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Sample records for poland tightly links

  1. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  2. Double strand break repair: two mechanisms in competition but tightly linked to cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacote, F.

    2002-11-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are highly toxic damage although they can be induced to create genetic diversity. Two distinct pathways can repair DSB: Homologous Recombination (HR) and Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). If un- or mis-repaired, this damage can lead to cancer. Thus, it is essential to investigate how these two pathways are regulated for DSB repair. NHEJ inhibition leads to HR DSB repair stimulation. However, this channeling to HR is tightly linked to cell cycle since NHEJ and HR are active in G1/early S and late S/G2, respectively. Our results suggest that G1-unrepaired DSB go through S phase to be repaired by HR in G2. Those results allow a better understanding of DSB repair mechanisms regulation. (author)

  3. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Iascone

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  5. HLA class I is most tightly linked to levels of tapasin compared with other antigen-processing proteins in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuring, Camilla; Follin, Elna; Geironson, Linda; Freyhult, Eva; Junghans, Victoria; Harndahl, Mikkel; Buus, Søren; Paulsson, Kajsa M

    2015-09-15

    Tumour cells can evade the immune system by dysregulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA-I). Low quantity and/or altered quality of HLA-I cell surface expression is the result of either HLA-I alterations or dysregulations of proteins of the antigen-processing machinery (APM). Tapasin is an APM protein dedicated to the maturation of HLA-I and dysregulation of tapasin has been linked to higher malignancy in several different tumours. We studied the expression of APM components and HLA-I, as well as HLA-I tapasin-dependency profiles in glioblastoma tissues and corresponding cell lines. Tapasin displayed the strongest correlation to HLA-I heavy chain but also clustered with β2-microglobulin, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and LMP. Moreover, tapasin also correlated to survival of glioblastoma patients. Some APM components, for example, TAP1/TAP2 and LMP2/LMP7, showed variable but coordinated expression, whereas ERAP1/ERAP2 displayed an imbalanced expression pattern. Furthermore, analysis of HLA-I profiles revealed variable tapasin dependence of HLA-I allomorphs in glioblastoma patients. Expression of APM proteins is highly variable between glioblastomas. Tapasin stands out as the APM component strongest correlated to HLA-I expression and we proved that HLA-I profiles in glioblastoma patients include tapasin-dependent allomorphs. The level of tapasin was also correlated with patient survival time. Our results support the need for individualisation of immunotherapy protocols.

  6. Tight turns

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has successfully tested the first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet. This is great news for CERN, which sees the advance as holding potential for the future of the SPS.   The first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet being prepared for cryogenic testing at the LASA laboratory (INFN Milano, Italy). On 16 July INFN introduced an innovative dipole magnet. With a length of some 4 metres, it can produce a 4.5 Tesla magnetic field and achieve a tighter bend than ever before (the bending radius has been squeezed to a remarkable 66.7 metres). This new magnet was designed in the first instance for GSI’s SIS300 synchrotron (in Germany), which will require 60 dipoles of this type. "Achieving such a tight bend demanded a major R&D effort," stressed Pasquale Fabbricatore, the spokesman of the INFN collaboration responsible for the magnet’s development. "We had to not o...

  7. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  8. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-10-06

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases' homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  10. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  11. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  12. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  13. Tightly sealed facility of excellent in durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirano, Kenji; Chatani, Michio; Ebe, Shinji; Shimizu, Masatoshi; Seguchi, Tadao; Fukushima, Susumu; Hirata, Masaru; Shiosawa, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    It is found that a cross linked methacryl resin using an appropriate amount of a cross linking monomer also has a useful characteristic of an excellent chemical resistance and excellent γ-ray resistance. Then in the present invention, a cross linked methacryl resin molding product comprising 60 to 98 % by weight of methyl methacrylate units and 2 to 40 % by weight of cross linking monomer units is used as a material for transparent partition walls. A tightly sealed facility having the transparent partition wall materials of excellent radiation resistance in addition to acid resistance can be attained. (T.M.)

  14. The links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krystian Piosik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of the links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland. The research question stems from the previous analysis carried out by the author in which evidence was provided that reporting entities in Poland in the period 2000–2010 effectively used write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory in order to mitigate fluctuations of reported net earnings. This paper provides evidence that before implementing ISA 540 reporting entities used write-offs of receivables and inventory for income smoothing in effective manner, however in the period after implementing the standard (2009–2014 no link was observed between the write-offs and reduced fluctuations of reported net earnings. The research has been carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test used to check equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings before write-offs of receivables and inventory and mean deviations of net earnings after write-offs. For the period before implementing ISA 540 there are grounds to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings, however in the post-adoption period there is no justification to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians. The research provides evidence of positive impact of ISA 540 mitigating the processes of accounting earnings management. The indicated regularity does not apply to banks, because within this group of companies we have not observed the use of write-offs of loan receivables in order to reduce the variability of net earnings before implementing ISA 540 and in the period following the implementation of the standard.

  15. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Less-Tight versus Tight Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magee, Laura A.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Singer, Joel; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K.; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G.; Moutquin, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effects of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications are unclear. METHODS We performed an open, international, multicenter trial involving women at 14 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who had nonproteinuric preexisting or gestational

  17. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  18. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  19. Less-tight versus tight control of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Singer, Joel; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G; Moutquin, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-29

    The effects of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications are unclear. We performed an open, international, multicenter trial involving women at 14 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who had nonproteinuric preexisting or gestational hypertension, office diastolic blood pressure of 90 to 105 mm Hg (or 85 to 105 mm Hg if the woman was taking antihypertensive medications), and a live fetus. Women were randomly assigned to less-tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg) or tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 85 mm Hg). The composite primary outcome was pregnancy loss or high-level neonatal care for more than 48 hours during the first 28 postnatal days. The secondary outcome was serious maternal complications occurring up to 6 weeks post partum or until hospital discharge, whichever was later. Included in the analysis were 987 women; 74.6% had preexisting hypertension. The primary-outcome rates were similar among 493 women assigned to less-tight control and 488 women assigned to tight control (31.4% and 30.7%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.35), as were the rates of serious maternal complications (3.7% and 2.0%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.79 to 3.84), despite a mean diastolic blood pressure that was higher in the less-tight-control group by 4.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 3.7 to 5.4). Severe hypertension (≥160/110 mm Hg) developed in 40.6% of the women in the less-tight-control group and 27.5% of the women in the tight-control group (Phypertension. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CHIPS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN71416914; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01192412.).

  20. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  1. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  2. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  3. Are tight gas resources overstated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2004-11-01

    According to conventional wisdom, North America's tight gas resources are continuous, regional accumulations of water-free methane, trapped in low-permeability rock, and involving very little exploration risk. Backing up conventional wisdom, EnCana Corporation is investing heavily in technology-intensive and capital-intensive tight gas plays in Western Canada and the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. On the other hand, a recent study in the Greater Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming says that tight gas resources have been significantly overestimated, by as much as three to five times too high, and the risks of exploration are every bit as high as those for conventional exploration. This study essentially dismisses the whole idea of tight gas, or basin-centred gas as a myth, the authors being firmly convinced that tight gas formations should be viewed as conventional hydrocarbon systems, with the usual risks of exploration. This paper discusses the controversy created by this recent study and the implications for natural gas reserves on a basin and individual company level, and the risks associated with exploration. The views of EnCana Corporation, being the company most heavily involved in tight gas and coalbed methane, and those of John Masters, co-founder of Canadian Hunter Exploration Ltd., and discoverer of the blockbuster Elsmworth tight gas deposit in northeastern Alberta in the mid-1970s, are explained in considerable detail, in an effort to dismiss the doubters. EnCana officials and Masters argue that the points raised by the authors of the Greater Green River study do not hold water: Tight gas or basin gas is a distinct hydrocarbon formation, characterized by low permeability, therefore it is to be expected that the gas will take longer to come out of the ground. Neither is the role of water in basin-centred gas systems the major problem as claimed by the doubters. They also characterize it as imprudent to claim to know what the

  4. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  5. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  6. Poland reinforces its links with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A collaboration agreement has just been signed with the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics under which a team of Polish physicists, engineers and technicians will come to CERN to assist with the inspection of LHC assembly work.

  7. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  8. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  9. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  10. [Trichinellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Gołab, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still an epidemiological problem in Poland as well as in other countries in the European Union (EU). Across the EU, reporting cases oftrichinellosis is mandatory. In Poland, tirchinellosis is an endemic disease, occurring mainly in territories where it is customary to eat raw meat products prepared from pigs and wild boars. The aim of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in the year 2010 in comparison to previous years. Cases of trichinellosis infections were classified according to criteria contained in the definition approved by the European Committee on 28th April 2008 amending the decision 2002/253/EC, and was introduced in Poland in 2009. Case definitions used in are available at http://www.pzh. gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/inne/Def_PL2_Rob1 h.pdf. An infection was classified and reported as Trichinella spp. if the genus of Trichinella that caused the infection was not specified using molecular examination. In 2010 the number of registered human trichinellosis cases was similar to the average number of cases from the last several years, and it did not exceed 55 (the exceptions were in 2004 and 2007, when larger outbreaks occurred). In 2010, 51 Trichinella infections were registered, yielding an infection rate of 0.13 per 100 000 inhabitants. The infections occurred in 5 voivodeships (table 1). Using the criteria from the definitions, 41 cases were classified as probable and 10 were confirmed cases. Trichinella infections diagnoses were based on the presence of clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link. Serological diagnostic tests confirming the presence of Trichinella antibodies was performed in approximately 20% of the cases. Four individual cases were reported, along with 4 outbreaks in which a total of 47 people were infected? The infections were generally mild. Twenty-two infected persons were hospitalised (43%). Just like in previous years, no trichinellosis-related deaths were reported. The

  11. Tightness of voter model interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 165-174 ISSN 1083-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/1323; GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long range voter model * swapping voter model * interface tightness * exclusion process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2008 http://www.emis.de/journals/EJP-ECP/_ejpecp/index.html

  12. Tight or sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Shanmuganadan, S [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India). Dept. of Geography; Uma, A [Madurai Medical Coll. (India). Dept. of Medicine and Microbiology

    1991-01-01

    Modern buildings are designed with the usual heating, air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. In most of these buildings, air is continuously recirculated and, as a result, workers suffer from tight or sick building syndrome. This syndrome is discussed with reference to symptoms of air contamination, ventilation system standards and research needs. The most common symptoms of tight building syndrome are eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, fatigue, sneezing, difficulty in wearing contact lenses, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness and dermatitis. Symptoms experienced by 50 doctors and 50 paramedical personnel working in an air-conditioned intensive care unit and operating theatres of the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai in India were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. In the present study, respiratory and ocular symptoms were observed more in those working in operating theatres and were believed to be due to excessive use of formaldehyde used for sterilization. Various suggestions were made to prevent sick building syndrome. Moreover, the physicians treating sick individuals should be aware of the symptoms caused by indoor air pollutants as sufferers invariably require a change of environment rather than drugs. (orig.).

  13. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  14. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  15. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  16. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  17. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  18. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.A.

    1987-12-01

    Formaldehyde is but one of many chemicals capable of causing the tight building syndrome or environmentally induced illness (EI). The spectrum of symptoms it may induce includes attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness, arthralgia, unwarranted depression, dysphonia, exhaustion, inability to think clearly, arrhythmia or muscle spasms. The nonspecificity of such symptoms can baffle physicians from many specialties. Presented herein is a simple office method for demonstrating that formaldehyde is among the etiologic agents triggering these symptoms. The very symptoms that patients complain of can be provoked within minutes, and subsequently abolished, with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of formaldehyde. This injection aids in convincing the patient of the cause of the symptoms so he can initiate measure to bring his disease under control.

  1. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  2. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  3. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  4. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  5. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  6. Global Coal Trade. From Tightness to Oversupply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past four years, international coal trade has been reshaped by China's surging imports. China, which was still a net exporter in 2008, became the world's first coal importer in 2011, taking over the position that Japan has occupied for three decades. Its imports have continued their rising trend and reached a record level in 2012, despite the country's economic slowdown. China imported 289 million tons of coal in 2012, up 30% over 2011. It now accounts for 23% of global imports. Although China is the world's largest coal producer, several factors have contributed to the sudden rise in its imports, including the higher cost of domestic coal relative to international prices and bottlenecks in transporting domestic coal to south-eastern provinces. More recently, another event shook the international coal business: the United States have been back on the market. The collapse of U.S. gas prices, to $4/million Btu in 2011 and even $2.75/million Btu in 2012, linked with the 'shale gas revolution', has made coal uncompetitive in the electricity sector, its main outlet on the U.S. market. U.S. coal demand dropped 4% in 2011 and 11% in 2012. The reduction in domestic demand has forced U.S. miners to look for overseas outlets. Their exports surged by 31% in 2011 and 16% in 2012. They reached 112 million tons in 2012, more than twice the level of 2009. The United States, which almost disappeared from the international steam coal market in the 2000's, have regained a larger share of the total coal export market, 9% in 2012, against 6% in 2009. These developments, although not directly linked, have a huge impact on the global market and pricing of coal. Chinese imports have helped the market to quickly recover from its low level of 2008-2009. The speed and magnitude of China's coal imports even shifts the market from a sluggish to a tight situation. Prices started to rise after their collapse in the second half of 2008 caused by the economic and financial crisis

  7. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  8. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  9. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  10. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  11. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  12. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  13. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  14. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  15. Steam and electroheating remediation of tight soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.; Dablow, J.F. III; Pearce, J.A.; Johnson, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    In the past few decades the need for soil remediation has become urgent, even more necessary--innovative, cost effective methods. Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using combination of hydraulic fracturing and soil heating technologies.

  16. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  17. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  18. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  19. Tight connection between fission gas discharge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.; Peehs, M.; Rau, P.; Krug, W.; Stechemesser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the tight connection between the fission gas discharge channel, leading away from the support plate of a gas-cooled reactor, and the top of the fuel element suspended from this support plate. The closure is designed to be gas-tight for the suspended as well as for the released fuel element. The tight connection has got an annular body resting on the core support plate in the mouth region of the fission gas discharge channel. This body is connected with the fission gas discharge channel in the fuel element top fitting via a gas-tight part and supported by a compression spring. Care is taken for sealing if the fuel element is removal. (RW) [de

  20. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  1. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  2. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  3. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  4. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  5. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  6. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  7. Poland's energy, a special case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Poland, the sixth member state in terms of population (39 million inhabitants) and with the eighth largest GDP in the EU, stands out more and more clearly on the environmental front, especially as far as energy is concerned. One of the reasons may be that in terms of GDP/capita Poland comes only 23 out of 27... The only European economy to have grown every year over the last twenty years, it has given higher priority than elsewhere to promoting growth, to production cost reduction and to limiting increases in consumer prices. (author)

  8. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  9. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  10. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  11. An introduction to finite tight frames

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, Shayne F D

    2018-01-01

    This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...

  12. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  13. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  14. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  15. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  16. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  17. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  18. [Measles in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2005-01-01

    In Poland 48 measles cases were registered in 2003 (0.13 per 100,000 population)--of which 65% were cases imported from Chechnya and Afghanistan. Measles outbreaks occurred in 3 centers for immigrants. In total, 31 cases were reported, of which 96.8% were unvaccinated, and 93.5% were under 15 years of age. Of 17 local cases, 5 (29.4%) cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 3 (17.6%) in persons vaccinated with one dose and 7 (41.2%) in those vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). Among 12 vaccinated cases only one 2-year old child was recently vaccinated. The remaining cases were in the 3-7 and 10-24 age ranges. The most affected were infants (incidence 0.57 per 100,000), 1-year old (0.28) and 2-year old children (incidence 0.27). Cases among adolescents and adults over 15 years of age increased from 23.5% in 2002 to 47.1% in 2003. The increasing age of locally-acquired cases, together with constantly high immunization coverage indicates high effectiveness of vaccinations in Poland. Out of all reported cases 13 (38%) were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to measles in Poland in 2003. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic confirmation of one rash-like illness per 100 000 population. The performance of the surveillance system is insufficient with only 55 measles-compatible cases reported in 2003 (15% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 22 cases (40.0%) confirmed by IgM ELISA test. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  19. Multiple cavernous malformations presenting in a patient with Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Salles Antonio AF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Poland syndrome is a congenital disorder related to chest and hand anomalies on one side of the body. Its etiology remains unclear, with an ipsilateral vascular alteration (of unknown origin to the subclavian artery in early embryogenesis being the currently accepted theory. Cavernous malformations are vascular hamartomas, which have been linked to a genetic etiology, particularly in familial cases, which commonly present with multiple lesions. Our case report is the first to describe multiple cavernous malformations associated with Poland syndrome, further supporting the vascular etiology theory, but pointing to a genetic rather than a mechanistic factor disrupting blood flow in the corresponding vessels. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian man with Poland syndrome on the right side of his body presented to our hospital with a secondary generalized seizure and was found to have multiple cavernous malformations distributed in his brain, cerebellum, and brain stem, with a predominance of lesions in the left hemisphere. Conclusion The distribution of cavernous malformations in the left hemisphere and the right-sided Poland syndrome in our patient could not be explained by a mechanistic disruption of one of the subclavian arteries. A genetic alteration, as in familial cavernous malformations, would be a more appropriate etiologic diagnosis of Poland syndrome in our patient. Further genetic and pathological studies of the involved blood vessels in patients with Poland syndrome could lead to a better understanding of the disease.

  20. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  1. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  2. Tight fitting garter springs-MODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Annulus spacers are used in CANDU reactors to maintain the annular gap between two tubes - an inner pressure tube (PT) and the outer calandria tube (CT). Typically four annulus spacers are used in one fuel channel assembly, each at a specified axial position. Bruce Unit 8 and many other CANDU units were constructed with tight-fitting garter springs (TFGS). The TFGS were not designed to be detected or relocated by the conventional tool, Spacer Location And Repositioning (SLAR) processes. Due to non-optimal 'As Left' construction locations for the Bruce Unit 8 TFGS, PT/CT contact has been predicted to occur well prior to its End of Life (EOL). Bruce Power entered a Project with AECL-CRL to design, manufacture and test and implement a new tooling system that would detect and reposition tight fitting annulus spacers. (author)

  3. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  4. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  5. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  6. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century...

  7. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  8. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  9. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  10. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate

  11. Radiation atlas of Poland 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Henschke, J.; Sosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection with support and commitment of the State Inspectorate for Environmental Protection carried out necessary surveys and collected materials which allowed to elaborate present edition of the Radiation Atlas of Poland (1997). Data presented in the form of maps provide readers with the information on the 137 Cs and natural radionuclides concentration in the environment. The average annual doses to the public from various sources of the ionizing radiation, e.g. doses from X-ray apparatus and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics or from the internal contamination of the human organism are also presented in the publication

  12. Engineering production education in e-learning example in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be observed that the modern world which is subjected to a variety of changes, in particular socio-economic and civilizational ones, known commonly as the so called information revolution creates the need for intense search for new, more effective educational models. All the changes are linked to the formation of network society, information society and knowledge-based economy, which are termed differently in science. The paper discusses research conducted among 698 students of Czestochowa University of Technology and Wroclaw University of Technology in Poland. The aim of the following work is to indicate main problem areas and provide solutions to them.

  13. Tight Reference Frame–Independent Quantum Teleportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Verdon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a tight scheme for teleporting a quantum state between two parties whose reference frames are misaligned by an action of a finite symmetry group. Unlike previously proposed schemes, ours requires no additional tokens or data to be passed between the participants; the same amount of classical information is transferred as for ordinary quantum teleportation, and the Hilbert space of the entangled resource is of the same size. In the terminology of Peres and Scudo, our protocol relies on classical communication of unspeakable information.

  14. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  15. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  16. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  17. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  18. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  19. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  20. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  1. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  2. Air charter leisure traffic and organised tourism in Poland: Are charters passé?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from a number of tourism and transport sources are used in this analysis, concentrating on Poland: the largest tour operators and areas in which air carriers are likely to have the greatest impact. The top 25 air charter carriers identified are examined closely in terms of connections, and the geographical characteristics of these links are highlighted. The research reveals substantial differences in models of air leisure traffic between Western Europe and Poland. These are of a quantitative, but also a qualitative nature, and reflect the disparate levels of affluence of societies, different mobility patterns, and various experiences, adventures and demands on the part of travellers. Overall, charter traffic in Poland is still seen to be flourishing, while that in Western Europe is in relative decline.

  3. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins marveld3, tricellulin, and occludin have distinct but overlapping functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, David R; Marchiando, Amanda M; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Le; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Wang, Yingmin; Long, Manyuan; Turner, Jerrold R

    2010-04-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that occludin and tricellulin are important for tight junction barrier function, but in vivo data suggest that loss of these proteins can be overcome. The presence of a heretofore unknown, yet related, protein could explain these observations. Here, we report marvelD3, a novel tight junction protein that, like occludin and tricellulin, contains a conserved four-transmembrane MARVEL (MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link) domain. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction; analysis of RNA and protein tissue distribution; immunofluorescent and electron microscopic examination of subcellular localization; characterization of intracellular trafficking, protein interactions, dynamic behavior, and siRNA knockdown effects; and description of remodeling after in vivo immune activation show that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin have distinct but overlapping functions at the tight junction. Although marvelD3 is able to partially compensate for occludin or tricellulin loss, it cannot fully restore function. We conclude that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin define the tight junction-associated MARVEL protein family. The data further suggest that these proteins are best considered as a group with both redundant and unique contributions to epithelial function and tight junction regulation.

  5. Hybrid corporate governance: a choice for Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Samól, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research investigation is to consider the potential opportunities through which corporate governance may be developed to better suit the developing commercial culture within Poland. In order to do this, I formulate the following research questions: ‘What are the weaknesses of the Polish corporate governance system?’, ‘What changes should be made to corporate governance in Poland?’, and ‘Is a hybrid corporate governance model a choice for Poland?’ The concept of hybridisatio...

  6. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  7. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  8. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  9. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a complex equiangular tight frame composed of N vectors in dimension d , denoted ETF ( d , N ), exists if and only if a certain bistochastic matrix, univocally determined by N and d , belongs to a special class of unistochastic matrices. This connection allows us to find new complex ETFs in infinitely many dimensions and to derive a method to introduce non-trivial free parameters in ETFs. We present an explicit six-parametric family of complex ETF(6,16), which defines a family of symmetric POVMs. Minimal and maximal possible average entanglement of the vectors within this qubit–qutrit family are described. Furthermore, we propose an efficient numerical procedure to compute the unitary matrix underlying a unistochastic matrix, which we apply to find all existing classes of complex ETFs containing up to 20 vectors. (paper)

  10. Evaluation of tight-pitch PWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, F.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1979-08-01

    The impact of tight pinch cores on the consumption of natural uranium ore has been evaluated for two systems of coupled PWR's namely one particular type of thorium system - 235 U/UO 2 : Pu/ThO 2 : 233 U/ThO 2 - and the conventional recycle-mode uranium system - 235 U/UO 2 : Pu/UO 2 . The basic parameter varied was the fuel-to-moderator volume ratio (F/M) of the (uniform) lattice for the last core in each sequence. Although methods and data verification in the range of present interest, 0.5 (current lattices) 1.0, the EPRI-LEOPARD and LASER programs used for the thorium and uranium calculations, respectively, were successfully benchmarked against several of the more pertinent experiments

  11. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2016-03-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameters. This method is applied to a Si quantum well and a Si ultra-thin body transistor oxidized with SiO2 in several oxidation configurations. Comparison with ab-initio results and experiments verifies the presented method. Oxidation configurations that severely hamper the transistor performance are identified. It is also shown that the commonly used implicit H atom passivation overestimates the transistor performance.

  12. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  13. Random walks and polygons in tight confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Ziegler, U

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of confinement on the topology and geometry of tightly confined random walks and polygons. Here the walks and polygons are confined in a sphere of radius R ≥ 1/2 and the polygons are equilateral with n edges of unit length. We illustrate numerically that for a fixed length of random polygons the knotting probability increases to one as the radius decreases to 1/2. We also demonstrate that for random polygons (walks) the curvature increases to πn (π(n – 1)) as the radius approaches 1/2 and that the torsion decreases to ≈ πn/3 (≈ π(n – 1)/3). In addition we show the effect of length and confinement on the average crossing number of a random polygon

  14. Tight gas sand tax credit yields opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.W.; Osburn, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Internal Revenue Service on Apr. 1, 1991, released the inflation adjustments used in the calculations of Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits for 1990. The inflation adjustment, 1.6730, when applied to the base price of $3/bbl of oil equivalent, adjusts the tax credit to $5.019/bbl for oil and 86.53 cents/MMBTU for gas. The conversion factor for equivalent fuels is 5.8 MMBTU/bbl. Unfortunately, the tax credit for tight formation gas continues to be unadjusted for inflation and remains 52 cents/MMBTU. As many producers are aware, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 expanded the dates of eligibility and the usage for-Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits. Among other provisions, eligible wells may be placed in service until Jan. 1, 1992, and once in place may utilize the credit for production through Dec. 31, 2002. Both dates are 2 year extensions from previous regulations

  15. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  16. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  17. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  18. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  19. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  20. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  1. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  2. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  3. Punk and Anarchist Squats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghey, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Squats are of notable importance in the punk scene in Poland, and these spaces are a key aspect of the relationship between anarchism and punk. However, the overlap of squatting, punk, and anarchism is not without its tensions. This article, drawn from ethnographic research carried out between 2013 and 2014, explores the issues around punk and anarchist squats in Poland, looking at: criticisms levelled at punk squats by ‘non-punk’ squatting activists (e.g. Przychodnia in Warsaw); instances of...

  4. Tightness Entropic Uncertainty Relation in Quantum Markovian-Davies Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Liang; Han, Yan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tightness of entropic uncertainty relation in the absence (presence) of the quantum memory which the memory particle being weakly coupled to a decohering Davies-type Markovian environment. The results show that the tightness of the quantum uncertainty relation can be controlled by the energy relaxation time F, the dephasing time G and the rescaled temperature p, the perfect tightness can be arrived by dephasing and energy relaxation satisfying F = 2G and p = 1/2. In addition, the tightness of the memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation and the entropic uncertainty relation can be influenced mainly by the purity. While in memory-assisted model, the purity and quantum correlation can also influence the tightness actively while the quantum entanglement can influence the tightness slightly.

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  6. Improved Density Functional Tight Binding Potentials for Metalloid Aluminum Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unlimited IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS by Joon H. Kim June 2016 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS 5. FUNDING...repulsive potentials for use in density-functional tight binding (DFTB) simulations of low-valence aluminum metalloid clusters . These systems are under

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  8. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  9. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  10. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  11. Digital Rock Studies of Tight Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-07

    This technical report summarizes some recently developed approaches to studies of rock properties at a pore scale. Digital rock approach is complementary to laboratory and field studies. It can be especially helpful in situations where experimental data are uncertain, or are difficult or impossible to obtain. Digitized binary images of the pore geometries of natural rocks obtained by different imaging techniques are the input data. Computer-generated models of natural rocks can be used instead of images in a case where microtomography data are unavailable, or the resolution of the tools is insufficient to adequately characterize the features of interest. Simulations of creeping viscous flow in pores produce estimates of Darcy permeability. Maximal Inscribed Spheres calculations estimate two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. A combination of both produce relative permeability curves. Computer-generated rock models were employed to study two-phase properties of fractured rocks, or tight sands with slit-like pores, too narrow to be characterized with micro-tomography. Various scenarios can simulate different fluid displacement mechanisms, from piston-like drainage to liquid dropout at the dew point. A finite differences discretization of Stokes equation is developed to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. The numerical schemes are capable to handle both no-slip and slippage flows. An upscaling procedure estimates the permeability by subsampling a large data set. Capillary equilibrium and capillary pressure curves are efficiently estimated with the method of maximal inscribed spheres both an arbitrary contact angle. The algorithms can handle gigobytes of data on a desktop workstation. Customized QuickHull algorithms model natural rocks. Capillary pressure curves evaluated from computer-generated images mimic those obtained for microtomography data.

  12. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  13. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  14. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  15. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  16. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  17. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  18. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  19. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  20. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  1. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  2. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    of the building envelope of older buildings despite the fact that the air tightness has a major influence on the energy use. In connection with renovation of the Danish building stock, the coming years will see increased focus on the air tightness of the building envelope like in other countries. This paper...

  3. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated

  4. Dielectric response of molecules in empirical tight-binding theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Vogl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we generalize our previous approach to electromagnetic interactions within empirical tight-binding theory to encompass molecular solids and isolated molecules. In order to guarantee physically meaningful results, we rederive the expressions for relevant observables using commutation relations appropriate to the finite tight-binding Hilbert space. In carrying out this generalization, we examine in detail the consequences of various prescriptions for the position and momentum operators in tight binding. We show that attempting to fit parameters of the momentum matrix directly generally results in a momentum operator which is incompatible with the underlying tight-binding model, while adding extra position parameters results in numerous difficulties, including the loss of gauge invariance. We have applied our scheme, which we term the Peierls-coupling tight-binding method, to the optical dielectric function of the molecular solid PPP, showing that this approach successfully predicts its known optical properties even in the limit of isolated molecules.

  5. POLAND AND TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY - AN ENDURING ATLANTICIST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Longhurst

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990’s Poland pursued a security policy steered by Atlanticism and a close bond with the United States. Atlanticism shaped Warsaw’s choices on all key security issues during the past decade, but became particularly apparent after 9/11 when Poland lent its full support to the US-led war on terror. Whilst membership in the EU will affect the priorities and conduct of Polish security policy, it is argued here that the deep-seated nature of Atlanticism in Polish strategic culture , together with the broader implications of enlargement upon the EU’s foreign policy ambitions will ensure that Poland will remain a keen Atlanticist in the New Europe.

  6. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  7. History of pediatric neurology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz

    2010-02-01

    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  8. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  9. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  11. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  12. [Poland: cholera to typhus, 1831-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska, M A

    1999-12-01

    In this article devoted to Poland's direct and indirect role in the elaboration of contemporary international health structures and to her reputation as an epidemic reservoir of Europe, we consider how Poland came to be perceived as the cordon sanitaire of the West. Traditionally seen as upholding Western values, in the 19th and 20th centuries the country became increasingly associated with "Eastern plagues"-cholera and then typhus-coming from Russia and which could spread to the rest of Europe if Poland did not manage to contain them. When Poland was reconstituted as a nation-state in 1918, the new country won international recognition through her successful attempts to contain a typhus epidemic sweeping westwards from Russia. The Polish government convened the first European, League sponsored, health conference following the First World War. A Polish doctor, L. RAJCHMAN, was chosen to head up the League of Nations Health Organisation (forerunner of the WHO) and later (1946) founded UNICEF. Finally, we examine the key issue of exanthematous typhus in both world wars, exemplifying how a disease can come to be "ideologized", in this case by Nazi Germany. Typhus was the pretext used- in the name of "public health"-for segregating Polish citizens of Jewish origin and even killing them. Paradoxically, typhus was in the process of being eradicated when the war began and German policy of mass resettlements, sequestration, and starvation only spurred the epidemic they supposedly wished to control.

  13. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  15. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  16. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  17. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  18. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  19. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  20. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  1. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  2. Museums in Cultural Tourism in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowiak, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the museums, their potential and their significance for cultural tourism in Poland. Its aims are achieved through a presentation of registered national museums, ‘monuments of history’, museum buildings and the cultural activities undertaken by these institutions

  3. Assessment of atmosphere degradation step in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents characterization of the state of air pollution in Poland. It describes the size of emission and the size of concentration of dust and SO 2 and NO x pollution. It compares ascertained size of pollution the permissible concentration. It calls special attention to spatial differentiation of state of air pollution. (author). 26 refs

  4. On tight multiparty Bell inequalities for many settings

    OpenAIRE

    Zukowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    A derivation method is given which leads to a series of tight Bell inequalities for experiments involving N parties, with binary observables, and three possible local settings. The approach can be generalized to more settings. Ramifications are presented.

  5. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  6. Hamstring tightness and Scheuermann's disease a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W; Baigent, M L

    1981-06-01

    The lateral radiographs of the dorsal spines of 20 patients presenting with mainly low back pain are studied. These patients had clinically evident loss of flexion in the low dorsal spine and very tight hamstring muscles. 85% of them showed definite evidence of previous Scheuermann's Disease. The possibility that tight hamstrings may be an important factor in the aetiology of this disease is discussed, and a further large scale study is proposed.

  7. Contraption and Prediction of Exhalation Tight Brownstone in Exhalation Cistern

    OpenAIRE

    XhingZhiwang, -; Xuchao, -

    2012-01-01

    The reservoir connate water saturation is high and gas wells generally produce water which seriously affects the productivity of gas wells in Xujiahe tight sandstone gas reservoirs in Sichuan Basin. Take the sixth formation for example, there are 39 wells producing water unequally in the 42 commissioning wells, and the excessive water production leads to the production of the gas well declining rapidly. Studying of the mechanism of water production in tight sandstone gas reservoirs and predic...

  8. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kojima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions.

  9. Well test mathematical model for fractures network in tight oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwu, Pengxiang; Liu, Tongjing; Jiang, Baoyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Peidie; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Zhaoming

    2018-02-01

    Well test, especially build-up test, has been applied widely in the development of tight oil reservoirs, since it is the only available low cost way to directly quantify flow ability and formation heterogeneity parameters. However, because of the fractures network near wellbore, generated from artificial fracturing linking up natural factures, traditional infinite and finite conductivity fracture models usually result in significantly deviation in field application. In this work, considering the random distribution of natural fractures, physical model of fractures network is proposed, and it shows a composite model feature in the large scale. Consequently, a nonhomogeneous composite mathematical model is established with threshold pressure gradient. To solve this model semi-analytically, we proposed a solution approach including Laplace transform and virtual argument Bessel function, and this method is verified by comparing with existing analytical solution. The matching data of typical type curves generated from semi-analytical solution indicates that the proposed physical and mathematical model can describe the type curves characteristic in typical tight oil reservoirs, which have up warping in late-term rather than parallel lines with slope 1/2 or 1/4. It means the composite model could be used into pressure interpretation of artificial fracturing wells in tight oil reservoir.

  10. Simple and tight monogamy relations for a class of Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Physical principles constrain the way nonlocal correlations can be distributed among distant parties in a Bell-type experiment. These constraints are usually expressed by monogamy relations that bound the amount of Bell inequality violation observed by a set of parties by the violation observed by a different set of parties. Here we show that the no-signaling principle yields simple and tight monogamy relations for an important class of bipartite and multipartite Bell inequalities. We also link these trade-offs to the guessing probability—a key quantity in device-independent information processing.

  11. PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELZER, A

    1965-04-01

    In the past few years medical education in Poland has undergone considerable change, particularly at the graduate and postgraduate levels, and has shown increasing Western influences. On the negative side, a physician who was trained in pre-war Poland and is now in the United States, noted mass production of physicians with modest clinical facilities and the preponderance of didactic lecturing over semi-individual instruction-conditions rather characteristic of most European medical schools. On the positive side were well-informed, up-to-date faculties and the thoughtful planning and organization of graduate and postgraduate medical education. The overall impression was a favorable one, but the system of schooling and of evaluation of students' work made it possible for indifferent students to progress to licensure.

  12. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  13. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  14. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  15. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  16. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  17. Development of Social Building Societies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a genesis of Social Building Societies in Poland starting from National Housing Fund through Workers Housing Estates Society in 1934.1939, announcement of cheap building system in New Housing Order in 1993 to Barbara Blida's and Irena Herbst's legislative initiative leading to establish Social Building Societies in 1995. According to International Permanent Social Building Committee social housing consists in supply houses with fixed minimum standard of comfort and equip...

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  19. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  20. Multicultural Leadership Strategies : case: Company X, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Khanh Ye Le, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying multicultural leadership strategies which are used by the team leaders in Company X, Poland. Furthermore, this thesis examines how these strategies are implemented in daily management to prevent cultural conflicts. The study used deductive approach with the assistance of qualitative research method. Secondary data was collected from reliable books, articles and Internet while primary data was collected through observations and interviews. The literature f...

  1. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  2. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  3. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders.

  4. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  5. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  6. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  7. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  8. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  9. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  10. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  11. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  12. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  13. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  15. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  16. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  17. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  18. Experimental study on reflooding in advanced tight lattice PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, K.; Kodama, J.; Teramae, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is related to the experimental study on the feasibility of core cooling by re-flooding in a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for the advanced tight lattice pressurized water reactor (PWR). The tight lattice core design should be adopted to improve the conversion ratio. Major one of the key questions of such tight lattice core is the cooling capability under the re-flood condition in a large break LOCA. Forced feed bottom re-flooding experiments have been performed by use of a 4x4 triangular array rod bundle. The rod gap is 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, or 1.5 mm. The measured peak temperature is below around 1273 K even in case of 1.0/0.5 mm rod gap. And, the evaluation based on the experimental results of rod temperatures and core pressure drop also shows that the core cooling under re-flooding condition is feasible. (author)

  19. Numerical simulation of flow behavior in tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqi; Yang Yanhua; Gu Hanyang; Cheng Xu; Song Xiaoming; Wang Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical investigation is performed on the air turbulent flow in triangular rod bundle array. Based on the experimental data, the eddy viscosity turbulent model and the Reynold stress turbulent model are evaluated to simulate the flow behavior in the tight lattice. The results show that SSG Reynolds Stress Model has shown superior predictive performance than other Reynolds-stress models, which indicates that the simulation of the anisotropy of the turbulence is significant in the tight lattice. The result with different Reynolds number and geometry shows that the magnitude of the secondary flow is almost independent of the Reynolds number, but it increases with the decrease of the P/D. (authors)

  20. How Tightly Linked Are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae Patches to Anthropogenic Disturbances in Southeastern Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bourland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While most past studies have emphasized the relationships between specific forest stands and edaphic factors, recent observations in Central African moist forests suggested that an increase of slash-and-burn agriculture since 3000–2000 BP (Before Present could be the main driver of the persistence of light-demanding tree species. In order to examine anthropogenic factors in the persistence of such populations, our study focused on Pericopsis elata, an endangered clustered timber species. We used a multidisciplinary approach comprised of botanical, anthracological and archaeobotanical investigations to compare P. elata patches with surrounding stands of mixed forest vegetation (“out-zones”. Charcoal samples were found in both zones, but were significantly more abundant in the soils of patches. Eleven groups of taxa were identified from the charcoals, most of them also present in the current vegetation. Potsherds were detected only inside P. elata patches and at different soil depths, suggesting a long human presence from at least 2150 to 195 BP, as revealed by our charcoal radiocarbon dating. We conclude that current P. elata patches most likely result from shifting cultivation that occurred ca. two centuries ago. The implications of our findings for the dynamics and management of light-demanding tree species are discussed.

  1. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A.; Nyberg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose...

  2. PPARγ ligand production is tightly linked to clonal expansion during initiation of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenborg, Philip; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Feddersen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    of differentiation. Concomitant with agonist production, murine fibroblasts undergo two rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in either of two cell cycle inhibitors, the transcription factor p53 or its target gene encoding the cyclin...... cycle inhibitory compounds decreased PPAR ligand production in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, these inhibitors abolished the release of arachidonic acid induced by the hormonal cocktail initiating adipogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that murine fibroblasts require clonal...... expansion for PPAR ligand production at the onset of adipocyte differentiation....

  3. Polymorphism patterns in two tightly linked developmental genes, Idgf1 and Idgf3, of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žurovcová, Martina; Ayala, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 162, - (2002), s. 177-188 ISSN 0016-6731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.483, year: 2002

  4. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Poland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    the development of the nuclear power programme; and PAA's proactive approach to coordination with Poland's Office of Technical Inspection. The IRRS team made several recommendations and suggestions for PAA as it grows in the next few years, facing challenges and increasing demands as its nuclear power programme expands. To position PAA to address its growth, additional responsibilities, and the retirement of many senior managers, and to maintain its strong focus on safety for currently regulated facilities and activities, the IRRS team advised PAA to: Establish and frequently review that there is a clear link between PAA's organizational goals and objectives, and resource planning, such as staffing and strategies for external support; Consider strengthening and documenting PAA's management system; and Develop and strengthen internal guidance to document authorization processes, review, assessment and inspection procedures. In its preliminary report, the IAEA team's main conclusions have been conveyed to PAA. A final report will be submitted to the Government of Poland in about three months. PAA has informed the team that the final report will be made publicly available. The IAEA encourages nations to invite a follow-up IRRS mission about two years after the mission has been completed. Background The team reviewed the legal and regulatory framework for nuclear safety and addressed all facilities regulated by PAA. This was the 46th IRRS mission conducted by the IAEA. About IRRS Missions IRRS missions are designed to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of the national nuclear regulatory infrastructure of States, while recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety in this area. This is done through consideration of regulatory, technical and policy issues, with comparisons against IAEA safety standards and, where appropriate, good practices elsewhere. (IAEA)

  5. Tight Temporal Bounds for Dataflow Applications Mapped onto Shared Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Ara, H.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Behrouzian, A.R.B.; Hendriks, M.; Goswami, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis method that provides tight temporal bounds for applications modeled by Synchronous Dataflow Graphs and mapped to shared resources. We consider the resource sharing effects on the temporal behaviour of the application by embedding worst case resource availability curves in the

  6. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  7. Management of Small Urethrocutaneous Fistula by Tight Ligation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After identifying the fistulous opening, the fistula tract was circumferentially and meticulously dissected ,then the dissected tract was lifted up and the base was ligated tightly with 5/0 vicryl, the external epithelium of the dissected tract was fulgurated with the diathermy, then a second layer of local soft tissue was secured over ...

  8. A characterization of tight and dual generalized translation invariant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    such systems form tight frames, and when two GTI Bessel systems form dual frames for L2(G). In particular, this offers a unified approach to the theory of discrete and continuous frames and, e.g., yields well known results for discrete and continuous Gabor and wavelet systems....

  9. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  10. Local thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight 7-rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Yu, Y.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced water-cooled reactor concepts with tight lattices have been proposed worldwide to improve the fuel utilization and the economic competitiveness. In the present work, experimental investigations were performed on thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight hexagonal 7-rod bundles under both single-phase and two-phase conditions. Freon-12 was used as working fluid due to its convenient operating parameters. Tests were carried out under both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. Rod surface temperatures are measured at a fixed axial elevation and in various circumferential positions. Test data with different radial power distributions are analyzed. Measured surface temperatures of unheated rods are used for the assessment of and comparison with numerical codes. In addition, numerical simulation using sub-channel analysis code MATRA and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS-10 is carried out to understand the experimental data and to assess the validity of these codes in the prediction of flow and heat transfer behaviour in tight rod bundle geometries. Numerical results are compared with experimental data. A good agreement between the measured temperatures on the unheated rod surface and the CFD calculation is obtained. Both sub-channel analysis and CFD calculation indicates that the turbulent mixing in the tight rod bundle is significantly stronger than that computed with a well established correlation.

  11. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  12. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sivabrata Sahu

    Corresponding author. E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in. Published online 24 June 2017. Abstract. We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest- neighbour electron hopping ...

  13. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-24

    Jun 24, 2017 ... We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest neighbour electron hopping interactions besides doping and substrate-induced effects on graphene.

  14. Loosen up? Cultural tightness and national entrepreneurial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    The level of entrepreneurship between countries differs consistently. A source of this variance lies in national culture differences. Recently, the cultural dimension “tightness” has been introduced in the literature. Tightness refers to the degree to which a nation has strong norms and a low

  15. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a

  16. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  17. A new record of Typha shuttleworthii (Typhaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobis Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new locality of Typha shuttleworthii W.D.J. Koch & Sond. in Poland. The species was found in wet roadside ditch in Kryg village near Gorlice (ATPOL grid square EG09. The distribution map of the species in Poland is provided.

  18. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  19. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  20. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  1. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  2. Unconventional Tight Reservoirs Characterization with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C. J. S.; Solatpour, R.; Kantzas, A.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in tight reservoir exploitation projects causes producing many papers each year on new, modern, and modified methods and techniques on estimating characteristics of these reservoirs. The most ambiguous of all basic reservoir property estimations deals with permeability. One of the logging methods that is advertised to predict permeability but is always met by skepticism is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The ability of NMR to differentiate between bound and movable fluids and providing porosity increased the capability of NMR as a permeability prediction technique. This leads to a multitude of publications and the motivation of a review paper on this subject by Babadagli et al. (2002). The first part of this presentation is dedicated to an extensive review of the existing correlation models for NMR based estimates of tight reservoir permeability to update this topic. On the second part, the collected literature information is used to analyze new experimental data. The data are collected from tight reservoirs from Canada, the Middle East, and China. A case study is created to apply NMR measurement in the prediction of reservoir characterization parameters such as porosity, permeability, cut-offs, irreducible saturations etc. Moreover, permeability correlations are utilized to predict permeability. NMR experiments were conducted on water saturated cores. NMR T2 relaxation times were measured. NMR porosity, the geometric mean relaxation time (T2gm), Irreducible Bulk Volume (BVI), and Movable Bulk Volume (BVM) were calculated. The correlation coefficients were computed based on multiple regression analysis. Results are cross plots of NMR permeability versus the independently measured Klinkenberg corrected permeability. More complicated equations are discussed. Error analysis of models is presented and compared. This presentation is beneficial in understanding existing tight reservoir permeability models. The results can be used as a guide for choosing

  3. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  4. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  5. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  6. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  7. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  8. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  9. Market of venison meat in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  10. Physicians and abortion: provision, political participation and conflicts on the ground--the cases of Brazil and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia; Mishtal, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative studies have been conducted between 2002 and 2009 in Poland and Brazil, two different geopolitical settings in which the Catholic Church has had a significant political influence and where abortion is highly restricted. In both countries, struggles for abortion rights have played an important role in challenging the current restrictive policies and bringing attention to the plight of women unable to obtain abortions. This article examines the political role that physicians play in these contestations, drawing on some findings of two larger qualitative studies. In Poland semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 physicians in Warsaw and Krakow and with 55 women aged 18 to 45 in Gdańsk. In Brazil questionnaires were administered and semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 obstetrician-gynecologists and 23 health professionals in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador da Bahia. This article argues that gynecologists' perspectives and practices not only reflect or heed religious precepts on reproductive rights, but are also deeply influenced by inadequate medical training and by the fear of being prosecuted or stigmatized, especially in Brazil. The political non-engagement of physicians in Poland is driven by the lack of abortion rights discourse in the public arena, poor links with women's rights groups, and the lack of political unity within the medical community. Comparisons between Brazil and Poland ultimately suggest that strong liaisons between physicians and the feminist movement influence physicians' attitudes and political engagement and are most promising in abortion rights advocacy efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  12. National parks and local development in Poland: A municipal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Zawilińska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressing the problem of local authorities seeing in national parks a stimulus or a barrier for local development in Poland. The results of surveys conducted among representatives of authorities of selected municipalities (n=61, in which there are national park areas show that the assessment of the role and impact of this type of protected areas varies. In most cases the presence of national parks is viewed positively. Emphasis is put on their importance to the local socio-economic development. The economic benefit is seen mainly in the tourism sector and the development of associated services. However, local communities experience many restrictions resulting from functioning of protected areas, especially in regard to the possibility of increasing revenues to the budgets of municipalities, production entrepreneurship development and intensification of agricultural production and fisheries. It is believed that in the future parks should stimulate local development to a larger extent. To achieve this, it is necessary to see a national park as a system linked to the socio-economic environment and to take planning actions based on a holistic look at natural, social and economic issues of a national park and its neighbourhood. The cooperation between local authorities, parks’ management, non-governmental organisations and local tourism business should be strengthened as well as steps should be taken in order to increase social participation in shaping the development of these areas.

  13. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland (Polish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  14. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  15. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  16. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  17. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  18. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  19. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  20. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  1. Empirical tight-binding parameters for solid C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Kumar, V.

    1993-01-01

    We present a tight-binding model for the electronic structure of C 60 using four (1s and 3p) orbitals per carbon atom. The model has been developed by fitting the tight-binding parameters to the ab-initio pseudopotential calculation of Troullier and Martins (Phys. Rev. B46, 1754 (1992)) in the face-centered cubic (Fm3-bar) phase. Following this, calculations of the energy bands and the density of electronic states have been carried out as a function of the lattice constant. Good agreement has been obtained with the observed lattice-constant dependence of T c using McMillan's formula. Furthermore, calculations of the electronic structure are presented in the simple cubic (Pa3-bar) phase. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kureta, Masatoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi

    2002-01-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Tight multilattices calculated by extended-cell cylindrization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segev, M; Carmona, S

    1983-01-01

    Among the common features of advanced LWR concepts are the tightness of lattices and the symbiotic setting of different fuels. Such symbioses often come in the form of multilattices, whose numerically-repeated unit is a configuration of several pins, typically with one pin type at the center and pins of a second type surrounding the center pin. If this extended-cell (EC) unit is cylindricized, then a simple transport calculation of the unit will be possible. If the lattice of such units is tight, there is further an a priori reason to expect the cylindrization to introduce only a small distortion of the true neutron fluxes in the lattice. A strict numerical validation of the EC cylindrization approximation is impractical, but similar validations can be carried out for regular lattices, viewed as being made up of multicell units whose centers are moderators and whose peripheries are fuel pins. In these comparisons the EC cylindrization approximation gives good results.

  5. Tight Network Topology Dependent Bounds on Rounds of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Langberg, Michael; Li, Shi; Rudra, Atri

    2016-01-01

    We prove tight network topology dependent bounds on the round complexity of computing well studied $k$-party functions such as set disjointness and element distinctness. Unlike the usual case in the CONGEST model in distributed computing, we fix the function and then vary the underlying network topology. This complements the recent such results on total communication that have received some attention. We also present some applications to distributed graph computation problems. Our main contri...

  6. Integral tightness measurements at the Paks-1 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubner, R.; Techy, Z. (Villamosenergiaipari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-01-01

    The containment system experiments of the Paks-1 nuclear reactor are described. The integrated tightness measurements of the hermetic system were completed in 1982. The principles and methods and the evaluation of the results of the measurements are discussed. Some features of the filtration characteristics are demonstrated using relative values and a method enabling the description of the physical contents of the characteristics by flow technical functions is outlined.

  7. Quantum tight-binding chains with dissipative coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogilevtsev, D; Slepyan, G Ya; Garusov, E; Kilin, S Ya; Korolkova, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional tight-binding chain of two-level systems coupled only through common dissipative Markovian reservoirs. This quantum chain can demonstrate anomalous thermodynamic behavior contradicting Fourier law. Population dynamics of individual systems of the chain is polynomial with the order determined by the initial state of the chain. The chain can simulate classically hard problems, such as multi-dimensional random walks. (paper)

  8. Thermography Control of Heat Insulation and Tightness of Buildings,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    construction. The method is pedagogical . Results from thermography studies are suitable for use when giving experience feedback. (Excellent complement...visual inspection Instrument Various tools and measures. Principle The construction is opened, and the workmanship of insulation and tight- ness is...most IR cameras. At -196 C (77K) it is sensitive within the wavelength range 0 - 5.6 jam. The lower - 24 - FIGURE 3: Photography with IR camera, AGA

  9. Tightly localized stationary pulses in a multilevel atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong-Jun; Oh, C. H.; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Kwek, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the pulse matching phenomenon can be obtained in the general multilevel system with electromagnetically induced transparency. For this we find a different way to create tightly localized stationary pulses by using counterpropagating pump fields. The present process is a spatial compression of excitation so that it allows us to shape and further intensify the localized stationary pulses, without using standing waves of pump fields or spatially modulated pump fields

  10. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. → It altered Ca 2+ distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. → Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca 2+ gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca 2+ distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca 2+ gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca 2+ gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca 2+ flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca 2+ gradient.

  11. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  12. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  13. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  14. New and rare species of anamorphic fungi for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of and disease symptoms caused by five fungal species parasitizing on plants of the Słowiński National Park and the Drawieński National Park (both located in north-western Poland are presented. Of the species, Ramularia celastri and Ascochyta irpina are new for Poland, and Ascochyta geraniicola, Phyllosticta caricis and Septoriella junci have earlier rarely been found in this country. Moreover, the latter three fungi were found on plants so far not reported in the literature to be their hosts. Finally, the known distribution of the fungi characterized in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented.

  15. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  16. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  17. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  18. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  19. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  20. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Poland poddavalsya inventory changes. His origins are taking beginning in late and early vosemnadtsatoho devyatnadtsatoho century, when Polish state zahvatchyky sozdaly The first kadastrovыe otchetы. Austria, Prussia and Russia sozdalytry kadastrovыe system, three yspolzuyuschye system recovery country yzmerenyya.Vo TIME 1918 - 1939 Manuscript kadastrovыe bыly oriented work on the creation edynoy nalohovoy system for vsey territory of the country. After the war bыly zavershenы work. Modernization of the cadastre prodolzhalas in the direction Increase the accuracy and quality of data. At present Time Inventory Accounting vkljuchaet buildings, premises and plots zemelnыh, as well tesno svjazana with zemelnыm registers / ypotekoy. Information, soderzhaschayasya in Nam, everybody yspolzuetsya participants in the control nedvyzhymostyu (surveyors, otsenschykamy, brokers and upravlyayuschymy nedvyzhymostyu, courts and admynystratyvnыmy authorities zanymayuschyhsya territorial-prostranstvennыm Planning. Polskoy origins cadastral area. The first records of kadastrovыh measurement bыly sdelanы 4.5 million. Years ago. Poland was once zaklyuchalas Business surveyor in oblahorazhyvanyy. At the end trynadtsatoho century bыla Created rank post of High - korolevskyy podkamernыy, tasks kotorogo All selskohozyaystvennыe and lesnыe uhodya bыly ohvachenы oblastyu pochvovedenyya, classification of land osushchestvljaetsja edynoobrazno for vsey country on grounds ofytsyalnoy classes tablytsы land. THIS classification talk at kachestve and soil fertility. Class is determined on a 6-point scale (8 to pahotnыh land. This allows us to Compare Quality of land in any point of the country. By law dolzhna bыt yspolzovana in the Economic Planning and spatial statistics population in sudebnom and administrative razbyratelstve. All ofysы ymeyut access for cadastre data bases online free. Chastnyya Faces and company mogut Require info sobstvennoy REAL

  1. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  2. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  3. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  4. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lazarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  5. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  6. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  7. Mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliusz Unrug

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana from natural sites and those contaminated by heavy metals (Niepołomice Forest, both on lowlands and mountainous areas in Poland, was carried out. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum-type was higher in ferns growing on tree stumps than in specimens developing directly on the soil. Additionally, an increase in mycorrhiza intensity and arbuscular richness with the rising ground humidity was observed. In comparison to natural sites, mycorrhizas from the areas contaminated by heavy metals were much less developed and the roots were often infected by parasites. Two morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi have been described The most common was a fine endophyte (Glomales.

  8. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  9. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  10. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  11. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  12. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  13. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  14. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  15. Flow and Transport in Tight and Shale Formations: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2017-09-18

    A review on the recent advances of the flow and transport phenomena in tight and shale formations is presented in this work. Exploration of oil and gas in resources that were once considered inaccessible opened the door to highlight interesting phenomena that require attention and understanding. The length scales associated with transport phenomena in tight and shale formations are rich. From nanoscale phenomena to field-scale applications, a unified frame that is able to encounter the varieties of phenomena associated with each scale may not be possible. Each scale has its own tools and limitations that may not, probably, be suitable at other scales. Multiscale algorithms that effectively couple simulations among various scales of porous media are therefore important. In this article, a review of the different length scales and the tools associated with each scale is introduced. Highlights on the different phenomena pertinent to each scale are summarized. Furthermore, the governing equations describing flow and transport phenomena at different scales are investigated. In addition, methods to solve these equations using numerical techniques are introduced. Cross-scale analysis and derivation of linear and nonlinear Darcy\\'s scale laws from pore-scale governing equations are described. Phenomena occurring at molecular scales and their thermodynamics are discussed. Flow slippage at the nanosize pores and its upscaling to Darcy\\'s scale are highlighted. Pore network models are discussed as a viable tool to estimate macroscopic parameters that are otherwise difficult to measure. Then, the environmental aspects associated with the different technologies used in stimulating the gas stored in tight and shale formations are briefly discussed.

  16. Flow and Transport in Tight and Shale Formations: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El-Amin, Mohamed; Kumar, Kundan; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    A review on the recent advances of the flow and transport phenomena in tight and shale formations is presented in this work. Exploration of oil and gas in resources that were once considered inaccessible opened the door to highlight interesting phenomena that require attention and understanding. The length scales associated with transport phenomena in tight and shale formations are rich. From nanoscale phenomena to field-scale applications, a unified frame that is able to encounter the varieties of phenomena associated with each scale may not be possible. Each scale has its own tools and limitations that may not, probably, be suitable at other scales. Multiscale algorithms that effectively couple simulations among various scales of porous media are therefore important. In this article, a review of the different length scales and the tools associated with each scale is introduced. Highlights on the different phenomena pertinent to each scale are summarized. Furthermore, the governing equations describing flow and transport phenomena at different scales are investigated. In addition, methods to solve these equations using numerical techniques are introduced. Cross-scale analysis and derivation of linear and nonlinear Darcy's scale laws from pore-scale governing equations are described. Phenomena occurring at molecular scales and their thermodynamics are discussed. Flow slippage at the nanosize pores and its upscaling to Darcy's scale are highlighted. Pore network models are discussed as a viable tool to estimate macroscopic parameters that are otherwise difficult to measure. Then, the environmental aspects associated with the different technologies used in stimulating the gas stored in tight and shale formations are briefly discussed.

  17. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. ► Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. ► Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. ► Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood–heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs–Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC enhanced the translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. In conclusion, TJs occur in

  18. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L

    2016-01-01

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or "leaky" intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented perme...

  19. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  20. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  1. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  2. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  3. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  4. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  5. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  6. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  7. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  8. Tight focusing of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Tight focusing properties of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) are studied numerically. The light field expressions for the focused fields are derived based on vectorial Debye theory. We also study the relationship between focal profiles, such as light intensity distribution, radius of focal spot and focal length, and the parameters of CAVB. Numerical results demonstrate that we can generate a radially polarized CAVB with super-long focal length, super-strong longitudinal intensity or subwavelength focused spot at the focal plane by properly choosing the parameters of incident light and high numerical aperture (NA) lens. These results have potential applications for optical trapping, optical storage and particle acceleration.

  9. Tight-Binding Parametrization for Photonic Band Gap Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidorikis, E.; Sigalas, M.M.; Soukoulis, C.M.; Economou, E.N.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The idea of the linear combination of atomic orbitals method, well known from the study of electrons, is extended to the classical wave case. The Mie resonances of the isolated scatterer in the classical wave case are analogous to the atomic orbitals in the electronic case. The matrix elements of the two-dimensional tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian are obtained by fitting to ab initio results. The transferability of the TB model is tested by reproducing accurately the band structure of different 2D lattices, with and without defects, and at two different dielectric contrasts. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Tight Bound on Randomness for Violating the CHSH Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Yifeng; Yang, Shenghao; Wang, Siwei; Zhao, Mingfei

    2015-01-01

    Free will (or randomness) has been studied to achieve loophole-free Bell's inequality test and to provide device-independent quantum key distribution security proofs. The required randomness such that a local hidden variable model (LHVM) can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality has been studied, but a tight bound has not been proved for a practical case that i) the device settings of the two parties in the Bell test are independent; and ii) the device settings of each part...

  11. Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin

    2013-06-28

    It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.

  12. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-06-27

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  13. Containment leak-tightness enhancement at VVER 440 NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandorfy, M.

    2001-01-01

    The hermetic compartments of VVER 440 NPPs fulfil the function of the containment used at NPPs all over the word. The purpose of the containment is to protect the NPP personal against radioactive impact as well as to prevent radioactive leakage to the environment during a lost of coolant accident. Leak-tightness enhancement in NPPs with VVER 440/213 and VVER 440/230 reactors is an important safety issue. New procedures, measures and methods were adopted at NPPs in Mochovce, J. Bohunice, Dukovany and Paks for leak identification and sealing works performed by VUEZ Levice. (authors)

  14. Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with superconducting TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Tobita, K.; Konishi, S.; Ando, T.; Hiroki, S.; Kuroda, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Azumi, M.; Nagata, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coils has been proposed. A center solenoid coil system and an inboard blanket were discarded. The key point was how to find the engineering design solution of the TF coil system with the high field and high current density. The coil system with the center post radius of less than 1 m can generate the maximum field of ∼ 20 T. This coil system causes a compact reactor concept, where the plasma major and minor radii of 3.75 m and 1.9 m, respectively and the fusion power of 1.8 GW. (author)

  15. OLIFE: Tight Binding Code for Transmission Coefficient Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijbil, Zainelabideen Yousif

    2018-05-01

    A new and human friendly transport calculation code has been developed. It requires a simple tight binding Hamiltonian as the only input file and uses a convenient graphical user interface to control calculations. The effect of magnetic field on junction has also been included. Furthermore the transmission coefficient can be calculated between any two points on the scatterer which ensures high flexibility to check the system. Therefore Olife can highly be recommended as an essential tool for pretesting studying and teaching electron transport in molecular devices that saves a lot of time and effort.

  16. Containment leak-tightness enhancement at VVER 440 NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandorfy, M.

    2000-01-01

    The hermetic compartments of WWER 440 NPPs fulfil the function of the containment used at NPPs all over the world. The purpose of the containment is to protect the NPP personnel against radioactive impact as well as to prevent radioactive leakage to the. environ ent during a lost of coolant accident. Leak-tightness enhancement in NPPs with WWER 440/213 and WWER 440/230 reactors is an important safety issue. New procedures, measures and methods were adopted at NPPs in Mochovce, Jaslovske Bohunice, Dukovany and PAKS for leak identification and sealing works performed by VUEZ Levice. (authors)

  17. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  18. Comparative testing of women's tights, which are realized in the Ukrainian market

    OpenAIRE

    Мартосенко, Марина Григорьевна; Браилко, Анна Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    Assortment of women's tights represented on the Ukrainian market is diverse: medical and corrective tights, classic thin and warm, simple and exclusive, ornamental and sports, for pregnant women and moisturizing effect. The size, density, pattern, material composition, visual appearance, matching fashion trends, colors, pricing policy – all these are criteria for the selection of women's tights.With such huge and diverse range of women's tights in the Ukrainian market, the problem of quality ...

  19. Tight-binding tunneling amplitude of an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamasovs, Maksims; Liu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The particle in a periodic potential is an important topic in an undergraduate quantum mechanics curriculum and a stepping stone on the way to more advanced topics, such as courses on interacting electrons in crystalline solids, and graduate-level research in solid-state and condensed matter physics. The interacting many-body phenomena are usually described in terms of the second quantized lattice Hamiltonians which treat single-particle physics on the level of tight-binding approximation and add interactions on top of it. The aim of this paper is to show how the tight-binding tunneling amplitude can be related to the strength of the periodic potential for the case of a cosine potential used in the burgeoning field of ultracold atoms. We show how to approach the problem of computing the tunneling amplitude of a deep lattice using the JWKB (Jeffreys–Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin, also known as semiclassical) approximation. We also point out that care should be taken when applying the method of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in an optical lattice context. A summary of the exact solution in terms of Mathieu functions is also given. (paper)

  20. Tight-binding tunneling amplitude of an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamasovs, Maksims; Liu, Bo

    2017-11-01

    The particle in a periodic potential is an important topic in an undergraduate quantum mechanics curriculum and a stepping stone on the way to more advanced topics, such as courses on interacting electrons in crystalline solids, and graduate-level research in solid-state and condensed matter physics. The interacting many-body phenomena are usually described in terms of the second quantized lattice Hamiltonians which treat single-particle physics on the level of tight-binding approximation and add interactions on top of it. The aim of this paper is to show how the tight-binding tunneling amplitude can be related to the strength of the periodic potential for the case of a cosine potential used in the burgeoning field of ultracold atoms. We show how to approach the problem of computing the tunneling amplitude of a deep lattice using the JWKB (Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin, also known as semiclassical) approximation. We also point out that care should be taken when applying the method of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in an optical lattice context. A summary of the exact solution in terms of Mathieu functions is also given.

  1. Maintaining leak tightness capability of Caorso BWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Di Palo, L.; Grimaldi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987 the local leak rate test (LLRT) results of the primary containment were revised, with the following main goals: to highlight recurring problems, leading to lack of leak tightness of the primary containment; to individuate the pertinent degradation mechanisms; to assess the corrective actions already implemented and to plan further improvements, if necessary; and to optimize the preventive maintenance program on the containment, particularly the inspection frequency. All LLRTs in the past operating period, both before (as found) and after (as left) maintenance were analyzed, in terms of leakage rate and equivalent area of leak, for each penetration. Corrective actions already implemented included replacement of some valves with better quality type one, passivation of the carbon steel pipes and improvement of the pertinent surveillance procedures. Long term corrective actions, now under consideration, will include the following: more extensive passivation of pipes, carrying humid air, so that oxidation could be drastically reduced; better chemistry control in fluid systems; extensive replacement of the butterfly valves presently used; implementation of the LLRT practice, such to quantitatively measure the leakage rate, also in presence of large leak; and reduction of the time interval between periodical tests, on the basis of the results of the previous ones. Following these guidelines, future overall leakage tests would be performed in as found condition, aimed to verify the effectiveness of the entire maintenance and testing program of the primary containment and of its capability to maintain leak tightness during the time between two subsequent tests

  2. Adaptive wavelet tight frame construction for accelerating MRI reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genjiao Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sparsity regularization approach, which assumes that the image of interest is likely to have sparse representation in some transform domain, has been an active research area in image processing and medical image reconstruction. Although various sparsifying transforms have been used in medical image reconstruction such as wavelet, contourlet, and total variation (TV etc., the efficiency of these transforms typically rely on the special structure of the underlying image. A better way to address this issue is to develop an overcomplete dictionary from the input data in order to get a better sparsifying transform for the underlying image. However, the general overcomplete dictionaries do not satisfy the so-called perfect reconstruction property which ensures that the given signal can be perfectly represented by its canonical coefficients in a manner similar to orthonormal bases, resulting in time consuming in the iterative image reconstruction. This work is to develop an adaptive wavelet tight frame method for magnetic resonance image reconstruction. The proposed scheme incorporates the adaptive wavelet tight frame approach into the magnetic resonance image reconstruction by solving a l0-regularized minimization problem. Numerical results show that the proposed approach provides significant time savings as compared to the over-complete dictionary based methods with comparable performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

  3. MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

    2004-12-10

    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are

  4. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  5. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  7. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  8. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  9. Revenue Risk of U.S. Tight-Oil Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mª Abadie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available American U.S. crude oil prices have dropped significantly of late down to a low of less than $30 a barrel in early 2016. At the same time price volatility has increased and crude in storage has reached record amounts in the U.S. America. Low oil prices in particular pose quite a challenge for the survival of U.S. America’s tight-oil industry. In this paper we assess the current profitability and future prospects of this industry. The question could be broadly stated as: should producers stop operation immediately or continue in the hope that prices will rise in the medium term? Our assessment is based on a stochastic volatility model with three risk factors, namely the oil spot price, the long-term oil price, and the spot price volatility; we allow for these sources of risk to be correlated and display mean reversion. We then use information from spot and futures West Texas Intermediate (WTI oil prices to estimate this model. Our aim is to show how the development of the oil price in the future may affect the prospective revenues of firms and hence their operation decisions at present. With the numerical estimates of the model’s parameters we can compute the value of an operating tight-oil field over a certain time horizon. Thus, the present value (PV of the prospective revenues up to ten years from now is $37.07/bbl in the base case. Consequently, provided that the cost of producing a barrel of oil is less than $37.07 production from an operating field would make economic sense. Obviously this is just a point estimate. We further perform a Monte Carlo (MC simulation to derive the risk profile of this activity and calculate two standard measures of risk, namely the value at risk (VaR and the expected shortfall (ES (for a given confidence level. In this sense, the PV of the prospective revenues will fall below $22.22/bbl in the worst 5% of the cases; and the average value across these worst scenarios is $19.77/bbl. Last we undertake two

  10. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Jin, Zhu-Qiu, E-mail: zhu-qiu.jin@sdstate.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  11. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  12. Liandratite from Karkonosze pegmatites, Sudetes, Southwestern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszczak, Witold

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of liandratite, U6+(Nb,Ta)2O8, was determined from material collected in Niobium, Yttrium, Fluorine type (NYF) pegmatites of the Karkonosze intrusion (Sudetes, SW Poland). Liandratite occurs mainly as rims, up to 40 µm thick, and fracture infillings in fergusonite-(Y) and other Nb-Ta-Ti minerals. Its formation was related to the fluid-driven alteration of primary minerals by three potential mechanisms: (i) direct replacement of a primary mineral by liandratite; (ii) breakdown of the primary mineral to liandratite and a product with the composition of minerals of the pyrochlore group; (iii) multistage alteration, which involved: removal of A-site cations (mostly Y + REE with the exception of U4+) and formation of phases with the composition of pyrochlore group minerals; then crystallization of U-, Bi-, Pb-rich pyrochlores and their replacement by liandratite. The chemical compositions of liandratite formed by the breakdown of different primary minerals are also different, mainly in their U, Ti and Nb contents. Excess Ti, relative to the U6+Nb2O8 end-member, is incorporated into the structure together with additional U. The Ti content of liandratite, and partially through this the U content, are dependent on the nature of the precursor mineral.

  13. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  14. Development trends in mining technologies. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1983-01-01

    Research programs on underground black coal mining in Poland are discussed. It is assumed that no major technology changes will take place by the year 2000. Second generation of mining technologies will be used after the year 2000. The following technologies of the second generation are discussed: in-situ gasification, chemical coal disintegration, manless hydraulic mining with hydraulic transport. Research programs on technologies of the second generation should guarantee their commercial and economic use by the year 2000. The following targets for research programs aimed at increasing productivity, reducing mining cost, reducing labor and increasing safety in mining, covering the next 2 decades are comparatively evaluated: increasing advance rate of longwall faces, increasing machine time of integrated face systems by at least 20%, improving design of powered supports for eliminating rock falls, development of heavy-duty face systems for longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, development of face systems for mining thick coal seams on their whole thickness, slice mining thick coal seams with artificial roofs, bidirectional longwall mining by shearer loaders, use of more elastic and reliable mining systems.

  15. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  16. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  17. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  18. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  19. Approximate equiangular tight frames for compressed sensing and CDMA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2017-12-01

    Performance guarantees for recovery algorithms employed in sparse representations, and compressed sensing highlights the importance of incoherence. Optimal bounds of incoherence are attained by equiangular unit norm tight frames (ETFs). Although ETFs are important in many applications, they do not exist for all dimensions, while their construction has been proven extremely difficult. In this paper, we construct frames that are close to ETFs. According to results from frame and graph theory, the existence of an ETF depends on the existence of its signature matrix, that is, a symmetric matrix with certain structure and spectrum consisting of two distinct eigenvalues. We view the construction of a signature matrix as an inverse eigenvalue problem and propose a method that produces frames of any dimensions that are close to ETFs. Due to the achieved equiangularity property, the so obtained frames can be employed as spreading sequences in synchronous code-division multiple access (s-CDMA) systems, besides compressed sensing.

  20. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  1. The tightly bound nuclei in the liquid drop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Harsha, N. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we shall maximise the binding energy per nucleon function in the semi-empirical mass formula of the liquid drop model of the atomic nuclei to analytically prove that the mean binding energy per nucleon curve has local extrema at A ≈ 58.6960, Z ≈ 26.3908 and at A ≈ 62.0178, Z ≈ 27.7506. The Lagrange method of multipliers is used to arrive at these results, while we have let the values of A and Z take continuous fractional values. The shell model that shows why 62Ni is the most tightly bound nucleus is outlined. A brief account on stellar nucleosynthesis is presented to show why 56Fe is more abundant than 62Ni and 58Fe. We believe that the analytical proof presented in this paper can be a useful tool to the instructors to introduce the nucleus with the highest mean binding energy per nucleon.

  2. Critical heat flux in tubes and tight hexagonal rod lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbacher, F.J.; Cheng Xu; Zeggel, W.

    1994-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in small-diameter tubes and in tight hexagonal 7-rod and 37-rod bundles was investigated in the KRISTA test facility, using Freon 12 as the working fluid. The measurements in tubes showed that the influence of the tube diameter on CHF cannot be described as suggested by earlier publications with sufficient accuracy. CHF in bundles is lower than in tubes under comparable conditions. The influence of spacers (grid spacers, wire wraps) on CHF was found to be governed by local steam qualities. A comparison of the test results with some CHF prediction methods showed that the look-up table method reproduces the test results in circular tubes most accurately. Combined with CHF look-up tables, subchannel analysis and Ahmad's fluid-to-fluid scaling law, Freon experiments have proven to be a suitable tool for CHF prediction in water-cooled rod bundles. (orig.) [de

  3. Tight junction proteins contribute to barrier properties in human pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Alexander G; Voronkova, Maria A; Volgin, George N; Yablonsky, Piotr K; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah

    2011-03-15

    The permeability of pleural mesothelium helps to control the volume and composition of the liquid lubricating pleural surfaces. Information on pleural barrier function in health and disease, however, is scarce. Tissue specimens of human pleura were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of transmesothelial resistance. Expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins was studied by Western blots and immune fluorescence confocal microscopy. Both visceral and parietal pleura showed barrier properties represented by transmesothelial resistance. Occludin, claudin-1, -3, -5, and -7, were detected in visceral pleura. In parietal pleura, the same TJ proteins were detected, except claudin-7. In tissues from patients with pleural inflammation these tightening claudins were decreased and in visceral pleura claudin-2, a paracellular channel former, became apparent. We report that barrier function in human pleura coincides with expression of claudins known to be key determinants of epithelial barrier properties. In inflamed tissue, claudin expression indicates a reduced barrier function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in drug delivery through tissue barriers containing tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheik, Christian; Blasig, Ingolf E; Winkler, Lars

    2013-04-01

    A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function.

  5. Laser material processing with tightly focused cylindrical vector beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevinskas, Rokas, E-mail: rd1c12@soton.ac.uk; Zhang, Jingyu; Beresna, Martynas; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Kazansky, Peter G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kazanskii, Andrey G. [Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Svirko, Yuri P. [Physics Department, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O.BOX 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate a comprehensive modification study of silica glass, crystalline silicon, and amorphous silicon film, irradiated by tightly focused cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal and radial polarizations. The evidence of the longitudinal field associated with radial polarization is revealed by second harmonic generation in z-cut lithium niobate crystal. Despite the lower threshold of ring-shaped modification of silicon materials, the modification in the center of single pulse radially polarized beam is not observed. The phenomenon is interpreted in terms of the enhanced reflection of longitudinal component at the interface with high-index contrast, demonstrating that the longitudinal component is inefficient for the flat surface modification. Enhanced interaction of the longitudinal light field with silicon nanopillar structures produced by the first pulse of double-pulse irradiation is also demonstrated.

  6. Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Algorithm for Pebble Bed Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, HyeongKae; Knoll, Dana; Gaston, Derek; Martineau, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a tightly coupled multiphysics simulation tool for the pebble-bed reactor (PBR) concept, a type of Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly with a Newton-based approach. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated via the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to minimize Krylov iterations. Motivation for the work is provided via analysis and numerical experiments on simpler multiphysics reactor models. We then provide detail of the physical models and numerical methods in PRONGHORN. Finally, PRONGHORN's algorithmic capability is demonstrated on a number of PBR test cases.

  7. Tightly coupled transient analysis of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Lehto, W.K.; Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    A Tightly Coupled transient analysis system for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being tested. The system consists of a faster than real time high fidelity reactor simulation, advanced graphics displays, expert system coupling, and real time data coupling via the EBR-II data acquisition system to and from the plant and the control system. The base, first generation software has been developed and is presently being tested. Various subsystem couplings and the total system integration are being checked out. This system should enhance the diagnostic and prognostic capability of EBR-II in the near term and provide automatic control during startup and power maneuvering in the future, as well as serve as a testbed for new control system development for advanced reactors

  8. Efficient self-consistency for magnetic tight binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Preetma; Horsfield, A. P.; Nguyen-Manh, D.

    2011-06-01

    Tight binding can be extended to magnetic systems by including an exchange interaction on an atomic site that favours net spin polarisation. We have used a published model, extended to include long-ranged Coulomb interactions, to study defects in iron. We have found that achieving self-consistency using conventional techniques was either unstable or very slow. By formulating the problem of achieving charge and spin self-consistency as a search for stationary points of a Harris-Foulkes functional, extended to include spin, we have derived a much more efficient scheme based on a Newton-Raphson procedure. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by looking at vacancies and self-interstitials in iron. Self-consistency can indeed be achieved in a more efficient and stable manner, but care needs to be taken to manage this. The algorithm is implemented in the code PLATO. Program summaryProgram title:PLATO Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 228 747 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 880 369 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Windows XP Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes. Up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2616 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Achieving charge and spin self-consistency in magnetic tight binding can be very

  9. Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that besides digestion and absorption of nutrients and water and electrolytes homeostasis, another key function of the intestine is to regulate the trafficking of environmental antigens across the host mucosal barrier. Intestinal tight junctions (TJs) create gradients for the optimal absorption and transport of nutrients and control the balance between tolerance and immunity to nonself antigens. To meet diverse physiological challenges, intestinal epithelial TJs must be modified rapidly and in a coordinated fashion by regulatory systems that orchestrate the state of assembly of the TJ multiprotein network. While considerable knowledge exists about TJ ultrastructure, relatively little is known about their physiological and pathophysiological regulation. Our discovery of zonulin, the only known physiologic modulator of intercellular TJs described so far, has increased our understanding of the intricate mechanisms that regulate the intestinal epithelial paracellular pathway and has led us to appreciate that its upregulation in genetically susceptible individuals leads to autoimmune diseases. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Lingfeng Kong; Min Du; Chenhui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short). For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas productio...

  11. Coalbed methane and tight gas no longer unconventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Unconventional gas refers to natural gas contained in difficult-to-produce formations that require special drilling and completion techniques to achieve commercial production. It includes tight gas, coal seams, organic shales, and gas hydrates. Canada's vast unconventional gas resource is becoming an increasingly important part of the country's gas supply. The emergence of unconventional gas production in Canada over the past several years has made the unconventional increasingly conventional in terms of industry activity. It was suggested that in order to realize the potential for unconventional gas in Canada, all stakeholders should engage to ensure the development is environmentally responsible. Unconventional gas accounts for nearly one third of U.S. gas production. It also accounts for nearly 5 Bcf per day and growing. The impetus to this sudden growth has been the gradual and increasing contribution of tight sands and limes to Canadian production, which accounts for more than 4 Bcf per day. Coalbed methane (CBM) is at 0.5 Bcf per day and growing. In response to expectations that CBM will reach 2 to 3 Bcf per day over the next 2 decades, Canadian producers are placing more emphasis on unconventional resource plays, including organic shales and gas hydrates. As such, significant growth of unconventional gas is anticipated. This growth will be facilitated by the adoption of U.S..-developed technologies and new Canadian technologies. It was suggested that research and development will be key to unlocking the unconventional gas potential. It was also suggested that the already existing, strong regulatory structure should continue in order to accommodate this growth in a sustainable manner. figs

  12. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  13. Challenging Marginalization at the Universities of the Third Age in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Robbins-Ruszkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Older people in Poland often describe and experience old age as a time in the life course marked by discrimination and marginalization. In this postsocialist context, a still-dominant Cold-War logic links older people to the devalued socialist past and younger people to the present and future of the Polish nation-state. Contemporary media portray old age as defined by physical and mental decline and social isolation. The most visible challenge to such temporal, bodily, and social exclusion occurs through Universities of the Third Age, where older people learn new skills, cultivate hobbies, and explicitly theorize growing old as a positive phase of life. Drawing on twenty months of ethnographic research, this article traces key sociocultural, political-economic, and historical factors that contribute to discrimination against and empowerment of older people in Poland. By analyzing national politics and media representations of old age together with ethnographic data from Universities of the Third Age, this article highlights the practices through which older Poles feel themselves to be transformed in old age—and asks who may be excluded from such practices—thus contributing to gerontological discussions of “active aging” and anthropological understandings of sociality in late life.

  14. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29% out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26% out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33% out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland.

  15. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  16. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  17. Effects of Tight Versus Non Tight Control of Metabolic Acidosis on Early Renal Function After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Etezadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the optimal strategy for intraoperative fluid replacement therapy in renal transplantation surgery. Since infusion of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer seems to be safer than other buffer compounds (lactate, gluconate, acetatethat indirectly convert into it within the liver, We hypothesized tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of sodium bicarbonate may improve early post-operative renal function in renal transplant recipients. Methods:120 patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group A, bicarbonate was infused intra-operatively according to Base Excess (BE measurements to achieve the normal values of BE (5 to +5 mEq/L. In group B, infusion of bicarbonate was allowed only in case of severe metabolic acidosis (BE [less than or equal to] 15 mEq/L or bicarbonate [less than or equal to] 10 mEq/L or PH [less than or equal to] 7.15. Minute ventilation was adjusted to keep PaCO2 within the normal range. Primary end-point was sampling of serum creatinine level in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days for statistical comparison between groups. Secondary objectives were comparison of cumulative urine volumes in the first 24 h of post-operative period and serum BUN levels which were obtained in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days. Results:In group A, all of consecutive serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in comparison with group B. With regard to secondary outcomes, no significant difference between groups was observed. Conclusion:Intra-operative tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate in renal transplant recipients may improve early post-operative renal function.

  18. Effects of tight versus non tight control of metabolic acidosis on early renal function after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etezadi Farhad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the optimal strategy for intra-operative fluid replacement therapy in renal transplantation surgery. Since infusion of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer seems to be safer than other buffer compounds (lactate, gluconate, acetatethat indirectly convert into it within the liver, We hypothesized tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of sodium bicarbonate may improve early post-operative renal function in renal transplant recipients. Methods 120 patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group A, bicarbonate was infused intra-operatively according to Base Excess (BE measurements to achieve the normal values of BE (−5 to +5 mEq/L. In group B, infusion of bicarbonate was allowed only in case of severe metabolic acidosis (BE ≤ −15 mEq/L or bicarbonate ≤ 10 mEq/L or PH ≤ 7.15. Minute ventilation was adjusted to keep PaCO2 within the normal range. Primary end-point was sampling of serum creatinine level in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days for statistical comparison between groups. Secondary objectives were comparison of cumulative urine volumes in the first 24 h of post-operative period and serum BUN levels which were obtained in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days. Results In group A, all of consecutive serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in comparison with group B. With regard to secondary outcomes, no significant difference between groups was observed. Conclusion Intra-operative tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate in renal transplant recipients may improve early post-operative renal function.

  19. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  20. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  1. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  2. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  3. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  4. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  5. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  6. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  7. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  8. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  9. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  10. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  11. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  12. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  13. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  14. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  15. Vector fields in a tight laser focus: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatross, Justin; Berrondo, Manuel; Smith, Dallas; Ware, Michael

    2017-06-26

    We assess several widely used vector models of a Gaussian laser beam in the context of more accurate vector diffraction integration. For the analysis, we present a streamlined derivation of the vector fields of a uniformly polarized beam reflected from an ideal parabolic mirror, both inside and outside of the resulting focus. This exact solution to Maxwell's equations, first developed in 1920 by V. S. Ignatovsky, is highly relevant to high-intensity laser experiments since the boundary conditions at a focusing optic dictate the form of the focus in a manner analogous to a physical experiment. In contrast, many models simply assume a field profile near the focus and develop the surrounding vector fields consistent with Maxwell's equations. In comparing the Ignatovsky result with popular closed-form analytic vector models of a Gaussian beam, we find that the relatively simple model developed by Erikson and Singh in 1994 provides good agreement in the paraxial limit. Models involving a Lax expansion introduce a divergences outside of the focus while providing little if any improvement in the focal region. Extremely tight focusing produces a somewhat complicated structure in the focus, and requires the Ignatovsky model for accurate representation.

  16. Fuel assembly leak tightness control on WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, R.; Gerchev, N.; Mateev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main index for integrity of the fuel rods cladding is the specific activity value of the primary coolant. This value determines the safe operation of the reactor. The limit for safe operation of WWER-1000 reactor is the value of the total activity of Iodine isotopes in the primary coolant 5.0x10 -3 Ci/l. The paper briefly describes the methodology for performing a fuel tightness test (sipping test) and shows the results from these tests performed during the period 1987 -1999 in units 5 and 6 at the Kozloduy NPP. An additional index related to the safe operation is defined to characterize the fuel cladding integrity Fuel Reliability Index (FRI). The FRI is defined as value of the average activity of 131 I in the primary coolant, corrected with a part of precipitated 235 U migration and fixed to the general permanent purification frequency. Two criteria (quantitative and statistic) are determined to qualify the fuel cladding integrity. The results from sipping tests show good reliability of the fuel irradiated in unit 5 and 6 at the Kozloduy NPP

  17. Air-tight disposing device for solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: In a construction for air-tightly connecting radioactive material handling equipment with a radioactive waste container through a vinyl bag, to use a multi-stage expansion tube to introduce the radioactive waste into the waste container in safe and positive manner. Structure: During normal operation in the radioactive material handling equipment, a multi-stage expansion cylinder is extended by operation of a remote shaft to suitably throw the waste in a state with a vinyl bag protected, whereas when the waste is disposed away from the equipment, the multi-stage expansion cylinder is contracted and received into a holder, and the vinyl bag is heated and sealed at a given position and cut, after which a cover of an outer container for disposal is closed and carried out. The vinyl bag remained on the side of the holder after sealed and cut is put into the waste container after a fresh vinyl bag, in which another waste container is received, has been secured to the holder. (Taniai, N.)

  18. Nanoscale capacitance: A quantum tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Yang; Lu, Jun-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Landauer-Buttiker formalism with the assumption of semi-infinite electrodes as reservoirs has been the standard approach in modeling steady electron transport through nanoscale devices. However, modeling dynamic electron transport properties, especially nanoscale capacitance, is a challenging problem because of dynamic contributions from electrodes, which is neglectable in modeling macroscopic capacitance and mesoscopic conductance. We implement a self-consistent quantum tight-binding model to calculate capacitance of a nano-gap system consisting of an electrode capacitance C‧ and an effective capacitance Cd of the middle device. From the calculations on a nano-gap made of carbon nanotube with a buckyball therein, we show that when the electrode length increases, the electrode capacitance C‧ moves up while the effective capacitance Cd converges to a value which is much smaller than the electrode capacitance C‧. Our results reveal the importance of electrodes in modeling nanoscale ac circuits, and indicate that the concepts of semi-infinite electrodes and reservoirs well-accepted in the steady electron transport theory may be not applicable in modeling dynamic transport properties.

  19. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Kashihara, Hiroka; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. B-spline tight frame based force matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbin; Zhu, Guanhua; Tong, Dudu; Lu, Lanyuan; Shen, Zuowei

    2018-06-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations, compared with popular all-atom force field approaches, coarse-grained (CG) methods are frequently used for the rapid investigations of long time- and length-scale processes in many important biological and soft matter studies. The typical task in coarse-graining is to derive interaction force functions between different CG site types in terms of their distance, bond angle or dihedral angle. In this paper, an ℓ1-regularized least squares model is applied to form the force functions, which makes additional use of the B-spline wavelet frame transform in order to preserve the important features of force functions. The B-spline tight frames system has a simple explicit expression which is useful for representing our force functions. Moreover, the redundancy of the system offers more resilience to the effects of noise and is useful in the case of lossy data. Numerical results for molecular systems involving pairwise non-bonded, three and four-body bonded interactions are obtained to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  1. Pre-Darcy flow in tight and shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Chen, Zhangxin

    2017-11-01

    There are evidences that the fluid flow in tight and shale formations does not follow Darcy law, which is identified as pre-Darcy flow. Here, the unsteady linear flow of a slightly compressible fluid under the action of pre-Darcy flow is modeled and a generalized Boltzmann transformation technique is used to solve the corresponding highly nonlinear diffusivity equation analytically. The effect of pre-Darcy flow on the pressure diffusion in a homogenous formation is studied in terms of the nonlinear exponent, m, and the threshold pressure gradient, G1. In addition, the pressure gradient, flux, and cumulative production per unit area for different m and G1 are compared with the classical solution of the diffusivity equation based on Darcy flow. Department of Petroleum Engineering in College of Engineering and Applied Science at University of Wyoming and NSERC/AI-EES(AERI)/Foundation CMG and AITF (iCORE) Chairs in Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at University of Calgary.

  2. Testing underground tanks for leak tightness at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.K.; Sites, R.L.; Sledge, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of tank systems are present at the Livermore Site: tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel (forty-three systems), and tanks or sumps and associated piping for the retention of potentially contaminated wastewater (forty systems). The fuel systems were tested using commercially available test methods: Petro-Tite, Hunter Leak Lokator, Ezy-Chek, and Associated Environmental Systems (A.E.S.). In contrast to fuel tank systems, wastewater systems have containers that are predominantly open at the top and not readily testable. Therefore, a project to test and evaluate all available testing methods was initiated and completed. The commercial method Tank Auditor was determined to be appropriate for testing open-top tanks and sumps and this was the method used to test the majority of the open-top containers. Of the 81 tanks tested, 61 were found to be leak tight, 9 were shown to have leaks, and 11 yielded inconclusive results. Two tanks have not yet been tested because of operational constraints; they are sheduled to be tested within the next two months. Schedules are being developed for the retesting of tanks and for remedial actions

  3. Engineering feasibility of tight aspect ratio Tokamak (spherical torus) reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y-K.M.; Hicks, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering solutions are identified and analyzed for key high-power-density components of tight aspect ratio tokamak reactors (spherical torus reactors). The potentially extreme divertor heat loads can be reduced to about 3 MW/m 2 in expanded divertors using coils inside the demountable toroidal field coils. Given the long and narrow divertor channels, gaseous divertor targets become possible, which eliminate sputtering and increase the divertor life. The unshielded centre conductor post (CCP) of the toroidal field coil can be made of a single dispersion strengthened copper conductor cooled by high-velocity pressurized water to maintain acceptable copper temperature and strength. Damage and activation of the CCP at a neutron fluence of 10 MW-a/m 2 are also tolerable. Annual replacement of the centre post, the divertor assemblies and the blanket can be accomplished with vertical access for all torus components, which are modularized to reduce size and weight. The technical requirements of these solutions are shown to be comparable with, if not less demanding than, those estimated for conventional tokamak reactors. (author)

  4. Stability of spinor Fermi gases in tight waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, A. del; Muga, J. G.; Girardeau, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    The two- and three-body correlation functions of the ground state of an optically trapped ultracold spin-(1/2) Fermi gas (SFG) in a tight waveguide [one-dimensional (1D) regime] are calculated in the plane of even- and odd-wave coupling constants, assuming a 1D attractive zero-range odd-wave interaction induced by a 3D p-wave Feshbach resonance, as well as the usual repulsive zero-range even-wave interaction stemming from 3D s-wave scattering. The calculations are based on the exact mapping from the SFG to a 'Lieb-Liniger-Heisenberg' model with delta-function repulsions depending on isotropic Heisenberg spin-spin interactions, and indicate that the SFG should be stable against three-body recombination in a large region of the coupling constant plane encompassing parts of both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. However, the limiting case of the fermionic Tonks-Girardeau gas, a spin-aligned 1D Fermi gas with infinitely attractive p-wave interactions, is unstable in this sense. Effects due to the dipolar interaction and a Zeeman term due to a resonance-generating magnetic field do not lead to shrinkage of the region of stability of the SFG

  5. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tanaka, Hiroo

    2016-01-05

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na+, similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattarelli, M., E-mail: maurizio.mattarelli@fisica.unipg.it [NiPS Laboratory, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Secchi, M. [CMM - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Montagna, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-11-07

    The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.

  7. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  8. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  9. Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.

  10. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  11. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  12. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  13. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  15. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Absconditella fossarum and A. sphagnorum (Lichenes, Stictidaceae in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Ceynowa-Giełdon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Absconditella fossarum, a species new to Poland, found on sands in the Noteć river valley and A. sphagnorum from the new stands found on peated shore of pure, forest lakes in the Tuchola Forest (Bory Tucholskie region.

  17. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  18. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  19. Hypoxylon terricola Miller a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxylon terricola Milter, known from a single collection in Michigan in USA and three sites in Southern France, has been found in Poland; isolated from the soil under Dactylis glomerata L. culture and from the dishwater of the roots of D. glomerata L. groving in the vicinity of the spruce (Picea abies (L. K a r s t mountainers forest.

  20. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  1. Distribution of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 (Charophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 in Poland is described, based on herbaria collections, literature data and own investigations. Maps showing the distribution of Ch. braunii are presented, as well as a list of localities with brief descriptions of the habitats. Additionally, some remarks on the distribution limit in the northern hemisphere are given.

  2. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Oers, van M.M.; Ziemnicka, J.; Lipa, J.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an

  3. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  4. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic

  5. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  6. The Rights and Duties of Family in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This paper presented at the 1977 meeting of the World Organization of Preschool Education (OMEP), reviews legal acts concerning the family in Poland; specifically the family law, the custodial law, and the matrimonial property law. Subjects discussed include: (1) legal protection of the family; (2) social protection of the family; (3) principles…

  7. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  8. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  9. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, James Neil; Leufkens, Bert; Hövels, Anke

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. METHODS: We

  10. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  11. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  12. Surface passivation for tight-binding calculations of covalent solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, N

    2007-01-01

    Simulation of a cluster representing a finite portion of a larger covalently bonded system requires the passivation of the cluster surface. We compute the effects of an explicit hybrid orbital passivation (EHOP) on the atomic structure in a model bulk, three-dimensional, narrow gap semiconductor, which is very different from the wide gap, quasi-one-dimensional organic molecules where most passivation schemes have been studied in detail. The EHOP approach is directly applicable to minimal atomic orbital basis methods such as tight-binding. Each broken bond is passivated by a hybrid created from an explicitly expressed linear combination of basis orbitals, chosen to represent the contribution of the missing neighbour, e.g. a sp 3 hybrid for a single bond. The method is tested by computing the forces on atoms near a point defect as a function of cluster geometry. We show that, compared to alternatives such as pseudo-hydrogen passivation, the force on an atom converges to the correct bulk limit more quickly as a function of cluster radius, and that the force is more stable with respect to perturbations in the position of the cluster centre. The EHOP method also obviates the need for parameterizing the interactions between the system atoms and the passivating atoms. The method is useful for cluster calculations of non-periodic defects in large systems and for hybrid schemes that simulate large systems by treating finite regions with a quantum-mechanical model, coupled to an interatomic potential description of the rest of the system

  13. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  14. The steps to forming a joint venture IPP in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Z.; Colligan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Poland represents the largest market in Central Europe with 38 million people and an installed electrical generating capacity of about 32 gigawatts. Since 1989, when the process of governmental restructuring along free market principals began, the allure to IPP developers has been evident, but is of yet unrealized. The natural model for IPP development in Poland would seem to be joint ventures with Polish generating companies. These enterprises already have sites, franchises, and a going business to contribute to a joint company. There are a number of reasons why so few deals have been concluded in Poland to date, and a number of barriers still exist that tend to hamper the realization of project finance funded power joint ventures. But, these barriers are not insurmountable. Overcoming them in the context of a joint venture relationship with a domestic partner requires patience, work, and an ability to bridge the gaps between the realities of working in a post-Communist environment and the practicalities of structuring projects that can be financed in the international capital markets. The new Energy Law in Poland establishes a framework for a viable private sector power generation business. But the enabling regulations are yet to be published or approved. There is still effective political risk on account of the uncertainty this creates. Pressure is mounting on the Polish Government, especially due to its expressed interest in joining the EU, to get the power sector to operate on private sector terms, if not in private hands. The trends are pointing in the direction of increased market driven policies and practices. The conclusion is that, despite the delays of the past, independent power projects will start to happen in Poland on a joint venture basis, with increasing frequency in the next years.

  15. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  16. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  17. Triazole biotin: a tight-binding biotinidase-resistant conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Anne I; Hanna, Jill R; Karim, Rehana; Kundel, Franziska; Lowther, Jonathan; Neate, Peter G N; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Campopiano, Dominic J; Hulme, Alison N

    2013-11-28

    The natural amide bond found in all biotinylated proteins has been replaced with a triazole through CuAAC reaction of an alkynyl biotin derivative. The resultant triazole-linked adducts are shown to be highly resistant to the ubiquitous hydrolytic enzyme biotinidase and to bind avidin with dissociation constants in the low pM range. Application of this strategy to the production of a series of biotinidase-resistant biotin-Gd-DOTA contrast agents is demonstrated.

  18. Tightness of the thermal envelope of office and educational buildings; Klimaskaermens taethed i kontor- og undervisningsbygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Nickel, J.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell Danmark A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Bundesen, E.W.; Nielsen, Carsten (DanEjendomme, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In 2006 tightening of the energy regulations in the Danish Building Regulations were introduced including requirements regarding the tightness of the building envelope. The requirements are, with minor changes, continued in the current Building Regulations, BR10. During the past few years experience has been gained regarding both the actual execution of air tightness measurements and solutions that will lead to more air tight building envelopes. Experiences, however, are primarily related to single family houses. The report presents results of measurements in large buildings and discusses reasons for lack of knowledge and experience on the tightness of the building envelope in large buildings. Apparently, there is a need for dissemination of knowledge on the importance of a tight building envelope both in terms of energy consumption and indoor climate and in terms of the difficulties and costs associated with repairing leaks in a completed envelope. Air tightness must be brought into focus at an early stage in the planning process, and during the construction phase air tightness measurements should be performed, e.g. on facade sections or in parts of the building. The project team has attended a number of measurements in large buildings and further gained access to results of a large number of measurements. In summary, the results show that it is possible to achieve the required tightness, and in most buildings the results are better than the requirement of a maximum of 1.5 l/s per m{sub 2}. (Author)

  19. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires...

  20. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  1. Transferable tight-binding model for strained group IV and III-V materials and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to capture the effect due to strain and material interface for device level transistor modeling. We introduce a transferable s p3d5s* tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions for arbitrarily strained group IV and III-V materials. The tight-binding model is parametrized with respect to hybrid functional (HSE06) calculations for varieties of strained systems. The tight-binding calculations of ultrasmall superlattices formed by group IV and group III-V materials show good agreement with the corresponding HSE06 calculations. The application of the tight-binding model to superlattices demonstrates that the transferable tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions can be obtained for group IV and III-V materials.

  2. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  3. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children of northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroten, Anna; Toczylowski, Kacper; Kiziewicz, Bozena; Oldak, Elzbieta; Sulik, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease. Soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs appears to be the main source of infection for humans. The aim of our study was to estimate the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs in public areas in northeastern Poland followed by the assessment of seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the children's population inhabiting the areas. A total of 168 soil samples were collected in June and September from public areas, and 28 from patients' residences. They were all examined for Toxocara eggs using the centrifugal flotation technique. Two-step serological tests comprising enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) were performed in 190 children aged 2-17 without any symptoms of toxocariasis. The positive samples accounted for 36 and 32 % in the urban area, 39 and 18 % in the suburbs, and 39 and 46 % in parks, for June and September, respectively. All the sites located near the patients' residences with confirmed persistent toxocariasis were found contaminated with Toxocara eggs. A significant drop in the mean number of eggs was noted in the suburbs after summer (0.64 vs 0.18, p contamination was documented in soil from urban sandboxes and parks. The overall seroprevalence in children tested for toxocariasis was 4.2 % as determined by ELISA and WB (3.0 % in preschool children and 7.7 % in school children). The current study revealed high contamination of public areas in northeastern Poland with Toxocara eggs as well as marked seroprevalence in asymptomatic children. There is an urgent need to introduce and promote preventive health measures to limit spread of toxocariasis.

  4. Seroprevalence of diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies in children, adolescents and adults in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-11-19

    Recommendations for diphtheria immunization are to apply an effective primary immunization in infancy and to maintain immunity throughout life. Immunity against diphtheria depends primarily on antibody to the diphtheria toxin. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in sera of healthy children, adolescents and adults in Poland. A total of 1387 serum samples collected between 2010 and 2012 from individuals with ages ranging from 1 month to 85 years were investigated. Antibody concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA IgG, Euroimmun, Germany). The results showed that among 1387 individuals examined, 547 (39.4%) had anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody levels below 0.1 IU/ml (36.9% ≤ 18 years and 40.5% >18 years old, respectively). The 212 (50.8%) children and 542 (55.9%) adults showed only basic protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) and need immediate booster. High levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were found more often in children and adolescent (12.2%) than in adults (3.6%) and this was statistically significant (P 60 years old. Characteristically, in individuals > 40 years old high levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were not seen. There were no statistically significant differences in results in relation to gender. The present study showed inadequate immunity levels to diphtheria amongst the Polish population, especially in adults > 40 years old and children ≤ 2 years old. To prevent reemergence of diphtheria an information campaign reminding people about recommendations concerning diphtheria booster vaccination in adults should be conducted. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DTP vaccine used in Poland should be verified.

  5. Innovative Behaviour of High-Tech Internationalized Firms: Survey Results from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the article is to identify and verify the relationship between internationalization and innovativeness as well as innovative behaviour of high-tech businesses in Polish context. Research Design & Methods: A quantitative research design was employed. A survey was conducted on the sample of 263 firms operating in high-tech industries in Poland. To verify the assumed relationships statistical instruments were used, including descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate regression. Findings: The level of innovativeness of investigated hi-tech firms was relatively high. Results suggest that the innovativeness of a business contributes to the intensification of the internationalization process of firms operating in high-tech industries. The regression model confirms the dependence of internationalization on three innovative behaviours, such as the general evaluation of innovativeness of the firm, the pace of innovation diffusion and the number of implemented innovations. Implications & Recommendations: Polish high-tech businesses seem to be relatively well internationalized, especially in comparisons to general business population. Policy makers should continue to support innovativeness of Polish economy, but especia­lly these industries which are highly innovative. Contribution & Value Added: The research presented in the article seems to be one of the first in Poland investigating into internationalization and innovation in high-tech industries. The results are in line with the majority of empirical evidence worldwide. The preliminary link between innovation and internationalization among Polish high–tech businesses was confirmed.

  6. Dental Caries Level and Sugar Consumption in 12-Year-Old Children from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Turska, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The frequent and high consumption of sugar products, particularly sucrose, is one of the causative factors of dental caries. Meta-analyses assessing the relationship between sugar intake and dental caries revealed that a restricted sugar intake to less than 10% of the daily energy intake results in substantial health benefits. Sugar consumption in Poland is 2-fold higher than recommended by the WHO. As change in dietary habits is slow, knowledge of whether a gradual reduction of sugar consumption influences beneficially the dental condition is important. Assessment of the relationship between caries experience and sugar consumption in 12-year-old children. The data obtained from the Statistical Agricultural Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office in Poland regarding the average yearly sugar intake by a person in the years 1995-2013, and caries prevalence (frequency and DMFT) resulting from the national epidemiological studies of the 12-year-old children conducted by the Ministry of Health in those years were analyzed. The data was analyzed by linear regression. Regression function parameters and coefficients of determination were assessed for a possible link between sugar consumption and dental caries frequency and severity was expressed as DMFT value. The mean yearly sugar intake by a statistical Pole ranged from 43.6 kg (2002) to 35.3 kg (2006). Despite a slight trend to lower the sugar consumption, its mean intake in 1995 and 2013 was the same (41.9 kg). Caries frequency and DMFT decreased in 2012 compared to 1995 from 90.5% to 79.6% and from 4.3 to 3.53 kg in 2012, respectively. The increased sugar intake by 1 kg/year caused the increase of caries frequency by 1% and DMFT value by 0.2. Even a relatively low decrease in sugar consumption can exert some beneficial influence on the dental condition in adolescents, particularly upon the severity of caries.

  7. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, T.; Kasai, Y.; Inabe, N.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10 -3 ref-cm 3 .s -1 , as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF 6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  8. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šadauskienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  9. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  10. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation post Stroke in Poland 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opara, Jozef; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Rationale -The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments......? Aims - Growing costs of health care are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services which could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early post-stroke rehabilitation consists of many elements that provide for early onset rehabilitation...... and its continuation after discharge from stroke unit. Participants - Two questionnaires evaluating neurorehabilitation of people who underwent stroke was designed and distributed: first to 221 neurological wards and second to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland. Design - We asked about delay before...

  11. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  12. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  13. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  14. Morphometric comparison of pumpkinseed (Centrarchidae populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zięba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of morphometric differentiation between two populations of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus inhabiting distinctively different habitats in north-west Poland was examined. Fish were collected at sites that differ in water temperature and hydrology – an ambient temperature, urban pond vs an artificially-heated drainage channel, respectively. In principal component analysis, the first and second components, which accounted for 40% and 11 %, respectively, of the variability between the habitat types, revealed that the observed differences were related to head and body dimensions, with specimens from the heated site having generally larger heads, higher bodies, and longer anterior components. Larger body size is normally associated with greater survival in unnatural and highly variable environments. This study was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (decision No DEC-2011/01/D/NZ8/01807.

  15. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  16. Radioecological analysis of the north-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J.; Karpinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of natural radioactivity of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in building material as well as radon concentrations and dose rates in houses and outdoors. The mean absorbed rate in air outdoors from natural gamma radiation was found to be 40.2 nGyh -1 . Doses inside houses made from particular materials were (nGyh -1 ): brick - 102, prefabricate - 89, wood - 88. The mean equivalent per one statistical inhabitant of ''Poland Green Lungs'' is 1.61 mSv/year. The doses absorbed by the population in the north-eastern region of Poland from natural sources of ionizing radiation are lower than the population-weighted world averages. (author)

  17. Poland - seaborne bulk trade hampered by rising transport costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechener, J

    1991-12-01

    The article considers trade development in major dry bulk commodities, coal, cement, iron ore and grains. Aspects covered for coal are production and exports. All coal mines in Poland are state owned. Coal production has fallen from an annual output in excess of 190 mta in the late 1980s, to under 150 mt in 1990. Output for 1991 is forecast at around 142 mt. Exports have also declined from 36 mtce in the late 1980s to an estimated 20 mt in 1991. Various factors are cited for the changing fortunes of Poland's coal industry but the most significant is the introduction of market forces to a previously centrally planned economy. Topics discussed for coal include: restructuring the coal industry for privatisation; eliminating subsidies; and export destinations. 5 tabs., 6 photos.

  18. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  19. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  20. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative......Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...

  1. Distribution of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczęśniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla filiculoides has been an ephemeral plant in Poland since the end of the 20th century. In the last 15 years this species appeared in 5 locations in south-west Poland. Habitat and plants of two populations became destroyed, three other still exist. A. filiculoides occurs in eutrophic or even polluted water where it forms dense mats, up to 10 cm thick. It stays sterile and propagates only in a vegetative manner. Frost resistance of Lower Silesia populations is higher than reported so far; fern may winter and rebuild the population after frost reaching 22oC. Size of the populations is changeable during the vegetation season. A. filiculoides occurs in water habitats and plant communities in which it substitutes Lemna minor.

  2. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusinski, J

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  3. Multifunctionality of Organic Farming: Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śpiewak Ruta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to answer the question whether organic farming, which is developing in some parts of Poland, can be considered as a form of multifunctional farming and contribute so to non-commodity functions and the process of change in a particular territory of given areas. The analyses are based on data obtained from 2013 of several points in the south of Poland representing a cluster of organic market oriented farmers. The results show that namely market organic farming may serve as multifunctional one, but only under certain conditions and for a specific type of farming. Through specific functions, organic farming facilitates the changes, primarily on a local scale. The existence of a strong integrated organic farming sector might influences development and change, resulting in not only the improvement of economic welfare of organic farmers, but also of whole local communities, strengthening the bonds amongst them, mobilising the social resources.

  4. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wojnicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  5. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  6. A Hybrid Setarx Model for Spikes in Tight Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lucheroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a simple looking but highly nonlinear regime-switching, self-excited threshold model for hourly electricity prices in continuous and discrete time. The regime structure of the model is linked to organizational features of the market. In continuous time, the model can include spikes without using jumps, by defining stochastic orbits. In passing from continuous time to discrete time, the stochastic orbits survive discretization and can be identified again as spikes. A calibration technique suitable for the discrete version of this model, which does not need deseasonalization or spike filtering, is developed, tested and applied to market data. The discussion of the properties of the model uses phase-space analysis, an approach uncommon in econometrics. (original abstract

  7. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  8. Tight Money, Real Interest Rates, and Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Buffie

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of tight monetary policy are analyzed in an optimizing currency-substitution model of a small, open economy that operates under an open capital account and a flexible exchange rate. There is a reasonably good fit between the dynamics generated by the model and the stylized facts in the tight-money episodes that occurred in Kenya in 1993 and Nigeria in 1989-91. The study's results shed light on two issues: why tight money has provoked stupendous increases in inflation and the ...

  9. Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight, so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight , so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

  10. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  11. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF OLDER PEOPLE IN POLAND – SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Różański, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of educational activity of the elderly in Poland. Defining the term “old age” and drawing attention to the issue of human adaptation to old age were the starting points of the discussion. Next, the most important issues concerning the activity of seniors were raised. Further discussed were the conditions and objectives of the educational activity of older people. An attention was also drawn to the role of institutions, promoting education and culture, in ...

  12. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  13. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  14. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  15. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  16. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  17. Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in lakes of northern Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mankiewicz, J.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Izydorczyk, K.; Jurczak, T.; Tarczynska, M.; Zalewski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2005), s. 499-506 ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:MIDI-CHIP(PL) EVK2-CT1999-00026, EVK2-2002-00546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * N-Poland lakes * recreational water * PPIA * HPLC Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2005

  18. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  19. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski-Siuda Krzysztof

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.

  20. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  1. Erysiphales of the Drawski Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the presentation of results of a 3-year investigation on the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales in the Drawski Landscape Park (north-western Poland. The list of occurrence of members of Erysiphales presented includes 31 next species and 15 species found on plants not mentioned in the previous paper. Additionally, the occurrence of the powdery mildew fungi in 12 permanent plots with nine plant associations was presented and compared.

  2. MONETARY POLICY RULE FOR POLAND – RESULTS FOR VARIOUS SPECIFACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Baranowski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse monetary policy rules for Poland. We estimate models based on the proposition of Taylor, augmented with interest rate smoothing. We deal with the case of instantaneous as well as forward-looking relationship between interest rate and inflation. In the latter case, the proposition of data-rich reaction function was also considered. The evidence show that Polish monetary authority reaction to inflation is strong, contrary to the output gap. In addition, we fou...

  3. Implementing inflation targeting regimes: The case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Jan; Moore, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the prospects for the new Polish monetary policy strategy of inflation targeting. Regarding the general requirements for implementing an inflation targeting strategy it appears that Poland has made sufficient progress in reducing fiscal dominance and hardening budget constraints. The paper also finds that the exchange rate has played a dominant role as a policy instrument, with the linkages between the short-term interest rate and inflation remaining unclear. Given this un...

  4. Imagining Nuclear Future in Socialist Poland. Plans and Dreams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůželová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 35-54 ISSN 0023-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Czechoslovakia * nuclear energy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  5. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  6. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  7. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  8. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  9. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  10. First record of Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal, 1835 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanat Marek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stenopelmus rufinasus, a North American weevil introduced to Europe along with the invasive aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides, has been recorded from Poland for the first time. Its locality is a natural oxbow lake of the River Odra in Wrocław, the only city in Poland where A. filiculoides has been repeatedly recorded over the last dozen years. The diagnostic characters of this weevil species, its biology, current distribution in Europe and its prospects in Poland are discussed.

  11. The Politics and Policy of U.S. Bases in Poland: A Political-Military Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    After its short-lived existence in the years 1918 -1939, Poland once more fell victim to the machinations of its powerful neighbors. The German and...Polish sovereignty on November 11, 1918 , Poland enjoyed its independence for period of 21 years.22 The new Poland was integrated within the French...Czech Republic as well as adding additional SM-3 interceptor site in Romania and an additional radar site in Turkey.81 However, “By wishing to avoid

  12. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  15. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  16. REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kotowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and worldwide, corporate social responsibility has a growing interest of managers, business institutions, investors and the government. Thus, it becomes progressively determinant of corporate governance and priority in building a comprehensive development strategy. CSR is used by large companies. However, this does not mean that SMEs sector companies operate less responsible than large one. Each enterprise, regardless of size, operates in a specific social surroundings and market environment, which are affected by different groups of stakeholders. They may affect enterprise reinforcing effect on - contribute to its success or failure. It is therefore important that the managers should be able to identify social groups in the enterprise and its environment and respect their claims, needs, rights and expectations. The aim of this paper is to show the application of CSR by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and the manner of result presentation. This article lists tools of corporate social responsibility, examples of practices and research results in the SMEs sector in Poland.

  17. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  18. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  19. Nuclear Poland? The second approach after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, L.; Gołębiewski, T.; Fornalski, K.W.; Gadja, D.

    2015-07-01

    Poland’s plan for reorganization of its energy mix is to construct several nuclear reactors (2 NPPs with number of units depending on reactor type) of total capacity 6000 MW. It is assumed that energy from NPPs will provide up to 19% of the electricity production in Poland after 2035. Currently there is no nuclear power plant in operation. The previous nuclear programme was canceled in 1990. Almost 20 years later Polish government has undertaken second attempt to construct first NPP by adoption of The Polish Nuclear Power Program in January 2014. Since that moment were started intensive preparations to implement many legal regulations related to future nuclear industry in Poland e.g. Atomic Law amendment. In the same year the Owner’s Engineer was chosen by the main investor PGE S.A. Following “nuclear” a lot of Polish Universities launched studies connected with the subject to ensure employees for deployment and sustaining of nuclear technologies in Poland. This paper describes the rationale staying behind the government decision, present situation of Polish energy market and current work status. (Author)

  20. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  1. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  2. Men and Women Wage Differences in Spain and Poland

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    Aleksandra Matuszewska-Janica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Men and women wage differences is a widely discuss topic in the literature. Some authors point the fact that size of gender wage gap (GPG is not the same across wage distribution. GPG ratio is accelerating at the top of it. Thus, the main goal of presented study is to analyse impact of outliers (top earners on the values of GPG ratio and results of its decomposition. In addition we compare outcomes obtained for Spain and Poland. Elimination outliers from the sample will reduce values of men and women wage gap ratios not only in unadjusted form but in adjusted form as well. Study is based upon the Eurostat’s Structure of Earnings Survey (SES individual data in respect of 2014. In the paper we discuss results of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (in extension proposed by Oaxaca and Ransom obtained for Spain and Poland. Obtained results indicated two points above all. Firstly, although unadjusted GPG ratios for Spain and Poland differ significantly, the adjusted GPG ratios are at the same level (about 15%. Such situation shows the real men and women wage differences are at the same level in both countries. This is an additional indication that women situation on Polish labour market in similar to the Spanish one. Secondly, after elimination of outliers the values of GPG measures (in adjusted and unadjusted form decreased, as was expected. These falls came to approximately 3 p.p. It can be considered as significant change.

  3. SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLAND – GREAT POTENTIAL UTILIZED BY FEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael SEDKOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media are very popular around the world. More and more people adopt this method of communication, as it brings instant and effective ways to stay in touch with ones relatives, coworkers, brands and products. Poland is no exception, as all major brands of the social sphere have decided to prepare localized versions of their product for the Polish market. One could say that Poland is following the global trends very accurately as Facebook has dominated the market and pushed out the indigenous services Brands and corporation utilize the medium to get in touch with their consumers. On the other side, there are public institutions like universities, local governments , that should be interested in getting in touch with people, as reaching out to one’s potential customers has never been easier. This is happening, but on a very small scale and many attempts fail. In this paper, Author explores the possible reasons behind the situation and attempts to form a prognosis for the market of social media in Poland.

  4. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  6. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  7. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  8. Statement on the first research on digital startups in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present the results of the first study of Polish startups’ ecosystem as the first stage of a larger study of digital economy landscape in Poland. The first estimate of the number of Polish startups amounts to 2400 entities. The publication presents the first survey Polish startups that marks the beginning of cyclical studies on enterprises belonging to the digital economy in Poland. The study was conducted among 423 entities using an in-house questionnaire prepared based on the author’s own knowledge. Results are discussed. Startups most often consider themselves software producers who follow the SaaS model and operate in the following industries: mobile apps, e-commerce and Internet services. Nearly one in three startups achieve 50% annual revenue growth, while in one-fifth such growth exceeds 100%. Almost two thirds of Polish startups are financed exclusively from own funds. It is necessary to repeat and deepen the study in order to determining the significance of the digital industry in the economy of Poland and the CEE region. The originality of this work lies in taking this subject for the first time in Polish literature and in elaborating the proposition of a “startup” term’s definition.

  9. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  10. A Comparative Proteome Profile of Female Mouse Gonads Suggests a Tight Link between the Electron Transport Chain and Meiosis Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cong; Li, Mingrui; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Bo; Teng, Hui; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells. We identified 3666 proteins, of which 473 were differentially expressed. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in the mitochondria, especially in the electron transport chain and, notably, 9 proteins in electron transport chain Complex I were differentially expressed. We disrupted the mitochondrial electron transport chain function by adding the complex I inhibitor, rotenone to 11.5 days post coitum female gonads cultured in vitro. This treatment resulted in a decreased proportion of meiotic germ cells, as assessed by staining for histone γH2AX. Rotenone treatment also caused decreased ATP levels, increased reactive oxygen species levels and failure of the germ cells to undergo premeiotic DNA replication. These effects were partially rescued by adding Coenzyme Q10. Taken together, our results suggested that a functional electron transport chain is important for meiosis initiation. Our characterization of the quantitative proteome of female gonads provides an inventory of proteins, useful for understanding the mechanisms of meiosis initiation and female fertility. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Link between Hypoglycemia and Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Answer to Why Tight Glycemic Control May Increase Mortality in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  12. Process of tight junction recovery in the injured vocal fold epithelium: Morphological and paracellular permeability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Mizuta, Masanobu; Suehiro, Atsushi; Yamashita, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Tateya, Ichiro; Omori, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    The vocal fold epithelium that includes tight junction (TJ)-based barrier function protects underlying connective tissues from external insults. TJs play an important role to control paracellular permeability of not only solutes but also ions, and preserve the vocal fold homeostasis. However, the distribution of TJs and paracellular diffusion barrier across the entire vocal fold epithelium are still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of TJs in the vocal fold epithelium and to characterize the recovery process of TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier in a rat model of vocal fold injury. Animal experiments with controls. Normal and vocal fold-injured rats were used. Larynges were harvested for immunohistochemical examination of TJ proteins. For functional analysis, a tracer permeability assay was performed using EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin. TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens 1 signals were localized to the junctional regions of the most luminal cell layers of the vocal fold epithelium. The injured region had been recovered with epithelium at 5 days postinjury, but the paracellular diffusion barrier assays revealed that biotinylation reagents diffused into the lamina propria at 5 days postinjury, and were blocked at the epithelium at 14 and 28 days postinjury. It was strongly suggested that TJs in the vocal fold epithelium exist at the junctional regions of the first layer of stratified squamous epithelium. TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier following vocal fold injury is recovered by 14 days postinjury, and this period corresponds with the time course of structural changes in the regenerating epithelium layer. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E150-E156, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Empirical tight-binding modeling of ordered and disordered semiconductor structures; Empirische Tight-Binding-Modellierung geordneter und ungeordneter Halbleiterstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Daniel

    2010-11-30

    In this thesis, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of pure as well as of substitutionally alloyed II-VI and III-V bulk semiconductors and corresponding semiconductor quantum dots by means of an empirical tight-binding (TB) model. In the case of the alloyed systems of the type A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}, where A and B are the pure compound semiconductor materials, we study the influence of the disorder by means of several extensions of the TB model with different levels of sophistication. Our methods range from rather simple mean-field approaches (virtual crystal approximation, VCA) over a dynamical mean-field approach (coherent potential approximation, CPA) up to calculations where substitutional disorder is incorporated on a finite ensemble of microscopically distinct configurations. In the first part of this thesis, we cover the necessary fundamentals in order to properly introduce the TB model of our choice, the effective bond-orbital model (EBOM). In this model, one s- and three p-orbitals per spin direction are localized on the sites of the underlying Bravais lattice. The matrix elements between these orbitals are treated as free parameters in order to reproduce the properties of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction and can then be used in supercell calculations in order to model mixed bulk materials or pure as well as mixed quantum dots. Part II of this thesis deals with unalloyed systems. Here, we use the EBOM in combination with configuration interaction calculations for the investigation of the electronic and optical properties of truncated pyramidal GaN quantum dots embedded in AlN with an underlying zincblende structure. Furthermore, we develop a parametrization of the EBOM for materials with a wurtzite structure, which allows for a fit of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction throughout the whole Brillouin zone of the hexagonal system. In Part III, we focus on the influence of alloying on the electronic

  14. DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS AND SOURCES OF FUNDING ON HOTEL MARKET IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Semmerling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel market in Poland is related to trends on touristic market. This sector is developing dynamically, in Poland as in the whole world. In the years 2001-2014 numbers of hotels in Poland increased double. Most of new hotels are 4 and 5 stars. Important for new objects is building conference centres and SPA, which makes touristic season longer. Main source of finances hotel investments in Poland are own sources and EU funds. Crucial importance is the franchise. Forecasts for hotel market are really great. Till 2017 the count of tourists, who take advantage of hotels, should still increase.

  15. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  16. A surgical technique for lengthening tight hamstring muscles in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglès, F G; Manubens, X B; Anglès, F C

    1997-01-01

    An original technique for lengthening primary tight semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles in their proximal portion is presented. The authors consider that primary shortening of these muscles rebounds on hip biomechanics and on the spine kinematics chain.

  17. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

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    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  18. Wounds caused by tight contact with the barrel-cylinder gap of revolvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D R

    1984-06-01

    A case is presented in which the recognition of a tight cylinder gap contact wound was crucial. Experiments were carried out to reproduce the wound which was noted on the hand of a robbery suspect. Tight contact with the cylinder gap of a revolver produces a characteristic, readily recognizable wound. It is characterized by an L-shaped pattern of powder residue. Along one axis a searing burn may occur which may be deep and which may lead to significant tissue destruction.

  19. SUCCESSOR EFFECT IN FAMILY FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the literature and sectoral policy strategies, a generation change among farm managers is often linked with the expectations of positive developments in agriculture and rural areas. The farm succession is usually perceived as favourable for economic situation of farming families. As a consequence of this process diff erent methods of management are often implemented. The new farmer’s experiences, ideas and skills that could contribute to the development of production and improvement of its profi tability are also brought. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes that have occurred in the farms after succession. In total, among this group an increased number of actions aimed at the development of the agricultural businesses were not observed. However, analyses showed that among successors diff erent attitudes towards acquired production assets were observed. The empirical material used in the study were the results of the IAFE-NRI panel surveys conducted on a sample of more than 2,5 thousand of the same farms in 2000, 2005 and 2011.

  20. Adaptive tight frame based medical image reconstruction: a proof-of-concept study for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weifeng; Cai, Jian-Feng; Gao, Hao

    2013-01-01

    A popular approach for medical image reconstruction has been through the sparsity regularization, assuming the targeted image can be well approximated by sparse coefficients under some properly designed system. The wavelet tight frame is such a widely used system due to its capability for sparsely approximating piecewise-smooth functions, such as medical images. However, using a fixed system may not always be optimal for reconstructing a variety of diversified images. Recently, the method based on the adaptive over-complete dictionary that is specific to structures of the targeted images has demonstrated its superiority for image processing. This work is to develop the adaptive wavelet tight frame method image reconstruction. The proposed scheme first constructs the adaptive wavelet tight frame that is task specific, and then reconstructs the image of interest by solving an l 1 -regularized minimization problem using the constructed adaptive tight frame system. The proof-of-concept study is performed for computed tomography (CT), and the simulation results suggest that the adaptive tight frame method improves the reconstructed CT image quality from the traditional tight frame method. (paper)

  1. Active stretching for lower extremity muscle tightness in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    It was reported that hamstring muscle tightness may increase mechanical loading on the lumbar spine. Therefore, we attempt to decrease tightness in the leg muscles in pediatric patients. Forty-six pediatric patients with spondylolysis underwent rehabilitation. We applied active stretching to the hamstrings, quadriceps, and triceps surae. Tightness in each muscle was graded as good, fair, or poor. We educated each patient on how to perform active stretching at home. They were re-evaluated for muscle tightness 2 months later. Tightness at baseline and after 2 months was as follows: for the hamstrings, good in 3 patients, fair in 9, and poor in 34 and significant improved after 2 months (p<0.05), with improvement by least 1 grade seen in 86% of patients with fair or poor at baseline; for the quadriceps, 7, 3, and 30 patients had good, fair and poor, with significant improvements in 72% (p<0.05). For the triceps surae, 6, 3 and 10 patients had good, fair and poor, which improved significantly (p<0.05). Home-based active stretching was effective for relieving muscle tightness in the leg in a pediatric population. Adolescent athletes should perform such exercise to maintain flexibility and prevent lumbar disorders. J. Med. Invest. 64: 136-139, February, 2017.

  2. Injuries and disorders among young ice skaters: relationship with generalized joint laxity and tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinobu Okamura,1 Naoki Wada,1 Masayuki Tazawa,1 Makoto Sohmiya,1 Yoko Ibe,1 Toru Shimizu,1 Shigeru Usuda,2 Kenji Shirakura1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Gunma University School of Health Science, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan Abstract: This study retrospectively investigated 192 teenage speed and figure skaters with prior injuries documented by an athletes’ questionnaire, who underwent a physical examination to assess their muscle tightness and generalized joint laxity. In all athletes, the degree of muscle tightness and joint laxity were measured by a standardized physical examination. A descriptive report of the types of injuries showed a predominance of fractures, ligament injuries, enthesitis, and lower back pain. Approximately 5% of all skaters tested positive for tightness, while 25.8% of figure skaters and 15.2% of speed skaters had generalized ligamentous laxity. Statistical testing showed an association between ankle sprains and muscle tightness, and an association between knee enthesitis and muscle tightness in skating athletes. There was also an association between lower back pain and generalized joint laxity, which held true only for the male skaters. Keywords: sports injury, skating, junior athlete, tightness, joint laxity, medical checkup

  3. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and an inertial navigation system (INS. This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver’s dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  4. Leakage detecting method and device for water tight vessel of wet-type container apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshimi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for detecting leakage of a water tight vessel of a wet-type container apparatus for containing a reactor pressure vessel while immersing it water in a reactor container. Namely, in the wet-type container apparatus, the periphery of the pressure vessel is coated with a heat insulation material and the periphery of the heat insulation material is coated with a water tight vessel. The water tight vessel is immersed under water in the reactor container. As a method of detecting leakage of the wet-type container apparatus, gases mixed with helium are supplied into the water tight vessel at a pressure higher than the inner pressure of the reactor container at a lowest position of the reactor pressure vessel. A water level in the reactor container is determined so as to form a space at the top portion of the inside of the reactor container. The helium at the top portion is detected to monitor the leakage of the water tight vessel. With such procedures, even if the water tight vessel is ruptured at any position, helium mixed to the gases is released to water in the reactor container and rise up to the top space and detected by a helium leakage detection device. (I.S.)

  5. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Synopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Briggs, L; Elmeros, M.

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A.......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A....

  6. Hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in HIV patients and blood donors, west-central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bura

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Wielkopolska Region in west-central Poland is an area hyperendemic for HEV infection. In this part of Poland, the exposure of HIV-positive persons to this virus is not greater than that of healthy blood donors.

  7. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  8. Fire activity and hydrological dynamics in the past 5700 years reconstructed from Sphagnum peatlands along the oceanic-continental climatic gradient in northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Gałka, Mariusz; Pietrala, Patryk; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Obremska, Milena; Tobolski, Kazimierz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Fire is a critical component of many ecosystems and, as predicted by various climate models, fire activity may increase significantly in the following years due to climate change. Therefore, knowledge about the past fire activity of various ecosystems is highly important for future nature conservation purposes. We present results of high-resolution investigation of fire activity and hydrological changes in northern Poland. We analyzed microscopic charcoal from three Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located on the south of Baltic, on the oceanic-continental (west-east) climatic gradient, and reconstructed the history of fire in the last 5700 years. We hypothesize that air circulation patterns are highly important for local fire activity, and that fire activity is more intensive in peatlands influenced by continental air masses. We have found out that forest fires have been occurring regularly since the past millennia and were linked to climatic conditions. We show that fire activity (related to climate and fuel availability) was significantly higher in sites dominated by continental climate (northeastern Poland) than in the site located under oceanic conditions (northwestern Poland)-microscopic charcoal influx was 13.3 times higher in the eastern study site of the gradient, compared to the western study site. Recorded fire activity patterns were different between the sites in a long timescale. Moreover, most of the recorded charcoal peaks occurred during high water tables. Rising human pressure has caused droughts and water table instability, and substantial increase in fire activity in the last 400 years.

  9. Gas leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke, E-mail: hayasaka@oasis.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-Soo. [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE-SiC/SiC has extremely densified microstructure compared with other SiC/SiC composite like CVI. • Excellent helium and hydrogen gas-leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites by DEMO-NITE method from prototype industrialization production line was presented. • The excellence against stainless steel and Zircaloy at elevated temperature, together with generic excellent properties of SiC will be inevitable for innovative blanket and divertors for DEMO- and power- fusion reactors. - Abstract: SiC/SiC composite materials are attractive candidates for high heat flux components and blanket of fusion reactor, mainly due to their high temperature properties, radiation damage tolerance and low induced radioactivity. One of the challenges for SiC/SiC application in fusion reactors is to satisfy sufficient gas leak tightness of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Although many efforts have been carried-out, SiC/SiC composites by conventional processes have not been successful to satisfy the requirements, except SiC/SiC composites by NITE-methods. Toward the early realization of SiC/SiC components into fusion reactor systems process development of NITE-process has been continued. Followed to the brief introduction of recently developed DEMO-NITE process, baseline properties and hydrogen and helium gas leak tightness is presented. SiC/SiC claddings with 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in wall thickness are tested by gas leak tightness system developed. The leak tightness measurements are done room temperature to 400 °C. Excellent gas leak tightness equivalent or superior to Zircaloy claddings for light water fission reactors is confirmed. The excellent gas leak tightness suggests nearly perfect suppression of large gas leak path in DEMO-NITE SiC/SiC.

  10. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  11. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  12. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  13. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993...

  14. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  15. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  16. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Kubala, M.; Sciezor, T.

    1986-12-01

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137 Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  17. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    idCategory=34&idsub=180&id=10887&t=US+anti- missile+defense%3A+The+view+from+Poland [Accessed October 29, 2007]. 174 Tabassum Zakaria and Chris Borowski...files/bueros/china/04642.pdf [Accessed April 14, 2008]. Zakaria, Tabassum and Borowski, Chris. “Poland says U.S. shield a ‘foregone conclusion

  18. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  19. Gelatin Tight-Coated Poly(lactide-co-glycolide Scaffold Incorporating rhBMP-2 for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating is the simplest surface modification. However, bioactive molecules can not spread well on the commonly used polylactone-type skeletons; thus, the surface coatings of biomolecules are typically unstable due to the weak interaction between the polymer and the bioactive molecules. In this study, a special type of poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-based scaffold with a loosened skeleton was fabricated by phase separation, which allowed gelatin molecules to more readily diffuse throughout the structure. In this application, gelatin modified both the internal substrate and external surface. After cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, the surface layer gelatin was tightly bound to the diffused gelatin, thereby preventing the surface layer gelatin coating from falling off within 14 days. After gelatin modification, PLGA scaffold demonstrated enhanced hydrophilicity and improved mechanical properties (i.e., increased compression strength and elastic modulus in dry and wet states. Furthermore, a sustained release profile of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 was achieved in the coated scaffold. The coated scaffold also supported the in vitro attachment, proliferation, and osteogenesis of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, indicating the bioactivity of rhBMP-2. These results collectively demonstrate that the cross-linked-gelatin-coated porous PLGA scaffold incorporating bioactive molecules is a promising candidate for bone tissue regeneration.

  20. Trends in coal use - global, EU and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Wojciech; Wyrwa, Artur; Olkuski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    That aim of this paper is to compare trends in global, European use of coal with tendencies in Poland, one of heavy coal dependent countries. Polish power generation is unique among OECD countries, the share of both hard coal and lignite in power generation reaches 81% [1]. Climate policy of European Union is to phase out intensive greenhouse gases sectors, thus to transform Polish power generation into less carbon intensive. Although such policy is generally accepted in Poland, the paste and practically proposed regulation that excludes coal generation from capacity mechanisms, is considered as threat to energy security. Coal is the base for generation for one simple reason, abundant in European scale hard coal reserves and significant capacities in lignite. Natural gas reserves allow to supply about 1/3 of consumption, but prices and supplies dependent hitherto on contracts with GAZPROM did not allow to develop significant generation capacities. Renewable resources are limited, there is not much possibilities for hydro, wind and solar. Poland is also one of the countries of poor air quality, traditional coal based space heating systems plus obsolete car fleet generate vast emissions, especially during the winter. Only recently this became top priority of environmental authorities. This situation is subject to transformation, government, managers are aware that the role of coal needs to be decreased, but there are two main questions, the paste of transformation and the future energy mix. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the expected changes in Polish energy mix are comparable or differ from the global and European tendencies.