WorldWideScience

Sample records for poland spie the international

  1. The first SPIE software Hack Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  2. News from the Library: Advancing light - SPIE Digital Library accessible to CERN till 31 March 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers) is a not-for-profit international society which publishes one of the largest collections of applied optics and photonics research papers in the world: the SPIE Digital Library.   This resource includes more than 300,000 technical papers from SPIE journals, e-books and conference proceedings from 1990 to the present. The SPIE Digital Library covers many areas of interest for CERN users, such as astronomy, nanotechnology, sensors, lasers, electro-optics and imaging. The CERN Library has trial access to the complete resource till 31 March 2012, don't hesitate to give it a try! Access to the SPIE Digital Library here. We welcome any comment or question at library.desk@cern.ch.

  3. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  4. Sol-Gel Optics: Proceedings SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Held in San Diego, California on 11-13 July 1990. Volume 1328

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Bi2O 3 and TiO 2- CeO2 compositions M. A. Aegerter, E. R. La Serra, Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil); A. C. Martins Rodrigues, Univ. of Sao Carlos (Brazil); G...quite thin, imparting color to the film is acheived via scatterini efect: and not absorption. Yellow coatings of CeO2 -TiO 2 ndve beex. deposited on soda...distillation. Adding the inorganic acid to the slurry induced a gentle redispersion (peptization) of it into a fluid translucent suspension within a few hours at

  5. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  6. Poland as a Place for Study in the Experiences of International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Popow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconstruct and analyze the meanings of Poland as a place for study as given by international students. The paper presents results of my research project titled “Learning in a transnational environment”. Within the project, phenomenographic interviews with international students studying in Poland in the 2014-2015 academic year, were conducted. The paper presents the meanings given most frequently, as well as their interpretation. The last part of the paper presents the concept of global transition places, which is related to the findings of the study.

  7. Ministerial presentation: Poland [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewska, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    E. Wroblewska, on behalf of His Excellency J. Hausner, Minister of Economic Affairs and Labour, Poland, stated that in Poland the attitude of society to nuclear power is becoming more friendly. A recently produced document, Energy Policy of Poland until 2050, indicates the need to commence nuclear power exploitation around 2021

  8. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  9. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  10. The restructuring and internalization of retail trade in Poland between 1990 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring and internationalisation processes of retail trade in Poland were presented in the article. Two main aspects were taken into consideration: changes of shops number and entrance as well as development of foreign enterprises in the Polish market. Most transformations of domestic retail trade were initiated by foreign enterprises starting business in Poland. The pace of changes in the domestic retail trade visibly slowed down after 2002. In the successive years changes were continued, but they were slower and their character also changed.

  11. His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2018-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Zbigniew Czech, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  12. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  13. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies. What do trade figures tell us? The case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  14. Education Policy in Poland: The Impact of PISA (and Other International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Jakubowski, Maciej; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the PISA study on Polish education policy has been significant, but probably different from any other country. Poland has not experienced the so-called "PISA shock," but its education system has been benefiting considerably from PISA. For experts and policy makers, it has been a useful and reliable instrument that has made…

  15. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  16. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  17. 9 JUne 2016 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva Ambassador P. Stachańczyk signing the guest book with CERN Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Piotr Stachańczyk Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  18. Hospital antibiotic management in Poland--results of the ABS maturity survey of the ABS International group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Mazinska, Beata; Ozorowski, Tomasz; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance is a serious worldwide problem, as underlined by European Union documents. The project ABS International has been appointed to identify strengths and weaknesses of hospitals with regard to issues related to antibiotic policy. The questionnaire "ABS hospital mature" was developed within the study to analyze the ABS-related maturities in nine member states of the EU. Several fields of antibiotic strategy in hospitals were explored. In Poland the questionnaire was sent to over 100 hospitals and the responses were delivered to the National Medicines Institute (the project representative in Poland) via the internet. The hospitals involved represented three referral levels according to services provided. Within the hospital, the questionnaire was filled out by a microbiologist or an infectious disease specialist. Within the examined fields there were no serious differences between the referral levels. Microbial diagnostics obtained the highest score, whereas "antibiotic-related relationships" and "antibiotic-related personnel development" ranked lowest. Maturity in the field of the antibiotic strategy differs among Polish hospitals. The highest score in the general assessment was assigned to hospitals at secondary referral level. Knowledge on issues of antibiotic resistance and microbiological services and procedures obtained the highest score but its implementation was not sufficient. Results suggest a need to increase the number of specialists in antibiotic usage and policy, and to improve collaboration within and between hospitals.

  19. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  1. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  2. What aspects of the health technology assessment process recommended by international health technology assessment agencies received the most attention in Poland in 2008?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Dziomdziora, Malgorzata; Fajutrao, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which international standards on transparency and quality are met by the health technology assessment (HTA) process in Poland. A secondary objective is to describe the outcomes of the HTA process and their associated factors. All published online HTA appraisal and meeting proceedings on pharmaceutical products in 2008 were reviewed using a score card developed from international checklists recommended by INAHTA and ECHTA. The sixty-nine reports reviewed showed that five of nine transparency standards and six of eight quality standards were usually met by the HTA reports. Areas for improvement for transparency include inputs from external stakeholders, availability of English summaries, conclusions, implications of results, and suggested program of action. Areas of improvement for quality include appropriateness of target population and comparator/s, sufficiency of evidence on efficacy and safety, methodological rigor, economic model assumptions, and adaptation to the Polish setting. A consideration of the ethical and social consequences to the healthcare system must also be strengthened. The study demonstrates that the incorporation and implementation of the HTA appraisal process in Poland has been successful. HTA appraisal reports in Poland have considered most of the international standards of transparency and quality. Recommendations for both HTA users and doers are forwarded for the improvement of the HTA process in the Polish setting.

  3. actors of Success and Failure for International Retailers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florance Feldmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland. Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.

  4. [Malpractice in internal medicine in the case material of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Lódź, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerska, Małgorzata; Berent, Jarosław; Barzdo, Maciej; Markuszewski, Leszek; Szram, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Legal opinions in the area of internal medicine, opinionated by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Lódź, Poland in 2002, were selected for further analysis and assessment in the course of medical treatment. During this period opinions were given in 20 cases, most of which concerned cardiovascular, secondly respiratory, followed by, endocrine diseases. In half of the cases analyzed it was determined that medical treatment had been incorrect. All of the objectionable diagnostic and therapeutic procedures evidenced some form of decisional error. In most cases errors were made in the diagnosis, as a result of neglect in performing necessary examinations, or of erroneous interpretation of results obtained.

  5. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  6. Laser Beam Shaping XIII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8490

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available -ROM. Papers are published as they are submitted and meet publication criteria. A unique, consistent, permanent citation identifier (CID) number is assigned to each article at the time of the first publication. Utilization of CIDs allows articles to be fully... citable as soon as they are published online, and connects the same identifier to all online, print, and electronic versions of the publication. SPIE uses a six-digit CID article numbering system in which: ? The first four digits correspond to the SPIE...

  7. International Financial Reporting Standards vs. homo sovieticus personality the case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tobór-Osadnik, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to answer the question of whether the personality traits of Polish people predispose them to perform accounting tasks correctly, according to IFRS. The issue is worth considering, especially in the context of the syndrome (phenomenon of homo sovieticus. Homo sovieticus personality features ('Z' personality are present in Polish society to a great extent. From the conducted questionnaire survey, the conclusion can be drawn that the 'Z' personality often appears, but does not dominate, among Polish accountants. In the surveyed group consisting of 157 people, as many as 24% showed distinct (although with different intensity features of a worker with 'Z' personality (homo sovieticus.

  8. The Role of Government in Restoring International Competitiveness: the Case of Crisis Management in the Baltic States Economies versus Poland Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matysek-Jędrych

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between the government actions, global economic crisis, and competitiveness on a national and regional dimension. The Baltic States (i.e., Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have experienced one of the biggest Gross Domestic Product (GDP contractions during the Global Crisis so far. Meanwhile, Poland was the only country with a positive GDP growth in the European Union during the Global Crisis. Hence, identifying and assessing changes in the relative competitiveness, as a consequence of the economic downturn in both Baltic States and Poland, has sparked many interests.The main channel through which the crisis undermined competitiveness has been the macroeconomic situation. That is why employing single macroeconomic variables as proxies of competitiveness suggests a much stronger influence of the crisis on competitiveness in comparison to overall measures (e.g. Global Competitiveness Index. It may be generally concluded that a short-term crisis, even if severe, does not have a negative influence on international competitiveness as long as a proper anti-crisis policy is implemented and the country is small enough to react fast and adapt to new conditions in the global environment.

  9. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  10. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  11. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Poland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 1997, signed in Vienna on 30 September 1997, and entered into force on 5 May 2000

  12. Proceedings SPIE: Conference Digest, International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves (18th) Held in Colchester, United Kingdom on 6-10 September 1993. Volume 2104

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-10

    the magaetic field at the entrance of wiggler and the external focusing required to keep the electron beam from diaPering cil determine the Character...introduce a r regime instead, The general fit for intrinsic loss in Sap - phire is based on Eqs, 3-4 which can be written using the parameters of Tab, 1: tan8...results show excellent mLier performance up to f•equencies above the superconducting Sap of Nb. Goal is ie developmet of a I THr-mtLr, Best results show a

  13. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  14. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  15. INTERNAL REGULATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES OPERATING IN POLAND AND TRADITIONAL FAMILY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojara-Sobiecka Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the big companies have the internal regulations about human resources management. The bylaws in question are usually created in the reality of a particular legal system. When a company expands abroad, it starts operating in a different legal system than its own. As a result, the bylaws are not always compatible neither with laws nor the legal culture of the state of a new market. The paper touches upon the problem of the cohesion of internal regulations of some of the international companies operating in Poland with the traditional family model established in Polish law analyzing three areas such as: supporting parenting, family business, and preference for non-heterosexual persons. The conclusions are that some of the internal regulations are not coherent with Polish law, and some of the bylaws regarding, e.g., daycare or flexible working hours, can be adapted to Polish legal system. It (unclear what “it” is referring to would benefit traditional model of the family. The paper contains also the excursus about some legis-lative phenomenon regarding the reception of state law regulations issues by private companies and pos-tulates that the Polish legislator shall be open to new ideas in this matter and search for the well-tried regulations.

  16. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  17. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Poland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: International safety experts last week concluded a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Poland. In its preliminary report, the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team found that Poland's nuclear regulator, Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki (PAA), has a clear commitment to safety, a high level of transparency, competent staff and leadership, and a good recognition of challenges ahead related to Poland's efforts to develop nuclear power. ''Poland's regulatory framework and the work of PAA give high confidence of strong radiation protection for the Polish people. Further, there has been significant progress in the development of Poland's regulatory framework in preparation for the challenge of regulating nuclear power,'' said team leader Robert Lewis, a senior executive in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government of Poland from 15-25 April. The team was made up of 11 regulatory experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, the Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as five IAEA staff members. The IRRS review team was very thorough in its review, and we welcome its advice on how to continue to improve our programmes to protect people and the environment , said Janusz Wlodarski, President of PAA. The team interviewed members of PAA and officials from various ministries, as well as key players in the Polish safety framework. Such IRRS missions are peer reviews based on IAEA Safety Standards, not inspections or audits. Among its main observations the IRRS review team identified the following good practices: Applying the considerable experience of PAA's senior management to regulatory issues; The introduction of changes to Poland's laws and regulations following broad public consultation at an early stage in

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  19. Proceedings of the XIII International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science 2016, Ustroń-Jaszowiec, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Piszora, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research was prepared to present recent achievements in synchrotron radiation science and mark the 25th anniversary of the Polish Synchrotron Radiation Society (PSRS) which fell in 2016. It presents selected papers submitted after the 13th International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science (ISSRNS 2016) which was organized by PSRS in cooperation with the Adam Mickiewicz University. It is worth noting that PSRS is probably one of the earliest founded scientific societies focused on promoting the use of synchrotron radiation research (for details visit the PSRS home page: http://www.synchrotron.org.pl.

  20. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: What Do Trade Figures Tell Us? The Case of Poland and the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Mortensen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of these c......This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish and Czech economies has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products, these countries export to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports...... of these countries may therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly...

  1. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. I. The genus Parmotrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jabłońska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on four Parmotrema species in Poland, P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. perlatum and P. stuppeum. They are mainly known from southern part of the country, mostly in the Carpathians. P. perlatum is reported also from Northern Poland and Central Poland. For P. stuppeum, so far known from single locality only, three new sites are reported. All the species seem to be rare and endangered in Poland. This work is the first part of a larger series which will present data on selected genera of the lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland.

  2. Between Stalinism and Infrastructural Globalism. The International Geophysical Year (1957-8) in Czechoslovakia, Poland and the German Democratic Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka

    -, č. 115 (2017), s. 97-122 ISSN 0001-6829 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Eastern Europe * cold war science * infrastructural globalism Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  3. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the ne...... needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climateprotection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options....... to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissionstrading system.To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still...

  4. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  5. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  6. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products...... is still lagging substantial behind that of the EU-countries. The number of products where Poland competes in the export markets is increasing, but the quality level of new products is, in fact, less than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price...

  7. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  8. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  10. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  11. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  12. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  13. The LBTI Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) Survey: a Key NASA Science Program on the Road to Exoplanet Imaging Missions (SPIE Proceedings 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William C.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Haniff, C.; Hinz, P.; Kennedy, G.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, Aki; hide

    2014-01-01

    Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will survey nearby stars for faint exozodiacal dust (exozodi). This warm circumstellar dust, analogous to the interplanetary dust found in the vicinity of the Earth in our own system, is produced in comet breakups and asteroid collisions. Emission and or scattered light from the exozodi will be the major source of astrophysical noise for a future space telescope aimed at direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets (exo- Earths) around nearby stars. About 20 of nearby field stars have cold dust coming from planetesimals at large distances from the stars (Eiroa et al. 2013, AA, 555, A11; Siercho et al. 2014, ApJ, 785, 33). Much less is known about exozodi; current detection limits for individual stars are at best 500 times our solar system's level (aka. 500 zodi). LBTI-HOSTS will be the first survey capable of measuring exozodi at the 10 zodi level (3). Detections of warm dust will also reveal new information about planetary system architectures and evolution. We will describe the motivation for the survey and progress on target selection, not only the actual stars likely to be observed by such a mission but also those whose observation will enable sensible extrapolations for stars that will not be observed with LBTI. We briefly describe the detection of the debris disk around Crv, which is the first scientific result from the LBTI coming from the commissioning of the instrument in December 2013, shortly after the first time the fringes were stabilized.

  14. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  15. Social Activation of the Elderly in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Artykuł wpłynął do redakcji 21.08.2015; po recenzjach zaakceptowany 21.04.2016. The issue concerning activation of the elderly is mainly presented in raports or special programmes aimed at preventing the seperation of senior citizens from the society. The examination of social activity among the old is frequently conducted in scientific literature.The first part of this research paper focuses on the selected ways and forms of social activation of older people in Poland, including Senior in...

  16. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  17. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-08

    Implementation in MSC/ NASTRAN The IMSM, DRBM, and IRBM were implemented in Version 66 of MSC/ NASTRAN . New DMAP capabilities of Version 66 were employed...rigid core body and two flexible solar panels. The solar panel is modeled in NASTRAN using bar and membrane finite elements. "The satellite is initially...sx seg- mented mirro.rs -sn.adanped moides were calculated up!,, 100 ltlz using MSC ’ NASTRAN Since, actual inrput ferces were’ iunktiwn, equal :atid

  18. 3rd International School of Trigger and Data Acquisition - Cracow (Poland), 1 – 8 February 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    Yi Ling

    2011-01-01

    After two successful editions of the International School of Trigger and Data Acquisition (ISOTDAQ), the ISOTDAQ 2012 is the third of a series of this International School dedicated to introduce MSc and PhD students to the arts and crafts of triggering and acquiring data for physics experiments. The school will be held from 1 – 8 February 2012 in the Cracow University of Technology and Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, PolandThe school provides an up-to-date overview of the basic instruments and methodologies used in high energy physics, spanning from small experiences in lab to the very large LHC experiments, spotting the main building blocks as well as the different solutions and architectures at different levels of complexity. The main topics of the school include the basics of Data Acquisition (DAQ) programming concepts (e.g. threaded programming, data storage, networking, IO programming), hardware bus systems (VME bus, PCI), Trigger logic and Hardware (NIM). PC based readout...

  19. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  20. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  1. The First 25 Years of Computers in Education in Poland: 1965 – 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Sysło , Maciej ,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The first regular informatics lessons in schools were organised in Poland in the second half of the 1960s. Some of the lessons in Wrocław were devoted to programming a mainframe computer located at the university, and school students in Warsaw had a chance to learn theoretical models of computers and foundations of computations.In the mid-1970s, the government of Poland recognised the importance of computers in the state economy and also in preparing the society for ne...

  2. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  3. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  4. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  5. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  6. Drug addiction problem in Poland in relation to international comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Anna, Kowalczyk; Olga, Dąbska; Martyna, Warchoł; Rafał, Gotowski

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that increasing drug problem is caused by global and multicultural changes, as well as infiltration of trends from more developed European countries. Effects of drug abuse are alarming, among others in development of psychoses, depressive and anxiety conditions, as well as viscera defects – mainly kidneys, liver, hematopoietic necrosis. The problem of drug addiction regards also people from the sick environment, because by their behavior affects destructively on the oth...

  7. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Hauff, J.

    2000-09-01

    refineries, and with them the growing CO 2 emissions from transport, seem possible. Such a pilot program would allow firms and the policy maker to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissions trading system. To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climate protection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options. (au)

  8. Chrysophycean stomatocysts from Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes in the Tatra National Park, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cabała

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen chrysophycean stomatocysts are reported from the lakes Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko in the Tatra National Park, Poland. Of these, six morphotypes are new to Poland, and two morphotypes plus one forma are new to science. These stomatocysts are illustrated with SEM micrographs and described according to International Statospore Working Group (ISWG guidelines. The comparison of stomatocyst community between Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes is given.

  9. The development of power engineering in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litorowicz, J.; Reymann, Z.; Steller, K.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the substantial rise in prices for mineral fuels and raw materials, along with searches for new energy sources, Poland (PNR) has begun works to restore and modernize those sources which in economic aspects were considered unprofitable, including low power hydroelectric power plants (GES). The development of such hydroelectric power plants must also be reevaluated from the ecological aspect. The ecological significance of a hydroelectric power plant lies in preventing a further lowering of the ground waters, the use of cascades for holding high water and for regulating its drainage with a threat of flooding, oxygen enrichment of water, prevention of erosion and silting of rivers, purification of water currents using protective grids with a favorable effect on the forests and the fishing industries located along the water currents used and the creation of conditions for relaxation, sports and turism. The restoration of hydraulic turbines is the basic condition for outfitting the hydroelectric power plants. Different designs for such turbines relative to the assigned capacity are examined.

  10. The Impact of Trust on Entrepreneurship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Młokosiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global rankings of generalized trust, Poland occupies a lowly positon. Only 1/3 of Poles have a strong trust in strangers and roughly the same number believe that trust in business generally pays of. At the same tme, only half of them believe that a market economy based on private enterprise is the best economic system for the country. According to the literature review a major factor in the development of entrepreneurship is trust in other economic actors. The aim of the artcle is to present the relaton between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland. In this paper the hypothesis was adopted that the level of trust in the public sphere, especially in business relatons in Poland, had an impact on the intensity of entrepreneurial actvites. The analysed period comprises the years from 2002 to 2016. The artcle presents changes in the potental for social trust, including trust in business. Indicators of confdence include the percentage of people that have trust in diferent actors in Poland. A further part of the paper is devoted to the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in Poland. Among the indicators of entrepreneurship are the number of newly registered and deregistered enttes, and enttes that are new or deregistered from the REGON register per 10 thousand of populaton. Moreover, the innovaton actvity of enterprises in Poland has been described. At the end, relatons between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland were examined. The data was analysed statstcally with Pearson’s correlaton coefcients. The analysis of confdence and entrepreneurship is based mainly on the data published by the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce and Public Opinion Research Centre.

  11. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  12. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  13. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  14. Legislative proposal for a controlled foreign companies regime in Poland from an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Małgorzata Hybka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tackling corporate profit shifting requires appropriate anti-avoidance measures. This article reviews one of these measures, a controlled foreign companies (corporations regime. It has been implemented in many countries, in some of them as early as the 1960s. The need for its introduction has also been expressed on many occasions by the Polish legislator. The article is composed of three sections. The first considers the reasons for the implementation of the analyzed regime. The second describes the controlled foreign corporation legislation in the USA and selected European Union member states. The last section is devoted to a bill on taxing controlled foreign companies in Poland.

  15. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  16. The benefits and costs of IFRS implementation in Polandthe investors’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of earlier studies analysed the process as well as the consequences of implementing Interna- tional Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Poland. Prior research concentrated mainly on the impact of IFRS implementation on the financial reporting of companies in Poland and market reaction to the application of IFRS. Not much attention has been given to the attitudes of different groups of accounting information users and other interested parties towards the change of reporting standards in Poland. The aim of this study is to determine how investors perceive IFRS adoption by firms in Poland. Do they see any advantages of financial statements being prepared under IFRS and not under the Polish Accounting Act after more than 10 years from the introduction of the mandatory application of IFRS for certain companies? Has the application of IFRS to the preparation of financial statements increased the scope of useful financial information for investors? Has the quality of the information presented in financial state- ments changed in any way? Finally, should the mandate to use IFRS in Poland be extended? A survey was used to obtain answers to the above questions. In the opinion of investors, the adoption of IFRS for firms has increased the comparability and usefulness of financial statements and also enhanced the pro- tection of their interests but it has not contributed to their investment decisions or the possibility to make profit forecasts. The switch to IFRS – in the perception of the respondents – failed to reduce the infor- mation asymmetry between the external and internal users of accounting information. The impact of chang- ing accounting standards on capital market liquidity failed to be unequivocally assessed.

  17. An annotated checklist of the Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive compilation of 764 taxa (species and subspecies, distributed over 167 genera, belonging to 17 subfamilies, three families and three superfamilies of Aphidomorpha recorded to date from Poland. The systematic positions of 19 taxa have been revised in accordance with recent changes in nomenclature. The presence in the Polish aphidofauna of Drepanosiphum oregonensis and Coloradoa huculaki, previously included without any distribution data in checklists of Polish aphids, has been confirmed. One species Sitobion (Sitobion alopecuri is recognized as being new to Poland. At least 44 species (6% of local fauna of Aphidomorpha are alien to Poland; among them 11 species collected from plants imported or cultivated in indoor conditions are listed.

  18. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  19. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  20. Using of the banking services by individual farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the structure and dynamics of credit indebtedness of agricultural holdings and farmers’ bank deposits in Poland in 1996-2009. The aim of this article was to describe the financial relationships agricultural holdings with banks, and characteristics farmers as purchasers of banking services, including the identification of specific attitudes and behaviours of farmers in the banking market, which differ from other groups of bank customers (non-agricultural entrepreneurs, individuals. Agricultural holdings were analysed as a sector. The source of empirical data were statistics of NBP (National Bank of Poland, GUS (Central Statistical Office and FADN.

  1. Warsaw Pact: The Question of Cohesion. Phase II, Volume 2. Poland, German Democratic Republic and Romania,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Napoleonic * wars), tales of past insurrections, and the music of Chopin . Historical conflicts with Poland’s major neighbours * have been accompanied by...Soviet invasion) would be known in Moscow within 1 90 hours . At any rate, a certain percentage of the professional cadre and riot control and internal...detail in the autobiographical story of a philosophy student, drafted in the 70s, who also discusses negative attitudes towards the draft and the

  2. Educational Struggles and Citizenship Education. The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika; Sáez-Rosenkranz, Isidora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the relation between educational struggles and citizenship education in contemporary Poland. It adopts the critical pedagogy perspective and broadly defines the concept of educational struggle as struggling over the content of education, as social tensions in the field of education, as well as the students' and…

  3. A Brief Overview of the History of Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzynska, Katarzyna; Anczewska, Marta; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Poland's complex history strongly influenced the development of educational system. Together with the Catholic church, formal and informal education helped to preserve national identity and prepare society for future independence during the partition period. In the communist era, education was the chief mode of restructuring the society and…

  4. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  5. The first locality of Chalciporus rubinus (Boletales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalciporus rubinus (W.G. Sm. Singer, described in 1868 from England, was found in a city park in Wrocław. This is the first record of the species from Poland. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated. The delimitation of Ch. rubinus, the knowledge of its distribution, ecology and conservation status is summarised.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  7. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  8. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  9. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. II. The genus Cetrelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kukwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the genus Cetrelia in Poland, four taxa have been identified, two of which, C. chicitae and C. monachorum, are reported for the first time from the country. All taxa differ in chemistry and subtle morphological characters. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in Poland (237 records, whereas C. chicitae is known only from 6 records. All taxa are endangered, and three, C. cetrarioides, C. chicitae and C. olivetorum, appear to be critically so, thus deserving the category CR; although C. monachorum is the most frequent, it is not common and should be treated as endangered (EN. The distribution of all taxa, their habitat requirements, as well as morphology and secondary chemistry, are discussed.

  10. Transforming the educational style of the working class in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRZEMYSŁAW SADURA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the impact of the introduction of lower secondary schools on the educational style of the working classes in Poland. This particular reform is seen as one of the elements of change to the education system adapting it to the general parameters of post-Fordism. The author supports the theory of Pierre Bourdieu, which states that society is divided into three social classes (upper, middle and popular and each of them produces a specific lifestyle and style of education. The education style of a class provides individuals with certain dispositions to educational institutions and school careers, which are realised in the form of social practices (selection of specific type of schools, learning techniques, ways of spending time, etc.. The changes taking place in the education system in Poland over the last 15 years, i.e. since the 1999 reform, are similar to processes that occurred in the 1980s and 1990s in western countries. They include the economisation of education, the parameterisation and quantification of educational results, as well as the introduction of market mechanisms for managing and financing state-owned schools. The article is based on individual in-depth interviews conducted during two field studies organised in 2013–2014: Cultural practices of the working class (120 IDIs and Class differences in cultural practices in the North-Eastern Poland (60 IDIs. The findings become the basis of formulating new theoretical and research proposals for the field of education.

  11. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  12. International conference “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective” (Kraków, Poland, 20–22 Oct., 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pudłocki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Intellectuals and the First World War: Central European Perspective”, a conference organized on October 20–22, 2016 in Kraków, was a perfect opportunity to discuss the phenomenon of the 1914–1918 conflict and its impact on the lives of intellectuals and the creators of culture. Many important scientific studies or cultural activities were interrupted by the war as a result of the conscription of the intellectuals and their death either on the WW1 fronts or as civilian victims. On the other hand, the war was also an opportunity for many to redirect professional careers in new directions e.g. in the service of military propaganda. The conference was organized by the Institute of History of the Jagiellonian University with the financial support of the Kraków City Council – City of Kraków. The conference brought together nearly 30 speakers from the European Union and the United States of America.

  13. Electret filters, production and properties; proceedings of the international workshop on electret filters, production and properties, Warsaw, Poland, January 29 and 30, 1999.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenhouse, J.I.T.; Gradon, L.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    particulate matter from a gas stream. Rational design of the filtration process should be based on reliable prediction of the effluent concentration and pressure drop for a given set of operating conditions. Moreover, both of these main filter parameters vary in time when a fibrous structure becomes

  14. Museums of Poland: ways of exploiting the National Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the fellowship Thesaurus Poloniae provided by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage of Poland and the International Cultural Centre Krakow I was able to visit a number of museums in the cities of Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz, and Poznan. The innovative method of using audiovisual media has especially attracted my attention. Visiting Polish museums, I concluded that the country's history, its past hasn't remained in archives, in documents hidden from the public eye and accessible only to specialists in the field. By possibilities of museums upgraded the past comes alive as a page in the life of Poles. The national heritage, studied and carefully preserved, is passed on to the younger generation through the most advanced methods. Today, digital techniques increasingly penetrate into all spheres of art and culture. Museums also look for non-trivial ways to demonstrate the most valuable objects from their collections through the latest information methods. The use of audiovisual media in various forms is an ideal opportunity to immerse visitors in the distant past, help them survive dramatic historical events in a dynamic, penetrate the spirit of patriotism. The screen (monitor has become a traditional element in Polish museums and exhibition halls equipped with touch screens allowing guests to browse and receive a variety of available information in international communication languages (English, French, German and, of course, Polish. On the screens placed in the exhibition halls, documents are displayed non-stop either completely or in fragments, a visual picture sends visitors to real museum exhibits. Museums opened after 2000 are equipped with cinema halls (National Museum, The Warsaw Rising Museum and POLIN Museum, Rynek Underground Museum and Oscar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Krakowб etc., some of them are equipped for films in 3D, with panoramic projection. Expressive audiovisual entourage is created by playing light and shadow

  15. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  16. Impact of FDI on the Economic Development of Serbia and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Mitrovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments are crucial for economic growth. In the contemporary environment of intensive international financial connections and with the expansion of transnational companies a substantial part of investments are made by foreign companies. Beneficial factors for foreign direct investments are natural resources, geographical position, specifics of the labour force, the technology level and other specifics for certain country conditions. The intensive globalisation process in recent decades contributed to an easier movement of capital by cutting restrictions. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of FDIs in Serbia and Poland and their role in economic growth, as well as the effects they create in local economies. This paper will show a comparative analysis between Serbia and Poland regarding the impact of FDIs on the economic development of both countries.

  17. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  18. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  19. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  20. Tyhula subvariabilis new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dynowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhula subvariabilis Berthier is a new species in the mycoflora of Poland. U has been discovered on the leaves of Corylus avellana L. at Wójtowo near Olsztyn. Considering the morphology and anatomy of the fruit bodies the presented species resemble those of T. variabilis Riess (B e r t h i e r, 1976. The most significant differences between the two species concern the structure of the sclerotia (Dynowska, 1986.

  1. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  2. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  3. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  4. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  5. The determinants of Polish movies’ box office performance in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Gmerek

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of financial performance of movies produced in Poland between 2000 and 2011. To understand the reason for a motion picture’s success in the theatrical channel various factors concerning total domestic box office performance were regressed from the box office results of 207 movies. This study proposes that the success of a movie can be determined by three elements: product attributes, distribution-related variables and information sources. The results ...

  6. 6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

  7. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  8. Materials for the flora of myxomycetes of central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kalinowska-Kucharska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the Myxomycetes flora in the environment of Łódź. A collection made between 1967-1972 contains 58 species an 3 varieties. Among Myxomycetes found in this territory are species rare in Poland: Badhamia affinis Rost, Comatrichia pulchella (Bab. Rost., Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt., Lycogala conicum Pers., Lycogala exiguum Morgan, Trichia incospicua Rost. and Trichia olivacea (Maylan Krzem.

  9. Anaphylaxis in Poland: the epidemiology and direct costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Jahnz-Rozyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epidemiological data on anaphylaxis have been underestimated both in Poland and worldwide. Aim : To evaluate the prevalence of anaphylaxis in Poland, including a classification by gender, age and residential region. Material and methods : The data used in the analysis were derived from two sources, the National Health Fund records of healthcare services for 2008–2015 (official statistics and a questionnaire-based survey conducted in 2015 on a sample of 305 allergists practicing in different regions of Poland. Results : In 2015, 3144 people received treatment for anaphylactic shock (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, T88.6 with an estimated prevalence rate of anaphylaxis of 8.2 per 100,000 (8.4 for females and 7.9 for males. The highest prevalence rate was found for women aged 50–54 years (14.5 per 100,000. There was a very large difference in the prevalence of anaphylaxis between rural and urban areas (13.1 vs. 0.8 per 100,000. In 2015, the Polish NHF spent PLN 3.5 million (EUR 835,000 on the management of anaphylaxis. Of the allergists surveyed, 73% had been currently managing patients who had experienced anaphylactic shock. The most common causes of anaphylaxis included insect venom (41.4%, food (29.8% and drugs (17.4%. Conclusions : A central anaphylaxis registry should be established in Poland. This is the only approach that would allow collecting a wide range of reliable information on the cases, management and consequences of anaphylaxis. Ongoing management of patients who have experienced anaphylactic shock should be improved.

  10. ANALYSIS OF CRIME RATE DETERMINANTS IN THE SUBREGIONS OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kądziołka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine relationships between crime rate and socio – economic, demographic and environmental factors in the subregions of Poland. There was used Ward’s method to reduce number of factors and make a choice of explanatory variables used in econometric models. There were compared results of different methods of choice explanatory variables. The worst fitted to empirical data was model where ex-planatory variables were chosen using gravity center method.

  11. The role of transport sector in CO2 reduction in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skwierz Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction from the atmosphere, resulting from the International Treaties signed by Poland is a serious challenge that requires a complex action in all economy sectors. The UE action plan towards low carbon economy is in line with conclusions of the 21st UN Climate Change Conference (COP21, held in Paris in 2015. The current EU climate and energy objective is to reduce its GHG emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. The transportation must play a vital role in achieving the target. The transport sector in Poland now is responsible for 15% of the total domestic CO2 emissions and this share is expected to grow as a consequence of economic development. The potential for CO2 reduction in this sector is significant. Unlocking this potential can be beneficial for the Polish economy and rational in terms of cost. For example, it would help to stem dependence on oil import, contribute to air quality improvement and accelerate the process of transport infrastructure modernization. Defining the pathways of the future development of the transport sector in Poland under given environmental restrictions requires extensive analysis and appropriate tools to evaluate the effectiveness of various policy instruments, which affect the level of demand and consequently the GHG emissions. In the article, a new “bottom-up” energy model has been proposed to make such assessments. The model, named STEAM-PL (Set of Tools for Energy Demand Analysis and Modeling, has been elaborated to predict future energy demand and emissions of pollutants based on long-term economy and policy scenarios in all economy sectors in Poland. The paper presents the methodological basis for the construction of the model and shows the results obtained for different scenarios concerning the future development of the transport sector.

  12. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Proceedings of SPIE - the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ocean Optics 12 Held in Bergen, Norway on 13-15 June 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-15

    conditions of mineral nutrition shortage,’ Moscow Univ. Physics Bulletrin, vol. 47(4), pp.47-53, 1992. 4. R.M. Greene, R.J. Geider, Z. Kolber, and P.O...substance formation by Mayar reaction between dissolved aminoacides and hydrocarbons after its transition from sinking dead phytoplankton cells into

  14. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  15. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  16. European Union. European Commission: Poland referred to the EU Court of Justice for not fully implementing the AVMS Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June 2012, the European Commission released a press statement announcing its intent to refer Poland to the EU Court of Justice. The Commission explained that Poland had failed to fully implement the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMS Directive).

  17. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  18. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  19. Greening of Industry in the Baltic States and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-01-01

    The industries in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland struggle to adapt to European standards of energy and environment. The Norwegian Energy Efficiency Group (NEEG) is establishing a network for the food processing industries in these four countries. The goal is to make this sector more energy efficient and friendly to the environment before the countries join the EU in 2004. The four countries have defined five strategic goals for the industry: (1) Improved environment, (2) Energy efficiency, (3) Reduced consumption of natural resources, (4) Production of ''safe food'' and (5) Competitive power on the EU market and at home

  20. Depletion of abiotic resources in the steel production in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking processes consume a lot of energy and materials, therefore researchers are constantly looking for new ways of reducing the consumption of resources in the production processes. The main purpose of the article is to present abiotic resource depletion the in steel production in the case of integrated steelmaking route in Poland and its role in life cycle assessment. There are different methods of life cycle assessment for abiotic resources, the use of which affects the quality of the obtained information. The article presents some results of life cycle assessment of abiotic depletion.

  1. Directions in the development of business tourism in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Abram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Business tourism in Poland has been developing since the 1990s, when the political regime changed. It is one of the many areas that has been subject to change after the historic year of 1989. However, it gained greater importance in the 21st century. Special attention was to this type of tourism and the product, as, compared to typical tourism oriented towards sightseeing and leisure, business tourists spend more money on travel, as well as in the destination itself, they are the target market for many business entities, and business travel movement takes place throughout the year, fending off the effects of seasonality.

  2. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  3. The first record of Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paratenuisentis ambiguus, an acanthocephalan originating from North America,is an alien species parasitising the European eel Anguilla anguilla. It was first recorded in Lake Lebsko,on the central coast of Poland. The report gives morphometric measurements of male and female P. ambiguus from this locality. Because of the spread of the intermediate host Gammarus tigrinus andthe appearance of new adults in eels along the southern Baltic Coast, P. ambiguus is evidently able to complete its life cycle in Baltic coastal waters.

  4. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  5. The Rise of Private Higher Education in Poland. Policies, Markets and Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duczmal, W.

    2006-01-01

    The rationale for this study lies in our wish to understand the rapid rise of private higher education in Poland and the effects this has had on the dynamics of the Polish higher education system as a whole. After 1989, the year when Poland was freed of its communist ties, Polish higher education,

  6. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  7. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  8. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  9. Innovations in Tourism Policy: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek W. Kozak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness depends to a large extent on innovation. This is true about tourism also. This article focuses on the differences in innovations implemented in the field of tourism policy. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the differences in innovations in tourism policy. The key hypothesis suggests that in the countries undergoing the process of transformation, introduction of innovations is difficult and depends to a large extent on the capability to adopt the new post-industrial tourism paradigm. Poland serves here only as an exemplification of this phenomenon. An additional hypothesis suggests that public policy employs in practice more often “goal substitution” (instead of complex and demanding goals; for instance modernization or renovation instead of urban regeneration or culture or tourism, whereas the business sector is more product-oriented (in line with the new post-industrial paradigm. The article analyses public 2007-2013 strategies (and, to some extent, projects for 2014-2020, but first of all it compares the implementation of the strategy within the operational programs and in private sector activities. Finally, referring to Poland as part of the European Union, the paper proposes that new EU regulations may bring a change in non-product approach to tourism development policy.

  10. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied.

  11. The bioeconomy in Poland within the context of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the potential of the development of bioeconomy in Poland in the context of the European Union (EU). The analyses take into account the concept of bioeconomy, the overview of documents referring to the bioeconomy in the EU, including policy frameworks and agendas. Many countries including Poland emphasise the importance of bioeconomy, but have not yet developed a complex strategy. The state of bioeconomy in Poland is characterised by the sectors of agriculture, forestry and food production, as well as parts of the chemical, biotechnology and energy industries. In 2014 the global production volume in the Polish bioeconomy amounted to PLN 343 billion with the sector employing almost 3 million staff. However, the structure of the bioeconomy is dominated by traditional sectors, such as agriculture and agro-food industries. This article presents the analysis of research and development activity in Poland from 2009 to 2015. It reports the position of Poland on GMOs and their future development potential. It is worth mentioning that many EU states including Poland have declared themselves as being "GMO-free countries". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INSURANCE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to show the role of business insurance in the Polish national economy. The fi rst part presents an overview of the insurance market. In the second part the importance of insurance in the national economy is discussed, based on calculated penetration rates, insurance density, activity monitoring, coverage ratio and solvency ratio. Finally the density and penetration rates in Poland were compared with those in other EU countries. The primary research method was descriptive method and the basic indicators of the importance of insurance in the national economy. The main source materials were data from the Central Statistical Offi ce, the Polish Financial Supervision Authority and the Polish Insurance Association. This study covers the period 2006–2014. The study confi rmed a good standing of the Polish insurance market and the fact that it systematically reduces the distance that separates the Polish insurance market from the largest European markets.

  13. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  14. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  15. The lichen-forming fungi of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of Xanthoparmelia pulla group in Poland. The morphological and chemical analysis of herbarium materials confirmed the presence of four species of this group reported from Poland before. The study however, revealed considerable changes it the partiuclular species distribution. X. verruculifera, so far considered the most endangered species in the country, turned out to be the most frequent taxon. X. loxodes, regarded as common, has much less known localities than previously thought. This species was usually confused with X. verruculifera. Xanthoparmelia pulla is the rarest species and should be considered critically endangered in Poland. Most specimens of X. pulla collected in the country belong to X. delisei, which so far had only two historical records in Poland. All these taxa are characterized in terms of morphology, the content of secondary metabolites, ecology and distribution.

  16. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  17. The expected model of a cadastre in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Ciak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cadastre is a based on a cadastral map official register of land, property and other utilities that constitute subjects of taxation as well as the source of information on cadastral objects. As indicated in the reference books, it constitutes an institution of law, which in the social perception is seen as providing legal order in the scope of establishing the range of laws, of the sense of security resulting from the fact of the entering of the subjects of taxation and the possibility to exert one’s rights under the registration proceedings. However, the current shape of the register does not meet social expectations. The suggested reform of the taxation of property in Poland (cadastre meets numerous obstacles such as a formal and legal, political, financial or social barrier.

  18. [The need of prenatal public health initiatives in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2012-11-01

    The author emphasizes the achievements of the Polish Gynecological Society in the field of improving the health indicators concerning perinatal mortality among infants during the last two decades in Poland. Attention is paid to the contribution of the members of the Society to organizational change in Polish health care after 1990, which resulted in the improvement of the care of mother and child. It is also underlined that the members of the Society contributed to the creation of early detection system of breast and cervical cancer in Poland. However it is noteworthy that in 'Polish Gynecology' - the publication of the Polish Gynecological Society - the number of reports devoted to risky health behaviors of women during periconceptional period and pregnancy is scarce. The author draws attention to the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol before and during pregnancy Emphasis is also placed on the problem of nutritional disorders (mainly pathological methods of dieting) among Polish women during the reproductive period and in the first weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed). These aspects may result in epigenetic changes shaping the phenotype of the offspring. The author refers to the Barker's theory of Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and warns that the above-mentioned health behaviors of women may bring about negative effects for the offspring and future generations, namely susceptibility to chronic diseases: arterial hypertension, obesity type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Negative effects for the health of offspring may also result from low level of physical activity of women before and during pregnancy The author concludes that it is necessary to intensify the efforts of the Polish Gynecological Society in the area of prenatal public health.

  19. An Empirical Assessment of the Risk of Carbon Leakage in Poland - Working Paper No. 08/13,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a particularly carbon intensive economy. This has created concern that it may be particularly exposed to carbon leakage. However, there is an absence of robust and transparent empirical research on carbon leakage risks in Poland. This study aims at filling this gap by assessing the impact of EU climate policy, in particular the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, on Polish industry. With no mitigating measures, a small number of Polish industrial sectors would face significant carbon costs. However, with free allocation, banked surplus allowances and a carbon price of euros 30/ton, only one sector would face direct carbon costs in excess of 5% of operating profits. Three sectors face direct carbon costs in the order of 1-3% of operating profits; three face no direct carbon costs. With direct compensation for indirect carbon costs (electricity price increases), the two most affected sectors would face indirect costs of 3.5 to 5.5% of gross value added with a carbon price of euros 30/ ton. The vast majority of Poland's trade in energy intensive sectors occurs within the EU. It is important to maintain a harmonized climate policy to avoid internal market distortions. There is thus a negligible risk of carbon leakage in Poland under current policy. The mitigating measures in the EU Directive remove the vast majority of direct and indirect carbon costs for Polish industry. EU climate policy can be made more stringent without inducing risks of significant carbon leakage. The current benchmarking system appears to be reasonably effective at not structurally disadvantaging less carbon efficient Member States like Poland. And it is vital to maintaining a harmonized climate policy. Finding a harmonized way to address indirect carbon costs may unlock Polish support for future policy. (authors)

  20. The potential possibilities of usage of existing aerodromes and landing strips network in Poland in aspect of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna KWASIBORSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of passenger transport, being made in recent years, indicate that Poland is one of the fastest developing countries in Europe, also in this aspect. It is envisaged that GA traffic will increase until 2012 by approximately 4 % annually. More and more people use air transport, the amount of available connections is increasing as well as the amount of passengers served. Such development we owe, first of all, to entering Poland into the European Union and full opening of polish airspace. All this constitute great opportunity to firms and air traffic operators but also considerable challenge in the form of necessary adaptation of infrastructure to market demands. It is assumed that further development of air transport in Poland will be supported by liberalization of air traffic law regulations, both domestic and international, including liberalization of international agreements, which would make possible construction of new airports, opening new connections and entering into polish marketplace new air carriers. Indispensable condition of proper utilization of growth potential is constant development of airport infrastructure and increasing effective usage of airspace in a way, which ensures necessary capacity to intensifying air traffic.

  1. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  2. Thyroid dose from 131 iodine of the population in Poland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzesniak, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    The following studies were carried out in the period from 28 April to 20 June 1986 in the Central Laboratory of radiological Protection (C.L.O.R.) in Poland: atmosphere monitoring in the period from 28 April to 22 May evaluating 131 I environmental concentration with the percentage of iodine in elementary, aerosol and organic compound form; determination of thyroid dose in 1049 persons from mine regions in Poland [fr

  3. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  4. INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE ECOLOGICAL NETWORK AND URBANIZED AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA ZWIERZCHOWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

  5. PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE AS A SOURCE OF FINANCING THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rodzinka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The medical services market in Poland is financed mainly with funds from national health insurance, yet year by year, an increasing importance of private resources in financing health services can be noticed. Apart from common (national health insurance, medical care is primarily financed directly by the patient and possibly by his employer (occupational medicine, additional private medical care. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic legal and market aspects of private health insurance in Poland, including a presentation of the structure of private healthcare expenses in Poland.

  6. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krodkiewska, M. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Hydrobiology

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  7. The development of hydro power in Poland. The most important hydro engineering facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country with scarce water resources, which places it in this regard at the end of the list of European countries. Also the capacity of retention reservoirs in Poland is very small compared to other neighbouring European countries, and does not exceed 6% of the average annual runoff from its territory. This results in the low hydropower potential. What is more, this low potential is used to a limited extent only, in contrast to most European countries. The first hydropower facilities were built in Poland in the interwar period. The development of hydropower facilities intensified in Poland after World War II. They were the low and high head plants, but also facilities with equilibrium reservoirs and reversible units. After World War II, in Poland, within its new borders, there were a lot of small hydropower plants, which initially were ignored by utility companies and were devastated. Later, they were gradually activated. The construction of new facilities, modernization of existing ones, as well as reconstruction of those degraded, are often obstructed by significant ecological restrictions. This paper presents these processes and describes the major hydropower facilities in Poland.

  8. The condition of the poultry industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozioł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Poland is characterized by high dynamics of development and in this regard was placed at the forefront of European Union countries. The main reason for the acceleration and modernization of the industry was the Polish accession to the European Union. Sanitary and veterinary requirements, and rules on the placing of poultry products in the trade, which our country was obliged to fulfill, led to the sector producing products with a high level of security. Rapidly growing domestic demand and foreign markets for Polish products affectes the growth of poultry production. Consumers are attracted primarily by the high quality products and reasonable price, as well as the relatively low cost of production. The industry has become an example of what can grow even in a crisis. As a result of changes occurring in the Polish market, meat and aspecially poultry meat is becoming increasingly important, becoming an essential part of the economy. Forecasts for the poultry industry in 2014 are positive, sae to an anticipated decline in grain prices and a limited supply of pork and beef. This will increase the global and the European Union demand for white meat, due to its nutritional properties and competitive prices.

  9. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  10. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  11. Tertiary Education in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Pol...

  12. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  13. The abnormalities of trapezius muscle might be a component of Poland's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyit, Nurettin; Işıtmangil, Turgut; Oztürker, Coşkun

    2014-11-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare unilateral congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of the pectoral muscle and hand anomalies. By the time, new components including the absence or hypoplasia of many muscles have been identified, however, the anomalies of trapezius muscle have not been reported in patients with Poland's syndrome. The accepted etiological theory is the temporary interruption of blood supply of the subclavian artery and its branches in the early gestational period. The artery of the trapezius muscle is also one of the branches of subclavian artery. Just because of that, it is likely to trapezius muscle be affected in patients with Poland's syndrome. We are presenting a case of Poland's syndrome associated with unilateral partial absence of trapezius muscle to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU NOISE DIRECTIVE IN PROCESS OF URBAN PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kwiecień

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this article is to introduce the influence of acoustic climate on the urban space planning in Poland through the implementation of the provisions of Directive 2002/49/WE of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe from 25 June 2002. Moreover, in the stages of an LLUP implementations have been suggested the use of a Strategic Noise Map, being a tool for assisting the process of environmental noise level assessment in Poland.

  15. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  16. Poland in NATO?: a case study of the United States foreign policymaking process Leszek Soczewica.

    OpenAIRE

    Soczewica, Leszek

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The opportunity for nations such as Poland to enter NATO is of vital concern for their security. Indeed, the problem of inclusion into the Western alliance is the key issue for the majority of former Warsaw Pact members. After the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, these countries are no longer members of a security alliance. Yet, with the end of the Cold War, Poland confronts ...

  17. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  18. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  19. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachura, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented.

  20. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar BOJAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It results from the analysis that important role in new the EU member countries are played by endogenous factors as institutional undergrowth and low social capital level, what deteriorates the development of SME networks in those countries. Experience of Andalusia region in Spain benchmarked to organizations in new the EU member countries can give desired effects in the scope of improvement of co-operation with public sector, product marketing and promotion and also in facing expectations of consumers for safe and healthy food in international markets.

  1. The feasibility of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions trading in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missfeldt, F. [ed.; Hauff, J.

    2000-10-01

    component to include oil refineries, and with them the growing CO{sub 2} emissions from transport, seem possible. Such a pilot program would allow firms and the policy maker to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissions trading system. To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climate protection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options. (au)

  2. Road safety in Poland : a contribution to the improvement of road safety in Poland in the framework of the GAMBIT project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Koornstra, M.J. Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research study. The study was commissioned: (1) to give a general opinion on the "GAMBIT" project contents; and (2) to express an expectation about the future traffic safety development in Poland. The SWOV contribution has been realized within

  3. The Elements of Water Balance in the Changing Climate in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szwed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the spatial and seasonal distribution and quantity of precipitation. However, climate models do not agree on the sign of change of precipitation. In Poland precipitation is projected to decrease in summer (this finding is not robust, being model-dependent and to increase in winter. Therefore, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding likely climate change impacts on water resources in Poland. However, there is no doubt that changes in the thermal characteristics as well as in precipitation will influence changes in the water balance of the country. In this study, the components of climatic water balance, that is, precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, are calculated for the average conditions in the control period of 1961–1990 and in the future (2071–2100 in Poland. The changes of the water balance components for the present and for the future are compared and analysed. Due to insufficient consistency between climate models a possible range of changes should be presented; hence the multimodel projections from ENSEMBLES Project of the European Union are used in this study.

  4. FUNCTIONING OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN OF PORK IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Jadwiga Szymańska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain is a network of suppliers and customers offering their products or services to the end consumers. The research aimed at recognizing the elements of the supply chain of pork in the area of supply, processing and distribution. The information was primarily sourced by the data storage statistics and chosen meat companies listed among the 2000 largest industries in Poland. The domestic supply chain of pork is characterized by a considerable fragmentation of production, processing and distribution. A signifi cant number of entities and the absence of capital tie-ups between the breeders and the meat industry does not foster durable integration. In order to maintain the profi tability of production, the meat establishments diversify their activities. Entities with large production volume more often cooperate with commercial networks, whereas in case of the smaller ones, these are their own distribution networks that prevail. The leaders in the industry are characterized by a wide range of goods, large-scale production, specialization and a closer integration in the supply chain.

  5. Diversity of agrocoenoses in the Lublin region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Staniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lublin region, one of the main agricultural regions in Poland, has very favorable conditions for agricultural production but the development of the agricultural sector has been very slow there. This is due, among other factors, to the extensive farming used on large areas and the fragmentation of fields with numerous fragments of natural ecosystems. In Lublin Province, cereals comprise the highest proportion of the crop structure, especially wheat, but farmers also often cultivate maize, oilseed rape, sugar beet, and legumes for consumption. The biological diversity of agricultural areas is enhanced by growing traditional plant species and varieties. Crop species are accompanied by segetal weeds, sometimes very expansive, sometimes rare and endangered by extinction. In recent years, the following have been the dominant weed species in the region’s crop fields: Galium aparine, Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, and Veronica persica. However, there are several locations of occurrence of Muscari comosum (a strictly protected species and the following unique species: Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Caucalis platycarpos, Galium tricornutum, and Thymelaea passerina. In Lublin Province, there are many organic farms which contribute to the significant diversity of agricultural plant communities. In this review, we also indicate the biocoenotic role of weeds and their importance in the proper maintenance of agroecosystems and ecosystem services.

  6. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPETITIVENESS OF FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the competitiveness of the regional diversity of farms in Poland. The study was conducted on a sample of commodity holdings participating in the Polish FADN in 16 voivodeships for the years 2010–2012. The study was based on indicators of competitiveness in terms of production factors and results. Research shows that labour resources and the eff ectiveness of their use are important aspects of regional diversity of competitiveness of farms. In regions where this factor is present in excess (Małopolskie, Świętokrzyskie, Mazowieckie, Łódzkie and Lubelskie voivodeships, labor productivity was relatively low. These regions are also characterized by lower production potential expressed by the agricultural area of an average farm. The greatest competitive advantages in terms of production profi tability were achieved by farms in Dolnośląskie voivodeship, where there were also some of the highest rates of profi tability of assets.

  7. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. 2. Original research. 2.1. Morphological differentiation and occurrence of representatives of the genus Dactylis in Poland. 2.1.2. Distribution of Dactylis glomerata subsp. slovenica (Dom. Dom. in Poland and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analysis of herbarium materials from Poland, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, East Germany and belonging to the author, as well as data from literature dealing with the distribution of D. glomerata subsp. slovenica (Dom. Dom. in Poland and adjacent regions. It was found that D.g. subsp. slovenica occurs in 33 localities (30 herbarium and 3 literature in Poland. The distribution of this subspecies is presented for the first time for Poland. All the localities of D.g. subsp. slovenica were found in the mountainous parts of Poland (Sudety Mts. and the Carpathians. In territories adjacent to Poland, D.g. subsp. slovenica was found in the Czech Massif and in many stands in the Western and Eastern Carpathians and also in Roztocze Upland.

  8. Optical techniques in pulmonary medicine. SPIE photonics West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa J; Lam, Stephen; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    There is ongoing interest in the emerging field of pulmonary photonic-based diagnostics. Potential clinical need areas that are being actively investigated at this time include airway and peripheral lung cancer diagnostics, pulmonary parenchymal and interstitial disorders, alveolar structure function, inhalation injury, ciliary function analysis, asthma and obstructive lung diseases.

  9. The development of the distraction-compression osteogenesis method in orthopedic surgery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Andrzej; Orzechowski, Wiktor

    2002-06-30

    The dynamic development of the Ilizarov method around the world and in Poland during the last decade has been made possible by the scientific of its application, based on universal laws of physiology and biomechanics. The Ilizarov method is beyond a doubt the treatment method of choice in many serious disorders of the locomotor apparatus, and is of extremely high value in the treatment of complicated open fractures with concomitant diffuse infuries of soft tissue, and not just in Poland's flagship orthopedic centers. Even though the complication rate is fairly high, the method is well tolerated by the patients, and the majority of failures can be effectively treated by the same method. This article outlines the history of limb lengthening in the worlds and the history of the development of the Ilizarov method in Poland.

  10. The Vocation to Parenthood in the Context of a Demographic Crisis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Świerczek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The vocation to parenthood is a constitutive element of married and family life. However, recent decades show that the number of births in Poland is declining steadily. This, in turn, is leading to a decrease in population and population aging in our homeland. The current situation is called a demographic catastrophe, the consequences of which will be felt in the next decades. It is therefore necessary to take concrete steps to change this situation. The aims of this article are to try to describe the present demographic situation in Poland, to recall the main ideas of the teaching of the Catholic Church on the parental tasks of the family and society, and to identify the most important pastoral task, which the Church in Poland faces in this regard.

  11. [Selected data of acute poisonings with ethylene glycol and methanol in Poland in the year 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderska, Aleksandra; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    There are no reliable studies in Poland evaluating the scale of acute intoxications with different type of xenobiotics. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected problems referring to the patients intoxicated with ethylene glycol and methanol, who were given the medical treatment in all Toxicological (TUs) and Intensive Care Units (ICUs), having contract with Polish National Fund of Health, in the year 2010. All cases of acute intoxications treated in polish hospitals in 2010 and reported to the Polish National Fund of Health were included to the analysis. To further analysis were chosen only those patients, whose main diagnosis or co-morbidities were coded as T 51.1 or T 52.3, according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision and, according to the state of health, patients were treated in TUs and ICUs. All the cases, in which intoxication was not the main health problem were excluded. There were 85 230 acute poisonings in Poland in 2010, 503 of them referred to ethylene glycol and methanol poisonings. 220 patients were treated in TUs and ICUs. The most common methods of therapy in those units were extracorporeal toxin removal (53.22% in TUs and 52.08% in ICUs) and conservative treatment (46.78% in TUs and 47.92% in ICUs). The mortality rate in ethylene glycol and methanol poisonings in TUs and ICUs were 20.97% and 48.96% respectively. In the conservatively treated group the mortality rates in TUs and ICUs were 15.52% and 54.35% respectively, while in extracorporeal toxin removal group the mortality rates in TUs and ICUs were 25.76% and 44.00% respectively. The authors also observed one region (Maków Mazowiecki), in which the amount of ethylene glycol and methanol poisonings was much higher than in the rest part of the country. 1. All the cases of acute intoxications of glycol and methanol should be consulted with Polish Poison Control Centers. 2. It is necessary to establish diagnostic and

  12. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  13. The distribution and habitat requirements of the genus Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae in SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus Orobanche in SE Poland is presented. The study area stretches between the Vistula and the Bug rivers, and comprises the Polish areas of the Lublin-Lwów Upland, the Wołyń Upland and the southern part of Polesie. Eight species of the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. alsatica, O. arenaria, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. picridis, were collected during floristic investigations conducted between 1999 and 2010. The hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the localities are given and a supplemented map of the distribution in SE Poland is included.

  14. New model of the vertical crustal movements in the area of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the fourth levelling campaign has been finished in Poland. This campaign, together with the previous one carried out in 1974–1982, gave a very good opportunity to determine the land uplift in the area of Poland. The paper describes shortly the third and fourth campaigns, the computation of the relative land uplift, computation of land uplift referred to the mean sea level and modeling the land uplift by the least-squares collocation method. Obtained results are compared with the compu...

  15. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Climate reconstructions from tree-ring widths for the last 850 years in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ingo; Knorr, Antje; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Slowinski, Michal; Helle, Gerhard; Simard, Sonia; Scharnweber, Tobias; Buras, Allan; Beck, Wolfgang; Wilmking, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current debate over global change, and they are the major part of the palaeo data base used for the IPCC report. However, long temperature reconstructions derived from temperate lowland trees growing well within their distributional limits in central Europe are not part of the IPCC report, which is an essential gap in the international data base. It appears that dendroclimatological analysis at temperate lowland sites was so far difficult to perform mainly for three reasons: diffuse climate-growth relationships, the lack of long chronologies due to absence of sufficient numbers of long-living trees and the potential loss of low-frequency signals due to the short length of the sample segments. We present two robust multi-centennial reconstructions of winter temperatures and summer precipitation based on pine and oak tree-ring widths chronologies from northern Poland, where so far no long tree-ring based reconstructions were available. We compared the new records with global, hemispherical and regional reconstructions, and found good agreement with some of them. In comparison, the winter temperature of our reconstruction, however, did not indicate any modern warming nor did the summer precipitation reconstruction suggest any modern 20th century changes. In a second step, we measured cell structures and developed chronologies of parameters such as cell wall thickness and cell lumen area. We used our new method (Liang et al. 2013a,b) applying confocal laser scanning microscopy to increment core surfaces for efficient histometric analyses. We focused on samples covering the last century because meteorological data necessary for calibration studies were available for direct comparisons. It was demonstrated that the correlations with climate were strong and different from those found for tree-ring widths (e.g., N-Poland oak-vessel-lumen-area-chronology with previous September-to-December mean

  17. The Impact of Wind Farms on the Prices of Nearby Houses in Poland: A Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torzewski Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10 Poland has experienced a dynamic growth of wind energy production. Currently, wind energy is the most popular resource of renewable energy in Poland. Despite the importance of wind energy for the Polish economy, there is no reliable and comprehensive research on the causal effects of wind farm facilities on property prices.

  18. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  19. Sedimentological and geochemical characteristic of varved lake sediment of the Lake Jelonek (North Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Filbrandt-Czaja, A.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tjallingii, R.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Jelonek is located in Northern Poland. The lake covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. The cores were split in half, lithologically described, photographed and correlated with each other by 28 marker layers to construct a composite profile covering 1426cm. Here we present detailed varve micro-facies for different sediment intervals and the preliminary chronology based on AMS 14C dating of 10 terrestrial macro remains samples and the Askja AD-1875 tephra. Here we present initial results from thin section analyses for two intervals. First (I) the uppermost 0-256 cm and second (II) the interval from 768-1296 cm. Intercalated between these two varved interval is a thick section (512 cm) of homogeneous organic-ditomaceous sediments. We present varve micro-facies data in combination with µ-XRF element scanning for comprehensive reconstruction of the sedimentation processes in Lake Jelonek. Varve counting reveals that the lower floating varve interval covers the time period from 1850 - 10500 cal a BP, while the uppermost 256 cm varved sediments comprise ca 925 years (2008-1083 AD). The main goal is to synchronize the sediment record from Lake Jelonek with European and Worldly records, to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of landscape forming processes and to distinguish between local, regional and global impacts during the past. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415, National Science Centre, Poland grant 2015/19/N/ST10/02655 and from the Science and Research Funds for 2015-2016 allocated to a co-financed international project, CONTRACT No. 3500/ICLEA/15/2016/0.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycota of the Bledowska Desert, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomales, Zygomycetes associated with plants growing in sand dune soils of the Blędowska Desert, Poland, was investigated in 1995-1997. A total of 134 mixtures of soils and roots were sampled. The mixtures represented 26 plant species in 14 families and one unrecognized plant. Spores of AMF were found in 118 soil-root mixtures. The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species of the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morphospecies of the genus Glomus. The AMF most frequently occurring in the field-collected soils were members of the genus Scutellospora The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species in the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morpho-species of the genus Glomus. The fungal species most frequently and numerously found was Scutellospora armeniaca. The fungi relatively frequently present also were A. rugosa, A. lacunosa, G. aggregatum, an undescribed Glomus 142 and Sc. dipurpurescens. The overall spore abundance of AMF averaged 69.1 and ranged from 0 to 837 in 100 g dry soil. The highest abundance of spores occurred among roots of the families Cupressaceae, followed by the Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Of the plant species investigated two and more times, most spores harboured Juniperus communis. The overall average species richness was 2.4 and ranged from 0 to 6 in 100 g dry soil. Of the plant species sampled at lest two times, the highest average species diversity was found in the root zone of Salix arenaria. The plant species that hosted the highest overall number of species of AMF was Festuca rubra. Trap pot cultures with soilroot mixtures collected in 1997 revealed 10 species of AMF that were not found in field soils sampled in the same year. This suggests that a great part of AMF of Błędowska Desert is represented by rarely or non-sporulating species.

  1. Academic aspects of management accounting and controlling in Poland since the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szychta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic aspects of management accounting and controlling in Poland since the 1990s Management accounting (MA systems in enterprises in Poland are shaped by numerous economic and institutional factors. Normative drivers such as teaching at the university level, academic research and publications of Polish academics (which are, in turn, influenced by the development of MA and con-trolling in Western countries are of major importance. The aim of the paper is to recognize and present the scope of the impact that the Anglo-American concept of management accounting, and the controlling concept according to the approach in German-speaking countries, have had on the academic aspects of MA in Poland since 1990. The authors answer in the paper six explorative research questions. The basis for the answers to these questions is a literature study, a review and thematic classification of articles concerning MA and controlling, published in the two main Polish journals in this area, and a survey conducted by the authors among heads of accounting departments at universities and other entities of further education in Poland. The paper provides arguments confirming that there is no uni-form perception of the relationship between MA and controlling among Polish accounting researchers, that research topics in Poland are dominated by the Anglo-American concept of MA, and that educa-tional programs on accounting at university level have a preference for the term management account-ing, although they also offer courses on controlling.

  2. Asthma and allergies: is the farming environment (still) protective in Poland? The GABRIEL Advanced Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, S J; Sozanska, B; Danielewicz, H; Debinska, A; Kosmeda, A; Boznanski, A; Illi, S; Depner, M; Strunz-Lehner, C; Waser, M; Büchele, G; Horak, E; Genuneit, J; Heederik, D; Braun-Fahrländer, C; von Mutius, E; Cullinan, P

    2013-06-01

    Evidence exists that a farming environment in childhood may provide protection against atopic respiratory disease. In the GABRIEL project based in Poland and Alpine regions of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, we aimed to assess whether a farming environment in childhood is protective against allergic diseases in Poland and whether specific exposures explain any protective effect. In rural Poland, 23 331 families of schoolchildren completed a questionnaire enquiring into farming practices and allergic diseases (Phase I). A subsample (n = 2586) participated in Phase II involving a more detailed questionnaire on specific farm exposures with objective measures of atopy. Farming differed between Poland and the Alpine centres; in the latter, cattle farming was prevalent, whereas in Poland 18% of village farms kept ≥1 cow and 34% kept ≥1 pig. Polish children in villages had lower prevalences of asthma and hay fever than children from towns, and in the Phase II population, farm children had a reduced risk of atopy measured by IgE (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.57, 0.91) and skin prick test (aOR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.50, 0.86). Early-life contact with grain was inversely related to the risk of atopy measured by IgE (aOR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47, 0.92) and appeared to explain part of the farming effect. While farming in Poland differed from that in the Alpine areas as did the exposure-response associations, we found in communities engaged in small-scale, mixed farming, there was a protective farming effect against objective measures of atopy potentially related to contact with grain or associated farm activities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Building hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland: The impact of 2016/2017 regulatory changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Sowada, Christoph; Domagała, Alicja; Więckowska, Barbara

    2018-02-07

    Capacity planning is a crucial component of modern health care governance. The aim of this paper is to analyze the requirements that need to be met to build effective hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland. In this context, the recent regulatory changes strongly influencing hospital sector functioning, including introduction of health care needs maps, capital investment assessment, and hospital network regulations, are analyzed. Some possible ways forward, based on review of international experiences in hospital capacity planning, are discussed. Applied methods include literature review and analysis of statistical data as well as desk analysis of key national regulations related to hospital sector. Results indicate that at the system level, the process of capacity planning involves 4 elements: capital investment in facilities, equipment, and technology; service delivery; allocation of staff; and financial resources. For hospital capacity planning to be effective, the strategic decision at the macrolevel must be complemented by appropriate management of individual hospitals. The major challenge of building hospital capacity planning mechanism in Poland is imbedding it into the overall health system strategy. Because of the lack of such a strategy, the practical implementation of the ad hoc changes, which have been introduced, shows some inconsistencies. The regulations implemented between 2016 and 2017 provided a basis for hospital capacity planning, yet still need evaluation and adjustments. Also, including a mechanism for human resources planning is of crucial importance. The regulations should provide incentives for reducing oversized hospital infrastructure with simultaneous development of the long-term and coordinated care models. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A novel combination of factors, termed SPIE, which promotes dopaminergic neuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandis Vazin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stromal-Derived Inducing Activity (SDIA is one of the most efficient methods of generating dopaminergic (DA neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESC. DA neuron induction can be achieved by co-culturing ESC with the mouse stromal cell lines PA6 or MS5. The molecular nature of this effect, which has been termed "SDIA" is so far unknown. Recently, we found that factors secreted by PA6 cells provided lineage-specific instructions to induce DA differentiation of human ESC (hESC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we compared PA6 cells to various cell lines lacking the SDIA effect, and employed genome expression analysis to identify differentially-expressed signaling molecules. Among the factors highly expressed by PA6 cells, and known to be associated with CNS development, were stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12, pleiotrophin (PTN, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2, and ephrin B1 (EFNB1. When these four factors, the combination of which was termed SPIE, were applied to hESC, they induced differentiation to TH-positive neurons in vitro. RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the expression of midbrain specific markers, including engrailed 1, Nurr1, Pitx3, and dopamine transporter (DAT in cultures influenced by these four molecules. Electrophysiological recordings showed that treatment of hESC with SPIE induced differentiation of neurons that were capable of generating action potentials and forming functional synaptic connections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons. These findings provide a method for differentiating hESC to form DA neurons, without a requirement for the use of animal-derived cell lines or products.

  6. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international commitments; at…

  7. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  8. Inter-Municipal Cooperation in Waste Management: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołsut Bartłomiej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to present the scale of inter-municipal cooperation in waste management in Poland in the light of the role of three key factors of cooperation. The first shows spatial regularities in the distribution of inter-municipal bodies involved in waste management in Poland, both in the system of voivodeships and historical-cultural regions. The second is institutional conditions confirming the scale of the Europeanisation of public policies taking place in Poland. It embraces the implementation of the EU legal framework in the Polish legal system and the cooperative behaviour of municipalities as a result of those changes. The third is a negative verification of the assumptions of the economic theory upholding the role of financial motivation in establishing cooperation (looking for savings and economies of scale to reduce unit cost; the presented results do not corroborate this type of motivation.

  9. METHODS OF EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT IN THE FIELD OF PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Mozolev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The author researches the content of management activities to develop education in the field of physical culture and sports in Poland. The analysis of revealing the term "method" by Polish scientists has been made. The concept of "management method" is defined as a way to implement administrative functions by organizing preliminary impact of management subject on object of management with the purpose of implementation of its public functions or a set of controls that are used in an appropriate manner that can most effectively achieve their managerial objectives defining the qualitative aspect of system administration. The concept "management methods for developing education in the field of physical culture and sports in Poland" is formulated. The content of management methods for developing education in the field of physical culture and sports in Poland in which the author includes: economic; social and political; administrative; ethical methods; methods of cognitive activity; forecasting; planning; management decision-making and control.

  10. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    Social capital, measured as the level of trust among people, may be regarded as a new production factor alongside the traditional ones of human and physical capital. With appropriate levels of social capital, monitoring and transaction costs can be saved and thus economic growth stimulated. Via...... linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century....... However, the comparison of the present level of social capital indicates that the level of social capital is significantly higher in Denmark than in Poland. The paper concludes that the reason for this difference is due to the fact that the original accumulation of social capital in Poland was destroyed...

  11. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  12. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  13. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    Central Europe is an emerging market for seafood products, with rapidly developing opportunities for foreign direct investment and export. Although Poland in particular is widely regarded as a land of opportunity in the seafood business, surprisingly little effort has been made until now to gain...... and compared in terms of the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption. In Poland, intentions to consume seafood in the near future were mainly determined by the perceived difficulty of preparing fish dishes (problems with bone handling and smells) and the degree to which consumers believed...... they had the necessary cooking skills. The preferences of consumers and their household members had a much weaker but still significant impact on intentions. In the comparison samples from Western Europe, motivational structures varied considerably. The highest degree of similarity with Poland was found...

  14. Influence of the nuclear energetics on the environment and population in Poland - methods, survey, opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During the conference 14 lectures were presented which describe all possible aspects of the nuclear power plants influence on the environment and population in Poland. They were delivered by the outstanding polish scientists from ten institutions. The supervisor of the conference is National Atomic Energy Agency

  15. How Was the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders Implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicka, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process is an important factor which has had an impact on higher education in Europe. In this paper the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders is discussed, to show how the different contexts influenced its realization. In order to study the transformation of higher education, new institutionalism…

  16. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  17. Herbert Hoover and the Organization of the American Relief Effort in Poland (1919-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lloyd Adams

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland, recreated after the armistice of 1918, was confronted at its rebirth with four very severe challenges: welding together the separate sections of the dissected country, which for many decades had been under the rule of Prussia-Germany, Austria and Russia; creating a functioning administration and military force for the country; ensuring the recovery of agriculture, which, during World War I, had seriously declined; and restarting industries destroyed or closed during foreign military occupation. Even under the valuable leadership of the first Prime Minister of the new Polish Republic Ignacy Paderewski and Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the Poles could not accomplish the goal of rebuilding a strong Poland without outside help. The American Relief Administration (ARA, founded and led by Herbert Hoover, offered their help. The ARA, with its food aid and provision of economic assistance and expertise, played an important role in bringing about stability in the newly independent state of Poland. This paper examines the many steps Herbert Hoover had to take to arrange food relief in Poland and will outline the organization of the ARA, including the establishment of the Polish relief organization and the introduction of young Polish-American women, called the Grey Samaritans, into the field.

  18. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zubrzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legal regulations relating to Renewable Energy Sources, including the biogas sector. It discusses biogas production technologies, the current state and perspectives of agricultural biogas production in Poland, the production capabilities of Polish biogas plants and factors contributing to the attractiveness of the biogas sector. The following economic and ecological aspects of biogas production were considered in the study: profitability and environmental impacts, including reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Despite numerous problems, the Renewable Energy Sources Act provides an opportunity for the growth and development of the biogas industry in Poland.

  19. Orchidaceae in the anthropogenic landscape of central Poland: Diversity, extinction and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewicz Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are considered one of the largest and most endangered plant families worldwide. We analyzed the status of conservation of orchid sites in Central Poland, which serves as a model area for heavily transformed environments in moderate climate. In the area under study, 26 orchid species from 54 taxa existing in Poland were reported, 17 of them with fewer than 20 localities, 59% of which have not been confirmed since 2000. Spatial analysis of all localities has shown that Central Poland exhibits considerable diversity as regards the incidence of Orchidaceae. It has been shown that contemporary protection methods have failed to prevent the demise of these species in forest, meadow and bog habitats, which incidentally comprised most of those whose localities have been unconfirmed since 2000.

  20. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Analysis of Population Aging Phenomena in Poland in Spatial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Wilk; Michal Bernard Pietrzak

    2014-01-01

    The processes of socio-economic development are continuously accompanied by the process of population aging. It is seen as a growing of the percentage share of people aged 65 and over in the general population. It covers the majority of European Union countries and also refers to Poland. The objective of the paper is to analyze the population aging phenomenon in spatial perspective. The study was carried out for 66 subregions (NUTS 3) and covered the period 1995-2012. Poland is characterized ...

  2. Collaborative Advantage in Public and Social Services: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janina SZYMANKIEWICZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the relationships between the third and the public sector, with a particular focus on relations with local government units (LGUs on the example of Poland. The article characterises the essence and rules of collaboration between the social and public sectors in Poland, and determines the meaning of the cooperative development of strategy of collaborative advantage. It also presents a useful tool which facilitates the realisation of such a task – a model of strategic cross-sector collaboration.

  3. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  4. Fostering Academic Cooperation and Collaboration through the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: A Faculty Research Abroad Program in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Casimir C.; Davis, Nancy; Zimmerman, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study is a narrative analysis of participants' perceptions of the development of cross-cultural awareness through "The Faculty Research Abroad Program in Poland," a joint initiative between a regional campus of a Midwestern land grant university and a private university in Poland. The purpose was to foster academic cooperation and…

  5. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  6. PRODUCT RETURNS MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to identify and define on the basis of the literature the principal external and organizational factors and check to what extent they affect the efficiency of returns management as well as any resultant savings. The author proposes a conceptual model which correlates the results of returns management as well as savings with the main determinants identified on the basis of the literature. Then, in the operationalisation phase of the model, the dependent and independent variables were defined in the form of constructs. In accordance with the adopted model, individual constructs were measured based on standardised interviews. Materials and methods:  The results of returns management and any savings generated by this process are affected by certain determinants which are described in the literature. The adopted model included external factors, such as the cooperation of retailers with logistics operators and suppliers, the exchange of information in the supply chain, and organizational behaviour (experience of employees; as well as organizational factors related to the flow of information and IT systems. Due to financial and organisational restrictions, the originally planned representative sample of retail chains was limited to the regions of Wielkopolska and Lubuskie. In the end, 105 interviews were analysed. Results:  The results obtained in the research sample confirm assumptions about the possible potential savings that can be achieved as a result of appropriately conducted corporate policies in the area of reverse logistics. A correlation was also revealed between the experience and competencies of staff and the efficiency of returns management. Conclusions: Research into the factors affecting the efficiency of returns management and any savings resulting from returns management policies have not been conducted in Poland to date. The present study contributes to the growing trend of research into the

  7. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  8. The Guide with the Tourist Gaze: Jewish Heritage Travel to Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon Kangisser

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, travel to Poland for youth and young adults has become increasingly popular, to the extent that it is even seen as a "rite of passage" for members of many Jewish communities. For these groups, the accompanying guides or educators are central to their educational experience. Based on a series of interviews…

  9. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  10. Pathogens vectored by the tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, in endemic regions and zones of expansion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Radkowski, Marek; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Bajer, Anna

    2015-09-24

    Dermacentor reticulatus plays an important role in the maintenance of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in the environment. Currently two isolated populations of D. reticulatus are present in Poland--Western and Eastern. The range of the Eastern population covers endemic areas in eastern Poland but this population is expanding westwards creating an expansion zone in the centre of the country. The expansion zone in western Poland is occupied by the recently discovered Western population, spreading eastwards. Questing adult ticks (n = 2585) were collected in 2012-2014 in endemic regions of north-eastern (Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship) and central Poland (Masovian Voivodeship) and in the expansion zones in central and western Poland, in the region between the Vistula River and the western border of the country. Amplification of Babesia, Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNAs was performed using specific starters. RNA of the TBE virus was detected using RT-PCR and representative PCR products were sequenced and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Of the total 2585 examined ticks, 1197 (46.3 %) were infected with at least one pathogen. Overall prevalence of pathogens was 4.18 % (108/2585) for Babesia spp., 44.10 % (1140/2585) for Rickettsia spp., 0.09 % (1/1107) for Borrelia afzelii and 7.6 % (7/92) for TBEV. Sequence analysis of DNA showed 99.86 % similarity to R. raoulti and 99.81 % to B. canis. One male from north-eastern Poland was infected with B. microti. Prevalence of R. raoulti was highest in the Western population (52.03 %) and lowest in the Eastern population in north-eastern Poland (34.18 %). Babesia canis was not detected in 592 ticks collected in the Western population, while in the Eastern population overall prevalence was 5.42 %. There were significant differences in the prevalence of B. canis between tick samples from northern (0.68 %), central (1.18 %) and southern (14.8 %) areas of the expansion zone in

  11. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT PUMP MARKET IN POLAND IN RELATION TO NEW LEGAL REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wachowicz-Pyzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump market in Poland is one of the most dynamically developing branches of renewable energy sources (RES. Installations using different types of low-temperature heat pumps are becoming more and more popular especially among owners of detached houses. The article presents the characteristics of the heat pump market in Poland in recent years. Most important changes introduced on 20 February 2015 in the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (Journal of Laws 2015 pos. 478, were discussed. Also future prospects associated with increased use of heat pumps installations in the face of new regulations were analyzed.

  13. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  14. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  15. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  16. The Effects of Delaying Tracking in Secondary School: Evidence from the 1999 Education Reform in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Maciej; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilio Ernesto; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Delaying tracking, extending students' exposure to a general academic education and increasing their time on task on basic competences (reading, mathematics) could improve academic outcomes. To test the hypothesis that delayed vocational streaming improves academic outcomes, this paper analyzes Poland's significant improvements in international…

  17. Sabotage Operations of the Prewar Anti-Facist League - Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szubanski, Rajmund

    1960-01-01

    The following article is a translation and deals with sabotage operations of the prewar Anti-Fascist League that was connected to the Communist Party, the International Seaman's and Dockers' Unions...

  18. The lichen genus Pertusaria in Poland I. P. multipuncta and P. ophthalmiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Oset

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of study on two morphologically very similar lichens in Poland, P. multipuncta (Turner Nyl. and P. ophthalmiza (Nyl. Nyl. (Pertusariales, Ascomycota. Previously, specimens were determined using only thallus characters and spot test reaction, with no data on lichen substances. This led to several misidentifications. After the revision of all available material of P. multipuncta from Poland it appeared to be reported correctly only from one locality in Gorce Mts. Most of other specimens belong to P. ophthalmiza, which has not been recorded in Polish lichenological literature until 2008.

  19. Gender and Multiculturalism: Reflections on the Research in Poland after 1989 Year in the Context of Multicultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bieńkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reflect on the condition of the research concerning gender issues in a culturally diverse society in Poland. After the political breakthrough in 1989, Poland emerged as a democratic state, where various categories of the Other came back to life. At the same time, new social minorities appeared. In the context of talking about issues of multiculturalism in Poland is a new aspect of gender, have not so much ignored, which overlooked in general discussions about the relationship between minority and dominant group.

  20. The adoption of IFRS in Poland: an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vellam, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) in the EU in 2005 was perceived to be a major step towards greater global harmonisation of accounting leading to better comparability and uniformity of financial statements (Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, 2005). However, prior literature suggests that there are significant national differences in de facto application of the international standards (Kvaal and Nobes, 2010; Krzywda and Schroeder, 2007).\\ud \\ud This thesis, support...

  1. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  2. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  3. Determinants of Higher Education Choices and Student Satisfaction: The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Bartkowiak, Pawel; Skuza, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes in tertiary education that were observed in Poland for the last 20 years transformed the Polish educational market and led to the immense expansion of educational institutions. The rapid increase in the number of students that continued until 2006 is however over and Polish universities have begun to compete for their clients.…

  4. Functioning of photovoltaic cell battery under winter conditions in the central-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalewaj, K.; Wójcicka-Migasiuk, D.; Złonkiewicz, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Paper described the laboratory photovoltaic assembly and its real operation under the least advantageous conditions of winter climate in the central-eastern region of Poland. Measurement and calculation results made possible to compare the real potential of getting energy from solar radiation with the data provided by the manufacturer of collector panels and relate these results to winter climate

  5. Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szewieczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland The paper analyzes the glass ceiling phenomenon in the accounting practice in Poland. The essence and characteristics of this phenomenon are presented in relation to the accounting profession and statutory auditors. Research on the ‘glass ceiling’ carried out in various countries, with a particular reference to the profession of a statutory auditor, was reviewed. The paper presents results of the research on the phenomenon conducted among a selected sample of audit firms in Poland. The results of the study confirmed the occurrence of this phenomenon in Poland with greater intensity in larger entities. The large scale of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the professional life of women in accounting is reflected by a high percentage of women in the profession of statutory auditor contrasted by the very low participation in senior managerial positions, e.g. partners in auditing companies. The paper uses the method of critical analysis of the literature and empirical data. Moreover, qualitative analysis was used for the data reported by audit firms

  6. LEGAL REGULATIONS AND THE MARKET OF INSURANCE SERVICES IN THE SME SECTOR IN 2014-2015 AS EXEMPLIFIED BY POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Oniszczuk – Jastrząbek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from banking and telecommunications services, insurance is the most dynamically developing market in Poland. Since 1990, when the law on insurance activity was passed, the number of insurance companies has increased considerably. The quick adoption of the above-mentioned law was related to the system transformation and an urgent need to adjust that sector of the economy to the standards applicable in capitalist countries. The unification of the law and adoption of international insurance conventions have stimulated the growth of that sector. The offer of insurance companies has been extended to include new and better services, ranging from basic vehicle or property insurance to complicated financial insurance. A broadly conceived insurance market consists of two basic components, i.e. insurers who represent the supply of insurance coverage and policyholders, or persons with a property interest, who represent demand. A person who concludes an insurance contract with an insurer is a policyholder. This article presents the legal regulations concerning of insurance services undertaken by enterprises in Poland.

  7. Anti-Roma Hate Speech in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.; Goodwin, M.; De Hert, P.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter examines the protection against anti-Romani hate speech provided by the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, in particular the legal avenues of redress available to victims. This research combines an analysis of the legal framework with its functioning in practice, and situates both in a

  8. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  9. Conclusions from the Seminar on Nuclear Energy for Poland (Warsaw, 25-26 March 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marecki, Jacek; Wojcik, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    The present state of nuclear power industry is described. Then the factors determining a development of nuclear power plants in Poland are presented. Many aspects of nuclear power engineering such as: economical, ecological and some special are discussed in detail. At last the importance of public opinion for the initiation of the national nuclear power programme is stressed

  10. Combined calibration and sensitivity analysis for a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, van der M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the error in results of a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland, due to uncertainties in calibrated model parameters. The procedure used in this study combines calibration and sensitivity analysis. Finally,the model was validated to test the model

  11. Noteworthy lichen species in Poland collected in the Świętokrzyski National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 25 species of the lichens new to the Świętokrzyski National Park are presented on the basis of recent collection and revision of the herbarial material from this arc. Some of these species are new to the Świętokrzykie Mountains and one have not been recorded in Poland so far.

  12. Bronislawa and Mieczyslaw Konopacki - pioneers of the application of histochemistry to embryology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanska-Osuchowska, Zofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the life and work of Mieczyslaw Konopacki and his wife Bronislawa Konopacka. These Polish scientists introduced histochemical methods to embryological studies at the beginning of the XXth century; they were pioneers in this regard in Poland and among the first in the world to implement such methods in this way.

  13. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  14. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  15. Costs and Benefits of Labor Mobility between the EU and the Eastern Partnership Countries: The Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Duszczyk, Maciej; Góra, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a country being exposed to emigration and immigration flows relatively recently. That, among others, results in not fully developed yet institutional infrastructure for managing especially the immigrants flow. In this paper we structure all existing data and other pieces of information on immigrants coming to Poland from the EU Eastern Partnership Countries (EAPs). The vast majority of all types of immigrants from these countries actually originate in Ukraine. On the other hand also...

  16. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  17. Assessment of forest quality in southwestern Poland with the use of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbigniew Bochenek; Andrzej Ciolkosz; Maria Iracka

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage approach was applied to assess the quality of forests in southwestern Poland, which are heavily affected with air pollution and insect infestations. In the first stage a ground evaluation of spruce stands was done within the selected test areas. Three main characteristics of forest quality were determined as a result of these works: defoliation,...

  18. From Totalitarianism to Democracy: The Case of Poland, Controversies and Heritage of Communism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szafraniec, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    ... government in Poland in over 40 years. Although this change of political system was conducted in a peaceful manner, there has always been a camp who has posed the question of why Polish democracy had to be based on compromise with the old...

  19. Three new species of the genus Acanthomastix Manunka, 1972 from United States and Poland (Acari: Dolichocybidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech L. Magowski; John C. Moser

    1993-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Mahunka, 1972 are described and figured: A. and A. elegans spp. n. phoretic on Hylobius pales (Herbst) (Insecta: Curculionidae) from USA and A. minor sp. n. from rotten fir bark in Poland. The genus Acanthomastix...

  20. [The system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-07-01

    Realizing scientific biomedical research conducted on human-beings demands obeying ample ethical rules. However, states keep independence in the means of implementing deontological guidelines to legislative acts. The aim of the article is to compare rules of law relative to protection of scientific biomedical research participants in two European Union member states--France and Poland. French regulations cover more types of scientific biomedical research than those in Poland. In France almost all types of interventional scientific biomedical research including research on human biological samples and research on cosmetics are covered by the rules of law. Polish regulations are limited to interventional research conducted by doctors and dentists. In both states projects of clinical trials of medicinal products demands double acceptance - from bioethics committee and from competent state authority. In protection of scientific biomedical research participants the role of state authority competent for personal data is more vital in France than it is in Poland. In France there is also National Ethics Advisory Committee whereas in Poland there is no such institution. The systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants differs therefore in both states in many vital aspects and French measures cover more types of scientific biomedical research, hence the level of participants protection in various types of research is more equitable.

  1. Identification of Critical Groups in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic Through Specific Dietary Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Skuterud, L.; Malatova, I.; Mirchi, R.; Krajewski, P.; Eged, K.; Somlai, J.; Sanchez, A.; Tarjan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This work has been performed as part of the EC project SAVEC (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Areas in Central Europe), expanding the EC project SAVE (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Ecosystems in Europe). Spatial analysis of dietary habits can be used as a tool for predicting areas where people are more vulnerable to radioactive fallout. Common dietary data such as national statistics and household budget surveys can be used for this purpose. The resolution of such data is not good enough, though, for identifying smaller critical groups with respect to dietary habits. Wild berries and mushrooms, wild fowl, game meat and freshwater fish usually have higher 137 Cs activity concentration levels than agricultural products. In the long term, these foodstuffs can contribute substantially to the internal dose even if consumed in small amounts. Yet, they are usually not included in household budget surveys or national consumption statistics. A specific dietary survey in the form of a questionnaire is the best way to get accurate information on individual diets. The questionnaires can be designed to cover radiologically important foodstuffs, such as those from the forest ecosystem. Within the SAVEC project a questionnaire detailing the consumption of foods from the forest ecosystem has been distributed to hunters in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The results from this investigation and the identification of critical groups with respect to dietary habits in the three Central European countries will be presented. (author)

  2. The Rabbit and the Tortoise. Climate Change Policy Development on the Local Level in Norway and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Erling KLAUSEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Policy innovation in unitary states relies heavily on the proclivity of local governments to identify and respond to emerging policy chal­lenges. The article contributes by applying a framework for policy innovation normally used in federal systems to a comparative analysis of two unitary states – Poland and Norway. The analy­sis serves to highlight how the effectiveness of horizontal, non-coercive diffusion mechanisms relies on established norms and traditions for local political self-rule. A key finding is that the prospects of success for ‘soft’ central govern­ment steering seem to rely not least on the re­sourcefulness of the local units. The study fur­thermore highlights the importance of historical trajectories for internal as well as external deter­minants for policy innovation.

  3. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  4. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380-500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country's natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU.

  5. EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measures as well as system of agreements with the commercial partners outside the European Union. Accession to the European Union meant the extension of greater protective barriers over Poland in the field of import of agricultural products from third countries and the possibility of taking an advantage of export subsidies to agro-food products exported to third countries on equal rights as other European Union entrepreneurs.

  6. The Impact of E-Commerce Development on the Warehouse Space Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembińska Izabela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of discussion in the article is the impact of e-commerce sector on the warehouse space market. On the basis of available reports, the development of e-commerce has been characterized in Poland, showing the dynamics and the type of change. The needs of e-commerce sector in the field of logistics, in particular in the area of storage, have been presented in the paper. These needs have been characterized and at the same time, how representatives of the warehouse space market are prepared to support companies in the e-commerce sector is also discussed. The considerations are illustrated by the changes that occur as a result of the development of e-commerce on the warehouse space market in Poland.

  7. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  8. Ice sheet - permafrost interactions inferred from the sedimentary record of Weichselian glaciation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuman, I.; Ewertowski, M.; Kasprzak, L.; Piotrowski, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost in front of the Weichselian ice sheet and its re-appearance on deglaciated terrain after ice retreat is well established. More contentious is the occurrence of permafrost beneath the ice sheet and its influence on subglacial processes and ice sheet dynamic. Here, we present sedimentological evidence of frozen ground beneath the advancing Weichselian ice sheet in central-western Poland. Special focus is on macrostructures indicating permafrost within the subglacial till, at the contact to the underlying sediments and within those sediments. Fieldwork has been carried out in outcrops located between the LGM ice margin and the subsequent retreat phase (Poznan/Frankfurt Phase). In Tomice site there are frost-cracks, ice-wedge pseudomorphs and deformed load structures in outwash sand directly below a till layer. Numerous sandy and sandy-silty intraclasts with preserved internal lamination occur within the deposits. In Wojnowice, a large intraclast 5 m long and 1.5 m high is found within a subglacial till layer. Ice-wedge pseudomorphs occur at Kaszczor, Nietążkowo, Sława Śląska and Wojnowice sites, just beneath the subglacial tills. Furthermore, multiple meso-scale deformations such as vertical sandy and gravelly layers and glaciotectonic breccia suggesting that the ground was frozen during deformation are present in Skrzynki, Annowo and Trąbinek. Ductile deformations were also observed, especially within fine-grained sands. Contact zones between subglacial tills and the underlying sediments are highly variable, but erosional and deformational contacts hosting partly sheared intraclasts suggest that the bed was at least locally frozen. Subglacial permafrost strongly influenced sediment rheology and its response to glacial stresses. We suggest that glacitectonic deformation was controlled by the grain size-dependent amount of unfrozen water trapped in the permafrost. Fine-grained material would have relatively high content of free water and consequently

  9. Future Implications of the Strategic Relationships Between the United States, Russia, and Germany for Poland's Security Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koziarkiewicz, Wieslaw

    1997-01-01

    ...: the future position of Russia and Germany as major strategic players with focus on the mutual relationships between them and possible threats to Poland's security stemming from their increasing role...

  10. THE IMPACT OF DISTANCE INRELIGION BETWEEN COUNTRIESON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FLOWS FROM THE EUROPEANUNION (EU DIRECTED TOTURKEY AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mesut Eren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a controversial issue:whether the psychic distance stimulusin religion is a possible reason of differently inflowing FDI from EU-Countriesdirected to Poland and Turkey. The examination highlights that after theapplication of a regression model betweenthe psychic distance measures and FDIstocks, we are not in the position of claiming this. The difference between the FDIstocks of Poland and Turkey should not benecessarily a result of the differencesin religion. Other dimensions shouldbe included tothe investigation.

  11. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  12. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  13. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  14. The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chełminiak Marcin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  15. Aging in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Road infrastructure in the regions of the Slovak Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masárová Jana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important assumptions and factors of social and economic development of countries and their regions is road infrastructure. This is particularly true in countries where road transport is the largest component of overall transportation, such as in Slovakia and Poland. Road infrastructure as part of the transport infrastructure is here regarded as one of the main pillars for achieving economic growth, to increase competitiveness and prosperity, contributing to the development of the Trans-European transport network and the improvement of transport infrastructure in support of a single European market in order to ensure the free flow of goods, people and overall competitiveness of the EU. This article offers a comparison of road infrastructure in Slovakia and Poland, highlighting regional disparities in road infrastructure in these countries.

  17. Determination of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air samples from the upper Silesia region of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzek, Danuta; Luks-Betlej, Krystyna; Warzecha, Lidia

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) data system and capillary gas chromatography have been used for qualitative-quantitative determination of PAHs in air samples from Upper Silesia, Poland. Airborne particulate samples were collected in the winter and summer, on glass-fiber filters which were Soxhlet-extracted using cyclohexane. The extractable organic matter was submitted to several steps of clean-up procedure by using liquid-liquid chromatography in system Sephadex LH-20, 85% methanol/ n-hexane and adsorption chromatography on Sephadex LH-20/isopropanol. The PAH fractions containing three and more rings in a molecule were particularly analysed. Retention times and mass spectra for standards were compared with the data obtained for PAH fractions using the GC-MS system. All 14 identified PAHs were determined quantitatively by the internal standard method using GC. The amounts of 14 estimated PAHs ranged from above 3 to 400 ng m -3 in the winter season, while in the summer they ranged from 1 to above 60 ng m -3. The identification of numerous PAHs, most of which exhibit biological activity, indicates a high degree of air pollution in the Upper Silesia region of Poland. In almost all places of sampling in both seasons tested the standard limit for permissible benzo( a)pyrene content in the air was exceeded.

  18. The integration of rural regions of Ireland and Poland into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienaber Birte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the enlargement of the European Union, Ireland is often mentioned as a key example for the Central and Eastern European countries of a successful European integration process. Thereby, the development of the complete Republic of Ireland since the EU accession in 1973 is analyzed. If you survey separately the economic and social development of urban and rural regions, it emerges that the rural regions could hardly participate in the economic success of Ireland and that disparities have increased. Many farmers are dependent on public welfare to make a living, as the Irish living costs have increased during the last years. Consequently today about one third of the Irish households live - in spite of the economic success of the Celtic Tiger - under the relative poverty line. Against the background of this depletion process, the question comes up whether Ireland can act as a paradigm for the European integration process of Poland. Looking at the initial situation of Ireland in 1973 and the current situation in Poland, several parallels exist, however, also strong distinctions. While major similarities can be determined with the agricultural structures as well as with the social value system, developments in Poland are still subject to the not yet completed transformation process from a socialist to a democratic and capitalist system.

  19. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Szymon; Bartkowska, Izabela

    2018-02-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin), allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE). From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  20. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarżyński Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin, allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE. From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  1. Parasitofauna in the gastrointestinal tract of the Cervids (Cervidae) in northern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Burlinski P.; Janiszewski P.; Kroll Anna; Gonkowski S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine parasite species and their prevalence in the gastrointestinal tract of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) from selected areas of northern Poland. A total of 1668 fecal samples, obtained from animals living in three various regions, were analyzed. The samples were examined by coproscopic techniques, including flotation (according to Fulleborn), decantation (accor...

  2. Possibilities for the Growth of Social Housing with the Participation of Developers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development activity, understood as an economic activity consisting of transforming a property so as to induce an increase in value, has been expanding in Poland since the early nineties of the twentieth century. However, in this country, it is an activity associated mainly with the profit which a developer can make from the sale or rental of the transformed property. In the West, however, non-profit development activity, providing mainly housing for rent for people with limited financial resources, has become increasingly popular. Under the current institutional conditions, the growth of this type of activity in Poland seems impossible. In this situation, Social Housing Associations could play a similar role, subject to the extension of the scope of their activities and funding opportunities. Therefore, it is reasonable to put forward the thesis that, in order to make the growth of social housing in Poland more dynamic, it is necessary to expand for the range of SHA activities as well as to initiate non - profit development activity based on the model of Western countries. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the legitimacy of the presented thesis by analyzing the available literature, statistical data and case studies.

  3. A short screening instrument for mental health problems: the symptom checklist-27 (SCL-27) in Poland and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen; Dragan, Malgorzata; Kappis, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    The symptom checklist SCL-27 is a short, multidimensional screening instrument for mental health problems. It contains six scales: depressive, dysthymic, vegetative, agoraphobic and sociophobic symptoms; symptoms of mistrust; and a global severity index (GSI-27). A survey of two student samples from Poland and Germany (n ∼ 400) is presented. Most scales of the SCL-27 showed good to satisfactory reliability (i.e. Cronbach's α > 0.70). Some items displayed different characteristics in students than in non-student samples. These discrepancies can be explained partly by the particular situation students face and partly by some country-specific or language-specific aspects of the measuring instrument. Differences between Polish and German students were marginal at best; in general, the Polish students tended to assent more easily to the items of the SCL-27 than did the German students. The SCL-27 is suitable for international comparisons. In both, Germany and Poland, students display a characteristic response pattern that differs from those of other samples. It can be applied as a separate instrument or for reanalysis of data collected with the SCL-90_R.

  4. The revenues system of the counties in Poland and proposals for its reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of the counties in Poland: land county (encompassing a number of small towns and communes and urban county (a large town above 100 000 inhabitants. The current system of budget revenues of the counties is doubtful and should be changed. This article presents proposals for creating of land county revenues system and a separate system for revenues of large towns. Local taxes, subventions, grants must be built separately for these two different types of local governments.

  5. The PONS study and its place in the strategy of health gain in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years (1960-1990) of adult health decline, since the beginning of the political and economic transformation in the early 1990s.a dramatic reversal of health trends is being observed in Poland, In contrast, in the countries of Western Europe, a significant, steady health gain has been observed already since the end of World War II. At the beginning of the 21 st century one in three men in Poland still do not reach the age of 65, which dramatically contrasts with the one-digit premature mortality in Western Europe (EU15). In Poland very high proportion of this mortality (men ~30%, women ~15%) occur in working age population hampering social and economic development. Non-communicable diseases and risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity) are major cause of heath inequality and contribute to poverty. This health gap, leading to an over-proportional loss of human capital in Eastern Europe, is one of the most crucial challenges for the European Union during the period of economic crisis.

  6. Dynamics of Producing Renewable Energy in Poland and EU-28 Countries within the Period of 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuła Karol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the estimation of trends describing the level of renewable energy resources in Poland and in EU-28 countries within the years 2004–2012. The process of the increase of the percentage of renewable energy in total production of energy was also presented. Comparative statistical analysis was carried out within the dynamics of the phenomena discussed in the paper with respect both to Poland and EU countries. It follows from the investigation that both in Poland and in the EU countries the increase in renewable energy resources has been observed. However, the rate of the increase of the level of renewable energy in Poland is not enough to catch up with the leading EU countries in near future.

  7. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  8. Grand Illusion? The Phenomenon of Jewish Life in Poland after the Holocaust in Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ilwicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish Life in Poland inLower Silesia began with the end of World War II. Survivors from the local concentration camp in Gross Rosen created the first Jewish committee and, with German Jewish survivors, started a new chapter in the post war history of Lower Silesia. The fact that only 10% of the Jews from the whole population overcame the extermination should be borne in mind. There is a related branch of research that seeks to determine how long Jewish life continued in Europe, where and under what conditions. In the last few years, we have become aware of the extent to which Jews actually built new possibilities after World War II in Poland, 1945–1968. In fact, the prevailing popular image of post–war Jewry is a simplistic one that divides the Jewish population into basic groups: the assimilated Jews of Russia; the “Jewish Jews” of Poland and other western areas, annexed to the Soviet Union, who sought to preserve at least some aspects of Yiddishkayt (Jewishness; and the traditional Jews, who remained devout. In the period of 1945–1950, the Jews created the most important center of Jewish Life in Europe, in terms of culture, industry, education and intellectual life. A stabilization period of the Jewish settlement began with the autumn of 1946. The softening of emigration rules and the closure of the Polish borders in the winter of 1947 helped Jews fully concentrate on the Jewish life in Poland. At that time, political, social, economic and cultural activities continued to be carried out on a large scale. In 1946, 16,960 Jews were registered in Wrocław. With the change of the policy towards the Jewish community by the communist government of Poland, the Jewish settlement in Wrocław slowed down and eventually, at the beginning of the 70’s, Jewish life in the Lower Silesia disappeared from the cultural map of the local landscapes. Even though some of the Jewish settlers remained in the Lower Silesia to continue Jewish life in

  9. The contribution of medical care to changing life expectancy in Germany and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Ellen; Scholz, Rembrandt; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    This paper assesses the impact of medical care on changes in mortality in east Germany and Poland before and after the political transition, with west Germany included for comparison. Building upon Rutstein's concept of unnecessary untimely deaths, we calculated the contribution of conditions considered responsive to medical care or health policy to changes in life expectancy between birth and age 75 [e(0-75)] for the periods 1980/1983-1988 and 1991/1992-1996/1997. Temporary life expectancy, between birth and age 75, has been consistently higher in west Germany, intermediate in east Germany and lowest in Poland. Although improving in all three regions between the early 1980s and the late 1990s, the pace of change differed between countries, resulting in a temporary widening of an initial east-west gap by the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the 1980s, in east Germany, 50-60% of the improvement was attributable to declining mortality from conditions responsive to medical care (west Germany: 30-40%). A net positive effect was also observed in Poland, although counterbalanced by deterioration in ischaemic heart disease mortality.In the former communist countries, improvements attributable to medical care in the 1980s were due, largely, to declining infant mortality. In the 1990s, they benefited also adults, specifically those aged 35+ in Poland and 55+ in Germany. A persisting east-west gap in temporary life expectancy in Germany was due, largely, to higher mortality from avoidable conditions in the east, with causes responsive to health policy contributing about half, and medical care 16% (men) to 24% (women) to the differential in 1997. The findings indicate that changes in the health care system related to the political transition were associated with improvements in life expectancy in east Germany and, to a lesser extent, in Poland. Also, differences in the quality of medical care as assessed by the concept of "unnecessary untimely deaths" appear to contribute to a

  10. Presentation of the Polish family in primers used in the Second Republic of Poland (in Poland between the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARZYNA KOCHAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was a time of great significance in the history of the Polish nation. It was characterised by immense enthusiasm because of Poland's newly regained independence, however, the country wrestled with many post-partition problems. One of them was, for instance, a lack of a cohesive administration system resulting from regional administrative differences among the Polish partitioned territories. The main task for education, also in need of adjustment to the new circumstances, was to standardise its system because of the dissimilar educational procedures available in the Second Republic. The new social, political and economic situation also required up-to-date syllabuses and corresponding textbooks. Hence, 31 primers were published in the interwar period. Their reading texts dealt with various thematic fields; they were, for example, associated with the subject of the family as being close to the children's experience and feelings.The present paper aims at comparing if, and to what extent, the portraits of families presented in the primers were adequate to real models of families in the interwar Poland.

  11. Evaluation of the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Mariusz; Tyrała, Kinga; Kolarczyk-Haczyk, Aleksandra; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious illness affecting health, family and professional life of many people of all sectors of society. It also concerns students, regardless of their geographical location. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a proper tool to brief check of the level of depression because it has high correlation with depression. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany. Students from different countries were asked to fill in an electronic form containing the BDI. The form was created separately for each country, using official translation of the BDI, approved by the competent psychiatric association. Google Drive software was used for the electronic form, and Stat soft Statistica v10 software for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in terms of average score of the BDI and of the proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical and technology students among kinds of studies and countries. The average score of the BDI of medical students: Poland: 13.76±9.99 points; Germany: 8.49±7.64 points; Portugal: 7.37±7.67 points. The average score of the BDI of technology students: Poland: 12.42±9.66 points; Germany: 10.51±8.49 points; Portugal: 9.25±8.97 points. The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical students: Poland 56.32% (285/506) Germany 34.92% (154/441) Portugal 26.03% (82/315). The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of technology students: Poland 55.01% (368/669) Germany 43.82% (156/356) Portugal 37.57% (136/362). The highest depression score among medical and technology students according the BDI was found in Poland. A proper monitoring of depression is required, as well as rapid and appropriate help for those who suffer from it.

  12. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  13. Local Factors Influencing The Increase In Development Activity In Selected Cities Of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development activity in Poland began to increase in the 1990's as a result of market-oriented reforms, with the process continuing to this day. The beginnings were, however, not easy due to, among others, the absence of many important legal regulations and the lack of commercial financing. The situation changed in the second half of the 1990's, positively affecting residential development activity. The years 2008 - 2009 were particularly relevant in the course of the studied trend as a sharp increase in the number of completed developer-built residential dwelling units was recorded at this time. After this period, a decline in the number of dwelling units completed by developers was recorded, which indicates its strong dependence on changes in the economic environment. Fluctuations in the number of dwelling units completed by developers were also visible before Poland's accession to the European Union. This means that the diversity of development activity is influenced by many factors.

  14. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  15. Cultural Integration and Cross–Cultural Management Challenges in the Central European Countries:Lithuania and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GREBLIKAITĖ, JOLITA; SROKA, WŁODZIMIERZ; DAUGĖLIENĖ, RASA; KUROWSKA–PYSZ, JOANNA

    2017-01-01

    The article focused on disclosing the situation of cultural integration in Lithuania and Poland leading to the different issues of cross–cultural management in labour market and companies activity. As the main research method, a critical analysis of scientific literature on cultural integration and cross–cultural management applied in the companies as well as secondary research data and legal documents are analysed focusing on both countries – Lithuania and Poland. Practical examples' analysi...

  16. Spatial Diversification Of The Regional Expenses On Culture In Poland 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchecki Adam Mateusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the completion of the process of decentralization of the public administration in Poland in 2003, a number of tasks implemented so far by the state authorities were transferred to the local level. One of the most significant changes in the methods of financing and management of the local authorities was the transfer of culture and national heritage-related tasks to a group of the own tasks implemented by local governments. As a result of the decentralization process, the local government units in Poland were given a significant autonomy in determining the purposes of their budgetary expenditure on culture. At the same time they were obliged to cover these expenses from their own revenue.

  17. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  18. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement.

  19. Future industrial and municipal waste management in poland the polish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowskl, J.; Sorum, L.; Hustad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the p olish challenge , both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Development and characteristics of selected soybean traits under the climatic conditions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Warzecha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials with 200 soybean mutants from GDR revealed, that only 34 (17% of them ripened under the conditions of Central Poland. There results corrborate the frequent opinion about the poor adaptability of this species. The length of the vegetation period of the tested mutants was between 146 and 163 days, with wide differences in various years of testing. Mutants: M-4855, M-4961, M-4149 and M-4852 had short vegetation period therefore there are interesting for breeders. These mutants together with other forms with a longer vegetation period but characterized by other desirable traits could be used as components in breeding programmes. The variability of many characters was highly affected by the environment. Morphological traits being more stable and determined by the genotype. Protein and fat content in seeds from the tested materials were within the limits commonly found in soybean seeds in Poland.

  1. Knowledge transfer in networks – the case of steel enteprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the problems of knowledge transfer in networks based on the steel industry in Poland. Knowledge is the key element in the development of a company’s competitiveness. This is particularly important in the case of networking, where there is a process of mutual learning between partners. Based on the example of Arcelor-Mittal Group, the transfer of knowledge within an intra-organizational network was presented.

  2. Scenarios for ITS telecommunications technologies development in Poland for the years 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz BARTCZAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows four scenarios for the development of ITS communications technologies in Poland for the years 2007-2013. Global Business Network methodology is used to make up the scenarios. The basic dimensions of the scenarios are (a type of sectors in the national economy (public vs. private, (b type of communications technology (wireline vs. wireless. The scenarios present possible futures.

  3. Lichens of fruit trees in the selected locations in Podlaskie Voivodeship [North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matwiejuk Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the diversity of the lichen species on fruit trees (Malus sp., Pyrus sp., Prunus sp. and Cerasus sp. growing in orchards in selected villages and towns in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Fifty-six species of lichens were found. These were dominated by common lichens found on the bark of trees growing in built-up areas with prevailing heliophilous and nitrophilous species of the genera Physcia and Phaeophyscia. A richer lichen biota is characteristic of apple trees (52 species and pear trees (36. Lichens of the apple trees constitute 78% of the biota of this phorophyte growing in the fruit orchards in Poland. Of the recorded species, only two (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea hirta are covered by partial protection in Poland.

  4. Why Do Some Denizens Reject Naturalisation? The Case of Long-term Immigrants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Andrejuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses reasons and context of the decision not to naturalise, made by long-term immigrants in Poland. The text encompasses description of the legal context of naturalisation in Poland, statistical data about long-term residents from various diasporas and number of citizenship acquisitions. The article focuses on four case studies of migrants from the United Kingdom, Lithuania, Vietnam and India in order to examine and interpret the declared reasons of the lack of naturalisation. In general, three types of reasons are distinguished: psychological (lack of sufficient sense of belonging, bureaucratic (costs, length and complicated character of the procedure and legal-political (prohibition of dual citizenship in the country of origin, possession of a status of a permanent resident.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  6. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993......-2002 divided along three ownership types, the paper finds in a pooled regression model a positive association between the size of foreign presence and the level of IIT for foreign-owned companies, but no significant spill-over effects from foreign presence to the level and development of IIT for private...... and public domestic companies. A negative IIT growth for private and public companies and a small positive growth for foreign-owned companies in science-based industries indicate that advanced technological spill-over effects to the Polish economy are still in their infancy....

  7. Difficult Geotechnical Conditions Under the Palace Complex, Case Study from Cianowice, Near Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk, Joanna; Gil, Regina

    2016-10-01

    The palace complex in Cianowice near Krakow (Lesser Poland, Poland) built around 1890, after 1945 ceased to function as a residential, so the whole building underwent successive devastation. Military activities, ad hoc repairs and long-term shortage of funds in Poland, led to the destruction of the magnificent assumptions. Since 2006. Palace remained completely unsecured and unattended. Performed in 2012-2015 modernization of the historic palace with the expansion of the basement (for residential building multigenerational) has become the occasion for a thorough diagnosis of the prevailing geotechnical conditions and the state of preservation of threads stone and brick walls and vaults chambers basement. Difficult ground conditions, water penetration, lack of insulation of horizontal and vertical has become one of the main causes of the destruction of the foundations and walls of basements. Moisture from the ground, rising damp in the walls (with dissolved salts in it), evaporate causing erosion of the walls. The result it led to the weakening of the structural and breakout layers of walls. The phenomenon has become particularly clear after the geotechnical surveys, excavations and complete discovery of the basement walls. The conducted works related to general technical renovation and restoration, included foundations (lining and insulation), walls, floors and roof. The assumption palace in Cianowice, through appropriate interference with the use of modern and introduction of a new substance, in any manner that emphasizes value and historical monument became possible to restore the important significance of the object and place.

  8. Manga/anime Conventions in Poland : The Example of Japanicon 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworowicz-Zimny, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Events organised for fans of Japanese culture are enjoying growing popularity all over the world. This research note examines the organisation of conventions in Poland, where the scale of such events is considerably smaller than in Western Europe. It focuses on the example of Japanicon 6 – a convention that took place in Poznań in October 2015 and the general activities of its organising company. A participants’ survey reveals who the convention’s visitors are, what aspects of Japanese cultur...

  9. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań.

  10. Parasitic macrofungi (Basidiomycetes on fruit shrubs and trees in the Tarnów town (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of 6 years of research carried out in the Tarnów town, southern Poland, are presented. Total number of 27 species of Basidiomycetes were recorded on 7 species of fruit shrubs and trees. Some of them were found on hosts new for Poland, on Malus domestica - Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma australe, Meripilus giganteus, Stereum hirsutum and Volvariella bombycina; on Juglans regia - Ganoderma applanalum and Hineola auricula-judae.

  11. Determinants influencing the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harmfulness to human health, asbestos has been banned in 55 countries, including the EU. In Poland, the use and production of asbestos and asbestos-containing products has been forbidden since 1997. However, there is no precise data about the amount of asbestos-containing products to be eliminated from the territory of Poland. This survey aims to identify characteristics that have a significant impact on the estimation of asbestos-containing products used in Poland. Statistical correlation between the results of the physical inventory count done in 155 municipalities was examined. As a result of the survey it was found that the amount of asbestos-cement roofing depends on the following factors: the number of individual farms in the village, the distance from the asbestos manufacturing plants, the age of the buildings and the economic situation of municipality. The results obtained may contribute to the ability to predict the amount of asbestos-containing products used in other municipalities.

  12. Nanomaterials – Proposals of occupational exposure limits in the world and hygiene standards in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are no legally binding workplace exposure limits for substances in the form of nanoobjects. There are different approaches to risk assessment and determination of occupational exposure limits. The purpose of this article is to compare exposure levels in the work environment proposed by international organizations and world experts, as well as the assumptions and methods used for their estimation. This paper presents the proposals of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands (RIVM, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization in Japan (NEDO and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the USA (NIOSH. The authors also discuss the reports on the levels for carbon nanotubes (Baytubes® and Nanocyl proposed by Pauluhn and Luizi, the derived no-effect levels (DNEL complying with the REACH Regulation, proposed by experts under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission, coordinated by Professor Vicki Stone (ENRHES, and alternative estimation levels for poorly soluble particles by Pauluhn. The issue was also raised whether the method of determining maximum admissible concentrations in the work environment, currently used in Poland, is adequate for nanoobjects. Moreover, the introduction of nanoreference values, as proposed by RIVM, the definition of a new fraction for particles of 1-100 nm, taking into account the surface area and activity of the particles, and an adequate estimation of uncertainty factors seem to be worth considering. Other important, if not key issues are the appropriate measurement (numerical concentration, surface concentration, particle size distribution, as well as the methodology and equipment accessibility to all employers responsible for a reliable risk assessment of exposure to nanoparticles in the work environment. Med Pr 2013;64(6:829–845

  13. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  14. Patterns of regional inflation persistence in a CEE country. The case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewski, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of regional inflation persistence in Poland, a representative CEE country. We first argue that the CEE perspective is relevant in the context of this study due to the recent transitions, incomplete processes of forming forward-looking inflation expectations and pronounced spatial inequalities. Using individual and panel regressions on disaggregate data we provide evidence of the aggregation bias and marked differences in inflation persistence across product ca...

  15. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  16. Oncological organizations and institutions in Poland before the second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supady, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    During the first four decades of the 20th century many oncological organizations and institutions were established in Poland. On 6 June, 1906 the Committee for Cancer Research and Control was founded. After the year 1918 when Poland regained its independence many more cancer control organizations came into being. The organizations created at that time were: the Polish Committee for Cancer Control (Warsaw 1921), the Cancer Control Society of Lódź (Lódź 1927), the Vilnius Committee for Cancer Control (Vilnius 1931), the Polish Cancer Control Institute Association in Lviv (Lviv 1929), the Polish Cancer Control Association (Warsaw 1938). These cancer control organizations undertook multiphase activities (prophylactic, educational, organizational, scientific and research) by creating outpatient and inpatient oncological care institutions, on which base numerous scientific and research papers were produced. The effect of that work was the creation of the Radium Treatment Institute in Lódź and the Research and Therapeutic Institute for Cancer Control in Vilnius, as well as founding oncological hospital wards and clinics. The most important achievement was building and opening the very modern Radium Institute in Warsaw. The initiator of the Institute, which in 1939 had 90 beds on its disposal, was Maria Skłodowska-Curie herself. Cancer control organizations members and activists conducted many propaganda actions on malignant diseases, shared they observations and research findings during meetings, conferences and assemblies in Poland and abroad.

  17. Distribution, habitat affinities and phenology of the Micrargus herbigradus-species group (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Konrad; Rozwałka, Robert; Wesołowska, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    We review the known information on the distribution and habitat affinities of the Micrargus herbigradus -species group in Poland. The analysis is based on a thorough literature survey, our own materials, and verification of some older collections. We give new diagnostic drawings and review the characters that are useful in identification of species within the group. Three species are present in Poland: M. herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854), M. apertus (O.-P. Cambridge, 1870) and M. georgescuae Millidge, 1976. The latter is recorded for the first time in the country, and we add numerous new localities for the two former species. Micrargus herbigradus is common and widespread in Poland, living in various habitats, with only a slight preference to forests. In contrast, M. apertus is widely distributed but rarely found, while its affinity to forests is the highest within the group. The records of this species are most numerous in lowland forests (up to c. 300 m a.s.l), but it can also be found at higher altitudes. M. georgescuae is found only in montane habitats, both in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains, from above 650 m a.s.l. The adults of all three species occur the whole year round, but seem to be most abundant in May and June.

  18. Are Poland and Ukraine Gravity Centres for Each Other? Study on the Labour Migration Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokołowicz Mariusz E.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of migration within the European Union, as well as between its member and non-members states, has become recently an important issue. Among the EU and OECD countries, Poland is not a major recipient of immigrants. However, in recent years one can observe a growing number of both permanent and temporary immigrants, most of whom are Ukrainian citizens, whose main departure motive is work.

  19. Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratynskji, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie (West Poland is described based on field research conducted in 1999 and 2000. The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved. i> Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae and Cymbalarietum murales are reported for the first time from this region of Poland.

    A partir del trabajo de campo realizado entre 1999 y el 2000 se describe la flora y la vegetación de las paredes en Krosno Odazanskie (Polonia Occidental. 96 especies de 35 familias constituyen la flora vascular. Predominan los apófilos y plantas capaces de reproducirse vegetativamente. Las asociaciones Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae y Cymbalarietum murales se citan por vez primera para esta región de Polonia.

  20. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local industrial and commercial emissions, whereas the main source of Hg in particulate matter collected at the forest site was connected with regional anthropogenic processes. This paper provides the results of the first long-term measurements of size-fractionated particulate mercury conducted in central Poland, which could be an important insight into atmospheric Hg processes within such a scarcely investigated part of Europe.

  1. Reconciling religious identity and reproductive practices: the Church and contraception in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Dannefer, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    After the fall of state socialism in Poland in 1989, a Catholic-nationalist government assumed power. The new political power of the Catholic Church resulted in severe restrictions on family planning (FP) services. Yet, Poland's fertility rate declined sharply, suggesting that women are controlling their fertility despite restrictions. This study examined the Church's influence on women's contraceptive decisions, and how women reconcile religious teachings with their contraceptive use. We conducted a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews, in Gdańsk, Poland with sexually active women aged 18-40. The quantitative sample included 418 respondents; the qualitative sample included 49 respondents. Despite restrictions on FP services, modern contraceptive use among our sample was 56%, up from 19% in 1991. Catholicism played a relatively small role in respondents' contraceptive decisions; though 94.2% of respondents were Catholic, 79% reported that the Church had little or no influence on reproductive decisions. Women's explanations for how they reconcile their reproductive practices with Catholicism included using elements of religion to support contraceptive use, prioritising responsibility for family and financial considerations over the Church's prohibitions, and challenging the Church's credibility in FP matters. Our findings underscore women's struggles under post-socialist reproductive policies that limit FP access. Despite religious, political, and economic obstacles, contraceptive use has increased dramatically, indicating that FP is a high priority for women in Poland. Policies should respond to women's needs. Comprehensive, state-sponsored FP and sex education are urgently needed and the state should legitimise such services.

  2. Estimation of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Ewa; Krówczyńska, Małgorzata; Pabjanek, Piotr; Mędrzycki, Piotr

    2017-05-01

    The unique set of physical and chemical properties has led to many industrial applications of asbestos worldwide; one of them was roof covering. Asbestos is harmful to human health, and therefore its use was legally forbidden. Since in Poland there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing, the objective of this study was to estimate its quantity on the basis of physical inventory taking with the use of aerial imagery, and the application of selected statistical features. Data pre-processing and analysis was executed in R Statistical Environment v. 3.1.0. Best random forest models were computed; model explaining 72.9% of the variance was subsequently used to prepare the prediction map of the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland. Variables defining the number of farms, number and age of buildings, and regional differences were crucial for the analysis. The total amount of asbestos roofing in Poland was estimated at 738,068,000 m 2 (8.2m t). It is crucial for the landfill development programme, financial resources distribution, and application of monitoring policies.

  3. Corruption in schools? The scale and sources of corruption perceptions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wysmułek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the scale and sources of views on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector in Poland. Through the use of public opinion surveys, I answer questions on how the corruption level in Polish educational institutions has changed over time and how it compares to other public institutions (such as the health care sector and police and to the situation in other European countries. My goal is to investigate the effect of individual-level predictors of perceiving schools as corrupt in Poland, with special attention given to structural determinants and previous bribe-giving experiences of respondents. The results reveal that in Poland relatively few respondents have experienced recent acts of giving bribes in schools or perceive educational institutions as corrupt. However, there is a structural pattern behind the sources of negative opinions. The effect of socio-economic determinants on views relating to corruption in Polish schools is strongly pronounced and trends in the opposite direction compared to the effects reported in other European countries.

  4. Energy (in)security in Poland the case of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Corey; Boersma, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The large scale extraction of natural gas from shale rock layers in North America using hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, has prompted geologists, economists and politicians in various parts of the world to ask whether there are new reserves of this precious resource to be found under their soils. It has also raised a host of questions about the potential environmental impacts of extracting it. Drawing on research on both sides of the Atlantic, this paper assesses the most pressing issues for research and policy makers related to shale gas extraction. The paper first provides a survey of environmental and economic issues related to shale gas. It then turns to a case study of Poland, whose policy makers have been among the most fervent proponents of shale gas development in the European Union. We examine the status of shale gas extraction in that country and what the barriers are to overcome before commercial extraction can in fact take place, if at all. - Highlights: ► We examine geologic, economic, environmental and political issues of shale gas. ► Poland is used to assess prospects for shale gas development in Europe. ► Debate in Poland has largely been framed as an energy security issue. ► A number of significant hurdles may prevent large scale development there.

  5. Work addiction in Poland: adaptation of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale and relationship with psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Andrzej Atroszko; Ståle Pallesen; Mark D. Griffiths; Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    2017-01-01

    Background:\\ud Work addiction has been recognized as a potential behavioral addiction, and studies have consistently shown its negative relationship with psychosocial functioning. However, in many countries, such as Poland, very few work addiction studies are based on measures developed using an addiction framework. Against this backdrop, the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) was adapted for use in Polish samples and its relationship with psychopathology was investigated.\\ud Participants and...

  6. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  7. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  8. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  9. Intraspecific variation between the ITS sequences of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina from different host species in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt-Wyrwas, R; Mizgajska-Wiktor, H; Pacoń, J; Jarosz, W

    2013-12-01

    Some parasitic nematodes can inhabit different definitive hosts, which raises the question of the intraspecific variability of the nematode genotype affecting their preferences to choose particular species as hosts. Additionally, the issue of a possible intraspecific DNA microheterogeneity in specimens from different parts of the world seems to be interesting, especially from the evolutionary point of view. The problem was analysed in three related species - Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina - specimens originating from Central Europe (Poland). Using specific primers for species identification, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 regions were amplified and then sequenced. The sequences obtained were compared with sequences previously described for specimens originating from other geographical locations. No differences in nucleotide sequences were established in T. canis isolated from two different hosts (dogs and foxes). A comparison of ITS sequences of T. canis from Poland with sequences deposited in GenBank showed that the scope of intraspecific variability of the species did not exceed 0.4%, while in T. cati the differences did not exceed 2%. Significant differences were found in T. leonina, where ITS-1 differed by 3% and ITS-2 by as much as 7.4% in specimens collected from foxes in Poland and dogs in Australia. Such scope of differences in the nucleotide sequence seems to exceed the intraspecific variation of the species.

  10. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  11. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers

  12. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  13. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996; Postawy spoleczne wobec energetyki jadrowej w Polsce w latach 1989-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latek, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  15. The knowledge of the inhabitants of Lesser Poland about the profession of an occupational therapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzińska Urszula Ż

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A contemporary model of occupational therapy differs from the previous model which was common in Poland in previous years. Therefore, the opinions of the society concerning the profession of an occupational therapist are constantly changing. Material and methods: The research included 244 inhabitants of Lesser Poland aged between 25 and 65 employed in various professions. A questionnaire regarding occupational therapy and the profession and competences of occupational therapists was applied in the study. Results: The presented results show that the job of an occupational therapist is perceived as a needed profession both by individuals who underwent such therapy and those who did not use such services. Responses regarding competences and activities in the profession of an occupational therapist revealed differences in the opinions of the study participants. Conclusions: Taking into account only competences and activities of an occupational therapist, associations of the study participants reflected the knowledge of the model of therapy that existed before and was mainly devoted to occupational therapy workshops. The respondents would trust an occupational therapist both in adapting the house to their needs and in performing exercises connected with activities of daily living.

  16. Trends in the Production of Castings in the World and in Poland in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data concerning the total production of castings over the 2000-2014 period, both on a global scale, and in Poland. The basic types of casting alloys were taken into account. Changes in the production volume and structure over the period of the analysed 15 years were pointed out with respect to countries leading in foundry production. The topmost position in the world foundry industry is held by China for several years (with almost 45% share in the foundry market, the second place is taken by India (with almost 9% share. A distinct reduction in the shares of the once significant producers of castings, such as USA, Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy, or France, was observed over the 2000-2014 period. Poland had a share of 1.16% in 2000, and of 1.02% in 2014. Comparing the detailed data concerning the years 2000 and 2014, one can see that the fractions of castings made of ductile iron, cast steel, aluminium alloys, or magnesium alloys increase on a global scale, while such alloys as grey cast iron or malleable are in decline.

  17. The Content of Professional Training of Specialists for the Economic Sector in the Republic of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorodnia Alla A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in the Republic of Poland. The author emphasizes that economic education is a special kind of education, content and procedural components of which have a significant impact on the formation of both professional and personal criteria of personal and professional development of competent specialists, who will influence the development and course of the various economic processes that will be able to determine the improvement of society as a whole and each individual in particular. The author also notes that the economic education is developing in students a clear understanding of scientific laws of economic development, especially concerning market relations; purposeful, systematic forming in the future experts economic knowledge, high level of organization and creative initiatives of their preparation for highly professional work, skillfully careful attitude to nature; developing the habit of practical use of economic knowledge in real life. The content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in Poland is determined by the educational standards for the field of research, in particular — the economy

  18. The radiocarbon dating of the neolithic flint mines at Krzemionki in central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babel, J.; Braziewicz, J.; JaskoIa, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.; Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.

    2005-01-01

    Ten samples taken from wooden torches and small fireplaces discovered at the Krzemionki neolithic flint mine localized in central Poland were dated using the AMS facility at Erlangen University. The radiocarbon results points two main periods of exploitation of studied mines, i.e. approximately to 3500-3100 BC and to 3100-2900 BC. The results are discussed in the aspect of the mine chronology. The new radiocarbon dates confirm the previous radiocarbon data obtained from other mine units in this part of the Krzemionki mine complex

  19. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  20. Reshaping of Elites and the Privatization of Security: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Los

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the example of Poland, this article examines the central role of secret services in the regime transformation and new elites’ formation. It traces strategic processes of dispersal and privatization of the communist security apparatus and analyzes the strategic value of the new private security sector. Its multifaceted linkages as well as its involvement in crime, marketing of fear, tying surveillance with prestige and amassing potentially useful information are examined. This sector’s vital role in shaping new definitions of (disorder and providing new risk management strategies is discussed within a changing, global context.

  1. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  2. The prospects for limiting emissions from road transport: a case study for the Middle Odra and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Dzikuć, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The article presents selected aspects related to emissions that arise during road transport. These impurities are an important component of low emission, which is generated at a height of up to 40 m from the ground level. Low emission in the Middle Odra Region and throughout Poland is a serious problem. Low emission has a significant share in total emissions in Poland, where the air is one of the worst in the EU. The problem of low emission concerns not only highly urbanized areas, but also places where the industry is less developed and the number of inhabitants falling on average per square kilometre is less than in the rest of Poland. An example of such an area is the Middle Odra, which additionally features the highest forest cover in the country (more than 50%). The paper highlights the main causes of road transport emissions and points out the need to take action that can significantly help reduce this phenomenon.

  3. The current state of the creation and modernization of national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All official data are currently integrated and harmonized in a spatial reference system. This paper outlines a national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland. The national geodetic and cartographic resources are an important part of the spatial information infrastructure in the European Community. They also provide reference data for other resources of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, including: main and detailed geodetic control networks, base maps, land and buildings registries, geodetic registries of utilities and topographic maps. This paper presents methods of producing digital map data and technical standards for field surveys, and in addition paper also presents some aspects of building Global and Regional SDI.

  4. Radiation education in Poland. The present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.

    1999-01-01

    The necessity for the continued education about radiation (both in nuclear science and the technical application of radioisotopes) in the educational systems is obvious. For many years this subject has been part of a students education in physics as well as nonphysical areas of study, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, ecology and agriculture. Unfortunately in the wake of the disaster at Chernobyl, a number of negative factors have resulted that have undermined both educations in this crucial area and financial investment in Polish radiation institutes. Some sociologists have termed this behavior/viewpoint 'radio-phobia phenomena'. Might I be so bold as to recoin it as 'nuclear related paranoia' since it has caused a general breakdown in rational, 'cause and effect analysis' even within respectable scientific circles, including prominent radio biologists, who now accept radiation only as a destructive factor in biological and human life. The most important factor in this campaign will be the promotion and presentation of radiation in simple-understandable terms through the following outlets, (popular articles, TV programs, objective classroom presentation and so on), designed to be easily understandable to society as a whole. In this support is to be found in some governmental and independent organization, which do attempt to show radiation as bio-positive, human friendly and an economically indispensable factor for the future. However our fight with the so-called coal lobby' will continue to be difficult. Help by international organizations such as the I.A.E.A. will not suffice in this battle. In this article the author tries to describe the Polish education system and statistical data showing the present status of radiation science, radiation education and the quantity of students and experts in the field. As a nuclear physicist and specialist in radiation protection, lecturer and an Inspector of Radiation Protection, he provides insights from his own

  5. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  6. Testing the margin of appreciation: therapeutic abortion, reproductive 'rights' and the intriguing case of Tysiqc v. Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priaulx, Nicolette

    2008-12-01

    In Tysiac v. Poland (2007) the Strasbourg Court ruled in favour of the applicant (who had been denied access to a lawful therapeutic abortion), finding that Poland had failed to comply with its positive obligations to safeguard the applicant's right to effective respect for her private life under Article 8. Exploring this controversial judgment, the author assesses the claim that Tysiac marks a 'radical shift' on the part of the Court in creating a 'right to abortion'. The author argues that while Tysiac makes an important addition to abortion jurisprudence, the notion it founds such a 'right' greatly overstates the legal significance of this case.

  7. Air protection programmes in Poland in the context of the low emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz; Dzikuć, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    The protection of the air against pollutants from individual boiler plants is a big challenge in Poland. It results mainly from the preference for coal, the national energy carrier, the use of old low-efficiency boilers and the location of Poland in a temperate climate where the heating period lasts at least 5 months. This article presents a wide range of activities aimed at the reduction of the environmental impact of the emissions of pollutants from individual heat sources-the so-called low emission. The article presents the extent of the national legislation resulting from the European Union regulations. It discusses the assumptions of the air protection programmes (APPs) and the low emission reduction programmes (LERPs). The assumptions mentioned above are analysed as part of a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis and a multi-criterion analysis. An important result of these analyses (in the Polish conditions) is the conclusion that a boiler fired with large pieces of wood is an optimal solution from the economic and ecological points of view. The article proposes systemic, organisational and legislative solutions whose implementation could contribute to raising the effectiveness of the protection of the atmosphere.

  8. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  9. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  10. The costs and risk of introduction of the euro in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Kozakiewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the 1st of May 2004, Poland became a member state of the European Union. At the moment, it doesn’t fulfill the convergence criteria required for the introduction of the euro, but will have to adapt in the future. The aim of this article is to identify potential risks and economic costs that could occur due to Poland’s integration with the eurozone. The joining country loses the ability to run an autonomous monetary policy. The scale of adverse effects depends, among other factors, on decisions made by the European Central Bank, effectiveness of adjustment mechanisms and types of shocks. Economic costs may occur on a long time scale, which is related to the fact that economic structure of Polish economy is not exactly similar to the EU and there is low flexibility of wages in Poland. Most countries of the eurozone do not fulfill the fiscal criteria, creating a threat to the economy. The article sums up possible consequences of introducing the single currency that are expected and should be taken into consideration before joining the eurozone.

  11. Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Glowacki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?

  12. Radiation education in Poland. The present status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W. [Technical Univ. Poznan, Radio- and Photochemistry Dept., Poznan, Piotrowo (Poland)

    1999-09-01

    The necessity for the continued education about radiation (both in nuclear science and the technical application of radioisotopes) in the educational systems is obvious. For many years this subject has been part of a students education in physics as well as nonphysical areas of study, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, ecology and agriculture. Unfortunately in the wake of the disaster at Chernobyl, a number of negative factors have resulted that have undermined both educations in this crucial area and financial investment in Polish radiation institutes. Some sociologists have termed this behavior/viewpoint 'radio-phobia phenomena'. Might I be so bold as to recoin it as 'nuclear related paranoia' since it has caused a general breakdown in rational, 'cause and effect analysis' even within respectable scientific circles, including prominent radio biologists, who now accept radiation only as a destructive factor in biological and human life. The most important factor in this campaign will be the promotion and presentation of radiation in simple-understandable terms through the following outlets, (popular articles, TV programs, objective classroom presentation and so on), designed to be easily understandable to society as a whole. In this support is to be found in some governmental and independent organization, which do attempt to show radiation as bio-positive, human friendly and an economically indispensable factor for the future. However our fight with the so-called coal lobby' will continue to be difficult. Help by international organizations such as the I.A.E.A. will not suffice in this battle. In this article the author tries to describe the Polish education system and statistical data showing the present status of radiation science, radiation education and the quantity of students and experts in the field. As a nuclear physicist and specialist in radiation protection, lecturer and an Inspector of Radiation Protection, he

  13. Reproductive rights in Poland: when politicians fear the wrath of the Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.

  14. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland: the first report of a haplotype of probable Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamon, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Samorek-Pierog, Malgorzata; Bilska-Zajac, Ewa; Rozycki, Miroslaw; Chmurzynska, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Zdybel, Jolanta; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-03-09

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in Poland based on sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genes of worms isolated from red foxes, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus). Overall, 83 adults of E. multilocularis from the same number of foxes in different parts of Poland were used for analysis. Sequences of the three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (cob), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), were analysed. Seventy-four individual biological samples were successfully sequenced. Combined sequence analysis of these three genes exhibited fifteen Polish haplotypes (EmPL1-EmPL15). Most isolates (n = 29; 39%) were classified to the EmPL1 haplotype, which occurred mainly in the east, north and centre of Poland. Haplotype EmPL4 (n = 14; 19%) and other haplotypes appeared predominantly in the south and west area. Fourteen haplotypes were grouped in the European clade. One Polish haplotype (EmPL9) (n = 7, 10%) was assigned to the Asian clade with haplotypes from Japan and Kazakhstan. This haplotype was found only in northeast Poland and this is the westernmost report of haplotype of E. multilocularis belonging to the Asian clade in Europe. The investigation demonstrated that populations of E. multilocularis in Poland (and probably also in eastern Europe) included not only different European haplotypes but also those of the Asian origin.

  15. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  16. Indirect costs of diabetes and its impact on the public finance: the case of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torój, Andrzej; Mela, Aneta

    2018-02-01

    Growing public and private expenditure on healthcare results i.a. from the spreading of chronic diseases. Diabetes belongs to the most frequent ones, beyond neoplasms and cardiological diseases, and hence generates a significant burden for the public finance in terms of the direct costs. However, the economy suffers also from the indirect cost of diabetes that manifests itself in the loss in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and general government revenues. This paper aims to measure this indirect cost, both in terms of GDP drop (social perspective) and public revenue drop (public finance perspective), in the case of Poland in 2012-2014. We use a modified human capital approach and unique dataset provided by the Social Security institution in Poland and the Polish Central Statistical Office. Diabetes is a substantial and growing burden for the Polish economy. In the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 the indirect cost (output loss) amounted to 1.85 bn USD, 1.94 bn USD and 2.00 bn USD respectively. Estimated indirect cost of diabetes can be a useful input for health technology analyses of drugs or economic impact assessments of public health programmes.

  17. Estimating the value of public construction works in Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Plebankiewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the legislation concerning the methodology of estimating the value of works in Poland and the Czech Republic. In both countries it is necessary for the public investor to respect the law governing public procurement, which defines the structure of compulsory documents needed for the tender documentation, but not directly the way of their preparation. In both countries, though, there exist model proceeding schedules for the calculation of the value of a public procurement for construction works. To illustrate and compare the calculation methods a sample calculation of the procurement value is presented for a selected thermal efficiency improvement project.

  18. Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland and its status in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

  19. Volvariella caesiotincta P. D. Orton, a new species in the mycobiota of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella caesiotincta P.D. Orton in Poland. Fruit body of the species was found on 22nd July 2002 in an oak-hornbeam/elm-ash municipal wood in the eastern part of Wrocław. The saproxylic Volvariella caesiotincta produced its carpophore on the base of rotten log of Quercus robur. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned.

  20. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Visit to the PMS-stations in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Danish build automatic gamma-ray monitoring stations have been installed in the Baltic countries, Poland and Russia (Sct. Petersbourg region). The stations are designed for continously measure the gamma-radiation from the surroundings. The stations use the Windows NT 3.51 as operating system. Each.......New soft ware versions including new features have been installed. Also a servicepack 5 for windows NT 3.51 has been installed to make the system year 2000 proof. Simple maintainance of the stations was carried out during the visit....

  2. Complexity in Risks Facing Pension Plans: Nonmarket Financial Risk in the United States and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Samborski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses agency, regulatory capture, counterparty and political risks as aspects of the nonmarket financial risks that pension plans and their participants bear, using as examples the United States and Poland. The intent of the paper is to expand beyond financial market risks the discussion of financial risks that pension plans and participants bear in funded pension systems. Thus, this paper fits into the broader discussion of the relative merits of funded and unfunded pensions. The paper also relates to analysis of the increasingly complex environment in which pension plans operate. Keywords: pension plans, nonmarket financial risks, agency risks, regulatory capture risks, counterparty risks, political risks.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants spontaneously colonizing the soda heap in Jaworzno (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gucwa-Przepióra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the mycorrhizal status of plant species spontaneously established on the soda heap located in Jaworzno (Upper Silesia, Poland are presented. Additionally, the species of arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota extracted from field-collected rhizosphere substrate samples of the heap are showed. Arbuscular mycorrhizae were described in 17 plant species. Five Glomus spp. were recognized in the spore populations of arbuscular fungi isolated. The investigation presented in this paper for the first time revealed Centaurea stoebe and Trifolium montanum to be hosts of arbuscular fungi.

  4. TAX OPTIMIZATION AS A DECISIVE FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Andriyash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to compare the system of taxation and tax optimization in Poland with solutions in the selected EU Member States and its influence on economic development. The paper presents the system of taxation in Poland compared with fiscal solutions in selected EU countries. It also discusses the typology of tax solutions referring to tax optimization in Europe. Methodology. The author used the primary and secondary data from the Central Statistics Office (GUS, Pricewaterhouse Coopers’ research and the Eurostat. The research methods used for the purpose of data analysis included economic analysis of legal acts, descriptive statistics, and comparative analysis. Results showed that the level of tax loading in Poland is more moderate than in other developed countries of the world while the mechanism of administration of taxes and collections is much more successful. The share of receipts collected by the decentralized administration has been increasing steadily since the major administrative reform of 1999 and the local finance law enacted in 2004. Eliminating the category of special sections of industrial production and inclusion of revenues/income to the proposed form of income tax would be very desirable. This would indicate the practical implementation of Smith’s tax principles concerning tax equity and an ability of taxpayer to pay levies. Practical implications. Tax optimization is to balance the tax loading level through offering benefits and preferences which would stimulate the economy of the country and will not cause aggravation of the problem of relocating tax loading from one tax payer to another. Many national states, noticing the phenomena of tax evasion and tax avoidance are implementing or going to implement specific reforms which help to improve the system of tax control with the aim of creating conditions which make tax and collections evasion impossible. Value/originality. The results of the conducted

  5. A new hermit crab (Anomura, Paguroidea) from the upper Albian (Cretaceous) of Annopol, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, René H B; Van Bakel, Barry W M; Jagt, John W M; Machalski, Marcin

    2015-05-06

    A new diogenid paguroid, Paguristes liwinskii sp. nov., is described from upper Albian phosphorite-bearing deposits near Annopol, along the east bank of the River Vistula (Wisła), east-central Poland. This new species constitutes an additional example of Early-Mid-Cretaceous macrofaunal shift, from marine reefal limestone to siliciclastic facies, triggered by the worldwide radiation of planktonic organisms. The species described here is the earliest known member of the genus Paguristes, previously recorded from the upper Santonian/lower Campanian to the Recent.

  6. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  7. Development of Science and Technology Parks in Poland: Opportunities for New Modes of Cooperation in the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Staszkow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to verify the development of science and technology parks in Poland as well as the opportunities of development of new forms of cooperation with the use of science and technology parks in the bio pharmaceutical industry in Poland. The first section reviews the origins and definitions of science and technology parks in order to clarify and systematize the concepts used in existing research and practice. Subsequently, the ensuing sections discuss the evolution of science and technology parks and different organizational models of STPS. Further, the analysis centres on science and technology parks in Poland. Then the importance of science and technology parks for the development of new modes of cooperation in the bio pharmaceutical industry is elaborated upon. The paper ends with a set of implications and conclusions.

  8. A critique of massification of higher education in Poland and the United States: Mass-media discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stankiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nearly universal access to higher education (HE in developed countries was once praised as a great democratic achievement, and a basis for both economic development and social mobility. After the onset of the 2008 recession, the narratives changed considerably. The most radical critics of HE propose a partial “deschooling” of society by reversing the process of massification. This paper aims to present a critical discourse analysis (CAD of the “don’t go to college” discourse that became popular in Poland and the United States. I trace the differences in the way the decision to go to college is conceptualized in Poland and the U.S to the differences in dominant political ideologies – democratic and egalitarian in the U.S., paternalistic and conservative in Poland. I also show how recent changes in the actual HE systems put those ideologies at odds with the educational realities of both countries.

  9. Critical review of research on the Lower Jurassic flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacyna Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Jurassic plant macrofossils of Poland are poorly known. Relatively rich sources of fossils are found in only a few outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains. Other described plant remains come from drill cores taken from most areas of Poland, but as a rule these are single specimens. The only professional descriptions of Lower Jurassic macroflora are papers by Raciborski, Makarewiczówna, and a team of researchers consisting of Reymanówna, Barbacka, Ziaja, and Wcisło-Luraniec. Raciborski’s fossil collection is still available for research and revision. Such work is in progress. The collection described by Makarewiczówna contained many interesting specimens but unfortunately the majority of them are now missing. Stratigraphic research by geologists has provided some new specimens from drill cores and outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains but these have not been subjected to detailed palaeobotanical analysis. The palynology of the Lower Jurassic was focused on biostratigraphy from the outset of that research. As an outcome it provided spore-pollen and megaspore zonations for Lower Jurassic strata in Poland. The Polish Lower Jurassic flora is comprised of ferns (very numerous, lycopsids, sphenopsids, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, gnetaleans, ginkgoaleans, and conifers. This flora is taxonomically poorer than the equally old and geographically close floras of Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. Macrofloristic data have been used by geologists as an important source of information for assessing the age of Lower Jurassic formations, particularly in the Holy Cross Mountains. Hence the need for the old collections to be taxonomically revised and for new material from outcrops and drill cores to be examined and described.

  10. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste tailing pond at Kowary, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerner, R.; Hartsch, J.; Koszela, J.; Krzyskow, A.; Machniewicz, B.; Sennewald, R.; Sowa, J.

    2002-03-01

    The last remaining uranium mining tailing pond in Poland, situated at Kowary, was the subject of the Kowary Tailing Pond Remediation Programme financed by Polish public bodies (70%) and by the European Commission (30%) within the framework of its programme of co-operation on radioactive waste issues with candidate countries. The EC-part of the project comprised investigations of the site, project management duties and large-scale civil works following the initial remediation planning performed by the Wroclaw University of Technology (WUT) in 1998-2000. The EC-part was contracted to G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH following an Open Call for Tender launched by the European Commission in 1999. The following general tasks were performed in close co-operation with WUT, with the construction works subcontracted to local companies, as proposed in the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the EC-part: review of General Remediation Plan (GRP), technical design of the pond cover, construction work: internal drainage system, pond cover and site reclamation. From the information in the TOR, the following aims of remediation were defined: minimise the detrimental impact of the tailing pond on the environment, provide long-term stability of the slopes surrounding the pond, ensure the remediated site is in harmony with the surrounding natural scenery. Based on the experience gathered in similar projects, which had been running under PHARE-MCE or which belonged to the WISMUT-remediation programme in Germany, cost efficient remediation solutions were designed in close co-operation with all involved parties. They were delineated in the detailed planning documents approved in the overall remediation programme managed by WUT. The planned remediation works were prepared and performed successfully according to Polish law and in agreement with the competent local authorities. The aims of remediation were met. However, some additional tasks have been recommended in zones adjacent to the

  11. Model of the electric energy market in Poland. Assumptions, structure and operation principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    Present state of works on model of electric energy market in Poland with special consideration of bulk energy market is presented. The designed model based on progressive, evolutionary changes is so elastic, that when keeping general structure and fundamentals the particular solutions can be verified or corrected. The changes in the electric energy market are considered as an integral part of existing restructuring process of Polish electric energy sector. The rate of those changes and the mode of their introduction influence on introduction speed of the new solutions. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  12. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  13. One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Talewicz-Kwiatkowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One Culture or Multiple Cultures? The Diversity of Roma People in Poland There are no universal criteria which would be useful to describe the diversity of all of the Roma. Their presence in given country is linked to adaptive processes to majority societies. It is the majority that creates condition and space to which minorities need to adapt somehow. The results of the above-mentioned adaptive processes also vary and depend on an external context. The attitude of given populations towards minorities and the current political and economic situation of given country, where the Roma settled had and still has significant influence on mentioned processes. The way of life of different Romani groups has also a great importance, because sedentary way of life (typical for most European Roma and external influences especially on culture and models of lifestyle also furthered the adaptive processes. The cultural diversity among the Roma is the case not only with the groups living in different countries. It needs to be emphasized that the Roma who have lived in one country for centuries are not a homogenous group in terms of their culture. Previous migration processes and sedentary or nomadic way of life had a great influence on this internal diversity. In Poland with four distinguished Romani groups such diversity occurs between Carpathian Roma (Bergitka Roma, Polish Highlander Roma and traditionally nomadic groups: Polska Roma, Lovara, Kelderari. This article is mainly based on available sources and dissertations on the subject. However it refers to the field research regarding the use of European Union’s funds for the Roma community in Poland, which was conducted by the author in 2010 and 2011.   Kultura jedna czy wieloraka? Zróżnicowanie populacji romskiej w Polsce Nie istnieją uniwersalne kryteria użyteczne w opisie zróżnicowania wszystkich Romów. Ich obecność w danym kraju wiąże się z procesami adaptowania się do społeczeństw wi

  14. Plutonium, americium and 90Sr in bones of the some wild animals living in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Kitowski, I.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bones of the wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boars (Sus scorf), mooses (Alces alces), as well as of certain kinds of rodents and insectivorous animals were ashed and milled prior to the radioactivity measurement in the γ-spectrometer. 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr contents were determined. The results are presented in terms of the kind and origin of the animals. North-east, central-east and south-est parts of Poland were taken into an account

  15. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  16. The Instruments of Supporting Entrepreneurs In Times Of Economic Crisis (Case Study Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2011-01-01

    Economic crises affect all micro- and macroeconomic areas. Particularly vulnerable to unfavorable changes are enterprises which are often unable to cope with these problems on their own. In this situation, the state helps enterprises with “soft financing”. The systemic anti-crisis measures introduced in Poland over the last 20 years (1990-2010) covered altogether three crises. The crisis which overcame Poland’s economy in the early 1990s was an effect of transformation of the whole socio-econ...

  17. Education of geodesy and cartography at the School of Higher Education In National Economy In Kutno, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    School of Higher (university degree) Education in National Economy in Kutno is one of the rather younger university schools in Poland that were established in the last years of the XX century. It was founded in 1998, but the convenient location of Kutno in Central Poland seems to be a good opportunity for students coming from all parts of Poland. The School is continuously developed, number of faculties and new study directions and specialisations are steadily growing. The offer of the School include studies in the stationary, extra-mural and post-graduate systems in two Engineering (or licenciate) and M.Sc. levels. At the moment the geodesy and cartography is a part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences; students can chose one of three specialisations: 1.Economic geodesy, property and estate management, 2. Rural (agriculture) geodesy and property engineering and 3. Geoinformatic sciences.

  18. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  19. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources of 27 April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2004-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources. They be bring to, take away and transit through Poland with documents and procedures determined in regulations. The decree replaces the decree of 5 November 2002 (Dz.U. no. 207, item 1754)

  20. The Government Response to the Private Sector Expansion in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Kwiek, Marek; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Boer, Harry; File, Jon; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the trademarks of transformation of Polish higher education is its tumultuous and inconsistent path of development driven by the rapid growth of private sector higher education. Such an expansion has been often described as a ‘sudden, shocking and unplanned’ phenomenon which revolutionized

  1. Meconema Meridionale Costa, 1860 (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Meconematidae – The First Record In Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This first record of Meconema meridionale in Poland comes from Kraków, where several specimens were observed in the urban greenery of a housing estate in the autumn of 2013. A total of 24 adult specimens were collected, most of them within a relatively small area in the city district of Prądnik Czerwony, and two in the district of Podgórze. All specimens were recorded in circumstances indicating a relatively recent accidental introduction of this species.

  2. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  3. Determining the current status and potential of nuclear medicine in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Sackiewicz-Slaby, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Through its use of ionising radiation, the field of nuclear medicine forms a unique and significant part of medical diagnostics and patient treatment. Objectives. To assess the operational potential of nuclear medicine in Poland based on existing database/literature sources together with conducting a survey on the relevant healthcare facilities available, staffing, expertise and performance. To gather all available literature data on the medical use of ionising radiation in Poland several data bases were used, since currently, there are no single statistical data base devoted to this issue. Data on radiation hygiene were thus collected from the Statistical Bulletin of the Ministry of Health, Annual reports from the National Atomic Energy Agency and Central Statistics Office. Additionally, national and provincial reports were used, as well as those received from the European Society of Nuclear Medicine. At present, the Public Healthcare system in Poland has 55 nuclear medicine departmental facilities operating and 8 that are private/non-public. These are staffed by 252 doctors, of whom 151 are qualified as nuclear medicine specialists; constituting one specialist per 300,000 inhabitants. In addition, 170 highly qualified staff (biologists, chemists, physicists, electronics engineers and IT specialists) provide indispensable scientific/operational support and are vital for the development of nuclear medicine departments. They are mainly responsible for ensuring that all equipment functions effectively and for developing new diagnostic techniques, together with new radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, there are approximately 500 other staff at intermediate-level also involved in nuclear medicine departments, such as technicians, nurses and support workers. The survey demonstrated an average of 22 persons employed per nuclear medicine department. For all institutions, it is estimated that there are 127 gamma cameras, 10 PET/CT scanners and 16 hybrid SPECT/CT systems

  4. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  5. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  6. The first detection of Neospora caninum DNA in brains of calves in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski M.; Cabaj W.; Moskwa B.; Wedrychowicz H.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of prevalence ofNeospora caninum infections in Poland is very poor. Vertical transmission of N. caninum has been shown to be a major route of infection in cattle. In the present study we examined the utility of PCR methods in detecting Neospora caninum DNA in brains of calves born from mothers with a high liter of anti-Neospora antibodies. Conventional and nested PCR reactions were performed on DNA extracted from brain tissue of Neospora-suspected calves using primers compleme...

  7. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  8. An attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Nahorski, Wacław L; Stępień, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Stańczak, Joanna; Myjak, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the three most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. According to official statistics, there are a few dozen cases in Poland annually while the number of Poles treated abroad or self-treating remains unknown. Poland has been declared to be malaria-free since 1963 and nowadays all cases are imported. The aim of the study is to determine the minimal number of malaria cases in Poles at home and abroad in the last decade. The medical records of 4,710 patients tested for malaria in the Department of Tropical Parasitology in the years 2003-2012 were analysed. Two spreadsheets were created, which only included people with a history of malaria diagnosed in the reference centre where indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) for Plasmodium falciparum antigen proved positive. The minimum number of Poles who have had malaria at home and abroad was calculated on the basis of positive IFA results; the rate of all treated malaria patients in Poland in relation to those treated in the reference centre and the actual number of Poles with malaria diagnosed at home was calculated. A group of 376 people with positive serologic tests results in indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay with titre ≥ 1:20 were received, including 227 patients with positive serologic results with titre ≥ 1:80. The rate of the overall number of malaria cases in Poland compared to the number of malaria cases in the University Centre for Maritime and Tropical Medicine Hospital was determined as 3.47:1. It was demonstrated that every year at least 174 to 211 Poles staying abroad may suffer from malaria. This is the first attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad. The estimated number is 8-10 times greater than the number of registered cases in Poland.

  9. The seals of Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the general starost of Grand Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Hlebionek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski descended from an old noble family with origins in Grand Poland that can be traced back to at least the first half of the fourteenth century. He belonged to the younger family line started by Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the castellan of Przemęt (his brother, Maciej, is considered to be the progenitor of the older line, a son of Sędziwój, the voivode of the Poznań, and a grandson of Jan, the castellan of Gniezno. Adam was a grandson of Sędziwój and a son of Wojciech Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the general starost of Grand Poland, and Jadwiga Sierpska from Gulczewo of the Prawdzic coat-of-arms, the daughter of the voivode of Rawa. As a reward for his contribution to the wars with Russia, he was appointed the starost of Pyzdry by King Stefan Batory in 1579. At the same time, he inherited the title of the commander of the Knights of Saint John in Poznań (komandor poznańskich joannitów from his father. During the reign of king Sigismunt III, he was a supporter of the king. It was during that time that his career proceeded quickly: in 1593 he became the general starost of Grand Poland, and in 1606 he was appointed the voivode of Łęczyca. Not all of Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski's seals survived to this day, but those remaining allow the analysis of the sigillographic collection of one of the oligarchs of Grand Poland. This collection, however, is specific. It seems to be unusually numerous when compared to the seal collections that belonged to other, even the richest, noblemen. That is because Czarnkowski's collection included official seals necessary to carry out the duties of the general starost and other, lower posts, e.g. those related to governing a castle court and office (urząd grodzki, as well as personal seals, which can be divided into several sub-categories. The collection grew mostly because Czarnkowski held the office of the general starost of Grand Poland and this required using seven, out of nine, known

  10. Deficiencies in Natura 2000 for protecting recovering large carnivores: A spotlight on the wolf Canis lupus in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Diserens

    Full Text Available If protected areas are to remain relevant in our dynamic world they must be adapted to changes in species ranges. In the EU one of the most notable such changes is the recent recovery of large carnivores, which are protected by Natura 2000 at the national and population levels. However, the Natura 2000 network was designed prior to their recent recovery, which raises the question whether the network is sufficient to protect the contemporary ranges of large carnivores. To investigate this question we evaluated Natura 2000 coverage of the three wolf Canis lupus populations in Poland. Wolf tracking data showed that wolves have recolonised almost all suitable habitat in Poland (as determined by a recent habitat suitability model, so we calculated the overlap between the Natura 2000 network and all wolf habitat in Poland. On the basis of published Natura 2000 criteria, we used 20% as the minimum required coverage. At the national level, wolves are sufficiently protected (22% coverage, but at the population level, the Baltic and Carpathian populations are far better protected (28 and 47%, respectively than the endangered Central European Lowland population (12%. As Natura 2000 insufficiently protects the most endangered wolf population in Poland, we recommend expansion of Natura 2000 to protect at least an additional 8% of wolf habitat in western Poland, and discuss which specific forests are most in need of additional coverage. Implementation of these actions will have positive conservation implications and help Poland to fulfil its Habitats Directive obligations. As it is likely that similar gaps in Natura 2000 are arising in other EU member states experiencing large carnivore recoveries, particularly in Central Europe, we make the case for a flexible approach to Natura 2000 and suggest that such coverage evaluations may be beneficial elsewhere.

  11. Geography of Electoral Volatility in the Warmia and Mazury Voivodeship of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Ilya N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the impact of administrative reforms on the electoral volatility in the Warmia and Mazury voivodeship of Poland. The administrative reforms resulted in the formation of a new territorial organization of power. Using three large administrative units of Poland as an example, the authors analyse the experience of the formation of a geographic region by merging several politically diverse territories. The merger took place in a changing political environment. It inevitably affected the strategy and tactics of the development of local self-governance. The formation of the region has been going on in such a manner that differences in the electoral preferences and political behaviour of the urban population (the regional metropolis and the periphery remain unchanged. Having performed the index analysis and a comparative analysis of the electoral data, the authors conclude that the consistency of administrative decisions on the formation of the region and the electoral performance have been weakening over time. During the initial phase, the electoral volatility was mainly due to the sluggishness and inertia of the previous territorial organization. After the phase of stabilization, the electoral volatility indices in different geographical areas changed due to a combination of social and political factors. The authors show that the ‘looseness’ of the Polish party system affect the electoral volatility in the region more than institutional decisions of the administrative reforms.

  12. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  14. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  15. What are cleats? Preliminary studies from the Konin lignite mine, Miocene of central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Cleats (fractures, joints) are discontinuities in coals, including lignites. They are important in mining activity because of their gas and water permeability in hard coal, and mainly because of their water permeability in lignites. As opposed to hard-coal cleats, lignite cleats have not been studied in detail before. The present contribution does so, using as an example the 1st Middle-Polish Lignite Seam (MPLS-1) in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine in central Poland. It should be mentioned here that any remarks in the present contribution concerning MPLS-1 refer exclusively to this lignite seam in the Jóźwin IIB opencast mine. The investigated discontinuities consist of two sets, i.e. the face and butt cleats, which are roughly oriented NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively. The mean spacing of the face cleats is ~12.4 cm, while the mean spacing of the butt cleats is ~12.8 cm. The maximum average aperture is ~4.9 mm for the face cleats and ~4.1 mm for the butt cleats. The cleat spacing and aperture do not depend on the lignite thickness, but the cleat spacing increases with increasing mineral-matter and xylite content, whereas the aperture increases when the contents decrease. The regional folding and local salt diapirism tentatively explain the formation of the orthogonal system of the lignite cleats, partly because of the parallelism of the face cleats and the major tectonic directions in central Poland.

  16. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  17. The history of Poland as reflected in written versions of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Pietkiewicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the connection between selected Polish biblical translations and the national and personal history of Polish people (14th–18th century. The history of Florian Psalter (14th/15th century and that of Queen Sophia’s Bible (15th century are related to the beginning of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The first printed biblical text in Polish (Prologue to the Gospel according to St. John, 1518/1519 and editions of the New Testament translated by Stanisław Murzynowski (1551–1553 testify to the development of Polish orthography. Both, the woodcuts of the Leopolita’s Bible (1561, 1575/1577 and the notes to the commentary on the Acts of the Apostles by Tomas Falconius (1566 give an account of the tumultuous history of Polish Reformation. The dedication in the second edition of Leopolita’s Bible (1975 and its alteration in 1577 attest to the failure of the first free royal election in Poland. The manuscript notes in Wrocław copy of Simon Budny’s Bible (1572 constitute an eyewitness account of the collapse of Poland at the end of 18th century. Whereas, the manuscript notes in the translation of Psalter by W. Wróbel constitute a chronicle of the Wilieziński family. Therefore, while talking about the history of Polish biblical translations one can talk about the history of Poland as a country, at the same time.

  18. Costs of Urbanisation in Poland, Based on the Example of Wrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hełdak, Maria; Płuciennik, Monika

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of charging communes with the costs of realisation of the provisions contained in local spatial development plans. When such local spatial development plan enters into force, it leads to economic consequences. In Poland, these consequences are specified in the forecast of the financial impact, which contains a prognosis of own revenues as well as of costs incurred by the budget of the commune. The research consisted in the analysis of the costs of urbanisation of land located in Wrocław, in the southern part of the Krzyki district (Poland). This area is undeveloped to a major extent, consisting mainly of agricultural land, and its development requires the construction of technological and social infrastructure facilities. The expected costs of the realisation of local spatial development plans that are binding for the southern part of Wrocław demonstrate significant costs of the construction of sewage network and municipal roads. The planned development of residential districts is not supported by the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the development of new areas will require the city of Wrocław to take over the real properties on which public goals are planned to be realised. The estimated costs of land acquisition for the realisation of public goals amount to EUR 3 728 500.

  19. Polish Version of the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaśkiewicz, Michał; Besta, Tomasz

    2016-11-04

    The characteristics of built environments are the subject of intense consideration in the search for solutions to promote wellbeing and a higher quality of life among the inhabitants of cities. Walkability, defined as the extent to which the built environment is friendly to living and fulfilling the needs of the area, has become an important concept in sustainable urban design, public health and environmental psychology. This study systematically adapted the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Poland, and evaluated the construct validity aspects of the adapted version among Polish adults. A total sample of 783 participants from a TriCity (Trójmiasto) agglomeration completed the adapted version of the NEWS. Smaller extracted samples of the participants also completed wellbeing related scales, including self-efficacy, local identity and distance to city centre measures. It was expected that various districts of Gdańsk would differ in terms of walkability. The confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit statistics and factor loadings corresponding to the proposed original factor structure. According to the predictions, the NEWS subscales correlated with the self-efficacy, local identity and wellbeing related measures. In addition, the comparisons between the neighbourhoods of Gdańsk also showed a predictable pattern of results. Overall, the NEWS demonstrated satisfactory measurement properties, and may be useful in the evaluation of the built environment in Poland.

  20. Dietary habits and locus of control assessed in middle-school pupils from the Malopolska region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The formative years of adolescence are a crucial time for developing eating habits which, amongst other factors, are determined by personality traits. The aim of the study was to estimate eating behaviour in a group of middle school pupils according to gender and locus of control (LOC). Subjects were n = 200 boys and n = 200 girls, aged 14-16 living in the Malopolska region of Poland who were surveyed by questionnaire about their eating habits. A standardised Delta questionnaire, by Drwal, was used to assess LOC. Based on the median from the raw LOC scale scores, groups of boys and girls were thereby identified as having high internal (below the median) or high external (above the median) loci of control. The Chi2 test assessed the dependence between LOC and eating habits using PQStat software ver. 1.4.2.324 adopting values of p differences in certain eating behaviour have been found in middle school students that relate to their gender and LOC. The more rational and appropriate choices were taken by subjects with an internal LOC.

  1. GAMBIT : Integrated Programme of Road Safety Improvement in Poland : some observations about the road safety situation in Poland, about the structure of the GAMBIT programme and about programme components.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The GAMBIT team produced a draft version of the final GAMBIT report. This report discusses this draft. It is explained in the report why there has been an increase in the number of road accident casualties in Poland in recent years. A politically sanctioned National Road Safety Plan can make a

  2. Buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable consumption policy pursued in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Korpysa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable consumption has been actively promoted among modern societies. It has gained a special importance in the context of pursuing sustainable consumption policy and supporting actions taken as part of corporate social responsibility. The fulfilment of strategic goals defined under this concept minimizes negative effects of industrialization and globalization. Furthermore, it contributes to efficient allocation of natural resources and natural environment protection. It is beyond any doubt that a 21st century consumer should take account of a number of issues while buying and subsequently using goods and services. These issues include wastage reduction, lower emission of pollution and limited production of waste, as well as selection of products whose development conforms to the code of ethics and socio-environmental norms. This awareness is observed in most countries all over the world, nevertheless certain differences can be noticed between the developed and developing states. Although the concept of sustainable consumption is being actively promoted among consumers in the developing countries (e.g. in Poland, they are still less aware of the necessity to conform to socio-ecological norms in the process of consumption. The main aim of the article is to analyse buyer behaviour in the context of sustainable development policy pursued in Poland. The first part will be devoted to theoretical issues relating to the subject of the analysis. In the second part of the paper the author will present the results of a survey examining the aforementioned behaviour.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics (the 'NPY Agreement') is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. Assessing the cross-cultural applicability of tailored advertising: a comparative study between the Netherlands and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of tailored advertising in two European Union member states: a longstanding member with a long history of advertising, the Netherlands; and a new member with a shorter advertising tradition, Poland. The positive effects of tailored advertising are hypothesised

  5. Fungal parasites of algae in the waters of North-Eastern Poland with reference to the enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In tnę present work the results of investigations of the fungal parasites of algae in various types of water bodies (slough, ponds. lakes and river in North-Eastern Poland with reference to the chemical environment are presented.

  6. Physicians and abortion: provision, political participation and conflicts on the ground--the cases of Brazil and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia; Mishtal, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Two qualitative studies have been conducted between 2002 and 2009 in Poland and Brazil, two different geopolitical settings in which the Catholic Church has had a significant political influence and where abortion is highly restricted. In both countries, struggles for abortion rights have played an important role in challenging the current restrictive policies and bringing attention to the plight of women unable to obtain abortions. This article examines the political role that physicians play in these contestations, drawing on some findings of two larger qualitative studies. In Poland semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 physicians in Warsaw and Krakow and with 55 women aged 18 to 45 in Gdańsk. In Brazil questionnaires were administered and semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 obstetrician-gynecologists and 23 health professionals in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador da Bahia. This article argues that gynecologists' perspectives and practices not only reflect or heed religious precepts on reproductive rights, but are also deeply influenced by inadequate medical training and by the fear of being prosecuted or stigmatized, especially in Brazil. The political non-engagement of physicians in Poland is driven by the lack of abortion rights discourse in the public arena, poor links with women's rights groups, and the lack of political unity within the medical community. Comparisons between Brazil and Poland ultimately suggest that strong liaisons between physicians and the feminist movement influence physicians' attitudes and political engagement and are most promising in abortion rights advocacy efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  8. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Prebensen, K.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  9. Analytic study of the capital restructuring processes in metallurgical enterprises around the world and in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the most common directions of changes in capital groups in the sector of metallurgy around the world and in Poland. During the observation of the restructuring activities in metallurgy the attention was turned to the integration of the capital groups, capital outsourcing and contract outsourcing, creation and the takeover of the dependent companies. The meaning of the capital consolidation was underlined on the global metallurgy market in order to gain competitive advantage through the increase of manufacturing capacity. The overview of the rating of the global steel producers in years 1989-2009 was conducted with this article in mind and it has shown the changes in the participation of particular capital groups in the world production of steel.

  10. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  11. Shale gas in Poland, in the United Kingdom and in Denmark: towards a European model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a research on the development of shale gas in Denmark, Poland and the UK, this report first describes and discusses the heterogeneous situations of these countries regarding energy and gases while outlining a more global European trend with an increasing dependence on foreign gas supply sources. It outlines that, while being still not well known, shale gas resources are differing from one country to the other. The exploration of shale gas in the three studied countries is presented. The next part of the report addresses other related issues like: adaptation of the legal, regulatory and taxing framework, social acceptance (importance of two key factors: involvement of local population and information transparency). The conclusion outlines the differences between the studied cases. Appendices propose: a table of data describing the energy and shale gas markets in the three studied countries, a map indicating concession locations in Poland, a map indicating areas of search for oil gases in the UK, a map indicating locations to Total's concessions in Denmark, and a diagram describing the British procedure aimed at determining whether an environmental impact study is necessary

  12. A cultural trauma: Outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabzinska Iwona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland. The author discusses various important and inter-related issues in the Polish societal sphere: shock therapy accompanied by the changes since the 1990's, unemployment, uncontrolled privatization, cultural trauma and cultural plaint. Theoretically, the paper belongs to anthropology of transformation, and it is based on sociological literature for the most part. The paper also discusses 'societal diagnosis', its creators, crisis in confidence as a consequence of social and cultural traumas, the weakness of political elite and criteria used to measure poverty levels. Lately, there has been a change in mythical representation about easy life in Poland related to the state' affiliation with EU. The change includes a lack of global crisis influence, resistance of the Polish society toward media influence, a rise in optimism and decrease of cultural plaint. Is this change in attitude due to cyclical alteration between phases of depression and euphoria? What will happen if depression returns? Did the Polish handle the trauma of transformation exceptionally well? Possible answers to these and other relevant questions are sought by the author in this paper, who uses, as additional sources for research, a world of local communities and individual accounts.

  13. Archaeological Data in the GIS Portal of the National Heritage Board of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Oniszczuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Heritage Board of Poland is responsible for implementation of the INSPIRE directive in the field of cultural heritage (Protected Sites. The implementation was not only about digitising almost 80,000 listed monuments (including over 7700 archaeological sites, but also about change of approach to data by adopting the yes/no mode instead of "about" and "probably". After having built the data model, created thesauri and digitised paper documentation we felt that the visual result compliant with the INSPIRE specification would be highly unsatisfactory with regard to the data and the amount of work. Improved presentation available on our map portal was created in cooperation with Warsaw University of Technology. The paper discusses the scope of the visible data, reasons behind the visual classification, the pros and cons, current possibilities of the use of the data and prospective development of the portal.

  14. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  15. Activism, NGOs, and HIV Prevention in Postsocialist Poland: The Role of “Anti-Politics”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    With the collapse of socialism, the number of nongovernmental organizations in Eastern Europe increased dramatically, as part of democracy and capitalism building. In the West, NGOs have served as key players in shaping the response of the HIV epidemic, reflecting both the withdrawal of the state from service provision in line with neoliberal reforms and the activist roots from which many of these organizations originated. As a result, AIDS NGOs and the people who work in them are often characterized as engaging in an activist endeavor in order to affect social and political change that will enable better prevention and care. This article explores the extent to which a similar framework applies to AIDS NGOs in Poland and Eastern Europe, more generally, where the notion of “anti-politics” and disengagement from political activism remains strong. As they developed in Poland, AIDS NGOs have focused on caring for clients, cultivating a professional identity, and abstaining from politics, to the eschewal of advocacy activities on behalf of their clients. This orientation has implications for the types of HIV prevention programs these organizations offer, as well as the possibilities for collaborating with researchers and service providers from the West. PMID:25308987

  16. Activism, NGOs, and HIV Prevention in Postsocialist Poland: The Role of "Anti-Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2010-01-01

    With the collapse of socialism, the number of nongovernmental organizations in Eastern Europe increased dramatically, as part of democracy and capitalism building. In the West, NGOs have served as key players in shaping the response of the HIV epidemic, reflecting both the withdrawal of the state from service provision in line with neoliberal reforms and the activist roots from which many of these organizations originated. As a result, AIDS NGOs and the people who work in them are often characterized as engaging in an activist endeavor in order to affect social and political change that will enable better prevention and care. This article explores the extent to which a similar framework applies to AIDS NGOs in Poland and Eastern Europe, more generally, where the notion of "anti-politics" and disengagement from political activism remains strong. As they developed in Poland, AIDS NGOs have focused on caring for clients, cultivating a professional identity, and abstaining from politics, to the eschewal of advocacy activities on behalf of their clients. This orientation has implications for the types of HIV prevention programs these organizations offer, as well as the possibilities for collaborating with researchers and service providers from the West.

  17. Managerial Competencies and Innovations in the Company – The Case of Enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the successful innovation implementation in the company include human capital and competencies of both managers and employees. In order for successful innovation management to occur, a manager must acquire or possess expertise in the domain at hand, as well as specific competencies. The paper has focused on the identification of the essential managerial competencies to promote and enhance innovation in companies. The study was conducted among managers of top, middle and operational management level in companies operating in Poland. It seems that competencies for each of the three group of managers have not been described in detail yet. The research has identified key competencies of managers in the context of implementing innovation in the company as well as differences resulting from the level of management in the organization. The research has helped to identify discrepancies between the current level of competencies needed to achieve organizational objectives, and the expected level ensuring maximum efficiency during their implementation.

  18. Metropolisation and the Evoluti\ton of Systems of Cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland Since 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zdanowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of systems of cities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since 1950, and especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 when Central and Eastern European cities started to experience the process of metropolisation. This period corresponds to an intense globalisation of the economy which has been characterised by some researchers as an emergence of a world urban system. While the metropolises of formerly industrialised countries had already been strongly interconnected on a macro-regional level, Central and Eastern European countries took on the unique approach of prioritising relations directly at an international level. In addition to its highly exacerbated characteristics, the metropolisation in Central and Eastern Europe has been taking place within a substantially shorter time period in relation to other countries. This article investigates how these phenomena might have influenced the configuration of today’s urban systems. After presenting the methodology used to reconstruct urban agglomerations since 1950 until now, we examine the evolution of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish systems of cities by using several national databases. By analysing the changes in urban hierarchy and new urban patterns, we can stress that after 1989 the metropolisation has rather contributed to raise the predominance of the capital city in the urban systems than to diminish inequalities between the cities.

  19. Fair Trade in Sustainable Development. The Potential for Fair Trade Market Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of Fair Trade, which is considered an alternative to conventional trade, and becomes increasingly popular in the Western countries. In addition, some results of empirical research, conveyed in Poland and aimed at diagnosis and assessment of Fairtrade products market, are provided. Fair trade is analysed not only in the broad theoretical context which shows its contribution to sustainable development and relation to corporate social responsibility, but also in the framework of supply chains management. The benefits from the Fairtrade label, including transaction costs reduction are indicated. The assumption is that to achieve them, consumer acceptance of the idea and willingness to buy Fairtrade products are necessary. The empirical research was focused on answering the question whether a market niche for Fairtrade goods exists in Poland and how to develop it by the means of communication tools. The market niche, although very small, has been identified and described. It is apparent that, in order to develop it, a public policy, aimed at raising the awareness of Fair Trade idea, is necessary as well as marketing activities like social marketing Internet campaigns and better and more prominently products display.

  20. Open Pension Funds in Poland: The Efects of the Pension Privatization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oręziak Leokadia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since their establishment in 1999, the Open Pension Funds (OPFs have comprised a mandatory capital pillar in the pension system of Poland. The paper`s objective is to analyze the principles under which the OPFs function and assess their past and anticipated future impact on the state of the country's public fnances, particularly on the public debt. The analysis also considers the past and potential effects of the OPFs existence from the point of view of future levels of old-age pension. The studies are targeted at determining the threats connected with further maintenance of the OPFs from the point of view of both public fnance stability and pension system security.

  1. Morphological variability of the Caltha palustris L. complex (Ranunculaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of biosystematic analysis of the critical group of Caltha palustris L. based on 71 populations from Poland. After a preliminary statistical analysis, fourteen morphological characters (nine quantitative and five qualitative, describing size and shape of basal leaves and mature follicles as well as stem morphology, were selected for the clearest differentiation of the complex. Several groups of morphotypes were distinguished within the complex, based on the statistical analysis of this group of characters. Against this background the taxonomy of the complex is proposed. Two species - Caltha laeta Schott, Nyman and Kotschy and Caltha palustris L. - and three subspecies within C. palustris (C. p. subsp. palustris, C. p. subsp. cornuta (Schott, Nyman and Kotschy Hegi and C. p. subsp. radicans (T.F. Forst. Syme, were distinguished in Poland. The status of the taxa within the Polish flora is defined. The paper includes also a key for determination of the complex taxa, as well as their detailed descriptions.

  2. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  3. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  4. Free to stay, free to leave: Insights from Poland into the meaning of cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mynarska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that in Poland cohabitation is most of all a transitory step or a testing period before marriage. Polish law does not recognize this living arrangement and it has been portrayed as uncommitted and short-lived. However, few studies have investigated what cohabitation means for relationships, especially with respect to freedom. Objective: We explore how young people in Poland understand and evaluate freedom in cohabitation. We investigate how they view the role freedom plays in couple dynamics and in relationship development. Methods: We analyze data from focus group interviews conducted in Warsaw with men and women aged 25-40. We identify passages in which opinions on cohabitation and marriage are discussed, and use bottom-up coding and the constant comparative method to reconstruct different perspectives on the issue of freedom in cohabitation. Results: The respondents argued that cohabitation offers the partners freedom to leave a union at any time with few repercussions. On the negative side, the freedom related to cohabitation brings insecurity, especially for young mothers. On the positive side, it offers relaxed conditions for testing a relationship, grants partners independence, and encourages cohabitors to keep their relationship interesting, precisely because it is fragile and easy to dissolve. Conclusions: The open nature of cohabitation offers benefits to partners, but does not provide secure conditions for childbearing. As long as the couple is not planning to have children, however, the benefits of cohabitation are likely to be seen as outweighing the disadvantages.

  5. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  6. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  7. MULTIFARIOUS FORECASTS CONCERNING THE USE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS IN POLAND IN 2014–2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sroka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizers are considered to be a driving force for production in the present day agriculture. In Poland, from among 2.5 mln tons of compound mineral fertilizers, expressed in a pure ingredient, above 2 mln tons is used in domestic agriculture. Since 1992 has been a growing tendency in the usage of such fertilizers. The main aim of this analysis is to present multifarious forecasts concerning the use of mineral fertilizers in Poland in 2014–2025. Three ways of building a future prediction have been used in the conducted research: extrapolation, adaptation and causal prediction. The analyses pinpoint that till 2025 the estimated growth in the use of mineral fertilizers is going to fl uctuate around 9–23.5% in comparison with the average score in 2010–2013. It is important to mention that in the most probable and sustainable scenario of a transformation in agriculture, this growth is going to amount to about 15%. 

  8. Legal Basis of the Treasury System in Local Governments in the Second Republic of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tarnowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article presents the legal basis of the treasury system of the local government during the period of so called Second Republic of Poland (1918–1939 i.e. “interwar period”. The author indicates a discrepancy between systems of the former Russian, Prussian and Austrian districts, aside from the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship created in 1920, and numerous issues distinctive for process of unification, not actually successful solved until 1939. The basic provisions were provided for in Provisional settlement of communal finances Act from 1923, amended several times and officially valid until the post-war years. The matter of local budgets has been standardized in the President`s Decree from 1924 concerning obligations and procedure of covering expenditures of local governments. Nevertheless, given regulations constituted a complicated, overextended and casual system.

  9. The creation of "monsters": the discourse of opposition to in vitro fertilization in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkowska-Walkowicz, Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    In Poland, there is a campaign to criminalise in vitro fertilization, led by the Catholic church. This article explores how this campaign makes "monsters" of IVF children in its discourse, that is, embodiments of "the other" in the sense of Frankenstein's monster. Basing the analysis primarily on Catholic mass media publications, the article investigates the discursive strategies employed to oppose IVF, most notably by the Catholic clergy and activists and journalists associated with the Church. They attribute "monstrosity" to the children in the following ways: physical (possible bodily deformity), psychological (survivor syndrome, identity crisis), social (loneliness, uncertain place in family relations), and ethical (a life burdened with the deaths of many embryos). Although the world of families with IVF does not provide examples of children who could be considered monsters in any of these terms, these arguments have become the primary reasons given for banning IVF. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  11. The relation between education, knowledge and action for better waste management in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2003-02-01

    In recent years a significant increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) amount has been noted in Poland, and yet there is no fully efficient system for its treatment. Undertaking projects for rational MSW management requires considering both technical facilities and social barriers (waste reduction, re-use and segregation in households). In Poland, attempts to educate and mobilise society to segregate recyclables have not yet produced satisfactory results. Society's awareness in this field needs to be raised. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and understanding about MSW management and the relationship between knowledge possessed and actions undertaken for various residential age groups in two Polish provinces. In all groups, 30% of the respondents showed a satisfactory level of knowledge, whilst an equally small number of individuals had undertaken actions for MSW management at home; people with a higher level of knowledge undertook such actions slightly more often. No significant differences between the provinces were found, but residents of town, where waste segregation has been introduced simultaneously with an information campaign, showed a higher level of knowledge. The study points to the need to further educate people about MSW, and to encourage the teaching of pro-environmental attitudes.

  12. Mammalian and avian embryology at Warsaw University (Poland) from XIX century to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Andrzej K; Maleszewski, Marek; Rogulska, Teresa; Ciemerych, Maria A; Borsuk, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history (between the XIX century and World War II) of embryological research conducted at Warsaw University, together with current research activities being carried out at the Department of Embryology. During the partition of Poland, the Imperial (Russian) Warsaw University conducted research on avian embryology (and to a smaller extent, on reptilian embryology). When Poland regained independence in 1918, these studies were continued under the Chair of Comparative Anatomy headed by Professor Jan Tur. A new Department of Embryology created in 1954 was first headed by Professor Stanislaw Bilewicz and since 1964 by Professor Andrzej Tarkowski, who in 2003 was succeeded by Dr. Marek Maleszewski D.Sc. During the last 45 years, embryological research at Warsaw University has concentrated mainly on mammalian development with special emphasis on the regulative capabilities of early embryos and also on experimental chimaeras, nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in oogenesis and early embryogenesis (including regulation of DNA replication and transcription), experimental parthenogenesis and fertilization.

  13. Problems associated with the emissions limitations from road transport in the Lubuskie Province (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz

    2017-07-01

    According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the list of 50 cities with the most polluted air in Europe as many as 33 are located in Poland. All the cities that are on the list exceed the maximum concentration of dust recommended by WHO at least three times. In the Lubuskie Province there is a very serious problem of maintaining good air quality. The air in Poland is among the most polluted in the European Union and this also applies to less-industrialized areas, such as Lubuskie, where the concentration levels of substances hazardous to human health and the environment are recorded as exceeded. One of the main factors affecting the poor air quality in the region is road transport. It is not just a problem near roads with heavy traffic, but also applies to the cities, where there is a large movement of cars, which are often old and do not meet current environmental standards. This article aims to identify the main sources of low emission from road transport and identify potential solutions to help reduce emission from this sector. The actions aimed at limiting low emission from road transport can bring a significant positive ecological effect. The aim of this article is to review one of the main sources of low emission in the province of Lubuskie, which is transportation. Moreover, the authors of the paper indicate the main problems associated with the emission coming from road transport and describe the possibilities for opportunities to reduce pollution from this sector. In addition, the article presents the three-scenario simulation of annual emissions from passenger cars that could take place in 2020.

  14. Development of Optical Fiber Technology in Poland, International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunication, vol. 57, no 2, pp.191-197, July 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Dorosz, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairmen of the 13th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFA2011, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the development of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2009- 2011) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest is thus not full but covers the periodically presented material every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok-Białowie˙za and Lublin- Krasnobród. OFC systems are developed for HEP experiments and accelerators. OFC systems are also developed for virtual atomic clocks. EuCARD information presentation was organized during this meeting. Keywords— optical fibers, optical communication systems, photonic sources and detectors, photonic sensors, integrated optics, photonics applications, photonic materials.

  15. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair.

  16. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  17. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  18. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  19. Central European attitudes towards Chinese energy investments: The cases of Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on Europe-wide knowledge of EU-China energy investment relations and discusses the cases of three Central European countries’ attitudes towards Chinese energy investments. It focuses on how Chinese investments are perceived compared to investments from other countries, and how the energy sector is perceived compared to other sectors. Media analysis, interviews with experts, and semi-structured questionnaires were used as data sources. It was discovered that these three countries dislike foreign control over strategic assets and Chinese energy investments are seen as falling into this category. The discourse frames on the general level fluctuate between beneficial and threatening at both the political and economic levels, yet the benefits are seen as greater than any potential threats in all three countries. Energy security frames are only just beginning to be discussed within national discourses about Chinese energy investments. In Poland, the Chinese presence in the energy sector is framed as an issue of availability, affordability, and efficiency, and is related to Polish plans for maximizing efficient use of local coal resources. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, China is often perceived ideologically and only the energy frame of environmental stewardship is present in a minor way. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in energy are perceived more negatively than investments in other sectors due to their strategic nature. • Availability, affordability, and efficiency appear in Poland as a result of the special position of coal. • Environmental stewardship appears as an issue in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. • The Polish discourse is most similar to Europe-wide discourse.

  20. The influence of the European Union on the Range of Employees’ Management participation in the Companies from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Śmietański

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the accession, and as a result, joining the European Union in May 2004 required Poland to make a number of changes, including a number that related to labor rights. These changes were partially based on resolving legal barriers in Polish law in order to bring them into compliance with the European Union's law. These efforts are reflected in the laws related to the so-called employee participation. Generally speaking, this is the right of workers to co-manage and be consulted in the activities of the enterprise for which they work. The most important provisions in this regard (those which Poland had to implement in the past few years are, among others, the directives on the development of the European Works Councils and on the right of workers to establish councils of workers within their company. When the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union established the directives which referred to employee participation, it was the result of the promotion of social dialogue between representatives of management and representatives of workers (which is a particular goal of the EU community and its member states. Unfortunately, in Poland these rights are not honored for the majority of employees.

  1. The furnishing of the urban public spaces in Poland. Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Banach-Ziaja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article’s focus on aesthetic side of public space includes the smallest elements of its equipment. It is furnishings that have significant influence on the final shaping. A tiny change sometimes provides complete makeover of an everyday space’s image. Unfortunately, there are a lot of local services and authorities, which are responsible for its creation. Perhaps, their quantity is the cause of a visible lack of coordination of acts and initiatives, undertaken in some cities in Poland. That is why, a proper designing and selecting of details, ought to be seen as a solution of many problems concerning maintenance and usage of public spaces, not only in Polish cities.

  2. Determinants of the sustainability of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with selected Western European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majchrzak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe the lease is the dominant form of land management in agriculture. This is not only due to the tradition of this institution, but also to the scope of the regulations that guarantee the stability of the legal relationship and ensure the independence of the lessee in production process based on the subject of the lease. This article attempts to assess the instruments for the protection of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with solutions applicable in after countries of Western Europe. In this paper, a review of regulations relating to the length of the lease, the obligation to care for the preservation of the quality of the resource, as well as the criteria for determining the amount of the rent, is examines . On this basis, it has been shown that the regulations determining the stability of the lease in Poland deviate far from the norms provided in most Western European countries. This implies that the legal position of a lessee in Poland is weaker than it is in the rest of Western Europe, which is a negative assessment from point of view the of agrarian structure in Poland.

  3. Debt of households in the banking sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the debt concerning both home and consumer loans is described. The quality of the credit portfolio of households and the indicator of burdening their profits with credit are also presented. During the discussed period a certain acceleration in the lending growth, as for as households are concerned, is observed. The increased borrowing burden ratio falling on households’ income at disposal is a worrying phenomenon. This fact alongside with the negative economic effects in the period of the present global financial crisis may contribute to tightening the lending policies of banks, as well as limit the households’ access to credits in order to finance their needs.

  4. Using Information Technologies in Professional Training of Future Security Specialists in the USA, Great Britain, Poland and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyslenko, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of information technologies in professional training of future security specialists in the United States, Great Britain, Poland and Israel. The probable use of computer-based techniques being available within the integrated Web-sites have been systematized. It has been suggested that the presented scheme may be of great…

  5. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  6. Poland's syndrome - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Nogueira, Juliana Elen; Beze, Rodrigo Santos.

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient with congenital anomalies of the left hand associated with total absence of the pectoralis minor muscle and partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle. The radiological findings were assessed and the literature was reviewed. (author)

  7. Eastern Europe in Western Civilization Textbooks: The Example of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Over a decade ago the newsletter of the American Historical Association "Perspectives" carried a long lead article entitled "Teaching 'Eastern Europe' without the Iron Curtain." Referring to the challenge posed by the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe to the teaching of European history, the author, Larry Wolff, saw it as…

  8. THE CONDITIONS OF INVESTMENTS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Masloch

    2009-01-01

    In the article the author shows the problems that enterprises investing in renewable energy production have to face. Taking into consideration Poland’s obligations regarding the development of the production of renewable energy, activities aiming at environmental protection and the possibilities of getting EU funding of ecological investments, the paper’s subject matter seems particularly significant.

  9. Influence of the meteorological parameters on CFCs and SF6 concentration in the air of Krakow, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewski, Jarosław; Najman, Joanna; Śliwka, Ireneusz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Rosiek, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    key words: gas chromatography, trace gases, CFCs and SF6 measurements in urban area. Halogenated compounds (chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs), both natural and industrial, so-called freons, currently exist as trace gases in the entire human environment. The CFCs cause ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Moreover CFCs and SF6 take part in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The decisions of the Vienna Convention (1985) and of the Montreal Protocol (1987) limited the world production level of CFCs in the year 1989 at least 35% after 2004, 90% after 2015 and total reduction after year 2030. On account of international agreements, the measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air were started. Measurement "clean" stations were situated at places outside of urban areas influence and gathered on world program - AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). One of these stations is Mace Head (Ireland, 53o N, 10o W), which participates in AGAGE since 1987 [1] and in European InGOS (Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System) program since 2011. Similar research is also conducted in Central Europe, in urban area of Krakow (Poland, 50o N, 19o E) since 1997. The work discusses results from 15 years of concentration measurements (in the years 1997-2012) of selected halocarbons and SF6 in Krakow. To obtain concentrations of measured compounds the mathematical procedure has been used, where concentrations were calculated using a five points Lagrange's interpolation method. Using temporary measurement data were determined daily arithmetic means and their standard deviations. Based on these data, efficiency of Montreal Protocol legislation, implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52) could be assessed [2]. Additionally cut-off filtration method was used to estimate trend of the base line of individual air pollutant. Rejected exceedances of base lines were corelated with meteorological characteristics of Krakow region to evaluate possible sources of pollution. The

  10. ECO-INNOVATION IN THE BUILDING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Stanisław Zachura

    2016-12-01

    Furthermore, public investor awareness is increasing in the range of introducing sustained development rules, especially in the utilization of green procurement in the building sector, as evidenced by public facilities constructed in the passive and energy efficient standard.

  11. The revision of specimens of the Cladonia pyxidata-chlorophaea group (lichenized Ascomycota from northeastern Poland deposited in the herbarium collections of University in Bialystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeastern Poland, the chemical variation of the Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata group was much neglected, as TLC has not been used in delimitation of species differing in the chemistry. As a great part of herbal material of University in Bialystok from NE Poland was misidentified, I found my studies to be necessary. Based on the collection of 123 specimens deposited in Herbarium of University in Bialystok, nine species of the C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group are reported from NE Poland. The morphology, secondary chemistry, and ecology of examined lichens are presented and the list of localities is provided. The results revealed that C. fimbriata is the most common species in the northeastern Poland, comprising around 33% of the studied specimens. Cladonia conista, C. cryptochlorophaea, and C. merochlorophaea are known only from very few locations. This study shed light on the role of the lichens substances to diagnosis of the species of C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group.

  12. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  13. Think Tanks in Poland: Policy Experts at the Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak, Dorota (Dr)

    2015-01-01

    Development of the think tank sector in post-communist states is, at times, regarded as a self-evident consequence of the processes of democratization. However, the specific “environment of obstacles and opportunities” makes it neither automatic, nor easy for think tanks of the region to join the policy game. In particular, it is not clear to what extent the think tanks in transition democracies can or should engage in strictly political disputes. The alleged shift from academic towards...

  14. AGRICULTURAL TAX SYSTEM IN POLAND AND DIRECTIONS OF THE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research problem taken in the article is a question, whether legal solutions applied in the Polish system of the taxation of agriculture have an appropriate shape and whether this system is optimal? If not, what are possible options of changes and whether the in-come tax is good for agricultural activities. A method of analysis of secondary sources was used in order to solve the research problem. Required data was taken from the base of the Główny Urząd Statystyczny and scientific publications of the publishing universi-ty. In the article were formulated the following hypotheses: 1.\tThe system of the taxation of agriculture is different than other existing Polish law and it is regarded as unfair in relation to other social groups. 2.\tChanging the tax system in agriculture is necessary and would lead to positive chang-es in the structure of agriculture. 3.\tThe reform of the taxation system of agricultural production is in many aspects neces-sary and beneficial, but it should nevertheless take into account the specificities of the agricultural activity. 4.\tThe introduction of the income tax has its bad side and carries the disadvantages for both farmers and municipalities.

  15. The Family and Child Welfare System in Poland: Family Assistantship as a New Solution in Social Work with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciczkowska-Giedziun, Malgorzata; Zmyslowska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Poland is a post-communist country rooted in the idea of a nanny state. Although the state is still highly involved in social policy, the social and constitutional transformation that began in 1989 led to many changes which in turn influenced the functioning of an individual and family life. Numerous reforms have gradually changed the shape of the…

  16. The magnetic susceptibility of soils in Krakow, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojas, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Studies into the magnetic susceptibility have been used to assess the soils contamination in the Krakow area. The results of topsoil (over a 2 × 2 km grid), subsoil (37 shallow holes) and soil samples (112) measurements were presented as maps of soil magnetic susceptibility (both volume and mass) illustrating the distribution of parameters in topsoil horizon (0-10 cm) and differential magnetic susceptibility maps between topsoil horizon and subsoil (40-60 cm). All evidence leads to the finding that the highest values of magnetic susceptibility of soil are found exclusively in industrial areas. Taking into consideration the type of land use, the high median value (89.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1) was obtained for samples of cultivated soils and is likely to be connected with occurrence of fertile soil (chernozem). Moreover, enrichment of soils with Pb and Zn accompanies magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the vicinity of the high roads and in the steelworks area, respectively.

  17. Observations on the occurrence of Erysiphales on cucumbers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bażant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1974-79 in Skierniewice and in 12 other places Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (imperfect stage was observed on cucumbers in 1979 both A. cichoraceum and Sphaerotheca fuliginea were found in Skierniewice, Zielonka and Gołębiewo. Then were distinguished in the conidial stage mainly on the basis of differences in conidial germination and the presence or absence of fibrous bodies, and in the perfect stage on the basis of the number of asci in peridia and the number of spores per ascus.

  18. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  19. Revision of the genus Xerula Maire (Basidiomycetes, Agaricales in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ronikier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning morphology, ecology and distribution of Polish representatives of the genus Xerula Maire are discussed in the paper. All available specimens of X. pudens and X. melanotricha from Polish herbaria were reexamined to verify their identity and geographical distribution. Several new localities of X. melanotricha in the country are provided. A key to European taxa of the genus is proposed.

  20. The Politics of Local Tax Policy-Making in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-06-01

    To what extent is tax policy an important item of the local political agenda in Polish municipalities ? Is it a subject of intense debates at city hall and local councils or is it accepted as a routine exercise ? The results suggest that the issues related to local taxes play a relatively marginal role compared to issues such as the location of major investments. However, the importance of taxes in local debates increases in those local communities in which the tax yields collected are larger and in the case of those taxes which are paid by a wider group of tax payers.Who governs in local tax-policy-making ? According to local provisions the proposal of tax resolution is submitted by the mayor, and the local council makes the final decision. But empirical findings suggest that the practice follows the “strong mayor” model, in which the local political leader, supporter by his staff of the financial department, is more influential than the councilors.

  1. [Medical press in Poland in the years 1945-1949].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    In the article was presented a development of Polish medical press in the years 1945-1949. A special attention is drawn by time turning point, which was set up by the Author. A year 1945 is not only the time of the end of World War II and the beginning of consecutive stage of the history, but also is the moment of establishing new scientific institutions, among others--Scientific and Publishing Department at Ministry of Health, which was to protect the remaining scientific output and develop it. A final time turning point--a year 1949--is not only a period of slow elimination of relative democratic privileges, but also is the time of decadent publishing activity of several medical periodicals that were independent of health department. Finally, it is also the beginning of edition 'Słuzba Zdrowia' ['Health Service']--a popular medical weekly magazine, the limb of ZZPSZ, a journal, which was completely subordinated to dictatorship of contemporary political system. In the paper was included an analysis of 9 titles of popular medical periodicals that were issued in the above-mentioned period. A choice of them was intended, because in this kind of magazines the Author could find the answers for the following questions--to what extent in the columns of medical journals one could observe the liberty of authors' opinions and what views concerned the freedom, what one can say about the development of scientific section and the subject matter of discussed issues, how the problems were presented and what said about contacts and cooperation of Polish doctors with foreign countries. Therefore, in the article were discussed first projects and publishing programs prepared by Scientific and Publishing Department. There was also presented chronologically an origin, development and--often--decline of succeeding popular medical periodicals' titles. A special attention was paid to the social issues of medical circles that can turn out to be extremely interesting for the present

  2. Enigmatic basal archosauromorph from the Late Triassic of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Toljagic, Olja

    2012-01-01

    Choristodera, a lineage of basal archosauromorphs (Reptilia: Diapsida), first appeared in Early/Middle Jurassic (possibly Late Triassic; approximately 201 million years ago) and extended all the way into early Miocene (approximately 23 million years ago). Choristoderans are the only group of more basal archosauromorphs that survived after the Jurassic period, along with Archosauriformes (a more derived group of Archosauromorphs). The time of origin of the lineage is still speculative and prec...

  3. Measles in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  4. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  5. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  6. The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Providing Post- penitentiary Assistance in Poland and Germany – History and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kubala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presented a historical perspective of the activity of Polish and German solutions in post-penitentiary assistance. Furthermore, it refers to present activities carried out in both countries. The author presented selected non-governmental organizations engaged in activities for former convicted in both countries, and against this background, proposed the implementation of some German solutions in Poland.

  7. So Different yet so Similar: A Tale of Two Academic Libraries in the United States and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyran, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a comparison between two academic libraries: Indiana University Libraries in the United States and the Library of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biala Podlaska, Poland. This comparison is based on data that each of these libraries published in statistical reports. Much of the information…

  8. An Investigation of the Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Adults with Undiagnosed and/or Untreated Phenylketonuria in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…

  9. SUPPLY REORGANIZATION IN THE SOUTHERN POLAND POWER CONCERN

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Grabara

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents problems of procurement and supply materials to power plants in case of merger of a few plant in one power concern. The author present the analysis of present situation and proposals of supply reorganization considering technical and organizational problems.

  10. Verification of the NWP models operated at ICM, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melonek, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw (ICM) started its activity in the field of NWP in May 1997. Since this time the numerical weather forecasts covering Central Europe have been routinely published on our publicly available website. First NWP model used in ICM was hydrostatic Unified Model developed by the UK Meteorological Office. It was a mesoscale version with horizontal resolution of 17 km and 31 levels in vertical. At present two NWP non-hydrostatic models are running in quasi-operational regime. The main new UM model with 4 km horizontal resolution, 38 levels in vertical and forecats range of 48 hours is running four times a day. Second, the COAMPS model (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, configured with the three nested grids (with coresponding resolutions of 39km, 13km and 4.3km, 30 vertical levels) are running twice a day (for 00 and 12 UTC). The second grid covers Central Europe and has forecast range of 84 hours. Results of the both NWP models, ie. COAMPS computed on 13km mesh resolution and UM, are verified against observations from the Polish synoptic stations. Verification uses surface observations and nearest grid point forcasts. Following meteorological elements are verified: air temperature at 2m, mean sea level pressure, wind speed and wind direction at 10 m and 12 hours accumulated precipitation. There are presented different statistical indices. For continous variables Mean Error(ME), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) in 6 hours intervals are computed. In case of precipitation the contingency tables for different thresholds are computed and some of the verification scores such as FBI, ETS, POD, FAR are graphically presented. The verification sample covers nearly one year.

  11. Gender Equity and the Role of Women in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 1920 AAUW's predecessor, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, helped raise $100,000 for Polish scientist Marie Curie to purchase a gram of radium. Members honored Curie in New York City as she kicked off her triumphant 1921 fundraising tour of the United States, which allowed her to continue her relentless work and eventually establish the…

  12. Legislative Norms to Control Cannabis Use in the Light of Its Prevalence in Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čecho, Róbert; Baška, Tibor; Švihrová, Viera; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis control legislation ranks among key measures to prevent social-health impacts of its use. The article qualitatively analyses respective legislation in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (Visegrad Four, V4) considering level of decriminalisation of cannabis use in relation to current epidemiological situation. Qualitative analysis of the cannabis control legislation in V4 countries from 1995 to 2016 focusing on criminal liability, differentiation of cannabis from other illicit substances, definition of a small amount intended for personal use, sentences for possessing and dealership of the drug. Results: Slovakia, Hungary and Poland share similar restrictive legislative approach throughout the studied period. In the Czech Republic, the situation has been different and since 2010 cannabis has been further decriminalised: possession of defined small amount of drug not being under prosecution and milder sentences for cannabis than for other illicit psychoactive substances. Slovakia, Hungary and Poland share similar restrictive legislative approach throughout the studied period. In the Czech Republic, the situation has been different and since 2010 cannabis has been further decriminalised: possession of defined small amount of drug not being under prosecution and milder sentences for cannabis than for other illicit psychoactive substances. Although the prevalence of cannabis use among adolescents is the highest in the Czech Republic, partial decriminalisation did not show further increase. Slovakia, Hungary and Poland show different trends in epidemiological situation despite of similar legislative approach. Results indicate that beside legislation other social factors play a role and measures to change attitudes and decrease social tolerance are important.

  13. Processes of concentration of wholesale trade in poland in the light of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Strojny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing role of trade as the integrator of distribution channels has been observed in Poland recently. Retail companies have gained a competitive advantage in relationships with both  suppliers and recipients. The natural questions are, how the situation of the wholesale trade looks at present in such a situation and what prospects it has for the future. The main aim of this paper is to identify and describe the influence of new conditions on the development of the wholesale trade as part of the supply chain. The hypothesis was assumed that this development is determined by processes related to the concentration of trade companies, which were also visiblerecently in Poland. Methods: The main concentration processes in Polish trade were identified based on a literature review and previous research. Then, based on the results of a survey and data obtained from the Central Statistical Office, the influence of these trends on the development of wholesale trade was evaluated. The further directions of changes in Polish wholesale trade were also indicated. Empirical research was conducted by the use of a direct interview with a random sample of 108 wholesale companies, both independent  and as part of chains. The research focused on wholesalers' opinions of market trends and integration processes in Polish wholesale trade and cover the  years 2014-15. Results: The results show the key market processes with regard to trade concentration. The biggest threats to the development of the wholesale trade are the processes of the horizontal concentration in retail. The concentration of retail companies leads to a shortening of the distribution channels and direct purchases from producers omitting the wholesale stage. Despite these threats, wholesalers describe their situation as good, and their opinion can be confirmed in data provided by the Central Statistical Office. Conclusions: The market processes identified must be taken into

  14. [Impact Reimbursement Act on the pharmaceutical market in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    According to 12 may 2011 Reimbursement Act, the new regulations were introduced related to changes in so far in force rules on refunds of official prices and margins for drugs, foodstuffs of special purpose and medical products. After year of functioning of this regulation, in evaluation of the government, law gave measurable financial effects for public payer, sometimes through drastic actions, connected the of reduction of existing profits of manufacturers sector and importers drugs, as well wholesale and retail, both in treatment open and closed. Parallel to research and analysis of effects introduction in life act refund, conducted by government, to target current regulation possible negative phenomena can to be after-effects to regulation, systematically there are conducted analogous study to reputable companies specialized in evaluation and updating market Polish pharmaceutical, such as IMS Health Polska, Pharma Expert, Kamsoft, WHO and European a law firm. In their opinion to reimbursement act is the most serious regulation control system to introduced into Polish order legal, and first time for many years on such a large scale. Thoroughly changed policy of drugs State have important influence for all participants Polish pharmaceutical market, both those directly related to the drug trade, as the functioning doctors and health condition and financial Polish patient. Change in the way prices of drugs is determined as flexible to price formation mechanism, combining drugs similar profile pharmacological in so group limits and dependence of the level of refunds from application drug accordingly characteristics medicinal product, adaptation solutions to new law refund to the existing law about health services, gave measurable financial effect for the public payer. Rationalization expenses to NFZ, as main premise introduction refund act, created to broader than so far possibility to use new molecules of drugs, and the latest medical technology, even if in the

  15. A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

  16. Educational Thought of Ukraine and Poland within Renaissance Culture: From the History of Intellectual Discourse of XVI-XVII Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of formation of pedagogical thought in Ukraine and Poland during the propagation of Renaissance ideas into pedagogical culture of 16th-17th centuries. It has been emphasized that founders of humanistic pedagogical culture in Ukraine were such outstanding scientists as Grygoriy Sanotskyi, Yuriy Drogobych,…

  17. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  18. Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids in Ordovician and Silurian age shales in the Polish- Ukrainian Foredeep basin of Poland.

  19. Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Adamczak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L. is a common species, widely used in European and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, raw material from this plant contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of the level of PAs (senkirkine and senecionine in leaves of coltsfoot originated from natural populations in Poland. In the phytochemical analysis, 20 samples of T. farfara were used. This plant material was obtained from the Garden of Medicinal Plants in Plewiska near Poznań and originated from different regions of Poland. Coltsfoot leaves were harvested in the middle of July of 2010 and then dried at room temperature. The alkaloid content was detected using the HPLC-DAD method. The amount of PAs in leaves of T. farfara changed in a wide range from 0.06 to 1.04 μg g−1 of dry matter (DM. The content of senkirkine and senecionine was positively correlated (r = 0.68, P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of PAs as well as leaf weight and water content in leaves of T. farfara. Our results showed that a medium-sized leaf of coltsfoot (0.33 g DM may contain from 0.02 to 0.34 μg of PAs (on average 0.14 μg. The level of PAs was not associated with the region of Poland, but phytochemical similarity of samples was usually visible at the local scale. Coltsfoot leaves are characterized by a high variability of the content of toxic PAs, much higher than in the case of the main active compounds, especially flavonoids and mucilage. This phytochemical variability is mainly genetically determined (samples came from a garden collection, and it can be increased by environmental factors. Our investigations indicate that Polish natural populations of T. farfara may provide raw material with a low level of toxic PAs.

  20. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  1. Extended studies on the diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in Austria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies on diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in selected habitats in Austria and Poland carried out in the years 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 are discussed. In total 47 species of entomopathogenic fungi were found as pathogens of different arthropods in Austria. Twenty six entomophthoralean species from different insects and one species from mites were identified and 16 of them are recorded as new to Austria. From among 21 species of anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota affecting arthropods in Austria, 13 species so far have not been known from this country. In total 51 species of fungi affecting different arthropods in Poland were recorded, among them 28 species of Entomophthorales and 23 anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota were separated. The most frequent species of the entomopathogenic fungi both in agricultural and afforested areas in Austria were the common and usually worldwide distributed cordycipitaceous anamorphs Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and in areas of this study less numerous I. farinosa. The most frequent pathogens occurring in mite communities on plants and in wood infested by insects were Hirsutella species. Several entomophthoralean species developed epizootics that caused high reduction in host populations of different arthropods in both countries. Especially interesting is the first record of mycoses (up to 60% mortality, caused by Zoophthora spp. on Phyllobius beetles in a mixed forest near Białowieża. During our joint research, we found the first time in Poland and Europe, the presence of the fungus Furia cf. shandongensis on earwigs and Hirsutella entomophila on Ips typographus adults in forest habitats. From the feeding sites of the latter bark beetle and other subcortical species in oak bark (mostly Dryocoetes villosus and D. alni in black alder over a dozen of various Lecanicillium strains - including few of the features not allowing to classify them to any of so far known species – were

  2. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Stefańska, Marta; Wiśniewski, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland's current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  3. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  4. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  5. The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District Głęboki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland.

  6. An Outline of the Evolution of Rural Cultural Landscapes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KORELESKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the evolution of rural cultural landscapes in Poland against the background of landscape classification. It defines cultural landscape types and subtypes, based on several criteria of landscape classification, such as: genetic, morphological, functional, and economic. A review of rural landscapes, based on genetic criteria, considers the following historical periods: the primeval community, the feudalism, the manorial system, the industrial revolution, the interwar period of 1918 – 1939, the period of socialist economy, and market economy. The processes that most significantly influenced the contemporary shape of the rural landscape occurred just after the Second World War: urbanization and industrialization, settlement in western and northern territories, as well as structural and spatial transformations that took place after the year 1989 related to the promotion of sustainable and multifunctional development of rural areas.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SHOPPING CENTERS IN POLAND AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS’ REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Miklińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers have been a permanent element of the landscape of many Polish cities for over twenty years now. Their operation as large commercial facilities, and therefore essential elements of the urban logistics system, poses many challenges. In addition, it is related to the existence and manifestation of the requirements of their key stakeholders. The purpose of the article is to outline the process of development of shopping centers in Poland against the background of European trends, and in addition, to draw attention to the existence of various types of shopping centers, the regularities related to their operation and the expectations of their major stakeholders. The article also discusses selected latest trends affecting the current perception of shopping centers and significantly affecting the formation of requirements of the stakeholders associated with them.

  8. Tax expenditures in the system agriculture taxation system in Poland and selected EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Staniszewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Article raises the issue of the agriculture specificity in the context of tax system. It presents the arguments for intervention in the agricultural sector, using a variety of tools, including tax policy. Preferential taxation of agricultural activity is an example of the tax expenditure. Various preferences are used in most EU countries. A specific example is Poland, where farmers are completely exempt from paying income tax, which is the basis of agriculture taxation in other EU countries. Although, a number of arguments for and against the use of tax expenditures can be brought, it cannot be forgotten that the primary goal taxation is to provide incomes to the budget. The situation when the stimulative function of the taxes starts to dominate the fiscal one, especially in the face of pressure from interest groups, is undesirable.

  9. POLANDTHE MOST IMPORTANT PARTNER OF CHINA FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the objectives, advantages, challenges and prospects of the Sino-Polish strategic partnership in the larger framework of the 16+1 platform. The historical context of the cooperation between the two countries, as well as the catalysts of the current bilateral relations are presented in parallel, with an emphasis on the economic side. The qualitative analysis highlights the asymmetries underlying the bilateral relationship, reflected by political culture, trade imbalances, size of the economies, and different communication, competition and market access models. Nevertheless, Poland's economic development is seen by China as ”a success story of transition to market economy and European integration”, which creates the prerequisites for an economic alliance with solid foundations.

  10. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  11. Fischer's Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Typek, Joanna

    2015-12-24

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are important, even if they are only descriptive, because they help to throw light on the missing chains needed for diachronic analysis. However, the documentation of traditional uses of plants in some countries, e.g. Ukraine, is still fragmentary. The aim of this contribution is to fill the gap and present a portion of the data set, from western Ukraine, which was collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered to be published in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. The idea of writing the Lexicon arose in 1929 during the I Congress of Slavic Philologists in Prague and was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but has never actually been fulfilled. In this article we used information from south-eastern Poland at that time - nowadays western Ukraine, collected in four provinces, 11 counties and 28 localities by Fischer's collaborators. The majority of the information was accompanied by voucher specimens, which were determined by botanists at the Jan Kazimierz University. These data are still unpublished and stored on filecards in the archives of the Polish Ethnological Society in Wrocław, Poland. In our analysis we applied two indices: one to measure general plant versatility - Use Value, and another regarding medicinal plants - Relative Importance Value. In total, 179 plant taxa used in peasant culture in the western Ukraine in the 1930s were registered. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Vinca minor, Hypericum sp. and Juniperus communis. Among the collected plant names, Polish names dominate (59%) over clearly Ukrainian and Ruthenian ones (31%). The remaining 10% of names were of unclear origin or could have been used by both groups. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by ritual - chiefly plants

  12. Assessing the performance of the construction sectors in the Baltic states and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podvezko Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the evaluation of the construction market performance in three Baltic States, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, based on using structural statistical criteria. The evaluation covers various periods of time, embracing the time before the economic crisis, in 2007, during the economic crisis, in 2009, and after the economic crisis, in 2013. For assessing the efficiency of their construction sectors’ performance, the investigated countries are arranged in the order of preference according to this indicator by using three multiple-criteria decision making methods (MCDM, such as SAW, TOPSIS and COPRAS. These evaluation methods are based on determining the weights of the structural criteria used. For this purpose, three various methods, including the entropy, the method of the criteria impact loss (CILOS and a new method of determining the objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW suggested by the authors. The results obtained allowed the researchers to assess the construction market performance in the considered states in various periods of time, to compare them with other countries and to rank them based on this parameter. Therefore, the suggested method of market performance evaluation may be used as an effective supplementary aid for determining the priorities in the future business development, as well as for studying the competitive markets or directing the cash flows of an enterprise to the appropriate areas.

  13. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  14. Europeanisation and Implementation in Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with the implementation capacity of public administration in four Central European countries: Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The author’s point of departure is that implementation diffi culties vary between sectors, i.e., that the process of transition and Europeanization on the one hand has a homogenizing eff ect between the countries, while on the other it generates a high level of variance across sectors, refl ecting the tasks assigned to each type of administration. An empirical test of this hypothesis is attempted: implementation diffi culties are treated as the dependent variable and distinction is made between the administrations that have production functions and the ones that have regulatory tasks. The discussion is supplemented with an analysis of the general patterns of experienced implementation diffi culties.

  15. The Influence of Information Systems Interoperability on Economic Activity in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganczar Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the text, I discuss the abilities and challenges of information systems interoperability. The anticipated and expected result of interoperability is to improve the provision of public utility services to citizens and companies by means of facilitating the provision of public utility services on the basis of a “single window” principle and reducing the costs incurred by public administrations, companies, and citizens, resulting from the efficiency of the provision of public utility services. In the article, the conceptual framework of interoperability is elaborated upon. Moreover, information systems and public registers for entrepreneurs in Poland exemplify whether the interoperability may be applied and, if so, whether interoperability fulfils its targets to the extent of e-Government services for entrepreneurs.

  16. A comparison of the perceptions and aspirations of third-year physiotherapy students trained in three educational settings in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Joanna; Białoszewski, Dariusz; Sierdziński, Janusz; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Majcher, Piotr; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Bauer, Aleksandra; Cabak, Anna; Grzegorczyk, Joanna; Płaszewski, Maciej; Kułak, Wojciech; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Prokopowicz, Katarzyna

    2010-03-01

    In Poland, physiotherapy is offered at three types of school: medical universities, universities of physical education, and schools that do not specialise in either the medical sciences or physical education. This study explored the knowledge of students who were completing their physiotherapy studies about working in Poland and other countries of the European Union (EU), and about their vocational plans. Students were asked, through self-assessment, about aspects of the professional skills they had gained. Quantitative questionnaire-based study of students in three university settings. Eleven university-level schools in Poland offering studies in physiotherapy and representing three orientations: medical sciences (MS), physical education (PE) and other universities (OU). The study sample comprised of 954 third-year Bachelor programme students. The differences in university profiles did not influence the vocational plans of the students, with more than 70% (668/954) declaring that they would look for work outside Poland: 76% (725/954) in the UK and 69% (658/954) in Germany. Most students stated that finding work as a physiotherapist is difficult in Poland (686/954,72%) and easy in other EU countries (763/954, 80%). Differences in university profiles had an effect on the students' assessments of their professional skills, as students from universities without a long-standing tradition of training in physiotherapy declared that they were less well prepared to work as physiotherapists; the difference was statistically significant for 12 of the 16 domains examined (Puniversities. It appears advisable to launch, under the auspices of an EU programme, an integrated employment information system for physiotherapists that would offer updated information on current demand in individual EU countries.

  17. Differentiation of flea communities infesting small mammals across selected habitats of the Baltic coast, central lowlands, and southern mountains of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Eichert, Urszula; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Rychlik, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a greater number of flea species in fertile and wet habitats than in poor and arid habitats, and (3) a low similarity of flea species between flea communities in western and eastern Poland. We found a negative effect of increasing latitude on flea species richness. We suppose that the mountains providing a variety of environments and the limits of the geographic ranges of several flea subspecies in southeastern Poland result in a higher number of flea species. There was a positive effect of increasing wetness of habitat on flea species richness. We found a high diversity in flea species composition between western and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 11) and between central and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 12). Re-colonization of Poland by small mammals and their ectoparasites from different (western and eastern) refugees can affect on this high diversity of flea species.

  18. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  19. A multi-scale integrated analysis of the energy use in Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Polimeni, John M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses energy use in the case of four countries, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, and Romania, which changed the economic system from command economy to open-market. The analysis provided uses the multi-scale integrated analysis of societal metabolism (MSIASM) approach and contrasts it with the use of the traditional indicators approach (GDP growth rates and energy intensity). These traditional indicators have been widely criticized for being inadequate reflections of how energy policies work. Furthermore, the one-size-fits-all policies that result from analyzing these indicators are inaccurate, particularly for transitional economies. The alternative indicators, economic labor productivity, saturation index of human activity, and exosomatic metabolic rates are used to investigate the four case studies considering the complexity of the transition process

  20. Human capital financial results of an enterprise – research on the best employers in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bagieńska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy human capital is the basic resource, directly influencing production and the financial results of the enterprise. Employee involvement determines their better job performance and the achievement of better financial results. The analysed companies – winners of the contest named Best Employer in Poland demonstrated increasing effectiveness and profitability of their activities which was shown by the calculated coefficients. The human capital coefficients based on the data from financial reports do not reflect the proper analysis of changes in return on investment and human capital productivity dependent on the level of employee involvement. A proper evaluation should concern not only financial results such as sales revenues, but also non-financial results.

  1. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  2. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  3. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  4. The future of logistical education in Poland and Ukraine: comparative analysis of students\\' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ryzhkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A professional future is the next logical step after a student completes their chosen degree course. More frequently, even during their studies, young people seek opportunities to participate in various conferences, training courses, internships, work placements, and to travel abroad, etc. All of this has one main goal - to increase the student's attractiveness as a potential employee on the labour market. Thus, it becomes very important to ask relevant and timely questions to students about the knowledge they gain during their studies, the skills they possess and how they perceive their future work. Methods: This paper presents the views of students of logistics and related disciplines regarding their future careers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expectations, skills and visions of the future of the young generation who stand at the threshold of their careers, in two countries - Poland and Ukraine. The test method used for collecting opinions was a questionnaire. Results: This paper recognises key elements of young people's perception of the labour market. They present a brief theoretical discussion on the issue in question. The authors present the results of the comparison of attitudes of students from two universities in  Poland and in Ukraine, in four areas: Participant's Profiles; Professional Attractiveness; Obtained Knowledge and Skills; Employment. Conclusions: Contemporary logistics requires professionals of the highest calibre, which is confirmed by many respected authorities. The research results show a preview of the preferences of students of logistics and related disciplines in terms of future work, and give information about the knowledge they gained during their studies. Comparison of the two groups of participants from different countries gives the opportunity to observe the aspirations and visions of each , as well as propose recommendations aimed at signalling the possibility of improving the

  5. Application of INAA to the examination of art objects. Research in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in collaboration with the Faculty of Art Conservation and Restoration of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, as well as with other Academies of Fine Arts and museums in Poland. A number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, as well as in the clay fillings of sarcophagi of Egyptian mummies was accumulated. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the approximate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  6. ANALYSIS OF PERIODICAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION SYSTEMS IN AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT. THE EXPERIENCES OF POLAND AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road accidents nowadays seems to by a global problem. Apart from the obvious causes of accidents, such as violation of road traffic rules by drivers and pedestrians, the drunk driving, poor quality of road infrastructure, the technical faults of vehicles should also be take into account. Reasons of technical failures can be the failure of parts, components and assemblies caused by aging, poor quality or non-observance of technological norms when they are installed. It is possible to prevent the occurrence of faults by applying warning methods, one of which is obligatory periodic technical inspection. The purpose of this article is to analyze the characteristic features of the systems of technical inspections in automotive transport used in Poland and Russia. It makes it possible to identify common features and distinctive features of systems in both countries.

  7. A possible Roman Period sword from Grzybowo (Grzybowen, Masuria, NE Poland. The archaeological and technological context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żabiński

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a recent stray find of a sword fragment with a possible stamp from Masuria in NE Poland. It was found close to a Roman Period cemetery of the Bogaczewo Culture. On typological grounds, the sword can be classified as a Roman Period weapon. However, the results of metallographic examinations suggest that the find may have been made either from very clean bloomery steel (or hypoeutectoid crucible steel or from mass-made Industrial Age steel (Bessemer, Thomas, Siemens-Martin, etc.. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the sword would rather imply a pre-Industrial Period steel. In conclusion, it is carefully suggested that the weapon may be a genuine Ancient sword, although its final recognition as a Roman Period weapon could only be verified by finds made from similar metal in undoubted Roman Period contexts.

  8. Influence of urbanization level and Gross Domestic Product on the prevalence of adolescent obesity in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Okoński, Marek; Matuszewski, Lukasz; Zienkiewicz, Tadeusz; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Klatka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is considered as a major disease of twenty-first century civilization. Its occurrence in Poland and worldwide has been increasing steadily for many years. Several factors play an important role in the development of overweight and obesity. In addition to the genetic factors and those associated with diseases of the endocrine system and nervous system, the rapidly growing number of obese people is due to improper nutrition. In this paper, authors attempt to justify the prevalence of obesity in Poland among the population of adolescent and young adults aged 15 - 29 years of age, depending on the urbanization level and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of voivodeships. Voivodeships, as an entity of regional autonomy, were divided into two groups according to urbanization level and GDP per capita. From the total population of each voivodeship population, groups of overweight and obese people aged 15-29 were selected. The population group aged 15-29 was divided into male and female subgroups. Each subgroup was compared in the different voivodeships, depending on the urbanization level and GDP per capita. The study shows that there is a strong linear relationship between the prevalence of obesity and GDP per capita of each examined region. During the study, the correlation between the level of prevalence of obesity and urbanization level produced a negative result. The high level of regional economic development in the economic transformation states has a significant impact on the increase in the percentage of people with overweight and obesity in the population aged 15-29. Gender and place of residence (urban or rural areas) did not show significant correlation with the occurrence of overweight and obesity in the study group of the population.

  9. Influence of urbanization level and Gross Domestic Product on