examples are included in this paper. Overall, we go for a financial success disregarding the "old" Hippocratic ideas and oath. We are supposed to seak for life-happiness. Instead, we feel guilty, inconvenient as to our social behaviour and unhappy. "The Lancet" mentioned long ago (1969) a phrase by John Keats: "Truth is beauty...this only exists on Earth and this is what we need to know".

  19. Disentangling the developmental trajectories of letter position and letter identity coding using masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A; Castles, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position development: the lexical tuning hypothesis and the multiple-route model. One factor that may be contributing to these discrepancies is the use of baseline primes that substitute letters in the target word, which may confound the effect of changes in letter position processing over development with those of letter identity. The present study included an identity prime (e.g., listen-LISTEN), in addition to the standard two-substituted-letter (2SL; e.g., lidfen-LISTEN) and all-letter-different (ALD; e.g., rodfup-LISTEN) baselines, to remove the potential confound between letter position and letter identity information in determining the effect of the TL prime. Priming effects were measured in a lexical decision task administered to children aged 7-12 and a group of university students. Using inverse transformed response times, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly faster than those preceded by 2SL and ALD primes, and priming remained stable across development. In contrast, targets preceded by a TL prime were responded to significantly slower than those preceded by an ID prime, and this reaction-time cost increased significantly over development, with adults showing the largest cost. These findings are consistent with a lexical tuning account of letter position development, and are inconsistent with the multiple-route model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  1. 48 CFR 816.7001 - Letters of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of availability... availability. (a) Description. A letter of availability (sometimes inappropriately called a letter of intent... delivery schedule for long lead-time items. A letter of availability usually indicates products or services...

  2. Effects of relational coordination among colleagues and span of control on work engagement among home-visiting nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-04-01

    Home-visiting nursing agencies are required to foster staff nurse's work engagement; thus, the factors related to work engagement require identification. This study examined relational coordination among colleagues and agency span of control on the work engagement of home-visiting nurses. Cross-sectional data from 93 staff nurses in 31 home-visiting nursing agencies were collected via a survey and analyzed using mixed linear regression. There was no significant main effect of relational coordination among nurse colleagues on work engagement. In large agencies with a large span of control, relational coordination among nursing colleagues predicted work engagement. Nursing managers' relational coordination was found to be positively associated with staff nurse work engagement. Agency span of control is a moderating factor on the positive effect of relational coordination with nursing colleagues on staff nurse work engagement. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. The temporal dynamics of implicit processing of non-letter, letter, and word-forms in the human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g. interhemispheric processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130-150ms negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300ms were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported ‘visual-word-form’ area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing.

  4. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  5. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  6. Commentary on Stiers and colleagues' guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Robert L

    2015-05-01

    Comments on the article, "Guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training," by Stiers et al. (see record 2014-55195-001). Stiers and colleagues have provided a thorough and well-conceived set of guidelines that lay out the competencies expected for graduates of postdoctoral residencies in rehabilitation psychology, accompanied by a set of more specific, observable indicators of the residents' competence level. This work is an important aspect of the broader project of the Rehabilitation Psychology Specialty Council (APA Division 22, the American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology, the Foundation for Rehabilitation Psychology, the Academy of Rehabilitation Psychology, and the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdocotral Training Programs) to develop overall guidelines for programs providing postdoctoral training in this field (Stiers et al., 2012). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Fostering Change from Within: Influencing Teaching Practices of Departmental Colleagues by Science Faculty with Education Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Globally, calls for the improvement of science education are frequent and fervent. In parallel, the phenomenon of having Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES) within science departments appears to have grown in recent decades. In the context of an interview study of a randomized, stratified sample of SFES from across the United States, we discovered that most SFES interviewed (82%) perceived having professional impacts in the realm of improving undergraduate science education, more so than in research in science education or K-12 science education. While SFES reported a rich variety of efforts towards improving undergraduate science education, the most prevalent reported impact by far was influencing the teaching practices of their departmental colleagues. Since college and university science faculty continue to be hired with little to no training in effective science teaching, the seeding of science departments with science education specialists holds promise for fostering change in science education from within biology, chemistry, geoscience, and physics departments. PMID:26954776

  8. Resolving the ethical dilemma of nurse managers over chemically-dependent colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W; Wilson, D

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers.

  9. Colleagues and Competitors: How Internal Social Comparisons Shape Organizational Search and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Oliver; Eggers, JP; Stieglitz, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Intra-organizational comparisons—managers and units benchmarking their performance against each other—can turn colleagues into competitors. To better understand when organizations should allow or even encourage internal social comparisons, we study their implications for organizational adaptation...... units. Integrating both aspects into a computational model, we show how internal social comparisons affect adaptation and performance through two mechanisms: a balancing effect whereby the organization is guaranteed to contain both exploring and exploiting units, and a stabilizing effect whereby....... We highlight empirical implications and discuss theoretical links to work on intra-organizational competition, social comparisons and aspiration-driven search, diversification and performance, and the adaptation of multi-business firms....

  10. Recognition of letters in words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretti, C L; Puglisi, J T

    1982-07-01

    Two visual search experiments were conducted to clarify the processes underlying the "word superiority" effect. Ss in both experiments (18 college students in Experiment 1; 18 college students and 18 older adults in Experiment 2) searched six, 50-item stimulus lists for the letters "a" and "r". Each item consisted of a string of four letters forming either a word or a nonword anagram of that word. Items were printed in either uppercase letters, lowercase letters, or mixed-cased letters (e.g., wOrD), resulting in the six stimulus lists. Significant main effects were obtained in the two experiments. Search times were shorter for words than for nonwords, regardless of case. Thus, the word superiority effect was demonstrated even when the visual configuration of the word was disrupted. Search times were also shorter for uppercase and lowercase items (i.e., same-case items) than for mixed-case items, regardless of the word/nonword condition. In addition, older persons (Experiment 2) evidenced slower processing than college students in all stimulus conditions, and their processing was differentially slowed in conditions which prevented automatic (as opposed to effortful) processing. Results were interpreted in terms of automatic information processing.

  11. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  12. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  13. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  14. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  15. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  16. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  17. An Open Letter to Lawrence H. Summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This letter to Harvard University's new president compares what he pledged in his inaugural address to what has actually occurred, noting that the true tests of his leadership will be his handling of ROTC, grade inflation, and affirmative action and suggesting that the greatest threat to the university is balkanization into warring factions…

  18. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  19. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in…

  20. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  1. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability.

  2. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  3. Samuel Beckett: Color, Letter, and Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 62 of 62 ... Sudan JMS is published every three months. High-quality papers written in English or Arabic language dealing with aspects of medical sciences are welcomed. Sudan JMS publishes original articles, case reports, Letter to the Editor, commentaries and peer reviews. Other websites related to this journal: ...

  5. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  6. DISCERNMENT IN THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... “discernment” reached by the. “pillars” in Jerusalem. He uses this within the situation that he addresses in his letter as an argument to demonstrate why his gospel is true, and why that of his opponents should be rejected. final result of this process of thinking, since, according to him, this excludes reflective thought as such.

  7. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  9. Letters to a Young Education Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Education Reformer," Frederick M. Hess distills knowledge from twenty-five years of working in and around school reform. Inspired by his conversations with young, would-be reformers who are passionate about transforming education, the book offers a window into Hess's thinking about what education reform is and…

  10. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  11. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  12. A letter to the Master Clinician

    OpenAIRE

    Jhaveri, Kenar D.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author writes a letter to the Master Clinician about his concerns regarding the teaching responsibilities of current faculty members during ward rounds. This short essay highlights the transition that has been noticed in medical training in the last decade.

  13. A letter to the Master Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author writes a letter to the Master Clinician about his concerns regarding the teaching responsibilities of current faculty members during ward rounds. This short essay highlights the transition that has been noticed in medical training in the last decade.

  14. Interdisciplinary Collaboration amongst Colleagues and between Initiatives with the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.; Shaar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth science grand challenges often require interdisciplinary and geographically distributed scientific collaboration to make significant progress. However, this organic collaboration between researchers, educators, and students only flourishes with the reduction or elimination of technological barriers. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the geo-, paleo-, and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples. MagIC is dedicated to facilitating scientific progress towards several highly multidisciplinary grand challenges and the MagIC Database team is currently beta testing a new MagIC Search Interface and API designed to be flexible enough for the incorporation of large heterogeneous datasets and for horizontal scalability to tens of millions of records and hundreds of requests per second. In an effort to reduce the barriers to effective collaboration, the search interface includes a simplified data model and upload procedure, support for online editing of datasets amongst team members, commenting by reviewers and colleagues, and automated contribution workflows and data retrieval through the API. This web application has been designed to generalize to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/), EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/) and EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) will benefit from its development.

  15. Employee innovation behaviour in health care: the influence from management and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, B W

    2006-09-01

    This article reports how 'important others' and position in the organizational hierarchy relate to employee innovation behaviour. Empowerment of healthcare workers to engage in innovation behaviour is desired by management in Norwegian municipalities as it is regarded as a way of getting more health care for less money. Innovation behaviour is also desired by nurses' and other healthcare workers' professional organizations of as it is regarded as a way of improving the working conditions of the healthcare worker. The theoretical discussion in this paper includes corporate entrepreneurship, 'important others' and employee innovation behaviour. This article reports on a study concerning empowerment of nurses and other healthcare workers (n = 555) in Norwegian municipalities. The statistical methods used include multiple regressions. The study reveals that there were differences between the nurse (registered nurses), auxiliary nurses (nurse aides) and unskilled healthcare workers concerning how they perceived the opinion of the management and the opinion of the colleagues about how suitable it was to present innovation behaviour at the workplace. Moreover, the different groups of healthcare workers assign different levels of importance to this influence. It is suggested that the findings put forward in this article may lead to an improved understanding of the dynamics behind employee innovation behaviour, and that such knowledge could improve the care provided to the patients, the cost of the care and the working conditions of nurses and other healthcare workers.

  16. "If You are My Friend, Please Show Your Anger…": Differences Between Friends and Colleagues in Faking Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Seger-Guttmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social norms govern what is considered an acceptable show of emotions as a function of social circumstances. Yet, very little empirical work has been done on how the nature of a relationship influences reactions to faked emotions. Faking emotions has primarily been discussed in the context of service encounters. Popular theories encourage authenticity in a relationship. Our purpose was to examine the possibility that under certain conditions, people prefer their relationship partners to fake their emotions. We studied partners' preferences with best friends and with colleagues as regards their counterparts’ expression of authentic anger. Our results showed that people preferred their colleagues not to express their anger, and to fake their emotions to a significantly greater extent than their best friends. In exchanges between colleagues, individuals preferred their partners to fake their emotions more in situations of high intensity anger than in situations of low intensity anger.

  17. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  18. Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization. Sca...... effectively when distributing a material with lower permittivity than the background material....

  19. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  20. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  1. The development of peer reflective supervision amongst nurse educator colleagues: An action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, C; Forde-Johnson, C; Griffiths, A; Hallworth, S; Kerry, A; Khan, S; Mills, K; Sharp, P

    2016-10-01

    . It has transferability to a wider international audience interested in the development of reflection amongst colleagues and the use of insider research techniques to challenge and develop practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. When writing impairs reading: letter perception's susceptibility to motor interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    The effect of writing on the concurrent visual perception of letters was investigated in a series of studies using an interference paradigm. Participants drew shapes and letters while simultaneously visually identifying letters and shapes embedded in noise. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that letter perception, but not the perception of shapes, was affected by motor interference. This suggests a strong link between the perception of letters and the neural substrates engaged during writing. The overlap both in category (letter vs. shape) and in the perceptual similarity of the features (straight vs. curvy) of the seen and drawn items determined the amount of interference. Experiment 4 demonstrated that intentional production of letters is not necessary for the interference to occur, because passive movement of the hand in the shape of letters also interfered with letter perception. When passive movements were used, however, only the category of the drawn items (letters vs. shapes), but not the perceptual similarity, had an influence, suggesting that motor representations for letters may selectively influence visual perception of letters through proprioceptive feedback, with an additional influence of perceptual similarity that depends on motor programs.

  3. 7 CFR 1737.80 - Description of characteristics letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description of characteristics letter. 1737.80... TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Characteristics Letter § 1737.80 Description of characteristics letter. (a) After all of the... shall inform the borrower, in writing, of the characteristics of the proposed loan. The purpose of the...

  4. Student Teacher Letters of Reference: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Letters of reference are commonly used in acquiring a job in education. Despite serious issues of validity and reliability in writing and evaluating letters, there is a dearth of research that systematically examines the evaluation process and defines the constructs that define high quality letters. The current study used NVivo to examine 160…

  5. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans for...

  6. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  7. The Scarlet Letter: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Littlefield, D.; Sara, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn’s 19th century romance The Scarlet Letter centres on the simple transgression of adultery and its social consequences. Hawthorn’s narrative and story-telling skill, however, is far from simple; the author manages to subtly and cleverly set the tale within a framework of other transgressions. Ideas of space and other social constructions such including language and belief systems are tested and subverted in this description of a 17th century Puritan settlement. In this paper...

  8. Fifty years of Chemical Physics Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A. David

    2017-09-01

    Chemical Physics Letters was born in 1967. In the first Number, published in February that year, the Founding Editors, Jan Hoytink and Laurens Jansen, stipulated that the journal would be truly international and that all submitted papers will be refereed. The aim was to provide a convenient means for the rapid dissemination of research results in the field of chemical physics. There would be an emphasis on theoretical interpretation. This article reviews the progress of the journal over its first fifty years.

  9. Essay: Reflections on Physical Review Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David

    2008-08-01

    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  10. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  11. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Elena; Marolf, Don

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stabil...

  12. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Verbeek, Jos; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based

  13. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  15. Leo Tolstoy’s novel "War and Peace" in diaries and letters (to 150 anniversary beginning the work on the novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchaeva Klara Hamidovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article «Leo Tolstoy’s novel “War and Peace” in diaries and letters» subjects to a detailed analysis the letters by L.N. Tolstoy, A.A. Fet, A.I. Ertel, diaries of L.N. Tolstoy and his wife S.A. Tolstoya, as well as letters of A.A Fet, I.S. Turgenev and others, to a greater or lesser extent on the novel «War and Peace». The most significant in number and in content - letter by L.N. Tolstoy, A.A. Fet and writing responses by A.A. Fet. The article stresses that it is from A.A. Fet, as a friend and colleague writers, Tolstoy shared his innermost thoughts, doubts, plans, letters to him talking about numerous overtime novel text and took notes with gratitude the poet. Letters by I.S. Turgenev differed greatly often unjustified, criticism of the novel «War and Peace», although later Turgenev would call this work «a wonderful book.» In this article, through the prism of letters and diaries, it is analyzed the questions of the history of the novel, publications on chapters and parts, recreating historical events and facts that shaped the system works also reflected variant titles of the novel «1805», «All is well that ends well», «War and peace». The subject of many scientific studies was to determine the relation of historical facts and fictitious people, that is given special attention in this article.

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters; Proceedings of the international workshop 'Quantum Physics and Communication'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the microscopic entropy and nonlocality, conditional density matrix: systems and subsystems in quantum mechanics, physics of quantum computation, flipping qubits, quantum zeno effect for N-level Friedrichs model, universal hybrid quantum processors, formation of the SU(3)-polarization states in atom-quantum electromagnetic field system under condition of the Bose-Einstein condensate existence, periodical sequences (trajectories) of outcomes of atomic state measurement on exit from the micromaser cavity, an algebraic method to solve the Tavis-Cummings problem, quantum teleportation of nuclear matter and its investigation

  17. Sidonius Apollinaris: The letter to his friend Turnus (Introd. article, transl. and comment. E.V. Litovchenko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovčenko Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research contains the introductory article, translation and commentary on one of the letters of Gallo-Roman nobleman and bishop Sidonius Apollinaris. The author analyzes the situation in the Roman world in the fifth century AD, on the eve of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, focusing on the spiritual component. The author links the changes in the minds of the intellectual elite of the Late Roman society with the strengthening of Christianity. As one of the most important tendency of the Late Antiqity's considered the senatorial aristocracy striving to take holy orders, and act as a pastor. The wide spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, the decline of the role of the senate, the weakening of the central government in the provinces are dealt as an incentives for the development of the mentioned trend. In the article is also charactered the written heritage of Sidonius Apollinaris, which includes poetry and a collection of letters addressed to his friends, acquaintances and colleagues - priests and bishops. The final part of this work is devoted to a translation of the twenty-fourth letter of the fourth book, addressed to Turnus, an acquaintance of Sidonius and to commentary on the text.

  18. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  19. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  20. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  2. How do international medical graduates and colleagues perceive and deal with difficulties in everyday collaboration? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeggestad, Erik; Norvoll, Reidun; Sandal, Gro M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2017-06-01

    Many medical doctors work outside their countries of origin. Consequently, language barriers and cultural differences may result in miscommunication and tension in the workplace, leading to poor performance and quality of treatment and affecting patient safety. However, there is little information about how foreign doctors and their colleagues perceive their collaboration and handle situations that can affect the quality of health services. Individual, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of informants: 16 doctors who had recently started working in Norway and 12 unrelated Norwegian-born healthcare providers who had extensive experience of working with doctors from foreign countries. The interviews were analysed according to the systematic text condensation method. The foreign doctors described themselves as newcomers and found it difficult to speak with their colleagues about their shortcomings because they wanted to be seen as competent. Their Norwegian colleagues reported that many new foreign doctors had demanding work schedules and therefore they were reluctant to give them negative feedback. They also feared that foreign doctors would react negatively to criticism. All participants, both the new foreign doctors and their colleagues, reported that they took responsibility for the prevention of misunderstandings and errors; nevertheless, they struggled to discuss such issues with each other. Silence was the coping strategy adopted by both the foreign doctors and native healthcare professionals when facing difficulties in their working relationships. In such situations, many foreign doctors are socialized into a new workplace in which uncertainty and shortcomings are not discussed openly. Effective leadership and procedures to facilitate communication may alleviate this area of concern.

  3. Polare maskuliniteter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper my aim is to read and understand the journal of Gerrit de Veer from the last journey of William Barents to the Arctic Regions in 1596 and the journal of captain Junge on his hunting trip from Tromsø to Svalbard in 1834.It is nearly 240 years between this to voyages. The first journal is known as the earliest report from the arctic era. Gerrit de Veer adds instructive copper engravings to his text and give us insight in the crews meeting with this new land. Captain Junges journal is found together with his dead crew in a house in a fjord nearby Ny-Ålesund and has no drawings, but word. Both of these journals may be read as sources of the knowledge and understanding of the polar region. They might also unveil the ideas of how to deal with and survive under the challenges that is given. In addition one can ask if the sources can tell us more about how men describe their challenges. Can the way they expressed themselves in the journals give us an understanding of masculinity? And not least help us to create good questions of the change in the ideas of masculinities which is said to follow the change in understanding of the wilderness.

  4. Open letter to Mr Christian Bataille, Deputy of Nord region, France. Open letter on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix P

    2007-02-01

    The author, by means of a letter to the deputy Christian Bataille, presents arguments to the shutdown of old nuclear power plants. He points out the environmental and economical arguments in favor of a decrease of the nuclear power use in France. (A.L.B.)

  5. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  6. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    'Project Title: Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons' DOE Contract Number: FG02-04ER41355 Principal Investigator: Prof. Kirk McDonald Period of Performance: 09/10/2004 thru 08/31/2006 This award was to fund Princeton's activity on SLAC experiment E166, 'Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons' which was performed at SLAC during June and September 2005. Princeton U. fabricated a magnetic spectrometer for this experiment, and participated in the commissioning, operation, and analysis of the experiment, for which Prof. McDonald was a co-spokesperson. The experiment demonstrated that an intense positron beam with 80% longitudinal polarization could be generated by conversion of MeVenergy circularly polarized photons in a thin target, which photons were generated by passage of high-energy electrons through a helical undulator. This technique has since been adopted as the baseline for the polarized positron source of the proposed International Linear Collider. Results of the experiment have been published in Physical Review Letters, vol 100, p 210801 (2008) (see attached .pdf file), and a longer paper is in preparation.

  7. Letter contrast sensitivity function of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1998-06-01

    To provide empirical data of letter CSF for various levels of defocus under controlled conditions of luminance and age. Corrected distance visual acuities were tested at different levels of contrast and defocus. An experiment was conducted using the Medmont visual acuity tester on 10 young subjects and under normal room lighting. Empirical data of visual acuity were obtained for 7 levels of contrast (5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 80%) and defocus levels of 0, +1 and +2D. A mathematical model was derived (R2=0.995) and this can be used to estimate visual acuity at various contrast levels for defocus of < or =+2D. This information is useful for the clinician as normative data and for further development of optical models to predict visual performance of the eye.

  8. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  9. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  10. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on copyright in the Digital Single Market) and soft law initiatives (the EU Internet Forum against Terrorism and the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online) seriously put at risk the consistency and integrity of the EU acquis related...... to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...

  11. Maker of patterns an autobiography through letters

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    2018-01-01

    While recognizing that quantum mechanics demands serious attention, Albert Einstein in 1926 admonished fellow physicist Max Born that the theory does not bring us closer to the secrets of the Old One. Aware that there are deep mysteries that Nature intends to keep for herself, Freeman Dyson, the 94-year-old theoretical physicist, has nonetheless chronicled the stories of those who were engaged in solving some of the most challenging quandaries of twentieth-century physics. Written between 1940and the early 1980s, these letters to relatives form an historic account of modern science and its greatest players, including J.Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,and Hans Bethe. Whether reflecting on the horrors of World War II, the moral dilemmas of nuclear development, the challenges of the space program, or the considerable demands of raising six children, Dyson offers a firsthand account of one of the greatest periods of scientific discovery of our modern age.

  12. Colleagues as Change Agents: How Department Networks and Opinion Leaders Influence Teaching at a Single Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T C; Conaway, E P; Zhao, J; Dolan, E L

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with colleagues have the potential to be a source of support for faculty to make meaningful change in how they teach, but the impact of these relationships is poorly understood. We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the characteristics of faculty who provide colleagues with teaching resources and facilitate change in teaching, how faculty influence one another. Our exploratory investigation was informed by social network theory and research on the impact of opinion leaders within organizations. We used surveys and interviews to examine collegial interactions about undergraduate teaching in life sciences departments at one research university. Each department included discipline-based education researchers (DBERs). Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that DBERs promote changes in teaching to a greater degree than other departmental colleagues. The influence of DBERs derives, at least partly, from a perception that they have unique professional expertise in education. DBERs facilitated change through coteaching, offering ready and approachable access to education research, and providing teaching training and mentoring. Faculty who had participated in a team based-teaching professional development program were also credited with providing more support for teaching than nonparticipants. Further research will be necessary to determine whether these results generalize beyond the studied institution. © 2016 T. C. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  14. Exploring Nonfiction through Depression-Era Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that by exploring Depression-era teens' letter writing, language arts teachers can enjoy more fruitful uses of nonfiction with their students. Discusses how reading, analyzing, and responding to the letters could help minimize the widening gap between the 1930s and the twenty-first century. Concludes that researching everyday Americans'…

  15. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  16. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  17. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a...

  18. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  19. Strengthening the Ethics and Visual Rhetoric of Sales Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Stallworth

    2008-01-01

    This article provides details about a comprehensive assignment for teaching sales letters in a business communication course. During the past 5 years, this assignment has evolved, moving beyond one that focused almost exclusively on strategies for making the letter persuasive, and therefore effective, to an expanded form that devotes time and…

  20. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Analysis of Letter Name Knowledge Using Rasch Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the…

  2. Transhuman Education? Sloterdijk's Reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk presented a reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism" at a conference held at Elmau in 1999. Reinterpreting the meaning of humanism in the light of Heidegger's "Letter," Sloterdijk focused his presentation on the need to redefine education as a form of genetic "taming" and proposed what seemed to be…

  3. Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, S.E.H. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Hasselman, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. The conclusion from a vast literature on literacy acquisition is that letter knowledge is one of the best predictors of literacy development. The question of the best way to teach children letter sounds has not, as yet, been answered satisfactorily. Aims. The aim of this study was the

  4. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  5. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  6. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  7. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.99 Letter of credit. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the... brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted: Irrevocable Standby.... We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR...

  8. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  9. Letters of William Halsted and René Leriche: "Our friendship seems so deep".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, I M; Rutkow, B G; Ernst, C B

    1980-12-01

    The friendship of William Halsted and René Leriche is little appreciated in the annals of surgery. Although Halsted was Leriche's senior by almost 30 years, they enjoyed a relationship on both professional and surprisingly personal levels. Halsted's sincere concern for his younger French colleague was manifested by a constant fostering of Leriche's surgical research and creative ideas. Leriche was to become a life-long admirer of Halsted's surgical philosophies. He often stated that a 3-day visit with Halsted in 1913 persuaded him to stop considering surgery as a purely clinical and technical subject. During their 10-year relationship, extensive correspondence was maintained. This article will explore their friendship through analysis of their personal letters, recently found in the archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Written in French, they remained undisturbed for 65 years. Their present translation into English represents the first time they have been published. Vascular surgery was the major topic of discussion. Included among the many topics are surgical management of aneurysmal disease, utilization of sympathectomy, and investigations into physiologic effects of arterial ligation. In addition, many aspects of the savagery of World War I, as encountered by Leriche at the French front, and Halsted's views on various events of the conflict, are chronicled. The letters reveal a deep and abiding association between the two men which is of interest because Halsted shared his nonsurgical life with very few younger men. Their insight into specific areas of experimental surgery and ideas about various medical problems and other medical personalities are recounted.

  10. Ordering by the numbers in anatomy and by letters Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E; Baud, Robert; Sprumont, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Here, new rules of Latin anatomical nomenclature are proposed to deal with cases not covered by existing or other recommended rules. Determiners (e.g., numerals, letters, alphanumeric strings, and Latin names of Greek letters) should follow the noun they specify or limit, just as it is recommended that adjectives should follow the noun they modify. In general, Roman numerals, Latin letters, and Latin names of Greek letters are preferable to Arabic numerals and Greek letters in Latin anatomical terms. It is also noted that the word typus (type) appears to be superfluous and unnecessary in the Latin anatomical nomenclature. Clin. Anat. 30:700-702, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  12. Integrated pictorial mnemonics and stimulus fading: Teaching kindergartners letter sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Saskia; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M T; Hasselman, Fred

    2007-09-01

    The conclusion from a vast literature on literacy acquisition is that letter knowledge is one of the best predictors of literacy development. The question of the best way to teach children letter sounds has not, as yet, been answered satisfactorily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a computer training program using integrated-picture mnemonics combined with a fading procedure to teach children letter sounds. Thirty-nine kindergartners attending mainstream primary education participated in this study. A within-subject design was used. Each kindergartner learned letters under three conditions: (a) a fading condition in which letters are taught using a picture-supported first-sound mnemonics procedure in combination with a fading procedure; (b) an embedded condition in which letters are taught using the picture-supported first-sound-mnemonics procedure only and (c) a without-picture condition in which letters are taught using a first-sound procedure without-picture support. Dependent measures included a productive and receptive letter-sound test, and a first-sound isolation task. Productive letter-sound knowledge in the fading condition was better than in the other two conditions. In addition, kindergartners with good and those with poor first-sound isolation ability performed equally well in the fading condition. However, in the embedded and in the without-picture conditions, the kindergartners with good first-sound isolation ability outperformed those with poor isolation ability. These findings indicate that an integrated-picture mnemonics procedure combined with a fading procedure is effective in teaching kindergartners letter sounds and that the success of such a procedure does not depend on their initial first-sound isolation ability.

  13. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  14. Factors associated with the practice of nursing staff sharing information about patients' nutritional status with their colleagues in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Tamaura, Y; Akamatsu, R; Sakai, M; Fujiwara, K

    2018-01-01

    Nursing staff have an important role in patients' nutritional care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the practice of sharing a patient's nutritional status with colleagues was affected by the nursing staff's attitude, knowledge and their priority to provide nutritional care. The participants were 492 nursing staff. We obtained participants' demographic data, the practice of sharing patients' nutritional information and information about participants' knowledge, attitude and priority of providing nutritional care by the questionnaire. We performed partial correlation analyses and linear regression analyses to describe the relationship between the total scores of the practice of sharing patients' nutritional information based on their knowledge, attitude and priority to provide nutritional care. Among the 492 participants, 396 nursing staff (80.5%) completed the questionnaire and were included in analyses. Mean±s.d. of total score of the 396 participants was 8.4±3.1. Nursing staff shared information when they had a high nutritional knowledge (r=0.36, Pnutritional care practice was not significantly associated with the practice of sharing information. Knowledge and attitude were independently associated with the practice of sharing patients' nutrition information with colleagues, regardless of their priority to provide nutritional care. An effective approach should be taken to improve the practice of providing nutritional care practice.

  15. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  16. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    1989-07-01

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  17. Manipulating light polarizations with a hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Yin, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhongshu; Li, Xun

    2015-10-15

    In this Letter we demonstrate that a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguide array exhibits a giant modal birefringence between the TE and TM modes by utilization of a rectangular waveguide cross section. We further reveal that the designed polarization manipulation device using such a HMM waveguide array with a subwavelength thickness presents the ability to function as a polarizer or quarter- or half-wave plate that enables transmission only for electromagnetic wave (EW) that is polarized at a specific direction, or converting linearly polarized EW to circularly and elliptically polarized EW or rotating linearly polarized EW with 90° at terahertz (THz) frequencies. A giant modal birefringence between the TE and TM modes from 0.8 to 2 between 2 and 4.8 THz is achievable, which is dozens of times higher than conventional quartz birefringent crystals for THz waves. This polarization manipulation device has the performance merits including high transmission efficiency, ultra-compactness, and tunable birefringence, offering a promising approach to manipulating the polarization states of EW.

  18. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  19. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  20. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  1. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-01-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite en...

  2. Standing together in troubled times unpublished letters by Pauli, Einstein, Franck and others

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This captivating book is a story of the friendship between a genius physicist Wolfgang Pauli and Charlotte Houtermans whose career in physics was not as glamorous. They met in the late 1920s in Germany, at the very onset of the quantum era and personally knew all the major players in the emergent quantum world that was very much part of central Europe: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Denmark and Switzerland. And Charlotte was a student at Göttingen that was right at the heart.Caught between two evils — Soviet Communism and German National Socialism — she would have probably perished if it were not for the brotherhood of physicists: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Robert Oppenheimer and many other noted scientists who tried to save friends and colleagues (either leftist sympathizers or Jews) who were in mortal danger of being entrapped in a simmering pre-WWII Europe.Using newly discovered documents from the Houtermans family archive: twenty three Pauli's letters to Charlott...

  3. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part II--What Parents Should Know and Do to Ensure Extracurricular Interscholastic Sport Opportunities for Their Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymeson, Garth

    2013-01-01

    The rights of all students to participate in extracurricular programs are required by current law but are often nonexistent, misunderstood, or even sometimes purposely not shared with parents. This article is addressed to parents regarding the rights of their children with disabilities to participate in extracurricular sport activities. Included…

  4. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  5. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  6. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  7. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  8. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  9. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  10. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Carel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based practice and EBM we compared professional advice on occupational health topics with best evidence from the literature. Methods We asked 14 occupational physicians to consult their usual information sources on 12 pre-conceived occupational health problems. The problems were presented in the form of case vignettes which contained sufficient clinical information to be used by the occupational physicians for the consultation of their experts. We had searched the literature for the best available evidence on the 12 problems, which made it possible to answer the clinical questions with a clear yes or no. Results The cases could be used by the occupational physicians as arising from their own practice. All together the occupational physicians consulted 75 different experts. Almost half of the consulted experts were near colleagues, 10% were industrial hygienists, 8% medical specialists and the rest had a varied background. Fifty three percent (95% confidence interval 42% to 65% of all professional advice was not in line with the research literature. In 18 cases (24% professional advice explicitly referred to up-to-date research literature as their used source. These cases were substantially less incorrect (17% than advice that had not mentioned the literature as a source (65% (difference 48%, 95% Confidence Interval from 27% to 69%. Conclusion Advice that occupational physicians routinely get in their daily practice differs substantially from best evidence from the literature. Occupational physicians who ask professional advice should always ask about the evidence of this advice.

  11. Letter: Prostaglandins and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A A; Bonnar, J; Sheppard, B; Embrey, M P; Turnbull, A C

    1974-07-06

    Professor Brosens and colleagues (April 27, p.808) questions the safety of prostaglandins (PGs) for the induction of labor when pregnancy is complicated by hypertensive states, especially preeclampsia. Objections are based on the possibility that the uteroplacental bloodflow, which may already be compromised in these situations, could be further reduced by vasoconstrictive effects of the PGs on uterine, placental, and umbilical vessels. We have been using PGs extensively in this department and for the past year have been carrying out a double-blind trial of PGE2 and oxytocin by intravenous infusion after amniotomy for induction of labor in primigravidae. In 23 of the patients included thus far, labor was induced between 36 and 38 weeks because of moderate or severe preeclampsia. Of these, 12 have received oxytocin and 11 PGE2. In all cases, elective epidural analgesia has been employed and continuous fetal heartrate and intrauterine pressure recordings performed throughout. 1 patient in the group required an emergency cesarean section because of fetal distress; 2 others (1 from each group) were delivered by cesarean section because of failure to progress in labor. The remainder delivered vaginally with no evidence of increased incidence of fetal distress in the PG group. No perinatal deaths occurred. In an additional 18 primigravidae labor was induced at 36-38 weeks because of hypertensive complications of pregnancy by local PGE2 administration as previously described. These patients were assessed as clinically unfavorable for induction. 2 patients developed fetal distress and required cesarean sections; the others delivered vaginally. Experience with PGF2alpha is much less extensive but there is no reason to believe that this compound would behave differently, except with regard to maternal side effects. Thus it seems beneficial to use PGs for inducing labor in pregnancies complicated by hypertension and preeclampsia; no evidence of the suggested theoretical

  12. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Bringing Polar Research to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program that pairs K-12 teachers with researchers to improve science education through authentic polar research experience. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wider range of research activities in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC uses a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) model to foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. With the help of their host researcher and the research team, teachers will develop the experience and tools necessary to teach science through scientific inquiry and investigation based on real-world experiences. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and ongoing teacher

  13. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  14. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  15. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is in reply to the joint letter of October 12, 2000, from the Chairmen of the Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Government Reform Committee, House...

  16. Contemporary trends in the research of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Adamczewski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period of last two or three decades interpretation of the Letter to Philemon has undergone significant changes. Exegetes applying the historical-critical method proposed recently several new ways of reconstructing the situation that occasioned Paul’s writing the letter. It has been suggested e.g. that Onesimus was no runaway, but probably an envoy from Colossae, or Philemon’s estranged brother, or a slave justifiably seeking intercession, or a roamer. Synchronic methods applied by many exegetes (structural, rhetorical, narrative and pragmatic criticism elucidate various kinds of influence of the letter upon the reader. More and more popular becomes also nowadays manifold liberationist approach. However, beyond applying these various hermeneutic procedures there is also, at least for believing exegetes, an important task of adequate explaining the significance of the Letter to Philemon as an inspired writing.

  17. Dear authors: We do read your cover letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an editorial written as Editor-in-Chief (EIC) for the Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (JAOCS) describing the importance of writing a cover letter for the submission of manuscripts to JAOCS....

  18. Approval Letter for an Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This January 27, 2015 letter and decision document from EPA approves the Argentine Chamber of Biofuel's (CARBIO) Alternate Biomass Traking Program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR § 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve

  19. Award Letter: Furbearers and snow: Monitoring using camera traps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Award letter in response to Alaska Region Inventory and Monitoring 2017 request for proposals. Issued to Yukon Flats NWR for project “Furbearers and snow: Monitoring...

  20. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  1. Letter to the editor The number of urine specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult-with-asymptomatic- bacteriuria. Letter to the editor. The number of urine specimens for bacteriological examination in women. Ertugrul Guclu, Tuba Damar, Oguz Karabay. 1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, ...

  2. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  3. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  4. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  5. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  6. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  7. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  8. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  9. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Towards optimizing the name letter test as a measure of implicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone’s initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  11. Towards Optimizing the Name Letter Test as a Measure of Implicit Self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, L.W.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A common measure for implicit self-esteem is the name letter effect, traditionally calculated as the rated attractiveness of someone's initials or name letters minus the average attractiveness of those same letters rated by people not having those initial or name letters. We present evidence showing

  12. The Correspondence of Mary Stuart, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (currently 352 letters)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Currently this catalogue contains the metadata for 352 letters, 273 of which are conserved in the Royal Collections at The Hague. The letters are written in German, French, and Dutch, and they date from 1641 to 1660. Mary’s outgoing letters are kept in a letter book which is held at the Dutch Royal

  13. 12 CFR 960.5 - Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... letters of credit. 960.5 Section 960.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.5 Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit. (a) Requirements. Each standby letter of credit issued or...

  14. 12 CFR 960.4 - Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.4 Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. (a) Obligation to reimburse. A Bank may issue or confirm a standby letter of credit... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of...

  15. First trans-Neptunian object in polar resonance with Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, M. H. M.; Namouni, F.

    2017-11-01

    Capture in mean motion resonance has been observed in the Solar system for small objects with prograde as well as retrograde orbits of moderate inclinations. However, no example of an object with a nearly polar orbit was known to be in resonance with a planet. In this Letter, we report that the nearly-polar trans-Neptunian object (471325), nicknamed Niku, is in a 7:9 resonance with Neptune, with a mean lifetime in resonance of 16 ± 11 million years. While entrance and exit in the 7:9 resonance is caused by close encounters with Neptune, the resonant configuration provides a temporary protection mechanism against disruptive close encounters with this planet. The other nearly polar trans-Neptunian objects do not seem to be in resonance with the planets with the possible exception of 2008 KV42, also known as Drac, that has a small chance of being in the 8:13 resonance with Neptune.

  16. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  17. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  18. Letter to the editor: Caffeine and incident hypertension in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dr Winkelmayer and colleagues1 found an inverse U-shaped relationship between habitual caffeine consumption and incident hypertension in a prospective cohort study of US women followed up for 12 years in the Nurses' Health Studies. However, when examining classes of caffeinated beverages, coffee

  19. Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Psychology : Research and Practice) with VA colleagues. This paper is not included as an appendix because it was not funded by this project. MONTHS 1-6...Materials, supplies and consumables : Materials and required supplies continue to be coordinated in anticipation for data collection and future archive

  20. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  1. Language barriers and professional identity: A qualitative interview study of newly employed international medical doctors and Norwegian colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeggestad, Erik; Gerwing, Jennifer; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2017-08-01

    To explore how language barriers influence communication and collaboration between newly-employed international medical doctors and Norwegian health personnel. Interviews were conducted with 16 doctors who had recently started working in Norway and 12 Norwegian born health personnel who had extensive experience working with international medical doctors. Analyses were consistent with principles of systematic text condensation. All participants experienced that language barriers caused difficulties in their everyday collaboration. Furthermore, the participants' descriptions of "language barriers" encompassed a wide range of topics, including semantics (e.g., specialized professional vocabulary, system knowledge), pragmatics (e.g., using language in doctor-patient and interprofessional interactions), and specific culturally sensitive topics. All participants described that language barriers provoked uncertainty about a doctor's competence. Newly employed international medical doctors and their colleagues are concerned by ineffective communication due to language barriers. Experiences of language barriers threaten professional identity as a competent and effective doctor. Newly employed doctors who are non-native speakers could benefit from support in understanding and handling the array of barriers related to language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Getting by with a little help from friends and colleagues: Testing how residents' social support networks affect loneliness and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eamonn; Polonijo, Andrea N; Carpiano, Richard M

    2016-11-01

    To determine how residents' relationships with their sources of social support (ie, family, friends, and colleagues) affect levels of burnout and loneliness. Cross-sectional survey. Faculty of Medicine at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. A total of 198 physician-trainees in the university's postgraduate medical education program. Residents' personal and work-related burnout scores (measured using items from the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory); loneliness (measured using a 3-item loneliness scale); and social support (assessed with the Lubben Social Network Scale, version 6). Of the 234 respondents who completed the Internet-based survey (a 22% response rate), 198 provided complete information on all study variables and thus constituted the analytic sample. Seemingly unrelated regression analyses indicated that loneliness was significantly ( P social support were both indirectly associated with lower personal and work-related burnout scores through their negative associations with loneliness. Social relationships might help residents mitigate the deleterious effects of burnout. By promoting interventions that stabilize and nurture social relationships, hospitals and universities can potentially help promote resident resilience and well-being and, in turn, improve patient care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  3. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  4. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  5. Polarization in Sagittarius A*

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the current state of polarization observations of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate in the Galactic Center. These observations are providing new tools for understanding accretion disks, jets and their environments. Linear polarization observations have shown that Sgr A* is unpolarized at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. However, recent single-dish observations indicate that Sgr A* may have strong linear polarization at frequencies higher...

  6. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  7. Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005. This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

  8. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  9. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  10. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of letter name knowledge using Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the measurement of LNK. In this study, we analyze responses from 909 children on measures of LNK using the Rasch model and its extensions, and consider two contextual factors: the format of assessment and the own-name advantage, which states that children are more likely to know letters in their own first names. Results indicate that both contextual factors have important impacts on measurement and that LNK does not meet the requirements of Rasch measurement even when accounting for the contextual factors. These findings introduce philosophical concerns for measurement of constrained skills which have limited content for assessment.

  12. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  13. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours.

  14. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  15. Production and detection of axion-like particles at the VUV-FEL. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetz, U.; Ringwald, A.; Tschentscher, T.

    2006-06-01

    Recently, the PVLAS collaboration has reported evidence for an anomalously large rotation of the polarization of light generated in vacuum in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. This may be explained through the production of a new light spin-zero particle coupled to two photons. In this Letter of Intent, we propose to test this hypothesis by setting up a photon regeneration experiment which exploits the photon beam of the Vacuum-UltraViolet Free-Electron Laser VUV-FEL, sent along the transverse magnetic field of a linear arrangement of dipole magnets of size B L ∼ 30 Tm. The high photon energies available at the VUV-FEL increase substantially the expected photon regeneration rate in the mass range implied by the PVLAS anomaly, in comparison to the rate expected at visible lasers of similar power. We find that the particle interpretation of the PVLAS result can be tested within a short running period. The pseudoscalar vs. scalar nature can be determined by varying the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the laser polarization. The mass of the particle can be measured by running at different photon energies. The proposed experiment offers a window of opportunity for a firm establishment or exclusion of the particle interpretation of the PVLAS anomaly before other experiments can compete. (Orig.)

  16. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP 4 . A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  17. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  18. What is the impact of advanced primary care nursing roles on patients, nurses and their colleagues? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Kate; Cheater, Francine M

    2008-07-01

    To review and draw together the existing research evidence to assess the impact of advanced primary care nursing roles, particularly first contact nursing roles, for patients, nurses themselves and their colleagues in order to highlight salient issues for policy, practice and research. Internationally, nurses' roles continue to expand in response to doctor shortages and policy drives to provide effective and efficient health services. A body of research exists from which to evaluate the impact of advanced nursing roles on various dimensions of healthcare delivery and organisation. Medline, CINAHL, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, National Research Register, and PsycINFO databases were searched, including relevant websites. Studies were included if published in English and relevant to the primary/community care setting. Of a total of 211 papers identified, 88 were of relevance and included in the review. Nurses working in many advanced primary care roles such as acute/minor illness, minor injury and long-term conditions provide safe and effective care, and patient satisfaction is generally high. Many factors influence patient satisfaction with, and access to, such services but are little understood. Evidence on cost-effectiveness, efficiency and impact on other health care professionals is inconclusive though research suggests the introduction of extended roles can create uncertainty and intra-/inter-professional tensions. Evidence is of variable quality, often ignoring potentially important effect mediators such as the experience and educational level of advanced nurses, the effect of service 'maturation', organisational characteristics and differing patient preferences. The complex range of factors that influence patient satisfaction, access and outcomes of care need further investigation. Recent UK developments in nurse prescribing and the introduction of a national post-registration competency

  19. The Impact of Colleague Peer Review on the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Process in the Radical Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, K P; McAleese, J; Crockett, C; Harney, J; Eakin, R L; Young, V A L; Dunn, M A; Johnston, R E; Hanna, G G

    2015-09-01

    Modern radiotherapy uses techniques to reliably identify tumour and reduce target volume margins. However, this can potentially lead to an increased risk of geographic miss. One source of error is the accuracy of target volume delineation (TVD). Colleague peer review (CPR) of all curative-intent lung cancer plans has been mandatory in our institution since May 2013. At least two clinical oncologists review plans, checking treatment paradigm, TVD, prescription dose tumour and critical organ tolerances. We report the impact of CPR in our institution. Radiotherapy treatment plans of all patients receiving radical radiotherapy were presented at weekly CPR meetings after their target volumes were reviewed and signed off by the treating consultant. All cases and any resultant change to TVD (including organs at risk) or treatment intent were recorded in our prospective CPR database. The impact of CPR over a 13 month period from May 2013 to June 2014 is reported. One hundred and twenty-two patients (63% non-small cell lung carcinoma, 17% small cell lung carcinoma and 20% 'clinical diagnosis') were analysed. On average, 3.2 cases were discussed per meeting (range 1-8). CPR resulted in a change in treatment paradigm in 3% (one patient proceeded to induction chemotherapy, two patients had high-dose palliative radiotherapy). Twenty-one (17%) had a change in TVD and one (1%) patient had a change in dose prescription. In total, 6% of patients had plan adjustment after review of dose volume histogram. The introduction of CPR in our centre has resulted in a change in a component of the treatment plan for 27% of patients receiving curative-intent lung radiotherapy. We recommend CPR as a mandatory quality assurance step in the planning process of all radical lung plans. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "I couldn't do this with opposition from my colleagues": A qualitative study of physicians' experiences as clinical tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödjer Stig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical contact in the early curriculum and workplace learning with active tutorship are important parts of modern medical education. In a previously published study, we found that medical students' tutors experienced a heavier workload, less reasonable demands and less encouragement, than students. The aim of this interview study was to further illuminate physicians' experiences as clinical tutors. Methods Twelve tutors in the Early Professional Contact course were interviewed. In the explorative interviews, they were asked to reflect upon their experiences of working as tutors in this course. Systematic text condensation was used as the analysis method. Results In the analysis, five main themes of physicians' experiences as clinical tutors in the medical education emerged: (a Pleasure and stimulation. Informants appreciated tutorship and meeting both students and fellow tutors, (b Disappointment and stagnation. Occasionally, tutors were frustrated and expressed negative feelings, (c Demands and duty. Informants articulated an ambition to give students their best; a desire to provide better medical education but also a duty to meet demands of the course management, (d Impact of workplace relations. Tutoring was made easier when the clinic's management provided active support and colleagues accepted students at the clinic, and (e Multitasking difficulties. Combining several duties with those of a tutorship was often reported as difficult. Conclusions It is important that tutors' tasks are given adequate time, support and preparation. Accordingly, it appears highly important to avoid multitasking and too heavy a workload among tutors in order to facilitate tutoring. A crucial factor is acceptance and active organizational support from the clinic's management. This implies that tutoring by workplace learning in medical education should play an integrated and accepted role in the healthcare system.

  1. The medical palimpsest of The Scarlet Letter: an interdisciplinary reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, J

    2005-06-01

    The multiple historical layers of Roger Chillingworth's character have been overlooked in criticism of The Scarlet Letter. By considering the possible influence of Robert Browning's dramatic poem Paracelsus (1835) on Hawthorne's romance (1850), as well as the ways in which overtones of both herbalism and clinical medicine complicate Chillingworth's character, one rediscovers Chillingworth as Hawthorne's audience likely experienced him: as a fictional palimpsest bearing multiple inscriptions of medical history that reveal an interplay between integrity and corruption. Thus, an interdisciplinary reading of The Scarlet Letter challenges the conventional critical assessment of Chillingworth as a satanic or Faustian figure.

  2. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  3. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  4. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  5. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  6. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  7. Polar Science Is Cool!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Children are fascinated by the fact that polar scientists do research in extremely cold and dangerous places. In the Arctic they might be viewed as lunch by a polar bear. In the Antarctic, they could lose toes and fingers to frostbite and the wind is so fast it can rip skin off. They camp on ice in continuous daylight, weeks from any form of…

  8. Precision Polarization of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elise; Barron-Palos, Libertad; Couture, Aaron; Crawford, Christopher; Chupp, Tim; Danagoulian, Areg; Estes, Mary; Hona, Binita; Jones, Gordon; Klein, Andi; Penttila, Seppo; Sharma, Monisha; Wilburn, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Determining polarization of a cold neutron beam to high precision is required for the next generation neutron decay correlation experiments at the SNS, such as the proposed abBA and PANDA experiments. Precision polarimetry measurements were conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the goal of determining the beam polarization to the level of 10-3 or better. The cold neutrons from FP12 were polarized using optically polarized ^3He gas as a spin filter, which has a highly spin-dependent absorption cross section. A second ^ 3He spin filter was used to analyze the neutron polarization after passing through a resonant RF spin rotator. A discussion of the experiment and results will be given.

  9. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements. PMID:29503479

  10. Optically polarized 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, T. R.; Nacher, P. J.; Saam, B.; Walker, T. G.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized 3He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized 3He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena. Both methods have benefitted from development of storage methods that allow for spin-relaxation times of hundreds of hours, and specialized precision methods for polarimetry. SEOP and MEOP are now widely applied for spin-polarized targets, neutron spin filters, magnetic resonance imaging, and precision measurements.

  11. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  12. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  13. Teacher's Influence Scale from Their Colleagues and Principals: Its Relation with School Performance in Public Schools of the Albanian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanaili, Valbona

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the relation between school performance and the Teacher's Influence Scale on certain issues from their colleagues and principals in the public educational system of Albania. For this purpose, a questionnaire was used. The sample consisted of 428 teachers, teaching at 20 public schools in the pre-university educational…

  14. How Not to Evaluate a Psychological Measure: Rebuttal to Criticism of the Defining Issues Test of Moral Judgment Development by Curzer and Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Stephen J.; Bebeau, Muriel J.; Narvaez, Darcia

    2016-01-01

    In a 2014 paper in "Theory and Research in Education," Howard Curzer and colleagues critique the Defining Issues Test of moral judgment development according to eight criteria that are described as difficulties any measure of educational outcomes must address. This article highlights how Curzer et al. do not consult existing empirical…

  15. New Evidence of Cerebellar and Brainstem Hypoplasia in Autistic Infants, Children and Adolescents: The MR Imaging Study by Hashimoto and Colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric

    1995-01-01

    In a study by Toshiaki Hashimoto and colleagues (EC 611 142), 10 infants with developmental delay, poor eye contact, and poor facial expression underwent magnetic resonance brain imaging and were later diagnosed with autism. This offered direct evidence of abnormality of the cerebellar vermis and the brainstem at the beginning stages of behavioral…

  16. How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? Investigating double letter representation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Peereman, Ronald; Ghimenton, Anna

    2014-05-01

    How do we code the letters of a word when we have to write it? We examined whether the orthographic representations that the writing system activates have a specific coding for letters when these are doubled in a word. French participants wrote words on a digitizer. The word pairs shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., LISSER/LISTER). The results on latencies, letter and inter-letter interval durations revealed that L and I are slower to write when followed by a doublet (SS) than when not (ST). Doublet processing constitutes a supplementary cognitive load that delays word production. This suggests that word representations code letter identity and quantity separately. The data also revealed that the central processes that are involved in spelling representation cascade into the peripheral processes that regulate movement execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired…

  18. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  19. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... competent judicial authorities of the American jurisdiction where the proceedings are held, subject to the applicable laws of that jurisdiction. See § 92.66 for procedures in the use of letters rogatory requesting... serving of a summons, subpoena, or other legal notice, or the execution of a civil judgment. In United...

  20. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause... completion of any warranty period; or (C) For payment bonds only, until resolution of all claims filed...

  1. Army Response Letter & Analysis - signed January 19, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response to the letter, which requested a review of the proposed decision by the Army Corps of Engineers Baltimore District to issue four Department of the Army permits to Baltimore County (3 permits) and Anne Arundel County (1 permit), MD.

  2. Blind Rage: An Open Letter to Helen Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleege, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    In a letter addressed to Helen Keller, the author discusses the frustrations of being blind in the modern-day world. She reflects on the seeming pettiness of her complaints next to the difficulties Keller would have faced, especially given all of the new technologies and accommodations available to the blind. She wonders how Keller dealt with her…

  3. Canadian bishops' letter presents theology of healing, suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigeler, H W

    1984-11-01

    With board input from theologians, health personnel, patients, and others interested in health care, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops released its pastoral letter on sickness and healing in September 1983. Acknowledging that suffering and healing are mysteries beyond complete understanding, the letter illuminates the connection between caring for one's own health, helping the sick, and following Christ. The letter's first major section reviews suffering and healing as presented in the Bible, and asserts that the act of healing should help to restore not only the body but also the sufferer's relationship with God and with the community. The letter's second section surveys the history of the healing tradition within the Church and notes that, because the great healers often suffered themselves, their example can help people to integrate suffering into their own quest for wholeness and spiritual growth. In the pastoral's third section the bishops suggest attitudes and practices for those who wish to be healers today. They apply theological teaching to five practical levels of pastoral concern: individual actions, parish communities, Catholic and other health care institutions, and the social, economic, and political community. Each level, the bishops stress, must play an important role in healing and salvation.

  4. 78 FR 2407 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... General of the United States. [FR Doc. 2013-00335 Filed 1-10-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  5. 76 FR 81503 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... the United States. [FR Doc. 2011-33226 Filed 12-27-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  6. 76 FR 5591 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY... Act of 1997 established the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller... Doc. 2011-2057 Filed 1-31-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1610-02-M ...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  9. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  10. Integration of letters and speech sounds in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke; Formisano, Elia; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2004-01-01

    Most people acquire literacy skills with remarkable ease, even though the human brain is not evolutionarily adapted to this relatively new cultural phenomenon. Associations between letters and speech sounds form the basis of reading in alphabetic scripts. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy

  11. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Letter to Daniel Gilligan of Petroleum Marketers Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter in response to a request for the Agency’s view regarding whether several approaches would satisfy 40 CFR §112.7(a)(2)’s “equivalent environmental protection” provision and for clarification of the scope of the requirements in 40 CFR §112.

  13. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  14. Letter to The Hindu Daily Newspaper | Dasan | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to The Hindu Daily Newspaper. S. Bharathi Dasan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  15. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  16. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  17. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  18. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  19. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  20. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    François J. Tool to assess the quality of consultation and referral request letters in family medicine. Can Fam. Physician. 2011; 57(5): 574 -5. 12. Newton J, Hutchinson A, Hayes V, McColl E, Mack- ee I, Holland C. Do clinicians tell each other enough? An analysis of referral communications in two specialties. Fam Pract.

  1. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  2. Reversing Letters and Reading Transformed Text in Dyslexia: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter H.; Melngailis, Ilze

    1996-01-01

    Reexamines whether probands and affected relatives in dyslexia families reverse easily confused letters more frequently under experimental conditions than normal readers from the same families and whether they show unusual facility in reading geometrically transformed text. Indicates that young dyslexia students reverse easily confused letters…

  3. Comradely Greetings: The Prison Letters of Nadya and Slavoj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Briziarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Žižek and Tolokonnikova’s exchange letters provides the reader with the suggestive image and evocative words of two intellectuals speaking from very different contexts. This article discusses the relevance of this volume in the context of localized global capitalism and an equally localized global struggle against it.

  4. Language Arts/Arts: Adopt-a-Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…

  5. When "Slime" Becomes "Smile": Developmental Letter Position Dyslexia in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne; Friedmann, Naama; McArthur, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    We report the first three cases of selective developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Although the parents and teachers of the children were concerned about these children's reading, standard tests did not reveal their deficit. It was only when the appropriate target words were presented, in this case, migratable words, that their letter…

  6. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...

  7. Region 8: Colorado Springs Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 3, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Colorado Springs, CO second 10 year Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) adequate for transportation

  8. Letter from the editor | Tawe | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter from the editor. G.S Tawe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters to the Editor: Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon. Samuel Nambile Cumber, Nancy Bongkiynuy, Shalom Jaila, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. Letter to Editor | Acharya | Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. S Acharya, A Gupta, C Kulkarni, SN ...

  11. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the well | Rodseth | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor: Polluting the ...

  12. Letter to the Editor | Joob | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to the Editor. B Joob, V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. Ebola outbreak in west Africa ...

  13. Letter to Editor | Kieran | Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letter to Editor. W Kieran. Abstract.

  14. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Case, L.; Gosavi, R.; Ramachandran, V.

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language

  15. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  16. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  17. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excise tax questions if a request is for a determination of a constructive sales price under section 4216... constructive sales price under section 4216(b) or 4218(e) of the Code. (e) Instructions to taxpayers. (1) A... the practice of the Service to process requests for rulings, opinion letters, and determination...

  18. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  19. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  20. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  1. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Cold-induced vasodilation : letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Reactie op: Flouris, et al. Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilationa. Eur J Applied Phys 2008;104:491-499. De aurteurs hebben daar weer een reply op geschreven; Flouris AD, Cheung SS (2009) Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol

  3. Sentence Patterns in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter | Chukwukaelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to isolate, describe and evaluate sentence patterns in Ba's So Long a Letter with a view to determining their stylistic significance. Such stylistic devices as foregrounding, sentence fragmentation pattern repetition and category rule violation. The emphasis is on determining how the author's sentences ...

  4. Silent Letters Are Activated in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that investigate processing of mispronounced words for which the phonological form is inconsistent with the graphemic form (words spelled with silent letters). Words produced as mispronunciations that are consistent with their spelling were more confusable with their citation form counterpart than mispronunciations…

  5. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... immediate complete spoilage of work-in-process having a definite commercial value, or (D) to prevent any...

  6. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  7. A letter addressed by Gustav Hertz to James Franck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, C.

    1987-01-01

    A letter from Gustav Hertz is published which he sent from Copenhagen on 23 March 1938 to James Franck asking him to help Lise Meitner. The threat to her of the Nazi regime and the relations between the three physicists are described in the introduction. (author)

  8. Polarization at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to accommodate polarized electron beams. Longitudinally polarized electrons colliding with unpolarized positrons at a center of mass energy near the Z/sup 0/ mass can be used as novel and sensitive probes of the electroweak process. A gallium arsenide based photon emission source will provide a beam of longitudinally polarized electrons of about 45 percent polarization. A system of bend magnets and a superconducting solenoid will be used to rotate the spins so that the polarization is preserved while the 1.21 GeV electrons are stored in the damping ring. Another set of bend magnets and two superconducting solenoids orient the spin vectors so that longitudinal polarization of the electrons is achieved at the collision point with the unpolarized positrons. A system to monitor the polarization based on Moller and Compton scattering will be used. Nearly all major components have been fabricated and tested. Subsystems of the source and polarimeters have been installed, and studies are in progress. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Personality Styles of German-Speaking Psychotherapists Differ from a Norm, and Male Psychotherapists Differ from Their Female Colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Böbel, Eva; Hagl, Maria; Richter, Mario; Kazén, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Variables pertaining to the person of the psychotherapist have been neglected in psychotherapy research for some time. Concerning personality in particular, however, research has mostly focused on its relation with the psychotherapist's choice of method, or differences between the various major therapy approaches. That is, psychotherapists were compared to each other without specifying how exactly psychotherapists are in comparison to "ordinary people." We wanted to know: Are there specific personality styles that distinguish psychotherapists from the norm? A sample of 1,027 psychotherapists from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland filled out the short version of the Personality Style and Disorder Inventory (PSDI-S) via online survey. The PSDI-S is a self-report questionnaire that assesses 14 personality styles, partly related to the non-pathological equivalents of classifiable personality disorders. The psychotherapists were compared to a normative sample of 3,392 people of different professions. The results could be divided into three groups: (1) Large differences in four personality styles that might contribute to relationship skills and may enable psychotherapists to put their own personal opinion aside, show empathy and appreciation, open themselves to the emotional experience of the patient, and provide a trusting relationship. (2) Moderate differences in seven personality styles that are equally indicative of the professional social skills of the psychotherapists, i.e., they were neither submissive nor passive, not excessively helpful, but also not too self-assertive. (3) Hardly any or no differences regarding a charming (histrionic) style, optimism, and conscientiousness. Gender-specific results revealed that male psychotherapists differed from their female colleagues, but they did so differently than men and women in the normative sample do. The main limitations were that we relied on self-report and did not statistically control for gender, age, and

  10. Personality Styles of German-Speaking Psychotherapists Differ from a Norm, and Male Psychotherapists Differ from Their Female Colleagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Peter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Variables pertaining to the person of the psychotherapist have been neglected in psychotherapy research for some time. Concerning personality in particular, however, research has mostly focused on its relation with the psychotherapist’s choice of method, or differences between the various major therapy approaches. That is, psychotherapists were compared to each other without specifying how exactly psychotherapists are in comparison to “ordinary people.” We wanted to know: Are there specific personality styles that distinguish psychotherapists from the norm? A sample of 1,027 psychotherapists from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland filled out the short version of the Personality Style and Disorder Inventory (PSDI-S via online survey. The PSDI-S is a self-report questionnaire that assesses 14 personality styles, partly related to the non-pathological equivalents of classifiable personality disorders. The psychotherapists were compared to a normative sample of 3,392 people of different professions. The results could be divided into three groups: (1 Large differences in four personality styles that might contribute to relationship skills and may enable psychotherapists to put their own personal opinion aside, show empathy and appreciation, open themselves to the emotional experience of the patient, and provide a trusting relationship. (2 Moderate differences in seven personality styles that are equally indicative of the professional social skills of the psychotherapists, i.e., they were neither submissive nor passive, not excessively helpful, but also not too self-assertive. (3 Hardly any or no differences regarding a charming (histrionic style, optimism, and conscientiousness. Gender-specific results revealed that male psychotherapists differed from their female colleagues, but they did so differently than men and women in the normative sample do. The main limitations were that we relied on self-report and did not statistically control for

  11. On the possibility of the electron polarization to be the driving force for the C60-TMB nanowire growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Geng, Junfeng; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of electron polarization has been suggested to explain the exceptionally large length-to width aspect ratio (more than 3000) in recently observed C_60-based nanowires. The theoretical estimates performed in the present Letter show that at room temperature the effect of electron polariz...

  12. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  13. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  14. Polarized scintillator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    2000-05-01

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as "live" polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  15. Polarized scintillator targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den E-mail: vandenbrandt@psi.ch; Bunyatova, E.I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S

    2000-05-21

    The hydrogen nuclei in an organic scintillator have been polarized to more than 80% and the deuterons in its fully deuterated version to 24%. The scintillator, doped with TEMPO, has been polarized dynamically in a field of 2.5 T in a vertical dilution refrigerator in which a plastic lightguide transports the scintillation light from the sample in the mixing chamber to a photomultiplier outside the cryostat. Sizeable solid samples with acceptable optical properties and light output have been prepared and successfully operated as 'live' polarized targets in nuclear physics experiments.

  16. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  17. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  18. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  19. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  20. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  1. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  2. Ultracold Polar Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0005 Ultracold Polar Molecules Jeremy Hutson UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Final Report 04/01/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-Jan-2010 to 14-Jul-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report on Grant FA8655-10-1-3033 on Ultracold Polar Molecules 5a...formation of ultracold 87RbCs molecules in their rovibrational ground state by magnetoassociation followed by STIRAP, resulting in 14 papers acknowledging

  3. Hsp Polarization Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert

    1991-07-01

    This proposal defines the procedure for determining the instrumental polarization of the polarimetric IDT (IDT#1, POL) on the HSP. 1 of 2 unpolarized standard stars wil be observed using various filter-polarizer combinations. These observations will permit the instrumental polarization to be calibrated. The instrumental polarization must be determined to a high precision in order to vectoriallly remove it from HSP polarization observations to determine the actual astronomical polarization. Final run of proposal will look at one of 2 possible stars previously observed to get another look at the throughput. Revision History: Mark H. Slovak 8/30/88 Translated to V2 proposal instructions (RPSS V6.2) S. Laurent 1/20/89 Updated: Sally Laurent 2/24/89, 3/20/89, 4/13/89, 5/12/89 Modified: P. Stanley 1/15/90 - change to use CTA selected targets only; Fixes for aberration problem - SALM 7/30/90; Based on SV/HSP 1386. New submission changed targets and revised scheduling strategy. Revised: 26 Aug 92 J. Dolan, L. Walter, P. Reppert want to re-run the proposal (3985) one last time to bring down errors.

  4. The number of occurrences of letters versus their distribution in some EOL languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenfeucht, A.; Rozenberg, G.

    1974-01-01

    A characterization theorem is given for a class of developmental languages. The theorem binds together the number of occurrences of letters in the words of the given language with the distribution of these letters.

  5. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012... the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that will require an... implementing agency in preparation of [[Page 73451

  6. An audit of letters of referral to a prosthodontic department in a dental teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Michael R; Glick, Shiri; Sherriff, Martyn

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality and number of letters of referral for new patients received in the Prosthodontics Department of a Dental Teaching Hospital. Letters received during the month of May 2006 were included. Each letter of referral was tested against five criteria which might be expected in an appropriate letter of referral. These were information on the following: relevant dental history, relevant medical history, teeth present, diagnosis, and treatment plan. The results showed that only 8% of letters met all five criteria and 11% met none of them. Letters requesting better information were sent to referring practitioner as a result of this audit. However a re-audit in May 2007 showed that 9% of letters met all five criteria and 15% met none of them. A need has been identifiedfor better referral letters and ways of achieving this were discussed.

  7. Classe di Lettere | Gendre | Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memorie dell'Istituto Lombardo- Accademia di Scienze e Lettere. Classe di Lettere, Scienze morali e storiche”. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  9. Insights from developmental and acquired letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia(LPD. LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (cloud-could. We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate.The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (signs-signs would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations.We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels. We examined migrations next to inflectional,derivational,or bound function morphemes compared with exterior letters.Root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. Morphologically complex nonwords showed the same pattern, indicating that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven.We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re-analyzed as two separate words. In this reanalysis, letter positions in each constituent word are encoded separately,and hence the exterior letters of the root are treated as exterior and

  10. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  11. Commentary on Marczinski and colleagues: mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C

    2013-02-01

    This commentary discusses the study by Marczinski and colleagues in which they used an alcohol priming procedure to examine the effects of an alcohol/energy drink mixture on the priming effect. The significance of the main findings from this study and new avenues of investigation are discussed. Using an alcohol priming paradigm, Marczinski and colleagues report that an alcohol/energy drink combination (AmED) prolongs the desire-to-drink rating compared with alcohol alone. The results of this laboratory study add to the growing body of literature that the intoxicating effects of AmED are different than the intoxication by alcohol alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. We Were There: Letters from the Battle Front. Postal Pack for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Postal Museum, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    This curriculum guide includes letters and postal history from three U.S. wars: the Civil War, World War II, and the Vietnam War. The postal pack was developed with the idea that letters and stamps present personal perspectives that enable students to comprehend the past better. Letters in the postal pack are printed in both the original…

  13. Rapid Processing of Letters, Digits and Symbols: What Purely Visual-Attentional Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stephane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit…

  14. The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

  15. The Correspondence of Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (119 letters)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, E.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Currently the catalogue contains metadata of 119 letters conserved at the Royal Collections in The Hague. The letters were written in German, French, and Dutch, and they date between 1677 and 1693. Each letter record in this EMLO catalogue contains a link (labelled ‘manuscript image’) to a digitized

  16. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors to...

  17. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing draft Generic Letter 2011-XX, ``Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...

  18. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A. H.

    1942-09-01

    This letter from Compton to Fermi describes developments bearing on the establishment of site X (which, as of the letter date, is definitely determined as at the Tennessee Valley) for the construction of a pile and associated pilot plant buildings, describes the situation as of the letter date, and offers counsel as to how to proceed.

  19. 78 FR 28793 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Preparation of Letter of Offer and Acceptance (DFARS Case 2012... the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign military sales program that will require an... to assist the DoD implementing activity in preparing the letter of offer and acceptance for a foreign...

  20. Quality of Referral Letters to the Paediatric Department of a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More interhospital letters had information on findings on physical examination, treatment, urgency of referral and request for feed-back from the receiving specialists. Referral letters to the clinics were more likely than letters to emergency centre to contain information on presenting complaints, history of the presenting ...

  1. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  2. Epistolary and Emotional Education: The Letters of an Irish Father to His Daughter, 1747-1752

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberg, Willemijn

    2008-01-01

    The letters Bishop Edward Synge (1691-1762) wrote to his daughter Alicia (1733-1807) in 1747-1752 are discussed to show how correspondence from a father to a daughter could be used to teach a teenage girl how to spell and write letters. Moreover, these letters are an excellent source to show how emotional behaviour was taught. Instructions on…

  3. 19 CFR 181.100 - Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters; modification and revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters... Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.100 Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters; modification and revocation. (a) Effect of NAFTA advance ruling letters—(1) General. An advance ruling letter issued by Customs...

  4. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  5. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  6. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  7. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the history of group-III-nitride materials and devices, scientific breakthroughs and technological advances have gone hand-in-hand. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the discovery of the nucleation of smooth (0001) GaN films on c-plane sapphire and the activation of p-dopants in GaN led very quickly to the realization of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, followed by the first demonstration of GaN-based violet laser diodes in the mid 1990s. Today, blue InGaN LEDs boast record external quantum efficiencies exceeding 80% and the emission wavelength of the InGaN-based laser diode has been pushed into the green spectral range. Although these tremenduous advances have already spurred multi-billion dollar industries, there are still a number of scientific questions and technological issues that are unanswered. One key challenge is related to the polar nature of the III-nitride wurtzite crystal. Until a decade ago all research activities had almost exclusively concentrated on (0001)-oriented polar GaN layers and heterostructures. Although the device characteristics seem excellent, the strong polarization fields at GaN heterointerfaces can lead to a significant deterioration of the device performance. Triggered by the first demonstration non-polar GaN quantum wells grown on LiAlO2 by Waltereit and colleagues in 2000, impressive advances in the area of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors and devices have been achieved. Today, a large variety of heterostructures free of polarization fields and exhibiting exceptional electronic and optical properties have been demonstrated, and the fundamental understanding of polar, semipolar and non-polar nitrides has made significant leaps forward. The contributions in this Semiconductor Science and Technology special issue on non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors provide an impressive and up-to-date cross-section of all areas of research and device physics in this field. The articles cover a wide range of

  8. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  9. Quantity versus quality: Effects of argumentation in bad news letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Jansen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Do the quality and the quantity of arguments have an impact on the evaluation of bad news messages? To answer this question, two experiments were carried out using bad news letters in which the quality and the quantity of the arguments were manipulated in a contextually realistic way. The results of both experiments show that adding argumentation has a positive impact on the perceived politeness and the persuasive force of the letters. Furthermore, the studies show that the impact of strong arguments is greater than that of weak arguments. The effect of adding successive arguments is positive as well. However, the results indicate that one or two arguments are sufficient. Adding a third argument only minimally contributes to better evaluations.

  10. Information letter: occupational health and safety of light hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers developed this Information Letter to assist member companies develop methods to increase awareness and to minimize the hazards to workers of exposure to light hydrocarbons. The letter outlines methods for handling, detecting, training, labeling and emergency response to methane, ethane, butane, isomers and propane. It deals only with sweet light hydrocarbons. Light hydrocarbons accumulating in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas may create certain hazards. At lower concentrations, narcosis may cause dizziness and/or headaches and may result in unconsciousness. These symptoms may lead to errors in judgment. At higher concentrations, the worker may suffer the effects of oxygen deficiency, which can lead to dizziness, unconsciousness, and or death. Explosive concentrations may build up which, when ignited, can cause serious burns or death to involved workers. Significant loss of equipment and product may also occur. 3 tabs.

  11. literature and language teaching reinvention: Letters trainee students proposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Maria Morales Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The job, here presented, is a literacy practices result, in special, developed during the letters students trainee, through a extension project called Experiences of reading/writing: the readers/writers formation. This text  has as objective relate two teaching proposals, bringing a specific methodology which tries to show, to the future letters professionals, a fertile possibility of working with language and literature at school.  Also, bring a brief theoretical approaching about literacy, to situate the lector about the meaning of this term.  Through practices developed during the trainee results, was possible to realize the diversity and richness of actions which has the potential of overarching the language and literature classroom, transforming this space in a pleasure space, of significant learning which mobilize the creativity, the criticality and the development of the reading and writing pleasure.

  12. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended publicly funded preschools. Children’s uppercase and lowercase letter-naming abilities were assessed at the end of preschool, and their literacy ac...

  13. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  14. Resource Letter PoD-1: The Physics of Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kenneth; Lott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the physics of dance. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: General references for dance, physics of dance, research methods in physics of human movement and in biomechanics, using dance in the physics classroom; anatomy and injuries; physics applied to specific dance movements or styles of dance; equipment (dance shoes, flooring, the barre); and dance of physics.

  15. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  16. Child's Letter to President John F. Kennedy about Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNatt, Missy

    2009-01-01

    On March 3, 1963, nine-year-old Jack Chase of Torrance, California, wrote a letter to President John F. Kennedy. In his single-page note, featured in this article, Jack described his plans for staying physically fit. He said he would walk to school, the store, and the library "because I know a strong boy makes a strong man and a strong man makes a…

  17. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  18. Open letter to the Italian Ministry of University and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Grady K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Open letter to the Minister of Italian University. The government should get advice from the best Italian scientists for the necessary reform of the Italian University, with special concern to crucial processes as the appointment of new professors and academic evaluation. The current government proposal for a random draw of evaluation committees in charge for the appointment of new professors is considered as a wrong solution and harmful tool for dealing with such a crucial process.

  19. Response to the Letter to the Editor by Rob Armstrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Young, David R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2017-04-26

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Armstrong raises concern that the design of the study reported by Six et al. was not consistent with the product label for treatment of Amblyomma americanum, since fluralaner was not re-administered 56 days after the initial treatment. The Authors disagree with this assessment and confirm that the design was appropriate, and therefore the results and conclusions for the entire study period are valid.

  20. Discerning Calvin’s pastoral care from his letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Potgieter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The same acuity that is evident in John Calvin’s theological writings accompanied his correspondence. Calvin’s mission was not to support God, but to honour him. Divine revelation and the glory of God underlie the content of his letters. The audacious confidence with which he writes, reveals his utter reliance upon the veracity of Scripture, which understanding must be conveyed through sound teaching. Yet, his letters are not inundated with scriptural references or quotes in the fashion of a medical prescription. Rather the connection between Scripture and writing for Calvin were twofold: it lies in the foundations of sound theology applied pastorally. This undergirded his pastoral care. To bring that across in his correspondence with Duchess Renata Ferrara, he followed basic doctrinal principles, evident from many of his letters applied pastorally to the recipient(s of the letter. Calvyn se pastorale benadering soos waargeneem in sy briewe. Dieselfde pastorale noukeurigheid wat duidelik in Johannes Calvyn se teologiese geskrifte waarneembaar is, kom ook in sy korrespondensie voor. Calvyn se oogmerk was nie bloot om God te eer nie, maar om Hom te verheerlik. Die inhoud van sy briewe reflekteer sowel die openbaring as die heerlikheid van God. Hy skryf met waagmoed en ’n selfversekerdheid wat sy vertroue in die waarheid van die Skrif weerspieël en wat deur Skrifgetroue onderrig oorgedra moet word. Tog maak hy nie in sy briewe op oordrewe wyse van teksverwysings of aanhalings gebruik om sy teologiete staaf nie. Die verband tussen die Skrif en sy skryfwerk was eerder vir Calvyn ’n tweeledige saak: dit berus naamlik op gesonde teologie wat pastoraal toegepas word. Dit blyk derhalwe uit baie van sy briewe, soos dié aan die Hertogin Renata Ferrara, dat hy die metode volg ombasiese dogmatiese leerstellings in sy korrespondensie uit te lê en met pastorale sorg toe te pas.

  1. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  2. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus (1657-1717 from Cucurpe in Sonora (Mexico, dated 20. January 1691, which is now published for the first time in the present study, is historically important, because it speaks in considerable detail o the revolt of the Tarahumara Indians in 1690. It is one of the few contemporary accounts of this revolt and brings a number of facts unknown so far.

  3. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    OpenAIRE

    Elian Iwi Afifah; Triyono Triyono; Yuliati Hotifah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development...

  4. transformation in love in paul's letter to the galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul's Letter to the Galatians is known as a bitter defence of his “true” gospel of faith against opponents who wish to impose their “false” gospel of works on the faith community. This focus on the faith-works controversy has not been conducive to attempts to read it in terms of the notion of love. This article seeks to reconsider ...

  5. Eigenvalues of Words in Two Positive Definite Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher J; Johnson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether all words in two real positive definite letters have only positive eigenvalues is addressed and settled (negatively). This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eigenvalues is identified, and considerable evidence is given for the conjecture that no other words do. In the process, a fundamental question about solvability of symmetric word equations is encoun...

  6. The Carnivalesque in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pirnajmuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sets to examine the applicability of Bakhtin's theory of the carnivalesque to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. The canonical novel of the American literature published in the middle of the nineteenth century portrays the genesis of the American Puritan culture, while the polyphonic nature of the novel, it is argued, exposes the rifts of and the grotesqueness of this culture.

  7. Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the "Lettered City"

    OpenAIRE

    Balkan, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Metropolitan (Im)migrants in the 'Lettered City'" Stacey Balkan employs Ángel Rama's discussion of audience as a means of analyzing a Latin American diaspora that exists beyond the "rational periphery" of the state. Herein, the term diaspora is redefined as a translocal phenomenon wherein the metropolitan (im)migrant moves from rural margin to urban center. Normative definitions of exile — persons displaced from autonomous nation-states — are likewise scrutinized in the contex...

  8. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  9. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented

  10. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  11. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YiYan; Wang, Pingxiao; Yu, Yuguo

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM) with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8). These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI) and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition. PMID:29467615

  12. Letters from Ainsworth: Contesting the ‘Organization’ of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, ‘she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.’ These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth’s intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours. PMID:23667365

  13. Gender Differences in Iranian EFL Students’ Letter Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Hamdi asl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.

  14. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  15. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  16. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  17. In-line Fiber Polarizer

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Priya

    1998-01-01

    Polarizers and polarization devices are important components in fiber optic communication and sensor systems. There is a growing need for efficient low loss components that are compatible with optical fibers. An all fiber in-line polarizer is a more desirable alternative that could be placed at appropriate intervals along communication links. An in-line fiber polarizer was fabricated and tested. The in-line fiber polarizer operates by coupling optical energy propagatin...

  18. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signa...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice.......This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  19. Physics of polarized targets

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  20. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  1. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  2. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  3. Not all visual features are created equal: early processing in letter and word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Sophie N; Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A; Besner, Derek

    2009-02-01

    In four experiments, we investigated the effect of deleting specific features of letters on letter and word recognition in the context of reading aloud. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the relative importance of vertices versus midsegments in letter recognition. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the relative importance of vertices versus midsegments in word recognition. The results demonstrate that deleting vertices is more detrimental to letter and word identification than is deleting midsegments of letters. These results converge with those of previous research on the role of vertices in object identification. Theoretical implications for early processing in reading are noted.

  4. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  5. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  6. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liang; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun, E-mail: jiaxj@sxu.edu.cn; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2016-04-18

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  7. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  8. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  10. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  11. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  12. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  13. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control During Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor and cognitive abilities, which must work in unison if children are to write letters efficiently. To study such coordination, head-mounted eye-tracking technology was used to investigate the process of visual-motor coordination while kindergarten children (N=23) and adults (N=11) copied individual letters and strings of letters that differed in terms of their phonemic properties. Results indicated that kindergarten children were able to copy single letters efficiently, as did adults. When the cognitive demands of the task increased and children were presented with strings of letters, however, their ability to copy letters efficiently was compromised: children frequently interrupted their writing mid-letter, whereas they did not do so on single letter trials. Yet, with increasing age, children became more efficient in copying letter strings, in part by using vision more prospectively when writing. Taken together, the results illustrate how the coordination of perceptual, motor and cognitive processes contributes to advances in the development of letter writing skill. PMID:26029821

  14. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter......Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both...... tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely...

  15. Learning Letters With the Whole Body: Visuomotor Versus Visual Teaching in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Bonneton-Botté, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    What constitutes effective teaching of letter learning in early school years is still uncertain. We assessed the impact of a teacher-implemented visuomotor intervention program to teach 5-year-olds' cursive letter knowledge. We compared a program in which letters were explored with the arm and whole body, with a typical visual training program. Children were tested before and after the intervention with different measures of letter knowledge. We showed a greater improvement in letter recognition following the visuomotor intervention, compared with the visual intervention. Results were mixed for letter handwriting for which we found higher scores on stroke direction and overall quality, but lower scores on fluency following whole body visuomotor teaching. We discuss our results in terms of the link between action and perception, the interaction between the different components of letter knowledge, and the link between fine and gross motor development and handwriting.

  16. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  17. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  18. The importance of the first and last letter in words during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Eisler, Morgan E

    2012-11-01

    Previous research suggests that the first and last letters of words are more important than the interior letters during reading. A question that has yet to be fully studied is why this is so. The current study reports four experiments in which participants read sentences containing words with transposed letters occurring at the beginning of the word, near the middle of the word, or at the end of the word. Experiments 1 and 2 also included some sentences where the spaces were removed and replaced with hash marks (#) to equate all letters on their degree of lateral interference from adjacent letter positions. In Experiment 3, equating was done by adding an additional space between all of the letters, so that no letter position received lateral interference from any letter. In Experiment 4, readers read sentences from right to left so that word-initial letters were presented furthest into the parafovea. The results indicate that although the first letter of a word has a privileged role over interior letters regardless of the degree of lateral interference it receives or its location in the parafovea (suggesting that it is intrinsically related to how we process, store, or access lexical information), the last letter of a word is more important than interior letters only when it receives less lateral interference or when its parafoveal location was close to the fovea (suggesting that it is privileged only due to low-level visual factors). These findings have important implications for current theories and computational models regarding the roles of various letter positions in reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  20. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  1. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  2. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  3. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  4. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  5. How Many Letters Should Preschoolers in Public Programs Know? The Diagnostic Efficiency of Various Preschool Letter-Naming Benchmarks for Predicting First-Grade Literacy Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Petscher, Yaacov; Justice, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Review of current federal and state standards indicates little consensus or empirical justification regarding appropriate goals, often referred to as benchmarks, for preschool letter-name learning. The present study investigated the diagnostic efficiency of various letter-naming benchmarks using a longitudinal database of 371 children who attended…

  6. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Allison D; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Given mounting evidence for working memory impairments in dyslexia, letter reversals during rapid automatic letter naming (phonological loop) or rapid automatic letter writing (orthographic loop) may reflect momentary inefficiency of working memory. Few of the children, with or without dyslexia, in a multi-generational family genetics study, produced reversals, but those with dyslexia produced more than those without dyslexia. Working-memory component predictors (word storing and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and executive functions) in regressions differentiated children with dyslexia (average age 11) who did and did not make reversals, predicted the number of reversals on specific letter naming or letter writing tasks, and explained unique variance in reading and writing outcomes. Although reversals are not a hallmark defining feature of dyslexia, children who produce reversals may benefit from instruction designed to develop specific working memory components and their efficient coordination in time.

  8. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  9. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  10. Substance Use Disorders Among Danish Physicians: An Explorative Study of the Professional Socialization and Management of Colleagues With Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srensen, Johanne Korsdal; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Vedsted, Peter; Bruun, Niels Henrik; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study has 2 aims. Firstly, we explore and analyze the associations between physicians' unhealthy substance use and various work-cultural and social aspects; secondly, we describe how substance use disorder (SUD defined as by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test [DUDIT]) among colleagues is managed and how physicians seek help. During the spring of 2014, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as an anonymous electronic survey among a randomly weighted sample of medical specialists, junior hospital doctors, and general practitioners in Denmark. A total of 4000 physicians (approximately 1333 from each group) were sampled, and 1943 responded (49%). The survey included the AUDIT, the DUDIT, and questions on health and psychological issues. Among the physicians in our study, 18.3% had an AUDIT exceeding 8 (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and 3.2% had a DUDIT exceeding 1. Of these, 12.9% reported that their substance use had negative consequences for their social networks, and 34% to 42% reported no openness about substance use at their workplace. In total, 4 physicians (1%) of the 383 physicians with risky substance use reported to have been in regular treatment for SUDs. Most of the physicians with an unhealthy consumption of substances (78%) reported that it was irrelevant for them to seek help. Half of them reported that they had limited or insufficient knowledge of SUD. Around 55% of the physicians would encourage colleagues with SUDs to seek treatment. Around 50% of physicians reported that their "SUD knowledge" was relevant, but limited or not satisfactory. One-third never experienced openness about SUD at work. More than half wished to encourage a colleague with SUD to seek treatment. Three quarters of the physicians with unhealthy substance use reported that they found it irrelevant to seek help.

  11. Resource Letter PFBi-1: Physical frontiers in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Eugenie Vorburger

    2006-05-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on physical frontiers in biology. Books and review articles are cited as well as journal articles for the following topics: cells and cellular mats; conformational dynamics/folding; electrostatics; enzymes, proteins, and molecular machines; material-biomineralization; miscellaneous topics; nanoparticles and nanobiotechnology; neuroscience; photosynthesis; quantum mechanics theory; scale and energy; spectroscopy and microscopy: experiments and instrumentation; single-molecule dynamics; and water and hydrogen-bonded solvents. A list of web resources and videotapes is also given.

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters, in Russian, pt.3

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the role of the complanar emission of particles in nuclear interaction for E sub 0 >10 sup 1 sup 6 eV detected in the stratosphere, sup 1 sup 0 B nucleus fragment yields, nuclear teleportation (proposal for an experiment), invisible 'glue' bosons in model field theory, calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions, interactions of ultracold neutrons near surface of solids, g factors as a probe for high-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes, search for periodicities in experimental data by the autoregressive model methods

  13. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  14. Polarized electron beams at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1992-11-01

    SLAC has successfully accelerated high energy polarized electrons for the Stanford Linear Collider and fixed polarized nuclear target experiments. The polarized electron beams at SLAC use a gallium arsenide (GaAlAs for E-142) photon emission source to provide the beam of polarized electrons with polarization of approximately 28% (41% for E-142). While the beam emittance is reduced in the damping ring for SLC operation a system of bend magnets and superconducting solenoids preserve and orient the spin direction for maximum longitudinal polarization at the collision point. The electron polarization is monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22% at the e+e- collision point for the 1992 run. Improvements are discussed to increase the source polarization and to reduce the depolarization effects between the source and the collision point

  15. Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented

  16. On Determinants of Political Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2015-01-01

    Political polarization has been shown to significantly influence a country's economic performance. However, little is known about the drivers of political polarization. In this article, we aim to identify the main determinants of political polarization using Bayesian Model Averaging to overcome the problem of model uncertainty. We find that the level of trust within a country and the degree of income inequality are the most robust determinants of political polarization.

  17. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  18. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  19. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  20. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  1. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  2. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... on different geometries point in the direction of a flexoelectric mechanism behind current rectification in lipid bilayers. Finally, we suggest that our updated equivalent circuit should be included in the interpretation of elctrophysiological data....

  3. Multifrequency Behaviour of Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reinsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataclysmic variables emit over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper I will review observations of polars in relevant passbands obtained during the last decade and will discuss their diagnostical potential to access the physics of the main components within the binary systems. This will include a discussion of intrinsic source variability and the quest for simultaneous multi-frequency observations.

  4. The Letter of Jude and Graeco-Roman Invective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. Batten

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many have attempted to identify the opponents in Jude and have addressed the manner in which the author characterises this group. Moreover, scholars have expended considerable energy on the analysis and explication of Jude’s rhetorical structure and style, and there is wide consensus that as a text, Jude is a sophisticated letter. However, less work has attended to the evaluation of Jude within the tradition of Graeco-Roman invective. In comparing verses from Jude to some examples from such literature, we find similar themes. In particular, the letter of Jude and some Graeco-Roman moralists engage in a particular tactic to undermine, even destroy, the character of their opponents. They both present them as effeminates, which, although a stereotype, is one of the worst insults a writer or orator could wage against an adversary. This article argues that Jude engages in such character assassination, invoking effeminacy in the manner that he describes his opponents’ behaviour, and placing them in a long line of debauched and condemned figures from ages past.

  5. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Iwi Afifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development result showed that this product has the criteria of usefulness, feasibility, accuracy, and attractiveness and appropriate when used to facilitate students to express communication skills in writing. Abstrak: Keterampilan komunikasi merupakan hal yang terpenting bagi remaja. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa remaja yang memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang rendah dapat dikatakan sebagai seseorang yang berkepribadian introvert. Orang yang berkepribadian introvert cenderung sulit berkomunikasi dan sulit mengungkapkan secara lisan. Pengembangan media letter sharing ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan komunikasi siswa introvert. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan  mengadopsi model penelitian Borg and Gall. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa produk ini mempunyai kriteria kegunaan, kelayakan, ketepatan, kemenarikan dan sesuai apabila digunakan untuk memfasilitasi siswa dalam mengekspresikan keterampilan komunikasi secara tertulis.

  7. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  8. Be Mindful of What You Impose on Your Colleagues: Implications of Social Burden for Burdenees' Well-being, Attitudes and Counterproductive Work Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Cong; Nauta, Margaret M; Caughlin, David E; Spector, Paul E

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes two studies of a new relational variable social burden and its implications for employees' well-being, job attitudes and counterproductive work behaviours. Social burden is defined as behaviours from colleagues that elicit the focal employees' social support. Across two separate samples (540 nurses and 172 university employees), we found that social burden differentiated from psychological aggression and incivility, respectively. A separate cross-sectional sample of 273 nurses from Study 1 revealed that social burden from colleagues was positively associated with focal employees' anxiety, irritation, depressive mood, physical symptoms, job dissatisfaction and turnover intentions. Study 2 used a time-lagged design with a separate sample of 383 university employees and 160 of their coworkers. In this study, social burden from supervisors and from coworkers were together predictive of employees' subsequent emotional strains and job attitudes, as measured 6 months later. With respect to sources of social burden, social burden from supervisors more strongly predicted job attitudes and counterproductive work behaviours directed at others, and social burden from coworkers more strongly predicted emotional strains. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Can governments use Get Out The Vote letters to solve Europe’s turnout crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2017-01-01

    Declining levels of turnout are a problem in European elections. Are Get Out The Vote campaigns the solution to the problem? While many studies have investigated such campaigns in the US, little is known about their effect in Europe. The article presents a field experiment in which encouragement...... to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered to more than 60,000 first-time voters using direct personal letters. Eight different letters are designed, based on the calculus of voting and prospect theory. The sample is randomly divided into treatment groups or the control group. Using validated...... turnout, small positive effects of receiving a letter on turnout are found, with little difference across letters. The letters mostly mobilised voters with a low propensity to vote and thus increased equality in participation. In sum, while letters have some effect, they are not likely to be a panacea...

  10. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Polarization of the Lyα Halos around Sources before Cosmological Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, George B.; Loeb, Abraham

    1999-08-01

    In Loeb & Rybicki (hereafter Paper I), it was shown that before reionization, the scattering of Lyα photons from a cosmological source might lead to a fairly compact (~15") Lyα halo around the source. Observations of such halos could constrain the properties of the neutral intergalactic medium and, in particular, yield the cosmological density parameters of baryons and matter on scales where the Hubble flow is unperturbed. Paper I did not treat the polarization of this scattered radiation but did suggest that the degree of such polarization might be large. In this Letter, we report on improved calculations for these Lyα halos, now accounting for the polarization of the radiation field. The polarization is linear and is oriented tangentially to the projected displacement from the center of the source. The degree of polarization is found to be 14% at the core radius, where the intensity has fallen to half of the central value. It rises to 32% and 45% at the radii where the intensity has fallen to one-tenth and one-hundredth of the central intensity, respectively. At larger radii, the degree of polarization rises further, asymptotically to 60%. Such high values of polarization should be easily observable and provide a clear signature of the phenomenon of Lyα halos surrounding sources prior to reionization.

  12. The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. These questions were addressed using data from 242 English-speaking kindergartners and employing structural equation modeling. Results showed le...

  13. Dependence of reading speed on letter spacing in central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2012-09-01

    Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter in close proximity with other letters, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in people with central vision loss. The goals of this study were (1) to examine whether increased letter spacing in words, which presumably reduces crowding among letters, would benefit reading for people with central vision loss and (2) to relate our finding to the current account of faulty feature integration of crowding. Fourteen observers with central vision loss read aloud single sentences, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation. Reading speeds were calculated based on the rapid serial visual presentation exposure durations yielding 80% accuracy. Letters were rendered in Courier, a fixed-width font. Observers were tested at 1.4× the critical print size (CPS), three were also tested at 0.8× CPS. Reading speed was measured for five center-to-center letter spacings (range: 0.5-2× the standard spacing). The preferred retinal locus for fixation was determined for nine of the observers, from which we calculated the horizontal dimension of the integration field for crowding. All observers showed increased reading speed with letter spacing for small spacings, until an optimal spacing, beyond which reading speed either showed a plateau, or dropped as letter spacing further increased. The optimal spacing averaged 0.95 ± 0.06× [±95% confidence interval] the standard spacing for 1.4× CPS (similar for 0.8× CPS), which was not different from the standard. When converted to angular size, the measured values of the optimal letter spacing for reading show a good relationship with the calculated horizontal dimension of the integration field. Increased letter spacing beyond the standard size, which presumably reduces crowding among letters in text, does not improve reading speed for people with central vision loss. The optimal letter spacing for reading can be predicted based on the preferred retinal locus.

  14. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  15. Letter to the editor regarding the article “The use of Psychiatric Electroencephalography Evaluations Registry (PEER to personalize pharmacotherapy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina PJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Weina,1 Sanjur Brooks2 1Department of Research Programs, Infectious Diseases Physician, WRNMMC and FBCH, Medicine and Preventive Medicine, USUHS, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Research Programs, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA We read the paper of Iosifescu et al, “The use of Psychiatric Electroencephalography Evaluations Registry (PEER to personalize pharmacotherapy”, with great apprehension. The authors’ description of the study’s limitations was gravely understated. Under the “Study limitations” section, the authors stated “The Walter Reed PEER Trial has certain limitations that should be kept in mind when interpreting the study findings”.1 However, the authors fail to address the study’s regulatory challenges and ethical concerns of the Institutional Review Board (IRB at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC.Authors' reply Dan V Iosifescu,1,2 Robert J Neborsky,3–5 Robert J Valuck6–81NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinical Research, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research Orangeburg, NY, USA; 3School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5Medical Corps, US Navy, USA; 6Pharmacy, Epidemiology, and Family Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 7Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 8Colorado Consortium for Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention, Denver, CO, USA We welcome the opportunity to respond to the letter from Dr Weina and Mr Brooks regarding our paper “The use of the Psychiatric Electroencephalography Evaluation Register (PEER to personalize pharmacotherapy”, published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. We find the description of the events as portrayed in the letter to omit relevant information, and we welcome the

  16. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  17. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... These National Security Letters (NSLs) seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies...

  18. An open letter from a Catholic birth mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolch, M J

    1996-01-01

    This open letter was written in response to a reply from a priest to a woman's initial letter describing her experience in giving up a baby for adoption. The mother described how wrenching the experience remains for her, 10 years after the fact. She became pregnant when she was a 23-year-old, unmarried student. Her strong allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church precluded abortion, so she bore the child and reluctantly gave her up for adoption. The mother condemns the pro-life sentiments that label the assessment she made about her inability to keep her child as "courageous, unselfish, and loving" while condemning as an "excuse" the same process undertaken by women who arrive at a different decision (to abort). During her pregnancy, the mother moved from a strongly pro-life stance to one in which she knew she would never tell another woman what choice to make. The mother noted that the Church agencies working toward adoption pushed mothers to do what is "best" for the child but never addressed the problems which caused the mothers to become pregnant in the first place or the damage to the mother caused by the loss of her child. When the mother became pregnant again soon after her loss, she decided to abort and found that experience one of the most peaceful of her life and one which made her face the problems in her life. While she is not glad she had an abortion, the pain of the abortion was much less than the pain of adoption. The mother tells the priest that there are many devastating experiences connected with child bearing, and that the Church should attempt to reach out to women who have been hurt and need healing. The letter ends by referring to a 17-year-old valedictorian who was banned from speaking at her graduation from a Catholic High School because she had a 16-month-old daughter at home. She was punished for choosing not to abort.

  19. Do students from public schools fare better in medical school than their colleagues from private schools? If so, what can we learn from this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Santos, Cristina; Vieira-Marques, Pedro; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Freitas, Alberto

    2018-03-27

    Internal grade inflation is a documented practice in secondary schools (mostly in private schools) that jeopardises fairness with regard to access to medical school. However, it is frequently assumed that the higher internal grades are in fact justifiable, as they correspond to better preparation of students in private schools in areas that national exams do not cover but nevertheless are important. Consequently, it is expected that students from private schools will succeed better in medical school than their colleagues, or at least not perform worse. We aimed to study whether students from private schools do fare better in medical school than their colleagues from public schools, even after adjusting for internal grade inflation. We analysed all students that entered into a medical course from 2007 to 2014. A linear regression was performed using mean grades for the 1st-year curse units (CU) of the medical school curriculum as a dependent variable and student gender, the nature of students' secondary school (public/private), and whether their secondary school highly inflated grades as independent variables. A logistic regression was also performed, modelling whether or not students failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school as a function of the aforementioned independent variables. Of the 1709 students analysed, 55% came from public secondary schools. Private (vs. public) secondary school (β = - 0.459, p schools highly inflated grades (β = - 0.246, p = 0.003) were independent factors that significantly influenced grades during the first year of medical school. Having attended a private secondary school also significantly increased the odds of a student having failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school (OR = 1.33), even after adjusting for whether or not the secondary school used highly inflated grades. It is important to further discuss what we can learn from the fact that students from public

  20. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  1. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamae, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment.

  2. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  3. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  4. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  5. Refuting feminism: Brazilian lettered culture's complacency/complicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    Full Text Available In appraising the power of antifeminist discourse in Brazil, I examine how this discourse appears in the realm of cultural journalism in order to make some connections to Brazilian social history, in the light of which it may be possible to understand why feminism as transforming praxis seems so alien to the habits of the country. To sustain my arguments I draw on the readings of Brazilian historical and cultural thinkers considered "leftists". At the same time, I point out the limits of their analyses, that is, their silence regarding women's oppression and gender issues. Finally, I examine the persistence of various forms of antifeminism in the lettered milieu so as to understand the statute of feminist critique in the field of literary studies and the reasons for its invisibility, including considerations on its achievements and the limitations of its practices.

  6. Spin polarized tunnelling investigation of nanometre Co clusters by means of a Ni bulk tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastei, M V; Bucher, J P

    2006-01-01

    A massive Ni tip is used in spin polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy (SP STM) to explore the magnetization state of nanometre Co clusters, self-organized on the Au(111) surface. Constant current STM images taken at 4.6 K show a bimodal distribution of the cluster heights, accounting for the spin polarization of the STM junction. The spin polarization of the tunnel junction as a function of the bias voltage is found to depend on the local density of states of the sample examined. Changing the vacuum barrier parameters by bringing the tip closer to the surface leads to a reduction in the tunnelling magnetoresistance that may be attributed to spin flip effects. (letter to the editor)

  7. Dynamics of plasmonic field polarization induced by quantum coherence in quantum dot-metallic nanoshell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S M

    2014-09-01

    When a hybrid system consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle interacts with a laser field, the plasmonic field of the metallic nanoparticle can be normalized by the quantum coherence generated in the quantum dot. In this Letter, we study the states of polarization of such a coherent-plasmonic field and demonstrate how these states can reveal unique aspects of the collective molecular properties of the hybrid system formed via coherent exciton-plasmon coupling. We show that transition between the molecular states of this system can lead to ultrafast polarization dynamics, including sudden reversal of the sense of variations of the plasmonic field and formation of circular and elliptical polarization.

  8. A versatile source of polarization entangled photons for quantum network applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Florian; Issautier, Amandine; Ngah, Lutfi A; Alibart, Olivier; Martin, Anthony; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    We report a versatile and practical approach for the generation of high-quality polarization entanglement in a fully guided-wave fashion. Our setup relies on a high-brilliance type-0 waveguide generator producing paired photons at a telecom wavelength associated with an advanced energy-time to polarization transcriber. The latter is capable of creating any pure polarization entangled state, and allows manipulation of single-photon bandwidths that can be chosen at will over five orders of magnitude, ranging from tens of MHz to several THz. We achieve excellent entanglement fidelities for particular spectral bandwidths, i.e. 25 MHz, 540 MHz and 80 GHz, proving the relevance of our approach. Our scheme stands as an ideal candidate for a wide range of network applications, ranging from dense division multiplexing quantum key distribution to heralded optical quantum memories and repeaters. (letter)

  9. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  10. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  11. EPIC - an electron-polarized ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    As discussed earlier in this workshop, we have been studying at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) for some time the potential of a facility-the Light Ion Spin Synchrotron (LISS)- focusing on reactions induced by polarized nucleons at ∼ 1 to 20 GeV. The technology would extrapolate from what we have learned using our existing Cooler ring using internal polarized targets. Indeed, these techniques are most viable at higher energies where the loss of the stored beam is due to the nuclear reactions which are of interest and not that of multiple Coulomb scattering which dominate in our present energy range. However, while the internal targets are not exactly fixed, they certainly do not contribute to the available energy in the center of momentum frame. Consequently, the energy and momentum which can be effective explored are 6 GeV and 3 GeV/c respectively, about the same range that we expect to explore using electromagnetic probes using the enhanced Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory electron beam. Looking at the structure of hadrons, as we currently understand it, one can divide it into four size scales. The LISS facility would permit studies of the manifestation of the nucleon substructure but generally would not get to scales where one would only have incoherent interactions at the partonic level. Following in a path already trodden by our European colleagues, we have recently started to look at the possibility of adding an electronic collider option to our plans. This would significantly increase the kinematic range, with 25 GeV protons and 4 GeV electrons (one gets over 20 GeV in the center of mass-equivalent to about 200 GeV on a fixed proton target). The accessible range provides coverage up to Q 2 = 20 GeV/ c 2 and down to x ∼ 10 -2 (here x = Q 2 /2Mv, the usual Bjorken scaling variable). As the energy of both beams would be variable, one can cover the whole range between HERMES and CERN/FNAL muon beams. Examples of the range of

  12. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  13. Multiple levels of letter representation in written spelling: evidence from a single case of dysgraphia with multiple deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Partz, Marie-Pierre; Lochy, Aliette; Pillon, Agnesa

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the impaired performance of a dysgraphic individual, AD, who produced similar rates of letter-level errors in written spelling, oral spelling, and typing. We found that the distribution of various letter error types displayed a distinct pattern in written spelling on the one hand and in oral spelling and typing on the other. In particular, noncontextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter does not occur elsewhere within the word) were virtually absent in oral spelling and typing and mainly found in written spelling. In contrast, letter deletion errors and multiple-letter errors were typically found in oral spelling and very exceptional in written spelling. Only contextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter is identical to a letter occurring earlier or later in the word) were found in similar proportions in the three tasks. We argue that these contrasting patterns of letter error distribution result from damage to two distinct levels of letter representation and processing within the spelling system, namely, the amodal graphemic representation held in the graphemic buffer and the letter form representation computed by subsequent writing-specific processes. Then, we examined the relationship between error and target in the letter substitution errors produced in written and oral spelling and found evidence that distinct types of letter representation are processed at each of the hypothetized levels of damage: symbolic letter representation at the graphemic level and representation of the component graphic strokes at the letter form processing level.

  14. Multiple Levels of Letter Representation in Written Spelling: Evidence From a Single Case of Dysgraphia with Multiple Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre de Partz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the impaired performance of a dysgraphic individual, AD, who produced similar rates of letter-level errors in written spelling, oral spelling, and typing. We found that the distribution of various letter error types displayed a distinct pattern in written spelling on the one hand and in oral spelling and typing on the other. In particular, noncontextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter does not occur elsewhere within the word were virtually absent in oral spelling and typing and mainly found in written spelling. In contrast, letter deletion errors and multiple-letter errors were typically found in oral spelling and very exceptional in written spelling. Only contextual letter substitution errors (i.e., errors in which the erroneous letter that replaces the target letter is identical to a letter occurring earlier or later in the word were found in similar proportions in the three tasks. We argue that these contrasting patterns of letter error distribution result from damage to two distinct levels of letter representation and processing within the spelling system, namely, the amodal graphemic representation held in the graphemic buffer and the letter form representation computed by subsequent writing-specific processes. Then, we examined the relationship between error and target in the letter substitution errors produced in written and oral spelling and found evidence that distinct types of letter representation are processed at each of the hypothetized levels of damage: symbolic letter representation at the graphemic level and representation of the component graphic strokes at the letter form processing level.

  15. Commentary on Seppänen and colleagues (2012): Institutionalization of brief alcohol intervention in primary health care-the Finnish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Nick

    2012-08-01

    Despite good evidence for the effectiveness of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful drinking delivered in primary health care, the uptake of such interventions among physicians and other healthcare staff still leaves much to be desired. Seppänen and colleagues (2012) report an evaluation of efforts funded by the Finnish government to "institutionalize" BI among primary care physicians in Finland. The evaluation was based on 2 surveys of Finnish primary healthcare physicians, one conducted in 2002 before the government-funded implementation project had begun and the other in 2007 after it had ended. Major findings were that the proportion of physicians offering BI had increased between the 2 surveys from 59.2 to 78.5% and that, of those who said they offered BI in 2007, 52.4% reported increased activity compared with 5 years earlier. However, in the 2007 survey, regular BI activity was reported by 17.2% of the sample but 61.3% reported only occasional activity. Also, a separate survey of the Finnish general population indicated that the extent to which people are asked by health professionals about their alcohol consumption, and the extent to which heavy drinkers receive advice about it, still appears to be low. Thus, the claim that the institutionalization of BI in the Finnish primary care system has been successful is tentative. The clinical benefits of increased BI activity are unquestionable but it can be argued that, for a public health benefit to occur, a greater proportion of hazardous and harmful drinkers need to receive BI than is suggested in the data reported by Seppänen and colleagues. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  17. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  18. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  19. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  20. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/