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Sample records for poland gdynia

  1. Need for Linear Revitalization - Gdynia Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas-Bojarska, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss the need of defining and implementation of the linear revitalization - the new approach related to the revitalization processes. The results of the preliminary investigations indicate that this kind of revitalization seems to be an important tool supporting city management and planning, especially in cases of cities fragmentation - causing lack of physical, social, economic and ecological cohesion. The problems which may occur in such situations could be, in author’s opinion, solved with the use of linear revitalization. Linear revitalization relates to various linear city structures, which need a renewal. The article presents the idea of new attitude, character of specific actions related to degraded linear structures, draft classification, as well as the potential benefits to the city structure which could be reached due to the linear revitalization implementation. The theoretical deliberations are supplemented by the description and assessment of the chosen case study from Gdynia in Poland. The Kwiatkowskiego Route in Gdynia, playing important role in the city traffic as the external connection, creates the barrier in the city structure, causing many negative effects. Author presents specific problems related to chosen example, and the ways to solve them and to connect city structure. The main conclusion of the study is that the presented approach may be, in author’s opinion, the beginning of the discussion related to the linear revitalization, which may become an important and effective tool of sustainable city development. It may help overcoming physical barriers, and minimise functional, economic, social, mental and environmental conflicts caused by city fragmentation.

  2. Auhinnad 2009 - Nike ja Gdynia / Hendrik Lindepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindepuu, Hendrik, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Poola tähtsaima kirjandusauhinna Nike sai 2009. aastal luuletaja Eugeniusz Tkaczyszyn-Dycki luulekogu "Piosenka o zależnościach i uzależnieniach" ("Laul sõltuvusest ja sõltumusest") eest. Teised kandidaadid olid: Andrzej Barti romaan "Fabryka muchołapek" ("Kärbsepiitsavabrik"), Ignacy Karpowiczi romaan "Gesty" ("Žestid"), Inga Iwasiówi romaan "Bambino", Bohdan Sławiński romaan "Królowa tiramisu" ("Tiramisu kuninganna"), Tomasz Piąteki romaan "Pałac Ostrogskich" ("Ostrogski loss") ja Krzystof Varga esseekogumik "Gulasz z turula" ("Turuguljašš"). Gdynia preemia luuleauhinna sai Eugeniusz Tkaczyszyn-Dycki luulekogu "Piosenka o zależnościach i uzależnieniach" ("Laul sõltuvusest ja sõltumusest"), proosapreemia sai Marcin Świetlicki romaan "Jedenście" ("Üksteist")

  3. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scale of the problem. In the search of solutions in relation to Poland, an analysis of different documents outlining the directions of urban mobility was conducted. One of these documents concerned the promotion of car-pooling, the history of which dates back to the Second World War and the 1950s. Initially introduced in the USA, its increasing development in European cities has been witnessed in recent years. Research on the evaluation of real car-pooling in Polish cities was conducted in Gdynia by the authors of this study. The results of marketing research presented in the article have determined the degree to which participants in urban mobility are inclined to take part in car-pooling schemes in Polish cities.

  4. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  5. Management Systems of Gdynia Maritime University’s the Training Ships Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Muszynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this elaboration is to present management systems working in Gdynia Maritime University. Compliance with the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code, the International Safety Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code and with the Quality Management System complies with ISO 9001 standard, allows to ensure safe operations of ships and to meet requirements of regulations. In the theoretical parts of this elaboration it has been described the definition of the quality, according to different authors, as well as Quality Management Systems. Whole activity of the Gdynia Maritime University’s ships and Shipowner Brunch is covered by ISM and ISPS Code. The International Safety Management, it is a system of the training ships’ safe operation and prevention of pollution, elaborated by International Maritime Organization (IMO. ISPS system consists of detailed Ship Security Plan, is divided into unclassified part and the part which is classified and owned to shipowner. The Quality Management System refers to The University’s activity, and only the part of the procedures, which covers student’s trainings refers to the ships and Shipowner Branch. In view of very specific operational activity of the training ships: “Dar M?odzie?y” and “Horyzont II”, only the principle conventions, acts and regulations, which the Shipowner and the ships are obliged to obey, has been expressed.

  6. Unravelling the complex nature of the Upper Weichselian till section at Gdynia Babie Doły, northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Piotr Paweł; Czubla, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The complexity of glacial sequences may increase when these formed underneath ice sheets despite subsequent changes in their extent that are accompanied by alterations in the direction of the ice flow. Our aim was to determine whether or not changes in ice sheet dynamics during the Late Weichselian are also recorded in sediments formed north of the area of its fluctuating margin (i.e., where the ice sheet prevailed independent of such fluctuations). It is shown that in these areas such a record could have occurred, as documented by results of till studies at Babie Doły. The examination was carried out using several analyses: lithofacies properties of sediments, petrographic till composition (fine gravel fraction, indicator erratics), till matrix CaCO3 content, till fabric, as well as orientation of striae on the top surfaces of large clasts. In parallel, datings of sub- and supra-till sediments using the TL method were carried out. The basal till at Babie Doły represents almost the entire Upper Weichselian, but it can be divided into subunits whose features indicate different ice flow directions and debris supply. The lower subunit developed as a result of the palaeo-ice stream along the main axis of the Baltic Sea (from the north), expanding to areas adjacent to the depression of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The upper subunit developed when the influence of the palaeo-ice stream in the study area decreased, the main role having been taken over by the ice flowing from the northwest. The till analysed also shows considerable lateral variation, indicative of the mosaic nature of subglacial sedimentation. We consider the diversity of permeability of deposits over which the ice sheet extended to be the prime factor that determined such a situation.

  7. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna HEBEL; Marcin WOŁEK

    2017-01-01

    The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scal...

  8. Maritime Education and Research to Face the XXI-st Century Challenges in Gdynia Maritime University’s Experience Part I – Maritime Universities Facing Today and Tomorrow’s Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, divided into two parts, a problem of advancements in maritime education and research facing the 21st century challenges, based on the case study of the Gdynia Maritime University (GMU experience is discussed. Part I is devoted to the main directions of advances in the maritime education and research towards the challenges in a global meaning. In this context, the education and research potential of the Gdynia Maritime University, as one of the world-leading maritime universities, is shortly presented. Part II is dedicated to the Gdynia Maritime University experiencing the 21st century challenges. The GMU’s contribution and good practices concerning the participation in modification of the processes of the IMO STCW 78/2010 convention, adoption of programmes into the international and national qualification frameworks’ standards and procedures, as well as the development of research addressed to a new technological and organizational solution are described and analyzed.

  9. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  11. Tertiary Education in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Pol...

  12. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

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    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  13. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  15. Aging in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  17. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  18. Water Management in Poland

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    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  19. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  20. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  1. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  2. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  3. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  4. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair.

  5. Secuencia de Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Rosa Lemus Lago

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de síndrome o secuencia de Poland, en un niño de 3 años, caracterizado por ausencia del pectoral mayor derecho, una sindactilia parcial entre el 2do. y el 3er. dedo de la mano derecha, además un anillo constrictor congénito en la muñeca derecha y menos profundo en la izquierda. Se hace el árbol genealógico, se revisan los antecedentes patológicos familiares, prenatales, perinatales, posnatales, así como la morbilidad y el desarrollo del niño.

  6. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  7. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  8. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  9. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  10. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  11. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  12. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  13. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  14. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  15. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  16. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  18. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  19. Measles in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  20. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  1. Orthodox Education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox educational system has been meeting important tasks, which is raising a general mental level of clergy and faithful. Its foundation was driven by needs of the Orthodox Church. Educating a young generation in the spirit of the Orthodoxy happened to be the main task of the enlightened class. Brotherhood, monastery and parish school were to be part of this program. The Orthodox education shaped religious life, helped preserve the religious and national identity of the believers. An evidence of that is the fact, that only those localities preserved “the Greek faith “, in which next to the monasteries were schools. Higher education, and especially Mohyla Academy, shaped by the then elite, played a vital role in the history of Orthodox Church in the Republic and neighboring countries. A similar role had to play in the interwar period College of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw and in post-war Orthodox Section of the Christian Academy of Theology Presented here outline of history of Orthodox education in Poland indicates to the, appreciated by clergy and hierarchy, need of development of theological schools. Theological schools played and still play important role in shaping the attitudes of clergy and faithful. Schools provide necessary pastoral resources, shape Orthodox cultural and scientific environment. Theological education has remained an essential element for the proper functioning of Orthodox Church in the Polish Republic.

  2. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  3. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  4. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  5. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  6. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  7. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  8. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  9. Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila perfoliata L. is a maritime sand-dune species naturally occurring in Asia and southeastern Europe. In Europe it also is found in ruderal habitats rarely, mainly along railway lines. In Poland the species was first recorded in the 1950s; it was found only at railway stations where iron ore was offloaded from the Kryvyi Rih region, Ukraine. Recently it was found in a new type of habitat: the roadside of a main road in the Carpathians. The paper characterizes the current status, distribution and habitat spectrum of this alien species in Poland.

  10. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  11. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  12. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  13. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  14. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  15. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”. In 201 number of tetanus cases recorded in Poland was 13. It amounted to six men and seven women. Among those 9 was over 59 years of age. Out of them 4 people died. All were women over 69 years of age. Tetanus is an infectious disease acquired in the environment and associated with the contamination of wounds. Infections and deaths could be prevented by vaccination. Particular risk life and health carries illness after 60 years of age.

  16. Integrated Education in Contemporary Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanel, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the most important aspects, organizational principles and achievements in the field of integrated education in Poland. The author outlines the dynamics of the development of institutions of integrated education and institutions with integrated sections between 1989 and 2010. She describes the actual state of teaching…

  17. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  18. English Language Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…

  19. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  20. Measles in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", and measles case-based reports from 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 84 measles cases registered in Poland in 2013 (incidence 0.22 per 100,000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.18 per 100,000) and children aged 1 year (1.27 per 100,000). In 2013, 56 cases (66.7%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 82.8% do 99.5% (primary vaccination in children born in 2012-2007) and from 73.6% to 93.2% (booster dose in children born in 2004-2001). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). Two hundred seven cases (80%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. In 2013, the epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in comparison to proceding year. The sensitivity of measles surveillance improved but is still

  1. Measles in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPHNIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system, measles case-based reports from 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et all., Warszawa 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In total, there were 110 measles cases registered in Poland in 2014 (incidence 0.29 per 100,000), from which 87 cases (79%) were confirmed with laboratory test. That was more than in 2013 - when 84 cases were reported and incidence was 0,22. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 1 year (3,43 per 100,000). In 2014, 76 cases (69%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 79.7% do 94.8% (primary vaccination in children born in 2004-2013) and from 77.7% to 85.8% (booster dose in children born in 2005-2011). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). In whole country the total number of suspects

  2. Pertussis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rudowska, Jolanta

    In Poland, they are still recorded high number of cases whooping cough - five-year median for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 are similar and amount to 5.2 and 5.5 per 100 000 population. The trend of the incidence of pertussis in a high percentage of adults that was observed in years between 2009-2011 (the results of the National Research Epidemiology of Pertussis), in subsequent years, ie. 2012-2014 was halted. Still the most effective strategy to prevent illness is the vaccination according to the current vaccination calendar. The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2014, including vaccine coverage of children. Assessment of the epidemiology of pertussis in Poland was based on analysis of individual reports of suspected cases of pertussis sent to the NIPH-NIH by the regional sanitaryepidemiological stations, data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011” and bulletin “Immunizations in Poland in 2014 “ (MP Czarkowski et al, Warsaw 2015, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In 2014, number of registered cases of whooping cough was 2 100. The incidence was 5.5 per 100,000 and it was slightly lower than in the previous year (5.5/100,000). The highest incidence (46%) occurred in children aged 15 years and older. 601 people were hospitalised (28.6% of total). In 2014, there were no deaths from whooping cough. The incidence of whooping cough observed in 2014 is comparable to the previous year and it indicates a fixed circulation of bacteria in the environment and still continuing infection vulnerability of the population.

  3. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  4. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Seventeen cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2003. All of them were imported: 13 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 1 from Indonesia. In 8 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 14 were men and 3 were women. The youngest patient was 10 and the oldest 63, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (6 cases), professional (4 cases) and missionary (4 cases) travel. One death from falciparum malaria was reported in Poland in 2003. In 4 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  6. [Malaria in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Twenty mine cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2004. All of them were imported: 22 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 3 from South America In 2 cases country of origin was unknown. In 14 cases P. falciparumn etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 20 were men and 9 were women. Age of the patients was 11 to 250 years. 6 of the patients were in the age group 11 to 20 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits and professional travel. One death from falciparumn malaria was reported in Poland in 2004. In 11 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  7. [Malaria in Poland in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Twenty cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2005. All of them were imported including 3 cases of relapse: 16 from Africa, 2 from South America, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. In 16 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 4--P. vivax. Among the cases 14 were men and 6 were women. The youngest patient was 1 and the oldest 56, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (9 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). In 7 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented, including at least 4 for whom it was judged inappropriate. In other prophylaxis was not used (5 cases) or the information was missing. No malaria deaths were reported in Poland in 2005.

  8. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  10. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  11. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  12. Meottomyces dissimulans (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first sites of Meottomyces dissimulans (Berk. & Broome Vizzini in Poland. About a dozen basidiomata in all stages of development were observed in poplar and alder-willow thickets. The macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated, and the distribution of the species in Poland is given.

  13. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  14. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  15. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2016. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016”. 6 698 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2014. The incidence rate was 17.4 cases per 100 000, withlarge variability between voivodeships from 9.3 to 26.5 per 100 000. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2010- 2014 was 2.1%. 6 066 cases had no history of previous treatment i.e. 15.8 per 100 000. 632 cases i.e. 1.6 per 100 000 – 9.4% of all registered subjects were relapses. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 2014 was 6311 i.e. 16.4 per 100 000. Pulmonary cases represented 94.2% of all TB cases. In the presented year 387 extrapulmonary TB cases were reported. Children with TB (70 cases) accounted for 1.0% of all cases notified in Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis increases with age from 1.2 per 100 000 among children to 30.4 per 100 000 among patients 65 years old and older. The incidence among men i.e. 24.6 per 100 000 was 2.3 times higher than among women i.e. 10.7 per 100 000. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 45 to 49 years – 40.4 vs. 9.3. The TB incidence in rural population was lower than in urban, respectively 17.0 per 100 000 and 17.7 per 100 000. The number of all registered culture positive TB cases, including relapses, was 4

  16. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  17. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2012 in Poland and to compare with the corresponding EU data. Analysis of case- based clinical and demographic data on TB patients from Central TB Register, of data submitted by laboratories on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2012, data from National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report "Tuberculosis Surveillance in Europe, 2014 (situation in 2012). 7 542 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2012. The incidence rate was 19.6 cases per 100 000, with large variability between voivodships from 10.6 to 30.2. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2008-2012 was 2.4%. 6 665 cases had no history of previous treatment; 17.3 per 100 000. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 7 018; 18.2 per 100 000. The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all registered cases was 6.9% (524 cases). In 2012, 36 patients had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis (0.5% of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis). TB was diagnosed in 95 children (1.3% of all cases, incidence 1.6). The incidence of tuberculosis increased progressively with age to 34.8 among patients 65 years old and older. The mean age of new TB cases was 53.1 years. The incidence among men (27.4) was more than two times higher than among women (12.2). The incidence rate in rural population was lower than in urban; 20.2 vs. 18.6. Bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary cases (4870) constituted 69,4% of all pulmonary TB cases. The number of smear positive pulmonary TB cases was 2 778 (39.6% of all pulmonary cases). In 2012 in the all group of TB patients in Poland there were 276 (3.7%) of homeless and 1 905 (25.3%) of unemployed. There were 48 foreigners registered among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (0.6%) and 243 cases

  18. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  19. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales occurs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of sporocarps and spores of Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales, a fungus for the first time found in Poland, are described and illustrated. Endogone lactiflua was wet sieved and decanted from a sample taken from the zone extending from the upper soil layer to rhizosphere of Pinus sylvestris growing in a forest dune in northern Poland. The recovered spores mainly occurred in large and compact sporocarps, although both small aggregates with a few spores and single zygosporangia of this fungus were also isolated. Endogone lactiflua is the fourth species of the genus Endogone found to occur in Poland. The distribution of the fungus in the world is also presented.

  1. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  2. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  3. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  4. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  5. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  6. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  7. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  8. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  9. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  10. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  11. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  12. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  13. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  14. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  15. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  16. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... interested in students from this region. Commercial Setting Poland Poland is a prime target from which U.S... size. The dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1...

  17. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  18. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  19. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  20. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  2. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  3. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  4. Tricholoma ustaloides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. in Poland is presented, based on literature data and the results of mycological investigations in oak-hornbeam forest associations in the Kotlina Raciborska basin. The paper reports the morphology of the discovered basidiomata, the habitat where they were found, and ITS sequence data for the specimens, and briefly discusses similar species and the ecology of the presented fungus. The location given in the paper is currently the only known station of T. ustaloides in Poland. The importance of secondary habitats for survival of this taxon is stressed.

  5. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  6. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. I. The genus Parmotrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jabłońska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on four Parmotrema species in Poland, P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. perlatum and P. stuppeum. They are mainly known from southern part of the country, mostly in the Carpathians. P. perlatum is reported also from Northern Poland and Central Poland. For P. stuppeum, so far known from single locality only, three new sites are reported. All the species seem to be rare and endangered in Poland. This work is the first part of a larger series which will present data on selected genera of the lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland.

  7. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  8. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  10. Poland's syndrome associated with chronic granulocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R; Afonso, E; Benedito, M; Maricato, L

    1991-10-01

    Poland's syndrome has been sporadically associated with haematological neoplasms, namely acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The authors present the case of a child in whom this syndrome coexists with a Philadelphia negative, chronic granulocytic leukaemia, which has only required one course of treatment with busulphan in two and a half years of follow-up.

  11. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  12. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  13. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  14. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  15. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  16. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  17. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the

  18. Popular Toys in Poland: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Teresa

    1984-01-01

    Describes the toys made by rural craftsmen in Poland. These toys, some of the liveliest manifestations of folk art, are appreciated by rural society. Efforts are now being made to familiarize urban children with this type of toy, both through a museum and through folk toy corners in nursery schools. (Author/CB)

  19. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  20. SEED INDUSTRY IN POLAND AND ITS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the seed industry in Poland and assessment of changes in supply, demand and prices on the market of classified seed of cereals in Poland. The discussion relates to the main groups of participants making up the breeding and seed industry, i.e. the breeding, seed, as well as breeding and seed entities. The characteristics of entities from the breeding and seed industry’s environment has also been presented. The article presents the analyses of the cereal seed market in Poland between the years 2008-2012, including the changes in supply, demand and market prices. The analyses indicated an increase in sales of the certified seeds in Poland by 25.3%. Winter wheat was the dominant seed in terms of trade structure throughout the entire period. The increase in sales of classified seeds in the cereal segment took place in conditions of significant seed prices’ increase in the studied period.

  1. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parda, Natalia; Henszel, Lukasz; Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, an estimated 2 000 HCV infections are reported annually, of which chronic stage of infections predominates (>95%). It is estimated that seroprevalence of anti-HCV and prevalence of active infections in the general population amount to ca 0.95% (more than 320 000 persons) and 0.6% (230 000 persons), respectively. The alarming finding is that approximately 90% of persons diagnosed with HCV infection are unaware of the condition and consequently hepatitis C virus may be transmitted to their contacts. The objective of the present article is to determine the epidemiology of HCV infections in Poland in 2012 comparing to the preceding years. The assessment of epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland was based on the analysis of aggregated data from the State Sanitary Inspection, published in "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). The data on mortality due to hepatitis C, which was obtained from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of Central Statistical Office, were also employed. In 2012, Poland reported 2 292 HCV infections, meeting 2005 definition (incidence 5.95), of which 1.4% were co-infections with HCV and HBV (33 cases). Compared to the data of 2011, the incidence was slightly lower (2 338; 6.07). Given 2009 definition, a total of 2 265 cases were reported (5.88), which constituted an increase of 3.5% compared to the data from the previous year (2 241; 5.82). Overall, 217 fatal cases due to hepatitis C were reported in 2012, of whom only 9 (4%) were due to acute stage of infection. Compared to the data from 2011, the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland has not changed significantly. The alarming fact is the increasing number of deaths due to hepatitis C. Probably, it suggests delayed diagnosis of HCV infections. Thus, it is a necessity to promote early diagnosis of HCV infections which can

  2. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  3. Development of laser technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents chosen development threads of laser technology and associated branches of optoelectronics in this country. An occasion to summarize the work and show their current status is the 50 th anniversary of construction of the first laser. The first laser in Poland was launched successfully in 1969, almost simultaneously at WAT and PW. Domestic achievements in this area are summarized every three years by Symposium on Laser Technology held traditionally in Swinoujscie. The work carried on in Poland concerns technology of laser materials, construction of new lasers and associated equipment as well as laser applications. Many technical teams participate in laser oriented European structural and framework projects. Ths is an invited paper to present participation of Polish teams in such European projects as EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research, FLASH - Free ELctron Laser in DESY Hamburg, E-XFEL - European X-Ray FEL, ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure, and HIPER.

  4. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  5. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  6. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  7. Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewska-Jakubik, Ewa; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. In 2014, annual, incidence rate of scarlet fever in Poland was about 9% lower in comparison to previous year. There were 22 855 cases all over the country and the incidence was 59.5 per 100,000 population; depending on the voivodeship ranged from 19.5 in podkarpackie to 93.2 in pomorskie. The highest incidence was noted among 4-year-old children (981.4) and 5-year-old children (971.0). However the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.7% of all cases. The incidence among men (67.2) was higher by 28.5% than incidence among women (52.3). Incidence rate in urban areas, in any size town, was higher than in rural areas. Overall incidence in urban areas was 66.4; in rural areas - 49.0. 1,11% of patients were hospitalized. There were no reported deaths related to scarlet fever. In the surveillance of scarlet fever it is necessary to ensure that the collected data will be valid and reliable. Very low specificity of this surveillance may not only impinge on the assessment of epidemiological situation of this disease in Poland but also overshadow the situation of other diseases, including diseases under elimination program (rubella, measles). This is one of the greatest challenges facing sanitary inspection in the coming years.

  8. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  9. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  10. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Micha? R.; Stanowski, Edward; Pa?nik, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods ...

  11. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  12. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  13. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  14. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

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    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  15. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

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    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  16. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bieniasz; Zbigniew Gołaś

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the ...

  17. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  18. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

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    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  19. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  20. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

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    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  2. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

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    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  3. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  4. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  5. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  6. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  7. Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    1999-01-01

    Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the

  8. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  9. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

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    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  10. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

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    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  11. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  12. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał R. Janik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods : A questionnaire regarding the numbers and types of bariatric procedures performed between 2007 and 2014 was e-mailed to all members of the Bariatric Society (a branch of the Association of Polish Surgeons and to 28 surgical departments. Trend analyses from 2007 to 2014 were performed. Results: Among the surgical departments, 16 (57% responded. The results showed that 1499 bariatric procedures were performed in Poland in 2014, with 96.4% done laparoscopically. The highest number was from Masovian Voivodeship. The most commonly reported procedures were laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG (60.7%, followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (19.2%, mini gastric bypass (11.1%, and adjustable gastric banding (7.6%. Most significant was the rise in prevalence of LSG from 8.0% to 60.4% of the total bariatric procedures from 2007 to 2014. Conclusions : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently the most frequently performed bariatric procedure in Poland. The accuracy of the national survey of procedures would be enhanced if we could create a national registry.

  13. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  14. Campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bożena

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison with the situation in the previous years. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” for the years 2012- 2014, extended by the information from the individual questionnaires of diseases and forms of the epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology and also on data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. In 2013 in Poland it was registered 552 cases of campylobacteriosis, while in 2014 the number of registered cases was 652. It is respectively by almost 30% and 50% more than in 2012. The overall incidence for 2013 was 1.43 and for 2014 it was 1.69 per 100 000. In 2013 all reported cases were classified as confirmed, whereas in 2014 – number of confirmed cases was 650, and two as probable. Both in 2013 and in 2014 incidence much higher than the total for the in three provinces: Śląskie (respectively 3.89 and 4.7/ 100 000), Warmińsko- Mazurskie (4.42 and 3.53/ 100 000) and Lubuskie (3.03 and 4.51/100000) incidence was both in 2013 and 2014 Markedly higher then for the country as a whole. The percentage of hospitalization was higher than in previous years and amounted in 2013 to 71.4% and in 2014 to 74.4%. In 2013 Campylobacter species was identified in more than 83% of patients and in almost 87% in 2014. In 2013 over 77% and in 2014 as much as 82% of cases were caused by C. jejuni, and correspondingly more than 6% and almos 5% by C.coli. As in previous years, the majority of cases, in 2013 - 435 (79%) and in 2014 - 491 (75%) occurred in the age group 0-4. In 2013 therte were recorded two, and 2014 - 7 outbreaks caused by Campylobacter jejuni. In Poland, despite the gradual

  15. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  16. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  17. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  18. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  19. Social Activation of the Elderly in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Artykuł wpłynął do redakcji 21.08.2015; po recenzjach zaakceptowany 21.04.2016. The issue concerning activation of the elderly is mainly presented in raports or special programmes aimed at preventing the seperation of senior citizens from the society. The examination of social activity among the old is frequently conducted in scientific literature.The first part of this research paper focuses on the selected ways and forms of social activation of older people in Poland, including Senior in...

  20. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  1. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  2. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  3. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  4. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  5. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  6. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  7. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  8. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  9. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  10. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  11. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  12. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  13. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  14. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  15. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  16. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarewicz, Karina; Chinoy, Hector

    2017-01-01

    When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  18. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  19. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  20. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  1. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  2. Shale-gas potential in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Shale-gas formations are known to be associated with source rocks. Major oil and gas provinces in Poland have been reviewed with respect to source rock quality using a petroleum play concept. As a result, three potential shale-gas plays were distinguished: (1) Silurian of the western slope of the East European Craton, (2) Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline, (3) Miocene of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin. Only the Silurian of the East European Craton and the Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline were further evaluated to delineate prospective areas as the Carpathian Foredeep Basin was not available for exploration license. The screening criteria used in this evaluation were main geochemical parameters: total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity and kerogen type, as well as depth, thickness and lateral extent of potential organic-rich shale formations. Three prospective areas have been delineated within the Silurian of the East European Craton: (1) Baltic Basin, (2) Podlasie Depression and (3) Lublin Basin, whereas one prospective area was high graded in the Carboniferous of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. This evaluation was carried out based on the existing data gathered for the most part by the Polish Geological Institute. The four shale-gas prospective areas have been characterized using lithology and depositional environments, geochemical data, structural evolution and burial history of Silurian and Carboniferous strata, as well as thickness of the organic-rich shales. Published data concerning successful shale gas plays in the U.S. were collected to make a comparison with the prospective shale-gas formations of Poland. The Polish government granted several exploration concessions over the last two years in each of the prospective areas. In the initial stage of exploration activities, EurEnergy have been focused on acquisition of more detailed geochemical data (based on existing core samples), preparation of geological and structural studies as well

  3. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  4. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  5. Fatal cardiovascular risk in Poland as determined via Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Trzeciak

    2017-05-01

    Automatic monitoring of the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland provides information for epidemiological studies. The system meets the characteristics of diagnostic programmes that can assist epidemiologic-based and therapeutic decisions.

  6. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  7. Typhula quisquiliaris (Cantharellales - a species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the first Polish record of Typhula quisquiliaris is given in this paper. The species was found in Katowice: Panewniki (SW Poland, Silesian Upland, in pine forest, on dead stalks of Pteridium aquilinum.

  8. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  9. Squamanita odorata (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new mycoparasitic fungus for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rare and interesting fungus Squamanita odorata (Cool Imbach, a parasite on Hebeloma species, is reported for the first time from Poland, briefly described and illustrated based on Polish specimens. Its taxonomy, ecology and distribution are discussed.

  10. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  11. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  12. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  13. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  14. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

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    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  15. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  16. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  17. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  18. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  19. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  20. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  2. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  3. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  4. The Impact of Trust on Entrepreneurship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Młokosiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global rankings of generalized trust, Poland occupies a lowly positon. Only 1/3 of Poles have a strong trust in strangers and roughly the same number believe that trust in business generally pays of. At the same tme, only half of them believe that a market economy based on private enterprise is the best economic system for the country. According to the literature review a major factor in the development of entrepreneurship is trust in other economic actors. The aim of the artcle is to present the relaton between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland. In this paper the hypothesis was adopted that the level of trust in the public sphere, especially in business relatons in Poland, had an impact on the intensity of entrepreneurial actvites. The analysed period comprises the years from 2002 to 2016. The artcle presents changes in the potental for social trust, including trust in business. Indicators of confdence include the percentage of people that have trust in diferent actors in Poland. A further part of the paper is devoted to the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in Poland. Among the indicators of entrepreneurship are the number of newly registered and deregistered enttes, and enttes that are new or deregistered from the REGON register per 10 thousand of populaton. Moreover, the innovaton actvity of enterprises in Poland has been described. At the end, relatons between trust and entrepreneurial actvites in Poland were examined. The data was analysed statstcally with Pearson’s correlaton coefcients. The analysis of confdence and entrepreneurship is based mainly on the data published by the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce and Public Opinion Research Centre.

  5. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  6. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  7. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Radioactive Contamination Department, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the {sup 134}Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of {sup 137}Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  8. The development of power engineering in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litorowicz, J.; Reymann, Z.; Steller, K.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the substantial rise in prices for mineral fuels and raw materials, along with searches for new energy sources, Poland (PNR) has begun works to restore and modernize those sources which in economic aspects were considered unprofitable, including low power hydroelectric power plants (GES). The development of such hydroelectric power plants must also be reevaluated from the ecological aspect. The ecological significance of a hydroelectric power plant lies in preventing a further lowering of the ground waters, the use of cascades for holding high water and for regulating its drainage with a threat of flooding, oxygen enrichment of water, prevention of erosion and silting of rivers, purification of water currents using protective grids with a favorable effect on the forests and the fishing industries located along the water currents used and the creation of conditions for relaxation, sports and turism. The restoration of hydraulic turbines is the basic condition for outfitting the hydroelectric power plants. Different designs for such turbines relative to the assigned capacity are examined.

  9. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  10. Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopaczyk Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966. The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446 for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

  11. A highly divergent Puumala virus lineage in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Paweł; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-05-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) represents one of the most important hantaviruses in Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of PUUV strains indicate a strong genetic structuring of this hantavirus. Recently, PUUV sequences were identified in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), collected in the northern part of Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of PUUV in bank voles from southern Poland. A total of 72 bank voles were trapped in 2009 at six sites in this part of Poland. RT-PCR and IgG-ELISA analyses detected three PUUV positive voles at one trapping site. The PUUV-infected animals were identified by cytochrome b gene analysis to belong to the Carpathian and Eastern evolutionary lineages of bank vole. The novel PUUV S, M and L segment nucleotide sequences showed the closest similarity to sequences of the Russian PUUV lineage from Latvia, but were highly divergent to those previously found in northern Poland, Slovakia and Austria. In conclusion, the detection of a highly divergent PUUV lineage in southern Poland indicates the necessity of further bank vole monitoring in this region allowing rational public health measures to prevent human infections.

  12. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  13. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  14. Ministerial presentation: Poland [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewska, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    E. Wroblewska, on behalf of His Excellency J. Hausner, Minister of Economic Affairs and Labour, Poland, stated that in Poland the attitude of society to nuclear power is becoming more friendly. A recently produced document, Energy Policy of Poland until 2050, indicates the need to commence nuclear power exploitation around 2021

  15. Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Jantarski, Konrad

    Epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. Our objectives were to assess a mean annual incidence rate, and MS prevalence on December 31, 2015 in the Swietokrzyskie province (central Poland). We analyzed data of 1525 patients, collected in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. On December 31, 2015, overall crude prevalence of MS was not less than 121.3/100,000 (95% CI, 114.6-128.4). Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (167.1; 95% CI, 155.6-179.1) than in males (73.2; 95% CI, 64.2-82.6; PPoland confirmed that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. Variability of precipitation in Poland under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The surface warming has been widespread over the entire globe. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Global temperature increases are accompanied by changes in other climatic variables. Climate change in Poland manifests itself also as change in annual sums of precipitation. They have been slightly growing but, what is more important, seasonal and monthly distributions of precipitation have been also changing. The most visible increases have been observed during colder half-year, especially in March. A decreasing contribution of summer precipitation total (June-August) to the annual total is observed. Climate projections for Poland predict further warming and continuation of already observed changes in the quantity of precipitation as well as its spatial and seasonal distribution.

  17. 'Other' Posts in 'Other' Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-02-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense 'postcolonial'. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to 'old Europe', and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this 'other' place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the 'triple relation' be the starting point for such work.

  18. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  19. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  20. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  1. An annotated checklist of the Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of Poland

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    Wojciechowski Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive compilation of 764 taxa (species and subspecies, distributed over 167 genera, belonging to 17 subfamilies, three families and three superfamilies of Aphidomorpha recorded to date from Poland. The systematic positions of 19 taxa have been revised in accordance with recent changes in nomenclature. The presence in the Polish aphidofauna of Drepanosiphum oregonensis and Coloradoa huculaki, previously included without any distribution data in checklists of Polish aphids, has been confirmed. One species Sitobion (Sitobion alopecuri is recognized as being new to Poland. At least 44 species (6% of local fauna of Aphidomorpha are alien to Poland; among them 11 species collected from plants imported or cultivated in indoor conditions are listed.

  2. Spa and Wellness Tourism in Poland - A New Geographical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the situation of the spa resorts in Poland from the geographical point of view, emphasizing especially the tourist context of their existence. This article firstly deals with the brief history of spas in Poland and the definition of the phenomenon, presented in the Polish literature and legal acts. The main part of the paper presents the geographical analysis of the phenomenon: spatial distribution of the activities allowed by law, localization concerning the different kind of landscapes that accompanies the spas, natural and curative resources and the medical treatments based on their potential. In addition, the tourist context analysed with the support of the statistical data of the accommodation units, tourist sand its preferences, and health tourist establishments in the spa resorts and its usage is also crucial. The perspectives of the spa tourism development in Poland concerning the potential and obstacles are presented.

  3. Geographical distribution of {sup 90}Sr contamination in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); Skwarzec, B. [Univ. of Gdansk, Dept. of Chemistry, Gdansk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents results on determination of {sup 90}Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and {sup 85}Sr tracer. The approximate map of {sup 90}Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between {sup 90}Sr and obtained earlier data for {sup 137}Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  4. [Factors constituting a threat to humans of rabies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, D

    1993-01-01

    Today, there are two steps of human rabies impendence: a. exposures to rabid or rabies suspected animals b. human deaths due to rabies. Red foxes, dangerous rabies reservoir are responsible for the main tendency and spread of rabies in Poland (over 2000 cases in 1992). This has a direct bearing on the treatment of exposed persons and on rabies among unvaccinated domestic animals. The number of persons requesting post exposure rabies treatment is also increasing--6500 vaccinees in 1992. During last eight years no case of human death was registered in Poland. Mass parenteral canine vaccination campaign and effective control methods of rabies in dogs in Poland are the mostly successful and significant elements separating wild animal rabies from human society. Any inaccuracy on this field would be the risk of transmission of wild rabies to human surrounding.

  5. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

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    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  6. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  7. Landscape of oncoplastic breast surgery across Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacinska, Agnieszka; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Bocian, Artur; Michalik, Dariusz; Matkowski, Rafal; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Pyka, Pawel; Charytonowicz, Michal; Berkan, Maciej

    2017-12-30

    Oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques are essential tools in the armamentarium of contemporary breast surgeons. The aim of the study was to identify oncoplastic reconstructive patterns in breast cancer centers across Poland. A questionnaire of 18 questions was sent by email to the members of the Polish Society of Surgical Oncology and the Polish Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Esthetic Surgery via their dedicated websites. The numbers of breast cancer patients operated on in each center ranged from 120 to 904 per year. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) predominated in all but one center (range 50-70%). Immediate breast reconstructions (IBR) accounted for 6-42% of procedures, The most frequent type of IBR was either a two-stage expander followed by a permanent implant or one-stage implant- based with or without synthetic mesh. The most frequent type of delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) was a two-stage expander followed by implant-based reconstruction. None of the surveyed cancer centers performed free flap reconstruction. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps were performed in the plastic surgery department. Reconstructions based on pedicled flaps were performed in cancer centers. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) and fat transfer were used in selected centers. In the clinical scenario of adjuvant radiotherapy, delayed breast reconstruction was favored. The full range of oncoplastic BCS was performed. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) and complications were assessed. Our findings can act as a platform for further improvement in skills, certification, data collection and audit, including patient reported expectation measures. There is also an urgent need to address pan-European inconsistencies in procedural reimbursement.

  8. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  9. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  10. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  11. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  12. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  13. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  14. Using of the banking services by individual farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the structure and dynamics of credit indebtedness of agricultural holdings and farmers’ bank deposits in Poland in 1996-2009. The aim of this article was to describe the financial relationships agricultural holdings with banks, and characteristics farmers as purchasers of banking services, including the identification of specific attitudes and behaviours of farmers in the banking market, which differ from other groups of bank customers (non-agricultural entrepreneurs, individuals. Agricultural holdings were analysed as a sector. The source of empirical data were statistics of NBP (National Bank of Poland, GUS (Central Statistical Office and FADN.

  15. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

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    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  16. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

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    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  17. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  18. The first locality of Chalciporus rubinus (Boletales, Basidiomycota in Poland

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    Marek Halma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalciporus rubinus (W.G. Sm. Singer, described in 1868 from England, was found in a city park in Wrocław. This is the first record of the species from Poland. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated. The delimitation of Ch. rubinus, the knowledge of its distribution, ecology and conservation status is summarised.

  19. A Brief Overview of the History of Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzynska, Katarzyna; Anczewska, Marta; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Poland's complex history strongly influenced the development of educational system. Together with the Catholic church, formal and informal education helped to preserve national identity and prepare society for future independence during the partition period. In the communist era, education was the chief mode of restructuring the society and…

  20. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  1. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  2. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  3. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  4. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  5. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  6. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  7. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  9. Epichloë clarkii - a new graminicolous species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epichloë clarkii White, described in 1993 from England has been noted from Wielkopolski National Park in Poland. The eggs and feed marks of hyperparasitic fly, Botanophila sp. have been found on teleomorph stromata of E. clarkii.

  10. Panaeolus subfirmus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, a species new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Panaeolus subfirmus P. Karst. is reported for the first time from Poland, and described and illustrated based on Polish specimens. Its ecology, general distribution and taxonomy are also presented. A key for determination all Polish species of Panaeolus (Fr. Quél. is provided.

  11. Entoloma albotomentosum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, a species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Entoloma albotomentosum Noordel. & Hauskn., a member of the subgenus Claudopus and section Claudopus, is reported from Poland. A full description and illustration of the species based on Polish specimens are given and its taxonomy, ecology, and general distribution are also provided.

  12. Flagelloscypha minutissima (Basidiomycetes, a new for Poland minute cyphellaceous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first records of Flagelloscypha minutissima (Burt Donk are reported from Poland, being easternmost on the European continent. A brief description and illustration of the species based on Polish specimens are given and its ecology, distribution, and taxonomy are surveyed.

  13. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  15. Laboulbeniales from Poland parasitizing on semi-aquatic insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sarna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new species of Coleoptera parasites (Hydrophilomyces limnebii sp. n. on Limnebius aluta and L. truncatellus and new subspecies (Rhynchophoromyces anacaenae Scheloske ssp. nasutellus ssp. n. on Anacaena limbata are described. The localities of three species new in Poland are given.

  16. Armillaria ectypa, a rare fungus of mire in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria ectypa is a saprotroph that occurs on active raised bogs and alkaline fens, as well as Aapa mires and transitional bogs. It is a very rare and threatened Eurasian species and one of the 33 fungal species proposed for inclusion into the Bern Convention. Its distribution in Poland, ecological notes and morphology of basidiocarp based on Polish specimens are presented.

  17. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  18. Radiotherapy facilities, equipment, and staffing in Poland: 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfuss, Marian; Byrski, Edward; Malicki, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose To evaluate the current status of radiotherapy facilities, staffing, and equipment, treatment and patients in Poland for the years 2005–2011 following implementation of the National Cancer Programme. Methods A survey was sent to the radiotherapy centres in Poland to collect data on available equipment, staffing, and treatments in the years 2005–2011. Results In 2011, 76,000 patients were treated with radiotherapy at 32 centres vs. 63,000 patients at 23 centres in 2005. Number of patients increased by 21%. In 2011, there were 453 radiation oncologists – specialists (1 in 168 patients), 325 medical physicists (1 in 215 patients), and 883 radiotherapy technicians (1 in 86 patients) vs. 320, 188, and 652, respectively, in 2005. The number of linear accelerators increased by 60%, from 70 units in 2005 to 112 in 2011. The current linac/patient ratio in Poland is 1 linac per 678 patients. Waiting times from diagnosis to the start of treatment has decreased. Conclusion Compared to 2005, there are more treatment facilities, more and better equipment (linacs), and more cancer care specialists. There are still large differences between the 16 Polish provinces in terms of equipment availability and ease of access to treatment. However, radiotherapy services in Poland have improved dramatically since the year 2005. PMID:24416548

  19. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  20. Hypoxylon terricola Miller a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxylon terricola Milter, known from a single collection in Michigan in USA and three sites in Southern France, has been found in Poland; isolated from the soil under Dactylis glomerata L. culture and from the dishwater of the roots of D. glomerata L. groving in the vicinity of the spruce (Picea abies (L. K a r s t mountainers forest.

  1. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, James Neil; Leufkens, Bert; Hövels, Anke

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. METHODS: We

  2. Investigation of Changes Implemented into Teaching Modern History in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa; Trzcinska, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze teaching of modern history in Poland and the teachers' role in the process of democratization. Forty-eight high school history teachers responded to a questionnaire investigating the curricula, textbooks, supplemental teaching materials and methods of teaching. The results demonstrate that since 1989 these…

  3. Educational Struggles and Citizenship Education. The Case of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika; Sáez-Rosenkranz, Isidora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the relation between educational struggles and citizenship education in contemporary Poland. It adopts the critical pedagogy perspective and broadly defines the concept of educational struggle as struggling over the content of education, as social tensions in the field of education, as well as the students' and…

  4. Distribution of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 (Charophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 in Poland is described, based on herbaria collections, literature data and own investigations. Maps showing the distribution of Ch. braunii are presented, as well as a list of localities with brief descriptions of the habitats. Additionally, some remarks on the distribution limit in the northern hemisphere are given.

  5. Poland's Syndrome: A case report | Gashegu | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poland's Syndrome is a rare congenital condition. It is classically characterized by absence of unilateral chest wall muscles and sometimes ipsilateral symbrachydactyly (abnormally short and webbed fingers). The condition typically presents with unilateral absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major ...

  6. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  7. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  8. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  9. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  10. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  11. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  12. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  13. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  14. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  15. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the ne...... needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climateprotection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options....... to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissionstrading system.To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still...

  16. Poland syndrome (anomaly with congenital hemangioma: A new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Najeeba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral defect of pectoral muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly constitute Poland syndrome. Absence or hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, axillary hair loss and dermatoglyphic abnormalities have also been reported in this syndrome. The primary defect could be in the development of the proximal subclavian artery with early deficit of blood flow to the distal limb and the pectoral region, resulting in partial loss of tissue in those regions. However, the association of congenital hemangioma with Poland sequence has not been observed so far. Such an association is being reported here in a 1-year-old infant, second-born of nonconsanguineous parents, who also had polydactyly instead of the documented syndactyly.

  17. Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Edyta; Częścik, Agnieszka; Pancer, Katarzyna; Gut, Włodzimierz

    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. The sera from patients suspected of rubella were collected in cooperation with the State Sanitary Inspection. The analysis of data collected during the study-cases of suspected measles (2006-2016) and rubella infections (in 2016y.) indicated high over-registration of rubella in recent years in Poland, which is associated with a very low rate of laboratory confirmed cases.

  18. New localities of Protostropharia alcis (Basidiomycota, Agaricales in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides new records of Protostropharia alcis in Poland. So far this species was known in the country only from several latest localities in the Biebrza National Park (Biebrza Basin and the Kampinos National Park (Warsaw Basin. The new localities are situated in the Wigierski National Park (the East Sudetian Lake District and in the north-western slope of Mt Wierzejska (the Holy Cross Mountains, where P. alcis was collected on dung of herbivores (eurasian elk and red dear within several types of forest communities. All specimens of P. alcis were collected in recent years, from late September to early October, in the period 2012-2013. A full description and illustration of P. alcis based on gathered collections are given. Its delimitation, the knowledge of its ecology, general distribution, and threat is also briefly discussed. Based on the new and known distribution data for P. alcis in Poland, its red list category is proposed.

  19. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wojnicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  20. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  1. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...... with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative...

  2. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclusions.

  3. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  4. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikuć M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  5. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  6. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. II. The genus Cetrelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kukwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the genus Cetrelia in Poland, four taxa have been identified, two of which, C. chicitae and C. monachorum, are reported for the first time from the country. All taxa differ in chemistry and subtle morphological characters. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in Poland (237 records, whereas C. chicitae is known only from 6 records. All taxa are endangered, and three, C. cetrarioides, C. chicitae and C. olivetorum, appear to be critically so, thus deserving the category CR; although C. monachorum is the most frequent, it is not common and should be treated as endangered (EN. The distribution of all taxa, their habitat requirements, as well as morphology and secondary chemistry, are discussed.

  7. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  8. Syndrome de Poland | Jellouli | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Poland correspond à l'absence ou l'hypoplasie unilatérale du grand pectoral associée à des anomalies homolatérales de la main, le plus souvent une symbrachydactylie. Garçon âgé de 5 ans, issu d'un mariage non consanguin et d'une grossesse de déroulement normal sans notion de prise ...

  9. Materials for the flora of myxomycetes of central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kalinowska-Kucharska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the Myxomycetes flora in the environment of Łódź. A collection made between 1967-1972 contains 58 species an 3 varieties. Among Myxomycetes found in this territory are species rare in Poland: Badhamia affinis Rost, Comatrichia pulchella (Bab. Rost., Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt., Lycogala conicum Pers., Lycogala exiguum Morgan, Trichia incospicua Rost. and Trichia olivacea (Maylan Krzem.

  10. Transformation on steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stefko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on new market situation.

  11. Transformation on steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    R. Stefko; B. Slusarczyk; S. Kot; C. Kolmasiak

    2012-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland and Slovakia focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors ...

  12. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  13. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  14. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  15. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  16. Business History in Poland: Current State and Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Pikos; Tomasz Olejniczak

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the gap in the business history literature devoted to Central and Eastern Europe and discusses the potential of conducting business history research in Poland. Methodology: This is an explorative and tentative study based on a recently developed database of 387 Polish companies which are more than 100 years old. Findings: The article explores the reasons behind the lack of business history debate in the Polish academia and discusses its future potential. We argu...

  17. Tyhula subvariabilis new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dynowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhula subvariabilis Berthier is a new species in the mycoflora of Poland. U has been discovered on the leaves of Corylus avellana L. at Wójtowo near Olsztyn. Considering the morphology and anatomy of the fruit bodies the presented species resemble those of T. variabilis Riess (B e r t h i e r, 1976. The most significant differences between the two species concern the structure of the sclerotia (Dynowska, 1986.

  18. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  19. The determinants of Polish movies’ box office performance in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Gmerek

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of financial performance of movies produced in Poland between 2000 and 2011. To understand the reason for a motion picture’s success in the theatrical channel various factors concerning total domestic box office performance were regressed from the box office results of 207 movies. This study proposes that the success of a movie can be determined by three elements: product attributes, distribution-related variables and information sources. The results ...

  20. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF OLDER PEOPLE IN POLAND – SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Różański, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of educational activity of the elderly in Poland. Defining the term “old age” and drawing attention to the issue of human adaptation to old age were the starting points of the discussion. Next, the most important issues concerning the activity of seniors were raised. Further discussed were the conditions and objectives of the educational activity of older people. An attention was also drawn to the role of institutions, promoting education and culture, in ...

  1. Anaphylaxis in Poland: the epidemiology and direct costs

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    Karina Jahnz-Rozyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epidemiological data on anaphylaxis have been underestimated both in Poland and worldwide. Aim : To evaluate the prevalence of anaphylaxis in Poland, including a classification by gender, age and residential region. Material and methods : The data used in the analysis were derived from two sources, the National Health Fund records of healthcare services for 2008–2015 (official statistics and a questionnaire-based survey conducted in 2015 on a sample of 305 allergists practicing in different regions of Poland. Results : In 2015, 3144 people received treatment for anaphylactic shock (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, T88.6 with an estimated prevalence rate of anaphylaxis of 8.2 per 100,000 (8.4 for females and 7.9 for males. The highest prevalence rate was found for women aged 50–54 years (14.5 per 100,000. There was a very large difference in the prevalence of anaphylaxis between rural and urban areas (13.1 vs. 0.8 per 100,000. In 2015, the Polish NHF spent PLN 3.5 million (EUR 835,000 on the management of anaphylaxis. Of the allergists surveyed, 73% had been currently managing patients who had experienced anaphylactic shock. The most common causes of anaphylaxis included insect venom (41.4%, food (29.8% and drugs (17.4%. Conclusions : A central anaphylaxis registry should be established in Poland. This is the only approach that would allow collecting a wide range of reliable information on the cases, management and consequences of anaphylaxis. Ongoing management of patients who have experienced anaphylactic shock should be improved.

  2. Imagining Nuclear Future in Socialist Poland. Plans and Dreams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůželová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 35-54 ISSN 0023-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Czechoslovakia * nuclear energy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  3. Labour Market Transition in Portugal, Spain, and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Paulino

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of economic transition on labour market institutions and labour market outcomes. We focus, in particular, on the transition process of Portugal and Spain towards a modern system of industrial relations. Analysis of the effects of structural reforms on major labour market outcomes in the two Iberian countries is then used to discuss the case of Poland, with an emphasis on the process of labour adjustment implied by increased European economic integration and indu...

  4. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  5. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  6. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

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    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  7. Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in lakes of northern Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mankiewicz, J.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Izydorczyk, K.; Jurczak, T.; Tarczynska, M.; Zalewski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2005), s. 499-506 ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:MIDI-CHIP(PL) EVK2-CT1999-00026, EVK2-2002-00546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * N-Poland lakes * recreational water * PPIA * HPLC Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2005

  8. ANALYSIS OF CRIME RATE DETERMINANTS IN THE SUBREGIONS OF POLAND

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    Kinga Kądziołka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine relationships between crime rate and socio – economic, demographic and environmental factors in the subregions of Poland. There was used Ward’s method to reduce number of factors and make a choice of explanatory variables used in econometric models. There were compared results of different methods of choice explanatory variables. The worst fitted to empirical data was model where ex-planatory variables were chosen using gravity center method.

  9. Chinese tourists in Cracow, Poland : their profile, expectations, and perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkiewicz, Paulina; Nessel, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken ...

  10. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkiewicz Paulina; Nessel Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken ...

  11. Cognitive science in Poland: learning outcomes and literary omission

    OpenAIRE

    Koneczniak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    In the article I examine selected specifications of learning outcomes which can be achieved by students of cognitive science in Poland. The main objective is to find explicit connections between cognitive and literary studies on the levels of knowledge, skills and social competences. The decision to address such a subject stems from, on the one hand, the explicit absence of literary research in common descriptions of cognitive studies and, on the other hand, occurrence of cognitive-literary r...

  12. Output and utilization of hard coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciszak, E.; Skrzypek, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The forecast of fuel energy consumption structure in Poland and the world until 1999, 2000 and 2001 is presented. Considerable proportion of coal in energy balance of Polish economy will be kept in the nearest future, but it claims to enter the new enterprises, which improves the quality of coals and promote the new pro-ecological technology of coal utilization. 7 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  13. A Return To Europe: Poland And Western Security Structures Since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Poland joined NATO and the EU, and discusses how it has been shaped not only through geography and history, but also through membership in—and...less confined environment may be able to provide answers and a direction to an otherwise handicapped Europe. If Poland invests political capital and... handicapped Europe. Poland has successfully integrated into three Western security institutions— NATO, the EU, and the Weimar Triangle. The criteria

  14. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

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    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  16. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

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    Zwierzchowski Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In District Heating Systems (DHS there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3 TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  17. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  18. DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mijal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available  The article is an aimed attempt at the diagnosis and evaluation of the educational level (character of rural population in Poland perceived as educational advancement as well as of its environment (background. Growing importance of education in improving professional opportunities, changing educational aspirations and parents’ support as well as positive internal migration trends were emphasised. Rural regions are still lagging behind urban areas, though optimistic characteristics indicate receding stigmatisation and marginalisation of the Polish country with internal migration of young and educated individuals, including affluent ones (potential luxury goods buyers, to rural areas. In the semi urbanisation and suburbanisation processes the increase of rural population involves mostly areas adjacent to big agglomerations rather than peripheral villages. The study is based on analysis of public statistical Central Statistical Office of Poland data including the National Population and Housing Censuses of 1988, 2002, 2011, supplemented and deepened the Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS opinion poll results in Poland and global reports from the area of urbanization and education.

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  20. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Transforming the educational style of the working class in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRZEMYSŁAW SADURA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the impact of the introduction of lower secondary schools on the educational style of the working classes in Poland. This particular reform is seen as one of the elements of change to the education system adapting it to the general parameters of post-Fordism. The author supports the theory of Pierre Bourdieu, which states that society is divided into three social classes (upper, middle and popular and each of them produces a specific lifestyle and style of education. The education style of a class provides individuals with certain dispositions to educational institutions and school careers, which are realised in the form of social practices (selection of specific type of schools, learning techniques, ways of spending time, etc.. The changes taking place in the education system in Poland over the last 15 years, i.e. since the 1999 reform, are similar to processes that occurred in the 1980s and 1990s in western countries. They include the economisation of education, the parameterisation and quantification of educational results, as well as the introduction of market mechanisms for managing and financing state-owned schools. The article is based on individual in-depth interviews conducted during two field studies organised in 2013–2014: Cultural practices of the working class (120 IDIs and Class differences in cultural practices in the North-Eastern Poland (60 IDIs. The findings become the basis of formulating new theoretical and research proposals for the field of education.

  2. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczańska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum Vittad., has become a new agricultural alternative in Poland. For rural economies, the concept of landscaping is often considerably more beneficial than conventional agriculture and promotes reforestation, as well as land-use stability. Considering examples from France, Italy, Hungary and Spain, truffle cultivation stimulates economic and social development of small, rural communities. Because there is no long tradition of truffle orchards in Poland, knowledge regarding the environmental factors regulating the formation of fruiting bodies of T. aestivum is limited. Thus, knowledge concerning ectomycorrhizal communities of T. aestivum host species is crucial to ensuring successful Burgundy truffle production. We investigated the persistence of T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae on roots of hazel (Corylus avellana L. and oak (Quercus robur L. and checked the host-species influence on community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The study was conducted in an experimental plantation located in eastern Poland and established in 2008. We demonstrated that the number of fungal taxa was not significantly different between oak and hazel. However, the species composition differed between these two host trees. During the three-year study, we observed that species richness did not increase with the age of the plantation.

  4. REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kotowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and worldwide, corporate social responsibility has a growing interest of managers, business institutions, investors and the government. Thus, it becomes progressively determinant of corporate governance and priority in building a comprehensive development strategy. CSR is used by large companies. However, this does not mean that SMEs sector companies operate less responsible than large one. Each enterprise, regardless of size, operates in a specific social surroundings and market environment, which are affected by different groups of stakeholders. They may affect enterprise reinforcing effect on - contribute to its success or failure. It is therefore important that the managers should be able to identify social groups in the enterprise and its environment and respect their claims, needs, rights and expectations. The aim of this paper is to show the application of CSR by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and the manner of result presentation. This article lists tools of corporate social responsibility, examples of practices and research results in the SMEs sector in Poland.

  5. Genotypic characterization of amoeba isolated from Acanthamoeba keratitis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Solarczyk, Piotr; Cholewiński, Marcin; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative factor of many diseases. Among others, they cause Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a condition that usually occurs in contact lens wearers, though it is also observed in non-wearers. The number of diagnosed cases of AK increased more than eightfold during 8 years in the USA, and a proportional increase in frequency also occurred in Poland and Europe. Cases of AK are usually diagnosed late, and their therapy is difficult and rarely successful. AK is an uncommon diagnosis in Poland. The increased number of positive cases observed in our laboratory may reflect the growing at-risk population of contact lens wearers. Acanthamoeba as a genus of facultative human parasites is currently classified into 17 genotypes. Isolates belonging to seven genotypes were found to be associated with AK. One genotype in particular, T4, was found to be overrepresented in human disease. The main finding of our study is that in Poland, AK is almost always associated with the T4 genotype.

  6. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  7. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

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    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  8. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  9. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  10. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  11. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  12. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  13. DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS AND SOURCES OF FUNDING ON HOTEL MARKET IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Semmerling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel market in Poland is related to trends on touristic market. This sector is developing dynamically, in Poland as in the whole world. In the years 2001-2014 numbers of hotels in Poland increased double. Most of new hotels are 4 and 5 stars. Important for new objects is building conference centres and SPA, which makes touristic season longer. Main source of finances hotel investments in Poland are own sources and EU funds. Crucial importance is the franchise. Forecasts for hotel market are really great. Till 2017 the count of tourists, who take advantage of hotels, should still increase.

  14. Multi-approach non-destructive survey in Western Lesser Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brejcha, Roman; Pisz, M.; Wroniecki, P.

    -, Spring (2012), s. 11-13 ISSN N Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : non-destructive archaeology * remote sensing * geophysics * Lesser Poland Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Costs of diabetes and its complications in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniowska, Joanna; Schubert, Agata; Wojna, Michał; Skrzekowska-Baran, Iwona; Fedyna, Marta

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with severe complications and a significant impact on quality of life. It constitutes an enormous burden of disease due to high prevalence, severe co-morbidities and high costs for society. This study is the first comprehensive study on the direct and indirect costs of DM (type 1 and type 2) and associated complications in Poland. In order to estimate the direct medical costs of DM and its complications, including the costs of medical consultation, hospitalisation, rehabilitation, drugs and medical equipment, data from the National Health Fund were used. Indirect costs on loss of productivity due to diabetes and its complications were based on data obtained from the ZUS (Social Insurance Institution) and from GUS (Poland's Central Statistical Office). Attributable risk methodology was used to assess the burden of DM complications. A continuous increase of the direct costs of diabetes has been observed since the year 2005. In the analysed time period (2005-2009) the direct costs of medical services for both types of DM doubled. DM is a cause of significant sickness absence and incapacity for work and therefore is associated with a growing productivity decline in Poland. The highest direct costs and indirect costs are associated with treatment of diabetes-related complications. Direct costs of hospital complication treatment were EUR 332 million, which exceeded by more than five times the direct costs of hospital treatment of diabetes per se, which in the same year amounted to EUR 58.5 million. The indirect costs of diabetes-related complications were higher by 41% compared with indirect costs related to DM itself. Total costs of health care services for DM and its complications amounted to EUR 654 million, which constitutes a 2.8% of total health care costs in Poland. Total DM cost in Poland in 2009 amounted EURO 1.5 billion. DM is causing a growing economic burden on the health care system and on Polish society in

  16. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  17. European Union. European Commission: Poland referred to the EU Court of Justice for not fully implementing the AVMS Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June 2012, the European Commission released a press statement announcing its intent to refer Poland to the EU Court of Justice. The Commission explained that Poland had failed to fully implement the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMS Directive).

  18. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Synopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Briggs, L; Elmeros, M.

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A.......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A....

  19. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international commitments; at…

  20. A BOY WITH POLAND ANOMALY AND FACIO-AURICULO-VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COBBEN, JM; VANESSEN, AJ; MCPARLAND, PC; POLMAN, HA; TENKATE, LP

    Poland anomaly and facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia are considered to be separate entities. We describe a 3-year-old boy with features of both Poland anomaly and facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of this combination of birth defects. Possible

  1. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  2. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  3. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  4. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  5. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  6. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. K. Grodzinska

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (Scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (Southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (North-Eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air...

  7. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine would be likely to lead to... to Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on July 2, 2012...

  8. The Rise of Private Higher Education in Poland. Policies, Markets and Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duczmal, W.

    2006-01-01

    The rationale for this study lies in our wish to understand the rapid rise of private higher education in Poland and the effects this has had on the dynamics of the Polish higher education system as a whole. After 1989, the year when Poland was freed of its communist ties, Polish higher education,

  9. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia..., Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly, effective September 18, 2013, the...

  10. Trend detection in river flow indices in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski, Mikołaj; Marcinkowski, Paweł; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.

    2018-02-01

    The issue of trend detection in long time series of river flow records is of vast theoretical interest and considerable practical relevance. Water management is based on the assumption of stationarity; hence, it is crucial to check whether taking this assumption is justified. The objective of this study is to analyse long-term trends in selected river flow indices in small- and medium-sized catchments with relatively unmodified flow regime (semi-natural catchments) in Poland. The examined indices describe annual and seasonal average conditions as well as annual extreme conditions—low and high flows. The special focus is on the spatial analysis of trends, carried out on a comprehensive, representative data set of flow gauges. The present paper is timely, as no spatially comprehensive studies (i.e. covering the entire Poland or its large parts) on trend detection in time series of river flow have been done in the recent 15 years or so. The results suggest that there is a strong random component in the river flow process, the changes are weak and the spatial pattern is complex. Yet, the results of trend detection in different indices of river flow in Poland show that there exists a spatial divide that seems to hold quite generally for various indices (annual, seasonal, as well as low and high flow). Decreases of river flow dominate in the northern part of the country and increases usually in the southern part. Stations in the central part show mostly `no trend' results. However, the spatial gradient is apparent only for the data for the period 1981-2016 rather than for 1956-2016. It seems also that the magnitude of increases of river flow is generally lower than that of decreases.

  11. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahorski, Wacław L.; Knap, Józef P.; Pawłowski, Zbigniew S.; Krawczyk, Marek; Polański, Jerzy; Stefaniak, Jerzy; Patkowski, Waldemar; Szostakowska, Beata; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Gołąb, Elżbieta; Wnukowska, Natalia; Paul, Małgorzata; Kacprzak, Elżbieta; Sokolewicz-Bobrowska, Elżbieta; Niścigorska-Olsen, Jolanta; Czyrznikowska, Aleksandra; Chomicz, Lidia; Cielecka, Danuta; Myjak, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. Methodology/Principal Findings The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6%) cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6–82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years). Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19%) patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years). Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8%) patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60%) patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. Conclusions/Significance The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland) with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease. PMID:23301116

  12. Trends in coal use - global, EU and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Wojciech; Wyrwa, Artur; Olkuski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    That aim of this paper is to compare trends in global, European use of coal with tendencies in Poland, one of heavy coal dependent countries. Polish power generation is unique among OECD countries, the share of both hard coal and lignite in power generation reaches 81% [1]. Climate policy of European Union is to phase out intensive greenhouse gases sectors, thus to transform Polish power generation into less carbon intensive. Although such policy is generally accepted in Poland, the paste and practically proposed regulation that excludes coal generation from capacity mechanisms, is considered as threat to energy security. Coal is the base for generation for one simple reason, abundant in European scale hard coal reserves and significant capacities in lignite. Natural gas reserves allow to supply about 1/3 of consumption, but prices and supplies dependent hitherto on contracts with GAZPROM did not allow to develop significant generation capacities. Renewable resources are limited, there is not much possibilities for hydro, wind and solar. Poland is also one of the countries of poor air quality, traditional coal based space heating systems plus obsolete car fleet generate vast emissions, especially during the winter. Only recently this became top priority of environmental authorities. This situation is subject to transformation, government, managers are aware that the role of coal needs to be decreased, but there are two main questions, the paste of transformation and the future energy mix. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the expected changes in Polish energy mix are comparable or differ from the global and European tendencies.

  13. Exploring Entrepreneurial Attitudes of Students in Poland: an Interregional Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Sołek-Borowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is firstly to identify the entrepreneurial attitudes of Polish students from two universities and secondly to assess the contribution of these Polish universities in enhancing entrepreneurial attitudes amongst students through entrepreneurship education and training programs. Design/methodology/approach - Paper questionnaires were used to survey students studying at Warsaw School of Economics and Rzeszow University of Technology. The respondents were undergraduate students participating in the general module of Management at Warsaw School of Economics and Statistics Methods at Rzeszow University of Technology. Participation in the survey was voluntary. Findings - The results reveal that 41% of the university students were optimistic and interested in starting their own business, but only after gaining a few years of working experience which will enable them to deepen their knowledge and feel comfortable within a business environment. Only 12% of students would like to set up their own business immediately after graduation. The study confirms that entrepreneurial education can positively reinforce student attitudes towards an entrepreneurial career choice within a developing country such as Poland. It is also apparent that students at SGH had more exposure to informal education than those from Rzeszow University of Technology. Research implications/limitations - The research findings are of interest to academia and policy makers. The study suggests that entrepreneurial attitudes amongst Polish students can be influenced by exposure to entrepreneurship education. Overall, the study indicates a need for entrepreneurship education, at programme and course levels, to nurture entrepreneurship among students in Poland.Originality/value/contribution - Very few studies have examined university students' attitude to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education in Poland. This study helps to bridge that gap.

  14. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  15. Truffle renaissance in Poland - history, present and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Gruszecka, Aleksandra; Hilszczańska, Dorota; Gil, Wojciech; Kosel, Bogusław

    2017-06-15

    The use of truffles in Poland has a long tradition, yet due to some historical aspects, this knowledge was lost. Currently, truffles and truffle orchards are again receiving attention, and thanks to, e.g., historical data, they have solid foundations to be established. Publications relating to truffles between 1661 and 2017 were searched for in international and national databases, such as the database of PhD theses, Google Scholar, and catalogues of the National Library of Poland, the Jagiellonian Digital Library, the University Library of J. Giedroyc in Bialystok and the Lower Silesian Digital Library (DBC). A very meticulous survey of the literature on truffles showed that truffles have been known since at least 1661. In the 18th century, the fungi were considered a non-timber forest product. It is interesting to mention the impact of Polish Count Michał Jan Borch in understanding the nature of truffles. The whitish truffle (Tuber borchii) is named after him. The greatest number of publications regarding truffles can be observed at the first half of the 19th and 20th centuries. The fungi were present not only in cookbooks but also in scientific literature, and aspects of their ecology and medicinal use are considered. The "dark ages" for truffles, mainly for social reasons, occurred after the Second World War. In tough times, when Poland was under Soviet communist control (1945-1989), truffles as a luxurious product have been completely forgotten. However, at the end of the 20th century, truffles started receiving attention in Polish society. Yet, the real awakening began in the first decade of the twenty-first century when the first truffle orchards were established. One of them has already produced the first fruit bodies of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum). Truffles have been present in Polish culture for centuries. Their renaissance indicates the need for fostering sustainable agroforestry-centred initiatives aimed at helping truffle growers in growing the

  16. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrek, Joanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was based on analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in foodborne outbreaks, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2012. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). In Poland in 2012 there was observed decrease in the number of infections intoxications both of bacterial and viral origin. It was recorded only one case of trichinellosis. There were reported 491 outbreaks of foodborne poisonings or infections included 5 774 people, among them 718 children 1-14 years old. Out of them 1 364 people were hospitalized. Unlike last year, the predominant etiological agent in those outbreaks were zoonotic Salmonella serotypes which caused 38.1% outbreaks and 26.7% outbreak cases. The viruses have caused 27.1% of outbreaks and 36.2% of cases. In 23.8% of outbreaks etiological agent has not been established. Most often the settings of an outbreak was a private household - 236 outbreaks and a hospital (84 outbreaks). As in previous years, the most common vehicle of infection were foods prepared with milk and eggs -11.8% of outbreaks and egg dishes - 9.0%. In 57.6% of oubreaks vehicle of infection has not been established. Among outbreaks reported in 2012, there were 4 which involved more than 100 people. In 163 outbreaks of food items had been tested and in 33% of them the results were positive. The increasing negative results of bacteriological examinations of food items, suggested necessity to start testing food contamination with viruses.

  17. [Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużewski, Stanisław; Rastawicki, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common causative agent of tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia, mainly in children and adolescents. The infections are often seen as epidemics occurring in autumn-winter seasons at intervals of 4-7 years. Epidemiological studies showed that M. pneumoniae is responsible for 30% to 40% of all cases of bacterial respiratory infections in Poland. The aim of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013 in comparing to results obtained in other European countries. The results of diagnostic serological tests (ELISA) in particular immunoglobulin classes for infection with M. pneumoniae performed in 16.825 persons were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were mostly children at the preschool and school age with clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infection. The data were obtained from Bacteriology Department of National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw and from 13 Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations through the country which send quarterly or monthly reports. The serological results showed that in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 the "early antibodies" (IgA and/or IgM) for M. pneumoniae were twice more often diagnosed in sera of patients with respiratory tract infection than in analogous seasons of 2008-2010. The antibodies were detected in 34% and 42% of patients, respectively in third quarter of 2011 and 2012. Epidemic increase of M. pneumoniae infections in Poland in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 was mainly observed due to diagnosis of the IgA and/or IgM antibodies in serological tests.

  18. Current Status and Prospects for Organic Agriculture in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierska-Thöle Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is part of a sustainable development model; at the same time it is becoming a prerequisite for the multifunctional development of rural areas. The main aim of this study is to identify the state and analyse changes in the development of organic agriculture in Poland as well as to present the possibilities for its development. The time horizon of the study covers the years 2003 to 2015. The basis of the research was an analysis of the literature, the Report of the Chief Inspectorate of Trade Quality of Agriculture and Food (IJHARS, and national empirical research; it also includes an analysis of the results of surveys carried out on organic farms in the summer of 2016, as well as our own observations. The study showed that in the years 2003-2015 Poland saw a rapid increase in the number and area of organic farms due in part to the introduction of EU subsidies. Spatial analysis of the proportions of farms by voivodeship shows that in 2015 most were recorded in Warmia-Mazuria, Podlasie and West Pomerania. Similar to the increase in the number of organic farms, the years 2003-2015 saw an increased area of organic farmland. Poland is second in the world in terms of growth in the area of organic farms. In the years 2003-2014 the average size of an organic farm remained at about 25 ha and was higher than the average size of conventional farms (10 ha. In 2014 the crop structure was dominated by fodder plants (35.8%, and meadows and pastures (31.5%. In terms of livestock production, cattle and horses had the biggest share.

  19. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  20. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  1. Diversity of Babesia in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, R; Bajer, A; Paziewska-Harris, A; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Siński, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate Babesia prevalence in the most common species of tick in Poland, Ixodes ricinus, in two recreational areas (Urwitałt in the Mazury Lake District and Bielański Forest in Warsaw), and (2) to evaluate the molecular diversity of Babesia isolates in questing I. ricinus in Poland. Questing ticks were collected from vegetation in forest areas in Urwitałt near Mikołajki and in Bielański Forest (Warsaw). Purified genomic DNA was used with specific primers to amplify a fragment of the Babesia spp. 18S rRNA gene. Tick-drag indices for I. ricinus were high in both study areas, reaching somewhat higher values in Urwitałt than in Bielański Forest. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. in examined ticks was 1.6%. In Urwitałt, two strains of B. microti were identified using rRNA sequences: the enzootic Munich strain and an isolate close to the zoonotic Jena strain. The proportion of infections due to these two strains in questing ticks reversed over a six-year period. During 3 years of study in Bielański Forest, all Babesia isolates obtained from I. ricinus were identical to Babesia sp. EU1 (B. venatorum), previously recognized as an agent of human babesiosis. This study has confirmed the presence of enzoonotic and zoonotic Babesia species/strains in the abundant human-biting tick I. ricinus in recreational areas in Poland. It has also shown that the distribution of different genotypes has changed over time, however the reasons for these fluctuations still remain to be investigated.

  2. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  3. Greening of Industry in the Baltic States and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-01-01

    The industries in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland struggle to adapt to European standards of energy and environment. The Norwegian Energy Efficiency Group (NEEG) is establishing a network for the food processing industries in these four countries. The goal is to make this sector more energy efficient and friendly to the environment before the countries join the EU in 2004. The four countries have defined five strategic goals for the industry: (1) Improved environment, (2) Energy efficiency, (3) Reduced consumption of natural resources, (4) Production of ''safe food'' and (5) Competitive power on the EU market and at home

  4. Engineering production education in e-learning example in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be observed that the modern world which is subjected to a variety of changes, in particular socio-economic and civilizational ones, known commonly as the so called information revolution creates the need for intense search for new, more effective educational models. All the changes are linked to the formation of network society, information society and knowledge-based economy, which are termed differently in science. The paper discusses research conducted among 698 students of Czestochowa University of Technology and Wroclaw University of Technology in Poland. The aim of the following work is to indicate main problem areas and provide solutions to them.

  5. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  6. CERN accelerator school: an introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the â€ワIntroduction to Accelerator Physics” course was held in Zakopane, Poland.  This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America.

  7. Late Spring Freezes in Poland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrnul Zbigniew

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Late spring freeze events, a significant agroclimatic hazard, are investigated for Poland. Daily minimum air temperatures from 184 stations for the period 1951-2010 were used to analyze the frequency and conditional probability of late spring freezes. In addition, three classification schemes were employed to investigate the atmospheric circulation responsible for late spring freezes events. The findings suggest that knowledge of the airflow influencing late spring freezes can help to understand the complex historical trends and projected future changes in freeze risk for perennial crops

  8. The first record of Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paratenuisentis ambiguus, an acanthocephalan originating from North America,is an alien species parasitising the European eel Anguilla anguilla. It was first recorded in Lake Lebsko,on the central coast of Poland. The report gives morphometric measurements of male and female P. ambiguus from this locality. Because of the spread of the intermediate host Gammarus tigrinus andthe appearance of new adults in eels along the southern Baltic Coast, P. ambiguus is evidently able to complete its life cycle in Baltic coastal waters.

  9. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  10. New records of Lobaria amplissima (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge on the occurrence of Lobaria amplissima, a very rare old-growth forest lichen in Poland, is discussed. Both previous and new localities are presented. The Białowieża Forest, from which L. amplissima is reported, is a refuge site of L. amplissima in the lowland forests of Central Europe. The most important data on the ecology and the general distribution of the species are given. Diagnostic characters related to the morphology, anatomy and chemistry of L. amplissima differentiating it from similar species are described.

  11. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  12. by shale gas producers in USA and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Galimska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is analysis and comparison of the standards used for preparation of financial statementsby enterprises looking for and extracting shale gas in Poland and in the USA. The author reviewsthe different accounting regulations underlying financial reporting of companies operating in this field.Nowadays, globalization and constant development of financial markets cause intensified expectations ofshareholders regarding the attributes of financial statements. The author points out the high level of specializationand comprehensiveness of American regulations. In contrast, international accounting standardsaddress only the initial phase of the process of alternative hydrocarbons extraction, which results ina lack of financial reports’ consistency and decline of investors’ interest.

  13. Selected Oxfordian brachiopods from Zalas (Cracow Upland, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwańska, Urszula

    2017-09-01

    Small brachiopods of the families Craniidae Menke, 1828 and Thecidellinidae Elliott, 1958 were selected from the Oxfordian sequence which lies transgressively upon a Variscan rhyodacite laccolite exposed at Zalas in the Cracow Upland, southern Poland, a site which is well-known due to various kinds of ubiquitous fossils. The craniids include three species: Craniscus bipartitus (Münster in Goldfuss, 1837), Craniscus tripartitus (Münster in Goldfuss, 1837) and Craniscus antiquior (Jelly, 1843), and the thecidellinids - two species: Rioultina zalasensis sp. nov. and Rioultina wapiennensis Krawczyński, 2008. The species described herein indicate tropical or subtropical waters, and a moderately (?) deep character of the sea basin at Zalas.

  14. Nucleonic gauges in Poland and new approach to their calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The current status of manufacturing and application of radioisotope gauges in Poland is presented. Metrological performance of the gauges is briefly described and their expected future prospects on the market of the industrial measuring instruments are discussed. Progress in electronic engineering and common use of the microprocessor systems in the radioisotope gauges made possible application of the sophisticated methods of signal processing and data treatment, as for example statistical multivariate analysis. Some examples of the multivariate calibration of nucleonic gauges are presented. Application of the partial least square regression (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) for calibration of the gauges has been shown. (author)

  15. Legal aspects of business development and innovation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Grzegorz Żak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of this article the basic concepts related to the topic issues are presented. The article focuses on the rationale and ideas of creating entrepreneurship and innovation. On the one hand the work’s aim is to show the basic legal instruments which allow to conduct business in Poland, and to demonstrate the role of state bodies in the promotion of entrepreneurship. However, on the other hand the aim of this work is to show the legal instruments connected with competition and encourage entrepreneurs’ innovativeness, taking into account the current needs and trends occurring on the market.

  16. Depletion of abiotic resources in the steel production in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking processes consume a lot of energy and materials, therefore researchers are constantly looking for new ways of reducing the consumption of resources in the production processes. The main purpose of the article is to present abiotic resource depletion the in steel production in the case of integrated steelmaking route in Poland and its role in life cycle assessment. There are different methods of life cycle assessment for abiotic resources, the use of which affects the quality of the obtained information. The article presents some results of life cycle assessment of abiotic depletion.

  17. Directions in the development of business tourism in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Abram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Business tourism in Poland has been developing since the 1990s, when the political regime changed. It is one of the many areas that has been subject to change after the historic year of 1989. However, it gained greater importance in the 21st century. Special attention was to this type of tourism and the product, as, compared to typical tourism oriented towards sightseeing and leisure, business tourists spend more money on travel, as well as in the destination itself, they are the target market for many business entities, and business travel movement takes place throughout the year, fending off the effects of seasonality.

  18. Innovation in social-economic development in Poland. Research institutes as entities and contractors of innovative activities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcikowska, Renata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present the development of innovativeness in Poland in the period of its membership in the European Union. The author will address the place and role of research-development activity in the formation of innovations. The article will consist of a short theoretical part and the presentation of chosen theories of innovations functioning in the economy. The main part of the article will be an attempt to look at research institutes in the context of their usefulness in the process of raising the innovativeness of the country, taking into consideration the changes proposed by government administration.

  19. General anesthesia in patients with syndrome of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Crespo, J; Vázquez-Mambrilla, Y; García-Herrera, F

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of surgery as a treatment or as an alternative for improvement means that we have a larger number of patients in the operating theatre, including those who suffer from rare diseases. Poland Syndrome is a rare congenital disease associated with muscle development. These patients may have a broad spectrum of abnormalities, which include thoracic anomalies, which can alter the ventilatory management at the level of the airway; the possible onset of malignant hyperthermia. This leads the anaesthetist to take certain preventive measures. We report the case of a patient with Poland syndrome operated for the placement of a breast prosthesis. We avoid halogenated agents, and use a Total Intravenous Anaesthesia with propofol. The appearance of muscle spasms as a result of the use of propofol, forced us into a second anaesthesia to perform total intravenous anaesthesia with Midazolam. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable forest management in Poland – theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruk Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conception of sustainable development has been implemented into practice in numerous economic sectors, including forestry. Forest ecosystems are extremely important in the global ecological system, therefore maintenance and appropriate management of forest resources according to sustainable development principles have engaged a great deal of attention. The concept of sustainable forest management (SFM encompasses three dimensions: ecological, economic and social. A powerful tool to promote SFM are criteria and indicators. The aim of the article was evaluation of SFM in Poland, using one of the methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. According to data available, Polish forestry has a number of advantages: Poland has avoided the problem of deforestation, forest area has been permanently increasing, there has been observed improvement of forest health and vitality as well as a significant share of forests has carried out protective functions with no impact on timber production. Poland’s model of SFM is an adaptive process of balancing the ever-changing set of economic, environmental and social expectations. Such a complicated undertaking requires constant assessing and adjusting forest practices, in response to new circumstances, scientific advances and societal input

  1. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  2. actors of Success and Failure for International Retailers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florance Feldmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland. Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.

  3. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils.

  4. Innovations in Tourism Policy: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek W. Kozak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness depends to a large extent on innovation. This is true about tourism also. This article focuses on the differences in innovations implemented in the field of tourism policy. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the differences in innovations in tourism policy. The key hypothesis suggests that in the countries undergoing the process of transformation, introduction of innovations is difficult and depends to a large extent on the capability to adopt the new post-industrial tourism paradigm. Poland serves here only as an exemplification of this phenomenon. An additional hypothesis suggests that public policy employs in practice more often “goal substitution” (instead of complex and demanding goals; for instance modernization or renovation instead of urban regeneration or culture or tourism, whereas the business sector is more product-oriented (in line with the new post-industrial paradigm. The article analyses public 2007-2013 strategies (and, to some extent, projects for 2014-2020, but first of all it compares the implementation of the strategy within the operational programs and in private sector activities. Finally, referring to Poland as part of the European Union, the paper proposes that new EU regulations may bring a change in non-product approach to tourism development policy.

  5. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  6. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  7. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  8. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied.

  9. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  10. Mapping Health Needs to Support Health System Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Piotr; Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Szromek, Adam R.; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    In Poland, following the example of other EU countries, the first maps of health needs prepared by the Ministry of Health were presented in 2016. The maps constitute a foundation for rational decision-making in the management of health care resources, being potentially useful for all actors in health system. This refers in particular to the institutions responsible for distribution of funds and contracting health service, but also for decision-makers, who determine the scope of funds to be utilized in the health system, or the structure of benefits provided to patients. Service providers are also addressees of the maps, to give them a basis for planning future activities. The article presents a structured assessment of the current state of affairs, based on recent experience and sets out likely directions for the development of health needs in mapping in Poland in the future. We discuss the criticism addressed toward maps by representatives of various groups acting in health care. It includes the lack of recognition of some of the key health needs, or wrong emphases, where much more attention is paid to the recognition of current resources in the health system, instead of making prognoses regarding the future developments of health needs. Nonetheless, we find that this instrument is potentially of high usability, in case of elimination of the existing weaknesses. PMID:29662876

  11. Molecular analysis of Phytophthora species found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszako Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens of Phytophthora genus are common not only in forest nurseries and stands, but also in water courses. Species of Phytophthora spread with plants for plantings (and soil attached to them and with water courses as well, attacking the plants growing in riparian ecosystems. Several specialized organisms damaging only one tree species were identified like P. alni on alders or P. quercina on oaks. Some Phytophthora species can develop on several hosts like P. plurivora and P. cactorum on oaks, beeches, alders, ashes and horse chestnuts. Other oomycetes like P. gallica species was found for the first time in Poland in water used for plant watering in forest nursery. Species P. lacustris and P. gonapodyides were found in superficial water. Phytophthora species P. polonica was identified in the declining alder stands for the first time in the world, and P. taxon hungarica and P. megasperma were found in the rhizosphere of seriously damaged ash stands for the first time in Poland. The most often isolated species were P. plurivora (clade 2 with frequency 37% and P. lacustris with frequency 33% (clade 6. The best represented clade 6 revealed the occurrence of 6 species: P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. megasperma, P. sp. raspberry, P. taxon hungarica and P. taxon oak soil.

  12. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  13. Air pollution by sulfur dioxide in Poland - Impact on agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlesna, A. [Inst. of Soil Science & Plant Cultivation, Pulawy (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    After the Second World War there was a tremendous increase in SO{sub 2} emission in Poland due to fast industrialization and the use of low quality coal as energy source. High levels of SO{sub 2} pollution have resulted in negative effects on natural and agro-ecosystems. On the other hand SO{sub 2} has been beneficial as sulfur fertilizer for agro-ecosystems. From the end of the 1980's onwards there has been an ongoing decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions by a transformation of economy and legislation to reduce emissions, which already has affected the sulfur status of agro-ecosystems. From soil tests carried out in 1996 it became evident that over 70% of Polish soils have a low, 15% a medium and about 5% a high sulfur content. Since SO{sub 2} emissions are expected to further decrease in Poland, sulfur content of soils as well as plants needs to be monitored in order to guarantee optimized sulfur fertilization.

  14. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  15. Integrated resource plan of power system development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardy, L.; Krochmalski, R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents information of the research activities conducted in Poland under the DECADES project. The beginning of the project is described and some information is given on the programme of the electric industry for expansion of the electricity generation system in Poland and its main issues. The main target of the research under the DECADES project is to analyze the potential role of nuclear power in reducing pollutant emissions from electricity generation. In the first phase, a number of models were used in preliminary calculations, such as MAED for demand forecasts, LDC for the load duration curve, WASP for the electricity system expansion programme and IMPACTS for the emission of gases. On the basis of previous analyses it was assumed that there would be no drastic changes in the power system structure before the year 2000 because of the existing surplus of capacity. The selected planning period was from 2000 to 2030. Preliminary studies of two cases were performed: the base case (construction period for nuclear units of nine years) and the nuclear case (six years). For these two cases, the power system capacity mix, electricity generation and greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation were calculated and the results are presented in the paper. (author). 7 figs

  16. Demographic characteristics of MS patients in Poland's upper Silesia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzchala, Krystyna; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Dobrakowski, Pawel; Kubicka-Baczyk, Katarzyna; Niedziela, Natalia; Sowa, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.

  17. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions; Energetyka jadrowa w Polsce. Perspektywy i uwarunkowania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwaszczewski, S. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs.

  18. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products...... is still lagging substantial behind that of the EU-countries. The number of products where Poland competes in the export markets is increasing, but the quality level of new products is, in fact, less than that of older surviving products, indicating that Poland is increasingly specialising in price...

  19. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  20. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  1. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krodkiewska, M. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Hydrobiology

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  2. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

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    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  3. Okun’s Law and Youth Unemployment in Germany and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunsch Sophie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment rates, especially among youth, have increased in various countries of Europe over the last years. This paper examines changes in youth unemployment in Germany and Poland with Okun’s law, testing that young employees are more vulnerable to the business cycle. I estimate country specific Okun coefficients for five different age cohorts. The results show that youth in Poland is more sensitive to business cycle fluctuations than adults, while in Germany the difference between the age cohorts is not that distinctive. In addition, cohort differences in Germany are not statistically significant, while they are significant in Poland but only with regard to the two oldest age cohorts.

  4. PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE AS A SOURCE OF FINANCING THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rodzinka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The medical services market in Poland is financed mainly with funds from national health insurance, yet year by year, an increasing importance of private resources in financing health services can be noticed. Apart from common (national health insurance, medical care is primarily financed directly by the patient and possibly by his employer (occupational medicine, additional private medical care. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic legal and market aspects of private health insurance in Poland, including a presentation of the structure of private healthcare expenses in Poland.

  5. An overview of stygobiontic invertebrates of Poland based on published data

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    Elzbieta Dumnicka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on published literature, at least eighty species of stygobiontic invertebrates are confirmed in Poland. The highest number of these species is found in interstitial waters and wells, while a lower number was discovered in caves and springs. Hydrachnidia is represented by 45 species living mainly in interstitial waters, Crustacea by 24, Annelida by eleven species, while Turbellaria and Gastropoda are each represented by one species. As many as 14 endemic species were described from Poland but the taxonomical status of some of them is unclear. The highest number of stygobionts was stated in southern part of Poland, an area onto which most of the studies were focused on.

  6. Bees substitute birds in pollination of ornitogamous climber Campsis radicans (L. Seem. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kołodziejska-Degórska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campsis radicans is an attractive climber with typical ornitogamous flowers, native to North America. In natural conditions this out-crossed plant is pollinated mostly by hummingbirds. In Poland, where C. radicans is cultivated as ornamental, it rarely sets seeds. The questions addressed in the present study were: (1 What animals pollinate its flowers in Poland?, and (2 What is the reason for infrequent fruit set? Field studies conducted in five localities in Poland showed that the principal pollinator is Apis mellifera, and the lack of seeds is usually caused by pollinator limitation or absence of genetically different pollen donor plants.

  7. Socio-cultural context of eating disorders in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Sałapa, Kinga; Józefik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between sociocultural factors and clinical eating disorders during the intensive process of Westernisation in Poland that occurred after 1989. The study population included girls diagnosed with an eating disorder according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 47 anorexia nervosa restrictive type [ANR], n = 16 anorexia binge/purge type [ANBP], n = 34 bulimia nervosa [BN], n = 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) who received consultation for the first time between 2002 and 2004 in the Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Kraków, Poland. The study included an age-matched normal control group [NOR] of 85 schoolgirls from Kraków. Relationships between two given qualitative features were investigated using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Correspondence analysis was applied to graphically explore the relationship. The Kruskal-Wallis test with the Bonferroni was performed to compare quantitative results across groups. Objective sociodemographic variables and responses to the 62-item Questionnaire of Socio-cultural Context were measured. The mothers of ANBP and BN patients were less professionally active than mothers of ANR patients and NOR subjects. Subjective socio-cultural factors were more relevant for the BN group than the ANR group. Questionnaire responses in the ANBP group were more similar to those in the BN group than to those in the ANR group. The most unambiguous and specific characteristic of the ANR group was a sense of belonging to the middle class. Variables that differentiated the BN group from the NOR group included the importance attached to thinness treated as an expression of power and control over one's self, as well as a multifaceted negative evaluation of one's own family, including a negative assessment of the position of women and parental lack of concern for appearance and principles of nutrition. All patients, regardless

  8. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  9. [Implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Piotr; Jackowska, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Poland is a destination country or temporary living place for many refugees from Chechnya. Refugees are provided with full, free of charge, health care including the vaccination programme according to the present National Vaccination Programme (NVP). To assess the implementation of vaccinations in Chechen refugees' children in Poland. The group comprised 310 children from the Centre for Foreigners in Warsaw-Bielany. The mean age of the examined children was 7.5 years. The investigations were performed three times during the study--the first was conducted in a group of 220 children in June, the second one in 303 children in August and the third in 310 children in October 2008 (the differences in the numbers resulted from the changes in the size of the Chechen population living in the Centre). The vaccination records were assessed paying special attention to the implementation of vaccinations. During the consecutive two examinations the implementation of vaccination recommendations was analyzed as well as the availability of this information in the records. At every visit the history was obtained on the reasons for not having the vaccination programme implemented. The information on vaccination programme implementation was available in 19, 30 and 45%, of analyzed records from the Centre at the first, second and third visit, respectively. The majority of the obtained data regarded the implementation of vaccinations in children in the first year of life (85%), while the least data was on vaccinations in children over 12 years of age (30%). Similar results were obtained when analyzing a group of 168 children at the all three visits (18, 32 and 48%, respectively). The reasons for non-implementation of vaccinations were as follows: (a) low parents' awareness of the necessity of vaccinations; (b) lack of self-discipline (every other child did not report for a scheduled appointment); (c) relocation of refugees to other Centres; (d) exceedingly frequent postponing of

  10. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bryla

    Full Text Available An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999-2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases.The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR, Standardized Death Rates (SDR and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd. Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values.Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999-2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05. The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19 (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05 and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04 (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05. The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09 Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05. SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0.05.Despite smaller

  11. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  12. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Hauff, J.

    2000-09-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO 2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO 2 emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil

  13. The expected model of a cadastre in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Ciak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cadastre is a based on a cadastral map official register of land, property and other utilities that constitute subjects of taxation as well as the source of information on cadastral objects. As indicated in the reference books, it constitutes an institution of law, which in the social perception is seen as providing legal order in the scope of establishing the range of laws, of the sense of security resulting from the fact of the entering of the subjects of taxation and the possibility to exert one’s rights under the registration proceedings. However, the current shape of the register does not meet social expectations. The suggested reform of the taxation of property in Poland (cadastre meets numerous obstacles such as a formal and legal, political, financial or social barrier.

  14. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  15. Large cities in Poland in face of demographic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołata Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rural population, to the detriment of cities in Poland is caused mainly by agglomeration processes, including suburbanisation. Consequently, intense and sudden changes in demographic structure of large cities and surrounding regions are observed. The paper presents demographic changes in the largest Polish cities. The aim of the study was to verify whether the phenomenon of population aging was more distinct in large cities than in surrounding municipalities. We also aimed to answer the question of how changes in demographic processes should shape the social policy pursued by authorities in large cities. Discussion covers activities rising out of demographic challenges to meet the needs in the field of “services” for children and increasing demand for ventures related to care for the elderly. The analysis includes selected areas of the education, health care and social assistance fields.

  16. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INSURANCE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to show the role of business insurance in the Polish national economy. The fi rst part presents an overview of the insurance market. In the second part the importance of insurance in the national economy is discussed, based on calculated penetration rates, insurance density, activity monitoring, coverage ratio and solvency ratio. Finally the density and penetration rates in Poland were compared with those in other EU countries. The primary research method was descriptive method and the basic indicators of the importance of insurance in the national economy. The main source materials were data from the Central Statistical Offi ce, the Polish Financial Supervision Authority and the Polish Insurance Association. This study covers the period 2006–2014. The study confi rmed a good standing of the Polish insurance market and the fact that it systematically reduces the distance that separates the Polish insurance market from the largest European markets.

  17. Difficulties in achieving public acceptance of nuclear energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1993-01-01

    Both the surveys and other social phenomena (establishment of a Polish Nucleonic Society, change in the tone by the mass media, access to other nations' experience) provide some grounds for a moderately optimistic (for nuclear energy prospect in Poland) conclusion of this paper. Unfortunately, one also has to be aware of hazards to that vision. The continuing economic crisis and the resulting fall in energy demand exerts no pressure on investing in energy. Environmental movements still have a considerable authority among the society. The unstable political situation in this part of Europe aggravated by the lack of sufficient guarantees against uncontrolled use of nuclear weapons also a negative impact on the awareness and attitudes of people. All these matters- signs of hope and difficulties- are great challenges to us. We will seek to meet them

  18. Presentist historical narratives in and about heritage sites in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guichard-Marneur, Maud Camille

    This thesis is concerned with a theme central to critical heritage studies, that is,the meaning of heritage for a people in a given context. The research for this thesis is focused on heritage sites and their articulation of both memory and history in post-communist Poland. Through the lens...... Factory museum (2010) (a branch of the Historical Museum of Krakow); and the presentist reference of the narrative of the exhibition Poles’ self-portrait (1979-80) at the National Museum inKrakow. The purpose of such analyses is twofold: they provide an understanding of societal visions or present...... understandings of the past while at the same time they offer an understanding of how heritage time and space may function in the memory landscape. These analyses reveal how the national, the trauma of World War Two, Polish-Jewish relations and the communist past are being addressed and worked in in the heritage...

  19. Quality Audit Programme in Teleradiotherapy Centers in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Bulski, W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A proper quality control system including external audits is necessary to assure the safety of the use of ionising radiation in radiotherapy. The results of the efforts aimed at the development of the quality audit programmes in teleradiotherapy in Poland are presented. Three audits, based on TLD dose intercomparisons for megavoltage units have been organised so far. In each audit programme the teleradiotherapy centres were requested to irradiate TLD capsules to a predefined dose (approximately 2 Gy). The TLD were read-out and evaluated at the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, which is a part of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw. The deviations were analysed and discussed with the audit participants. The decrease of the standard deviation of the distribution of the results shows the improvement of the dose measurements and calculations in subsequent audits. (author)

  20. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

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    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  1. Generation Gap Management in Restructured Metallurgical Enterprises in Poland

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    Gajdzik Bożena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of generation gap management resulting from personnel restructuring in foundries in Poland. Structural changes to steelworks led to a sharp decline in employment caused by decreased steelworks production. New hiring was limited as a part of employment rationalisation in the steelworks sector. Such personnel policy eventually led to a generation gap. Ratios between individual age groups of employees are imbalanced at steelworks: the numbers of young personnel are low and of those aged 50+ are high. This research forecasts changes in employment levels for the 2013-2019 period, aimed at closing the generation gap. The paper consists of three parts: (1 a descriptive analysis of labor market demographics in Poland’s steel industry; (2 proposed methodology for HR management model, and (3 econometric models forecasting labor demographics in Poland’s steel industry.

  2. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  3. Disability and Ethics: A Parent Action in Poland

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    Agnieszka Lena Licznerska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is being introduced into Poland. To be successful, educators must think critically about disability and learn what the Poles think. Iris Marion Young argues that notions how to criticize a society find their background in either experience or reflection on the society. In 2014 the author read Janina Paradowska’s description of an action by parents who took their disabled children to a sitdown strike in the house of Polish parliament. Paradowska, the late famous Polish journalist, wrote she had mixed feelings about the event. The paper argues the injustice hidden in this phrase, based on the framework of the current view described by Iris Murdoch, who suggests an alternative way of thinking about experiences extending far beyond our mind. Disabled people have always been marginalized by the European culture, and now disabled children are to be part of the inclusive education. What factors might affect their learning?

  4. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation post Stroke in Poland 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opara, Jozef; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    ? Aims - Growing costs of health care are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services which could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early post-stroke rehabilitation consists of many elements that provide for early onset rehabilitation...... admission from neurological wards to rehabilitation departments, about the number of sessions per day, the time duration of one session, the number of sessions per week, the average length of stay in department, the methods of outcome measurement etc. Analysis - We sent out 375 questionnaire and received......-stroke, i.e. within 3 months of stroke. Comment - Taking into account that about half of stroke survivors will need rehabilitation (30 days after stroke onset), the current facilities of early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland cannot meet this need. We should do our best to introduce rehabilitation...

  5. [Seasonal variation of hospital morbidity from asthma in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Justyna; Pac, Agnieszka; Goryński, Paweł; Jedrychowski, Wiesław

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to describe and compare the seasonal hospital admissions among different subgroups of patients due to bronchial asthma with a special focus on demographic characteristic. Data were collected during the calendar year 2003. Data were gathered for 32,933 patients from 522 hospitals across Poland with confirmed diagnosis of bronchial asthma or status asthmaticus. We noticed a distinct seasonal patterns in the number of hospitalizations due to asthma. Most cases clustered in the beginning and the end of the calendar year. Beside these hospitalization peaks, we observed a less pronounced increase of hospital admissions in spring and through summer months. It was most distinctly pronounced in children. It was also shown that gender of patients did not affect seasonal variability in our study. Emergency admissions to hospitals were less frequent in summer months, whereas elective admissions presented no such distinct pattern. The data revealed differences in seasonality in asthma hospital admissions in various age groups.

  6. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

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    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.

  7. Godly Homonormativity: Christian LGBT Organizing in Contemporary Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulak, Magdalena

    2017-12-08

    This article discusses the emergence of Christian LGBT organizing in Poland and the production of what I term godly homonormativity via a particular strand of organizing exemplified by Wiara i Tęcza (WiT; Faith and Rainbow). I argue that despite being an important initiative representing people-LGBT Christians-whose voices are often excluded from the mainstream LGBT movement, WiT's project is a largely assimilationist one, seeking acceptance within the existing patriarchal and highly inequitable power relationship of the Catholic Church. Consequently, WiT is generative of a mostly normalizing set of ideas that reinforces rather than challenges heteronormativity and that also colludes with the neoliberal project that promotes "a privileged form of gay life that attempts to replicate aspects of state"-and in the case of WiT church-endorsed "heterosexual primacy and prestige located in the home" (Brown, 2009, p. 1499).

  8. A Decade of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Surveillance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Waśko, Izabela; Kuch, Alicja; Kadłubowski, Marcin; Gołębiewska, Agnieszka; Foryś, Małgorzata; Markowska, Marlena; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Wasiak, Katarzyna; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Matynia, Bożena; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2013-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases. Methods The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials. Results In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011). The general case fatality rate in the years 2010–2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009–2011) revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC) ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC. Conclusions The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics. PMID:23977184

  9. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases.The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials.In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC.The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  10. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  11. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  12. INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE ECOLOGICAL NETWORK AND URBANIZED AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA ZWIERZCHOWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

  13. [The need of prenatal public health initiatives in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2012-11-01

    The author emphasizes the achievements of the Polish Gynecological Society in the field of improving the health indicators concerning perinatal mortality among infants during the last two decades in Poland. Attention is paid to the contribution of the members of the Society to organizational change in Polish health care after 1990, which resulted in the improvement of the care of mother and child. It is also underlined that the members of the Society contributed to the creation of early detection system of breast and cervical cancer in Poland. However it is noteworthy that in 'Polish Gynecology' - the publication of the Polish Gynecological Society - the number of reports devoted to risky health behaviors of women during periconceptional period and pregnancy is scarce. The author draws attention to the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol before and during pregnancy Emphasis is also placed on the problem of nutritional disorders (mainly pathological methods of dieting) among Polish women during the reproductive period and in the first weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed). These aspects may result in epigenetic changes shaping the phenotype of the offspring. The author refers to the Barker's theory of Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and warns that the above-mentioned health behaviors of women may bring about negative effects for the offspring and future generations, namely susceptibility to chronic diseases: arterial hypertension, obesity type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Negative effects for the health of offspring may also result from low level of physical activity of women before and during pregnancy The author concludes that it is necessary to intensify the efforts of the Polish Gynecological Society in the area of prenatal public health.

  14. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  15. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr; Ostrek, Joanna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2013. The evaluation was based on the analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of food poisonings and infections, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2013. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and GIS). In 2013 a further decrease in the number of infections and intoxications with bacterial etiology and an increase in the infections of viral etiology was observed. Furthermore 2013 is another year with low number of cases of trichinellosis (9 cases in total). In 2013 a total number of 491 foodborne infections and intoxications outbreaks were reported in which there were 29,179 persons exposed and 5,664 (including 2 193 children up to 14 years of age) persons ill. Hospitalization was required for 1,445 persons. The most frequent etiological agent in those outbreaks was Salmonella spp.--which was responsible for 36,3% of outbreaks and 21,5% of cases. Viruses were responsible for 29,7 of outbreaks and 45,7 cases, in 19,3% of outbreaks no etiological agent was established. Like in 2012 the most frequent vehicle were dishes made from eggs and milk combined with eggs (9,4% of outbreaks). In 65% of outbreaks reported no vehicle could be found. Moreover in 2013 a total number of 3 outbreaks in which more than 100 cases were reported. The increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology shows the need of adjustment some aspects of epidemiological investigations especially such features as: laboratory conformation of etiological agent of ill persons as well as persons involved in the food processing and meals preparing and the aspect of food samples testing.

  16. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Morphometric differentiation of Corex ligerica Gay in Poland

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    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material involved 7 Carex ligerica Gay populations which were cultured in standardised conditions in a greenhouse before their spikes were collected for morphological studies. Four characters reflecting size of male and female glumes, selected from particular spikes were examined. Mahalanobis distances for each pair of populations were calculated and their significance was estimated using Hotellings T2 statistics. Dendrite was constructed on the basis of shortest Mahalanobis distances while Euclidean distances provided grounds for hierarchy grouping. The result obtained from a multivariate analysis indicated a definite interpopulation variability within the species. All of the examined populations were found to differ significantly on the grounds of Mahalanobis distances. The dendrograms manifested the distinct character of the populations originating from regions around the lower course of the Vistula river - 5 (Toruń-Wrzosy, 3 (Tychnowy, 2 (Piaski and 6 (Kadyny, not noted before. Moreover, similarity of two geographically distant populations, the population 1 (Złotoria from the Central Poland and the population 4 (Szumiłowo from the western part of the country, attracted attention, as well as the individual character of the population 7 (Kopanica originating from the southernmost location. From the point of view of historical geography of plants, the obtained differentiation pattern may represent sequele of migration in the postglacial period, which crossed the area of Poland along multiple distinct pathways. The obtained results point to importance of culturing plants in uniform conditions of a greenhouse, which permits to describe genetic variability unbiased by modifying effects of the environment.

  18. Public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph; Jassem, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients' family members, were surveyed. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations' perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

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    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  20. The abnormalities of trapezius muscle might be a component of Poland's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyit, Nurettin; Işıtmangil, Turgut; Oztürker, Coşkun

    2014-11-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare unilateral congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of the pectoral muscle and hand anomalies. By the time, new components including the absence or hypoplasia of many muscles have been identified, however, the anomalies of trapezius muscle have not been reported in patients with Poland's syndrome. The accepted etiological theory is the temporary interruption of blood supply of the subclavian artery and its branches in the early gestational period. The artery of the trapezius muscle is also one of the branches of subclavian artery. Just because of that, it is likely to trapezius muscle be affected in patients with Poland's syndrome. We are presenting a case of Poland's syndrome associated with unilateral partial absence of trapezius muscle to support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First record of wild boar infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilska-Zając Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

  2. The lichen-forming fungi of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of Xanthoparmelia pulla group in Poland. The morphological and chemical analysis of herbarium materials confirmed the presence of four species of this group reported from Poland before. The study however, revealed considerable changes it the partiuclular species distribution. X. verruculifera, so far considered the most endangered species in the country, turned out to be the most frequent taxon. X. loxodes, regarded as common, has much less known localities than previously thought. This species was usually confused with X. verruculifera. Xanthoparmelia pulla is the rarest species and should be considered critically endangered in Poland. Most specimens of X. pulla collected in the country belong to X. delisei, which so far had only two historical records in Poland. All these taxa are characterized in terms of morphology, the content of secondary metabolites, ecology and distribution.

  3. Producing Homogeneity as a Historical Tradition. Neo-conservatism, Precarity and Citizenship Education in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2016), s. 43-55 ISSN 2051-0969 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : citizenship * precarity * Poland * citizenship education * neoliberalism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Clitocybe splendoides H. E. Bigelow (Agaricales, Tricholomataceae, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Komorowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Records of Clitocybe splendoides H. E. Bigelow, a rare fungus belonging to the species group of the C. gibba type, associated with deciduous forests, especially beech forests, collected at three localities in Poland are described.

  5. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  6. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  7. Thyroid dose from 131 iodine of the population in Poland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzesniak, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    The following studies were carried out in the period from 28 April to 20 June 1986 in the Central Laboratory of radiological Protection (C.L.O.R.) in Poland: atmosphere monitoring in the period from 28 April to 22 May evaluating 131 I environmental concentration with the percentage of iodine in elementary, aerosol and organic compound form; determination of thyroid dose in 1049 persons from mine regions in Poland [fr

  8. Orobanche mayeri (Suess. & Ronniger Bertsch & F. Bertsch – a species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new localities of Orobanche mayeri (Suess. & Ronniger Bertsch & F. Bertsch, one of the rarest representatives of the family Orobanchaceae in Europe, are reported from southern Poland. The species was recorded in the Pieniny Mts (Central Western Carpathians in July 2009. The hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the new localities are described and a supplemented map of the distribution in Europe and Poland is given.

  9. Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. in Poland: distribution, habitat and host preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ten new localities of Orobanche pallidiflora Wimm. & Grab. from Poland (Middle Roztocze, Równina Bełska plain, Wyżyna Malopolska upland, Góry Kaczawskie Mts and Western Bieszczady Mts. Information on hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the new localities is given and a supplemented map of the distribution in Poland is included.

  10. On Pardosa schenkeli (Araneae, Lycosidae and its presence in Germany and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Pardosa schenkeli Lessert, 1904 was since long regarded as occurring in Germany and Poland but is excluded from the recent checklist of spiders found in these countries. Re-examination of material collected in Germany and Poland, respectively, verifies its presence in both countries. Characters for distinguishing P. schenkeli and its ally P. bifasciata (C.L. Koch, 1834 are given and illustrated.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56......-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions....

  12. Poland, a workforce in transition: Exploring leadership styles and effectiveness of Polish vs. Western expatriate managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Jacob; Pieczonka, Artur; Eisenring, Martin; Mironski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Given the cultural differences between Western Europe and Poland, differences are expected in leadership styles and behaviours between Polish and Western managers. Our study explored Polish employees’ perceptions and attitudes toward expatriate Western versus local managers. The main method was surveying Polish employees working under Western managers in three mid-size companies. We supplemented the survey with in-depth interviews with five West European middle managers working in Poland. We ...

  13. Poland in NATO?: a case study of the United States foreign policymaking process Leszek Soczewica.

    OpenAIRE

    Soczewica, Leszek

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The opportunity for nations such as Poland to enter NATO is of vital concern for their security. Indeed, the problem of inclusion into the Western alliance is the key issue for the majority of former Warsaw Pact members. After the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, these countries are no longer members of a security alliance. Yet, with the end of the Cold War, Poland confronts ...

  14. Rubroboletus le-galiae (Boletales, Basidiomycota, a species new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubroboletus le-galiae is reported for the first time from Poland. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the species are described and illustrated based on the study of material collected at three microlocalities in Łężczok reserve (SW Poland. The delimitation of R. le-galiae from related species of the genus Rubroboletus (R. satans, R. rubrosanguineus, R. rhodoxanthus is shortly discussed and the knowledge of its ecology and distribution is briefly summarized.

  15. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  16. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU NOISE DIRECTIVE IN PROCESS OF URBAN PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kwiecień

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this article is to introduce the influence of acoustic climate on the urban space planning in Poland through the implementation of the provisions of Directive 2002/49/WE of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe from 25 June 2002. Moreover, in the stages of an LLUP implementations have been suggested the use of a Strategic Noise Map, being a tool for assisting the process of environmental noise level assessment in Poland.

  18. Organic vs. Conventional: comparison of online shopping food prices in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Obiedzinska, Agnieszka; Kwasek, Mariola

    2014-01-01

    Demand for organic food in Poland is increasing continuously for twenty years. This is due to positive trends resulting from an increase in consumer awareness and orientation on quality. The quality of organic food is a key source of competitive advantage in relation to food produced by conventional methods. Although the organic food market in Poland is growing, the share in the total food market is still low. Sales of organic food is done through four main channels of distribution: direct sa...

  19. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. 2. Original research. 2.1. Morphological differentiation and occurrence of representatives of the genus Dactylis in Poland. 2.1.2. Distribution of Dactylis glomerata subsp. slovenica (Dom. Dom. in Poland and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analysis of herbarium materials from Poland, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, East Germany and belonging to the author, as well as data from literature dealing with the distribution of D. glomerata subsp. slovenica (Dom. Dom. in Poland and adjacent regions. It was found that D.g. subsp. slovenica occurs in 33 localities (30 herbarium and 3 literature in Poland. The distribution of this subspecies is presented for the first time for Poland. All the localities of D.g. subsp. slovenica were found in the mountainous parts of Poland (Sudety Mts. and the Carpathians. In territories adjacent to Poland, D.g. subsp. slovenica was found in the Czech Massif and in many stands in the Western and Eastern Carpathians and also in Roztocze Upland.

  20. German energy turnaround and Poland's start in nuclear power? A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, Lothar; Gorski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The book includes contributions from two meetings: 1. Meeting in Berlin, October 8,2014: Energy transition in Poland - historical background, development and actual situation; legal boundary conditions of the entry into nuclear power in Poland; ecologic and economic causes motivation for the atomic energy entry in Poland; promotion systems for renewable energy in Poland, current status and political background; construction of a nuclear power plant in Northern Poland site specific impacts and social assessment. Meeting in Stettin on November 5, 2014: Energy turnaround in Germany -German nuclear phaseout under consideration of EU legislation; ecologic and economic motivation for the energy turnaround in Germany; energy turnaround in Germany - new legal boundary conditions, especially the amendment to tue renewable energy law; contribution of the industry to the energy turnaround - taking the example waste management and waste incineration plants; fracking as a factor of the energy turnaround? - legal boundary conditions and ecologic risks; ecological, ethical and sociopolitical aspects of the energy turnaround in Germany and Poland.

  1. Cooperation of Ukraine and Republic of Poland: Economic and Diplomatic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poland in viewed by Ukraine as a reliable economic and political partner supporting Ukraine’s intention to integrate in Europe. Therefore, facts, documents and statistical data reflecting qualitative and quantitative aspects of relations between Ukraine and Poland need to be subject to non-stop monitoring and analysis, to help in finding timely solutions for problematic issues that may occur in these countries’ relations. The article’s objective is to analyze the performance and perspectives of economic and diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Republic of Poland. The analysis of documents on diplomatic and economic cooperation of the two countries after they gained political independence, and statistical data on trade in goods and services (by category and investment flows (by data on direct investment from Ukraine to Poland and from Poland to Ukraine shows that both countries have immense potentials for cooperation in various fields. As regards diplomatic dimension, Republic of Poland is the strongest promoter and lobbyist of the Euro-integration and Euro-Atlantic course of Ukraine. Regarding the economic cooperation, while mutual trade in goods declined in 2014 due to the economic and political crisis in Ukraine, it grew in 2016 with the recovery processes in the Ukrainian economy. Mutual trade in services is less intensive than trade in goods. Analysis of the investment cooperation shows the large asymmetry in favor of Polish investors in Ukraine and the reducing investment in both directions in the latest years.

  2. The bioeconomy in Poland within the context of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the potential of the development of bioeconomy in Poland in the context of the European Union (EU). The analyses take into account the concept of bioeconomy, the overview of documents referring to the bioeconomy in the EU, including policy frameworks and agendas. Many countries including Poland emphasise the importance of bioeconomy, but have not yet developed a complex strategy. The state of bioeconomy in Poland is characterised by the sectors of agriculture, forestry and food production, as well as parts of the chemical, biotechnology and energy industries. In 2014 the global production volume in the Polish bioeconomy amounted to PLN 343 billion with the sector employing almost 3 million staff. However, the structure of the bioeconomy is dominated by traditional sectors, such as agriculture and agro-food industries. This article presents the analysis of research and development activity in Poland from 2009 to 2015. It reports the position of Poland on GMOs and their future development potential. It is worth mentioning that many EU states including Poland have declared themselves as being "GMO-free countries". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  4. The development of hydro power in Poland. The most important hydro engineering facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country with scarce water resources, which places it in this regard at the end of the list of European countries. Also the capacity of retention reservoirs in Poland is very small compared to other neighbouring European countries, and does not exceed 6% of the average annual runoff from its territory. This results in the low hydropower potential. What is more, this low potential is used to a limited extent only, in contrast to most European countries. The first hydropower facilities were built in Poland in the interwar period. The development of hydropower facilities intensified in Poland after World War II. They were the low and high head plants, but also facilities with equilibrium reservoirs and reversible units. After World War II, in Poland, within its new borders, there were a lot of small hydropower plants, which initially were ignored by utility companies and were devastated. Later, they were gradually activated. The construction of new facilities, modernization of existing ones, as well as reconstruction of those degraded, are often obstructed by significant ecological restrictions. This paper presents these processes and describes the major hydropower facilities in Poland.

  5. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachura, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented.

  6. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  7. [Knowledge of physical and rehabilitation medicine among physicians and medical students in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Nyka, Izabella; Denes, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) since 1959 has been a basic medical specialty in Poland. Recently PRM is practiced by around 1,12% of professionally active physicians in Poland. Due to specificity and unfavorable health care regulations PRM may be inadequately perceived by the medical profession in Poland. Evaluation of basic knowledge of PRM in PRM trainees, non-PRM specialists and medical students in Poland. 500 respondents (225 non-PRM specialists--NPRMS, 61 PRM trainees--PRMT and 214 medical students who accomplished undergraduate education in PRM--MS) underwent testing with an anonymous questionnaire elaborated at Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary and modified at Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. SELECTED RESULTS: 404 (80,8%) respondents (88.3% MS; 68.9% NPRMS and 98.3% PRMT) perceived PRM as a basic medical specialty. 49.1% of MS, 47.1% of NPRMS and 73.4% of PRMT noticed the leading role of a PRM physician in comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with exemplary disabilities. 408 (81.6%) participants (77.6% MS, 82.2% NPRMS and 93.4% PRMT) knew who was eligible to refer a patient to PRM physician. Rate of disabled persons in Poland was properly reported by 330 (66%) participants (63.1% MS; 69.3% NPRMS and 63.9% PRMT). Correct definition of disability was given by 256 (51.2%) respondents (65%) MS, 33.8% NPRMS and 67.2% PRMT), whereas 200 (40%) participants (43.5% MS; 31.1% NPRMS and 60.7% PRMT were familiar with the definition of PRM. Poor knowledge of PRM role in health care system among MS and NPRMS and Low awareness of cardinal PRM issues among PRMT reflects inadequate undergraduate and postgraduate education in PRM, disadvantageous healthcare system solutions and misleading information in mass media in Poland. Education on PRM role in a contemporary healthcare should be urgently improved.

  8. Road safety in Poland : a contribution to the improvement of road safety in Poland in the framework of the GAMBIT project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Koornstra, M.J. Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research study. The study was commissioned: (1) to give a general opinion on the "GAMBIT" project contents; and (2) to express an expectation about the future traffic safety development in Poland. The SWOV contribution has been realized within

  9. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  10. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  11. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-04-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  12. Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

    2011-08-01

    Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood has been widely reported in literature. Results of several studies indicate that infant formula consumption, especially in the form of powdered concentrate, may appreciably increase children's fluoride exposure in optimally fluoridated communities. The aim of the study was to measure fluoride content of infant and toddler formulas available in Poland and to discuss implications of the results. Twenty nine brands of powdered formulas were evaluated. Analyzes were performed with the use of ionselective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Results revealed that concentration of fluoride in all products was low (mean 29.0 μg/100 g), and that the formula itself is not a significant source of fluoride exposure. However, when reconstituted with water containing more than 0.5 ppm of fluoride, starting formulas and follow-on formulas may provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. Thus, fully formula-fed infants consuming mother milk substitutes prepared with optimally fluoridated water may be at increased risk of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The condition of the poultry industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozioł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Poland is characterized by high dynamics of development and in this regard was placed at the forefront of European Union countries. The main reason for the acceleration and modernization of the industry was the Polish accession to the European Union. Sanitary and veterinary requirements, and rules on the placing of poultry products in the trade, which our country was obliged to fulfill, led to the sector producing products with a high level of security. Rapidly growing domestic demand and foreign markets for Polish products affectes the growth of poultry production. Consumers are attracted primarily by the high quality products and reasonable price, as well as the relatively low cost of production. The industry has become an example of what can grow even in a crisis. As a result of changes occurring in the Polish market, meat and aspecially poultry meat is becoming increasingly important, becoming an essential part of the economy. Forecasts for the poultry industry in 2014 are positive, sae to an anticipated decline in grain prices and a limited supply of pork and beef. This will increase the global and the European Union demand for white meat, due to its nutritional properties and competitive prices.

  14. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of poverty: a challenge for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warzywoda-Kruszyńska Wielisława

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that urban poverty pockets emerged in Poland in the course of the system transformation towards capitalism. The main poverty drivers were the three overlapping processes: de-industrialization, ‘dewelfarization’ and de-institutionalization of the family accompanied by the devolution of social care management from the central to the local government. The enclaves of poverty emerged as a result of better-off residents leaving dilapidated blocks of flats and both spontaneous and deliberate accommodation of poorer citizens in these houses as social housing residents. In these areas, poverty tends to take root and reproduce in subsequent generations. The article is based on a 20-year study carried out in the city of Łódź under the author’s supervision. The article summarizes the findings obtained from three sources: 1 narrative interviews held twice — in 1998 and 2008 — among 90 adults belonging to the subsequent generations of a certain extended family residing in a poverty enclave; 2 73 in-depth interviews with teenage mothers residing in poverty enclaves, 3 a quantitative survey of 500 13-year-old pupils attending schools located in poverty enclaves. The author arrives at the conclusion that poverty enclaves in Łódź resemble neighbourhoods of relegation as conceptualized by Loic Wacquant.

  16. Atmospheric fallout radionuclides in peatland from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz; Łokas, Edyta; Kocurek, Justyna; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-09-01

    Two peat profiles were collected in a peat bog located in Southern Poland and their geochronology were determined using 210 Pb, 238,239+240 Pu and 137 Cs radiometric techniques. The 210 Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the Pu isotopes and 137 Cs time markers. Maximum activities of Pu isotopes were found at a depth corresponding to the early 1960s, which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. The results showed that the 210 Pb method is the most accurate technique for the determination age and accumulation rate of a peat. The next part of this study calculated linear accumulation rates by analyzing 238,239+240 Pu and 137 Cs vertical distributions in the profiles. Activities of fallout isotopes were also measured in plants covering the peatland. The highest activities of 137 Cs and 210 Pb were found in Calluna vulgaris samples, and 239+240 Pu were found only in two samples (C. vulgaris and leaves of Oxycoccus quadripelatus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Road safety in Poland: magnitude, causes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr; Lasota, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most frequent cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions get injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2.2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents epidemiology of road accidents in the period 2004-2015 with particular emphasis on the key issues of road safety in Poland, related to the dangerous behaviour of road users (disregard toward traffic rules). Between years 2004 and 2015 on Polish roads took place more than 508000 accidents with 53155 fatalities and more then 572000 casualties. Despite the various measures which are taken to improve safety on Polish roads, the number of dead and wounded in the vehicle mishap is still large, and losses borne by society are high. To improve safety on Polish roads, it is necessary to continue multi- action plan to systematically progress in the level of road safety.

  18. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  19. Determinants of Debt-Equity Choice – Evidence from Poland

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    Bogna Kazmierska-Jozwiak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of debt-equity choice has so far been widely discussed in literature. The aim of the paper is to analyse the determinants of capital structure of Polish enterprises. We analysed factors that may impact the indebtedness. This analysis fills in the gap in worldwide studies with the case of a country representing the group of „emerging markets”. The paper examines capital structure determinants of non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. We used five independent variables compatible with the up-to-date achievements in the field. The results indicate that there is an evidence of a significant negative relationship between the size of a company, its growth rate, profitability, tangibility and the level of total debt. The study shows positive relationship between growth prospects of the company and the debt level. The results of the study indicate that the pecking order theory better explains the changes in indebtedness of analysed companies than other capital structure theories. Obtained results are mostly consistent with earlier studies conducted in the Poland and with studies in Western economies.

  20. Business History in Poland: Current State and Future Potential

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    Anna Pikos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article explores the gap in the business history literature devoted to Central and Eastern Europe and discusses the potential of conducting business history research in Poland. Methodology: This is an explorative and tentative study based on a recently developed database of 387 Polish companies which are more than 100 years old. Findings: The article explores the reasons behind the lack of business history debate in the Polish academia and discusses its future potential. We argue that given the size of population and a unique historical context, the Polish sample is worth studying as it can provide valuable contributions to well established debates in the field of business history debates covering issues such as continuity, longevity, and survival strategies. Research limitations and implications: This is an explorative and tentative study and therefore has several limitations, including a limited scope of companies included in the database, sources of data, and poor quality of corporate archives. Originality and value: This is the first article explicitly discussing the potential of conducting business history studies in the context of empirical data concerning Polish long-lived companies.

  1. FUNCTIONING OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN OF PORK IN POLAND

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    Elżbieta Jadwiga Szymańska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain is a network of suppliers and customers offering their products or services to the end consumers. The research aimed at recognizing the elements of the supply chain of pork in the area of supply, processing and distribution. The information was primarily sourced by the data storage statistics and chosen meat companies listed among the 2000 largest industries in Poland. The domestic supply chain of pork is characterized by a considerable fragmentation of production, processing and distribution. A signifi cant number of entities and the absence of capital tie-ups between the breeders and the meat industry does not foster durable integration. In order to maintain the profi tability of production, the meat establishments diversify their activities. Entities with large production volume more often cooperate with commercial networks, whereas in case of the smaller ones, these are their own distribution networks that prevail. The leaders in the industry are characterized by a wide range of goods, large-scale production, specialization and a closer integration in the supply chain.

  2. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Fan, Jinghui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Biernacka, Kinga; Stadejek, Tomasz; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples). Sequencing was conducted, and 11 nearly complete PPV6 genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPV6 sequences cluster into four distinct groups, and the Polish PPV6 strains from three individual farms were present in three of these four groups. In addition, the Polish PPV6 strain P15-1 was identified as a putative recombination of an ORF1 from US stains and an ORF2 from Chinese strains. This is the first identification of PPV6 in Europe, and this finding will encourage future epidemiological studies on parvoviruses in European pigs.

  3. Imported cases of dengue in Poland and their diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Marek Tomasz; Gut, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Infections with dengue virus are transmitted by mosquitoes. In tropical areas, it is mainly spread by Aedes aegypti while in countries with lower temperatures by Aedes albopictus. Since 2010, autochthonous cases of dengue are also reported in Europe. There are 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). No correlation between clinical presentation of disease and virus type, however, were determined. Nevertheless, reinfection with different type of DENV may lead to a serious, life-threatening condition. An estimated 100 million persons are infected with dengue virus per year. Of them, approximately a half (mainly children) develop the symptoms of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Fatality is high in case of severe dengue. Dengue is a serious condition provided there is a presence of IgG antibodies directed against antigens of particular DENV serotypes, associated with primary infection caused by different serotype or transferred from infected mother to her child. For adequate dengue laboratory diagnosis, it is required to apply a set of various diagnostic methods. Within the family Flaviviridae, cross-reactivity is reported, which may lead to the occurrence of false-positive results. In Poland, differential diagnosis with different Flavivirus species is of special importance as it is an endemic area for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Thus, data regarding history of patient's immunization against TBE or yellow fever should be also taken into consideration as important in interpretation of results of serological examination.

  4. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  5. DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

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    Joanna Szwacka-Mokrzycka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector, dominated by small and medium enterprises (SME, has been rapidly developing in Poland. Small and medium enterprises are defined as economic entities hiring not more than 250 employees and have turnovers lower than 50 million euros per year. The functioning of small and medium enterprises supports a decrease in unemployment, contributes to introduction of innovative operations and products as well as significantly influences GDP generation. The SME sector faces many barriers limiting their development. They include mainly social, financial and law barriers. Operations of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, Academic Business Incubators and other entities support small entrepreneurship. Recently, marketing in small and medium enterprises has particularly influenced their survival. A marketing programme consists of four elements a product, price, distribution, and promotion and is described as the marketing mix. In the paper, results of research in randomly selected enterprises of the SME sector are presented. The aim of the research was to diagnose a range of marketing operations’ use in these companies. The conducted research displays that marketing activity is used mainly for promotion in the investigated enterprises and to a small extent for managing a product’s portfolio in a firm. 

  6. Inequity in a decentralised education system – evidence from Poland

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    Mikołaj Herbst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation of education is associated with risk of increased spatial inequality in terms of inputs and the quality of service, as with other public services. Most countries attempt to prevent inequality both through establishment of national standards for educational services and the redistribution of financial resources to neutralise the effect of uneven local tax bases. This study investigates the effectiveness of these measures in Poland. Using panel data at a municipal level, it was shown that, despite the various compensatory instruments employed by central government, the local tax base significantly influences local spending on lower secondary schools. Average teaching time and additional services offered to students were compared between the most affluent and the poorest Polish gminas (municipalities. The findings indicated that teaching time did not vary significantly according to prosperity. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean teacher hourly wage. However, more affluent and poorer municipalities differed with respect to individual support and additional services offered to students.

  7. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

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    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  8. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  9. Genetic analysis of poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryk, Ł; Wieczorek, M; Diedrich, S; Böttcher, S; Witek, A; Litwińska, B

    2014-07-01

    The study describes genetic characterization of poliovirus (PV) strains isolated from sewage samples in Poland. The analyses were performed for the detection of any putative polio revertants and recombinants in three genomic regions by sequencing analysis. Thirty-six strains were analyzed. The analyzed strains were identified by neutralization assay as 7 strains of serotype P1, 10 strains of serotype P2, and 19 strains of serotype P3. Sewage isolates were sequenced in 5'UTR, VP1, and 3D genomic regions. All detected PVs were classified as vaccine strains on the basis of VP1 sequence. Mutational differences in the VP1 sequences of isolated viruses ranged from 0.0% to 0.4%, indicating a limited replication period. The genetic analysis of the 3D region showed that some strains have recombinant genomes. Nine strains were found as dipartite recombinants (seven strains--S3/S2, one strain--S2/S1, one strain--S3/S1), while one strain was found as tripartite recombinant (S3/S2/S1). No recombinants with non-PV enteroviruses were identified. None of wild-type PVs or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were detected. This study showed the absence of wild or VDPV circulation in the country and demonstrated the usefulness of environmental surveillance in addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in support of polio eradication initiatives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diversity of agrocoenoses in the Lublin region, Poland

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    Mariola Staniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lublin region, one of the main agricultural regions in Poland, has very favorable conditions for agricultural production but the development of the agricultural sector has been very slow there. This is due, among other factors, to the extensive farming used on large areas and the fragmentation of fields with numerous fragments of natural ecosystems. In Lublin Province, cereals comprise the highest proportion of the crop structure, especially wheat, but farmers also often cultivate maize, oilseed rape, sugar beet, and legumes for consumption. The biological diversity of agricultural areas is enhanced by growing traditional plant species and varieties. Crop species are accompanied by segetal weeds, sometimes very expansive, sometimes rare and endangered by extinction. In recent years, the following have been the dominant weed species in the region’s crop fields: Galium aparine, Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, and Veronica persica. However, there are several locations of occurrence of Muscari comosum (a strictly protected species and the following unique species: Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Caucalis platycarpos, Galium tricornutum, and Thymelaea passerina. In Lublin Province, there are many organic farms which contribute to the significant diversity of agricultural plant communities. In this review, we also indicate the biocoenotic role of weeds and their importance in the proper maintenance of agroecosystems and ecosystem services.

  11. PRESENTATION OF STATE SUPPORT (GRANTS IN ACCOUNTING POLICY OF POLAND

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    K. Zuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since admission of Poland to the European Union Polish enterprises can make use of the state support in various forms including support in investments, investigations and developments, consulting, higher qualification, financing of exhibition participation, salary additional payments for invalid workers, repayment of loan portions. The purpose of the given publication is to make an analysis of accounting method for state support which is granted for an organization within the frameworks of the accounting policy depending on the obtained grants.Enterprises must select themselves a grant accounting form as in account books so while presenting financial reporting and these accounting and reporting forms must be reflected in the enterprise policy of accounting. The enterprise accounting policy indicates principles for creation of reserves and conditional obligations related with grants. Enterprises can use some simplifications and they can exclude creation of reserves and withhold conditional obligations concerning the grants if these measures are considered as insignificant.In accordance with the enterprise accounting policy account books must contain recordings on grant provision when a grant is transferred to the bank account or when an enterprise receives a written notice confirming final decision about payments from a financing institution. The accounting policy must determine principles of bank operation break-up on grant accounts and security system of data and files including accounting documents, accounts and other documents related to the obtained grant and the required archivation term

  12. Perception of Women in Top Managerial Positions in Poland

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    Anna Górska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the pilot study was to fnd out whether the perception of candidates for leadership positions differs along with the gender of the candidate in Poland. Methodology: In order to answer the question, the author has conducted a preliminary experiment on 50 MBA students, which were experienced in recruitment. Two identical CVs were randomly distributed among the participants, with either a male or female version of the CV. Basing on the provided information, respondents were to decide on among others hireability, likeability and offered income to the given candidate. Findings: The experiment revealed that the female candidate for the CEO position was perceived and evaluated differently than the male candidate. Thus, the experiment indicated that gender inequality may already appear at the phase of recruitment for higher positions. Originality: The presented study analyzed perceptions of experienced recruiters, which may suggest that such behaviors and patters may be repeated in a non-laboratory environment. Limitations: A limitation of the pilot study is the low number of participants and therefore further research should be conducted.

  13. Detection of changes in flow regime of rivers in Poland

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    Wrzesiński Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to detect changes in flow regime of rivers in Poland. On the basis of daily discharges recorded in 1951-2010 at 159 gauging stations located on 94 rivers regularities in the variability of the river flow characteristics in the multi-year period and in the annual cycle were identified and also their spatial uniformity was examined. In order to identify changes in the characteristics of river regime, similarities of empirical distribution functions of the 5-day sets (pentads of discharges were analyzed and the percent shares of similar and dissimilar distributions of the 5-day discharge frequencies in the successive 20-year sub-periods were compared with the average values of discharges recorded in 1951-2010. Three alternative methods of river classification were employed and in the classification procedure use was made of the Ward’s hierarchical clustering method. This resulted in identification of groups of rivers different in terms of the degree of transformation of their hydrological regimes in the multi-year and annual patterns.

  14. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Kicia, Marta; Wesołowska, Maria; Kopacz, Żaneta; Gorczykowski, Michał; Szczepankiewicz, Barbara; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-11-15

    This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes D and PtEbIX) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, respectively. Of the 44 cats, 4 (9.1%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes PtEbIX and eb52). Additionally, one cat (2.3%) was concurrently infected with E. bieneusi (PtEbIX) and E. cuniculi (genotype II). Considering that all detected microsporidia in dogs and cats have been previously associated with human microsporidiosis, companion animals may be a potential source of microsporidia infections in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Administrative Appeals in Romania and Poland - A Topical Comparative Perspective

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    Dacian C. DRAGOŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of administrative appeal and analyzes how the appeal functions in two different jurisdictions: Poland and Romania. The authors start by providing information on the nature of the administrative appeal (mandatory or not, deadlines for exercising it, suspensive effect for the action in court etc. All these aspects are examined from a comparative perspective. The aim of the comparative perspective is to highlight that currently the European national systems are fluid and continuously changing; in addition, the goal is to identify best practices that could be transferred from one system to the other. One of the key topics addressed in the context of this theme refers to the relationship that exists between the administrative appeal and the action in court. Authors try to answer the question whether the citizens’ access to justice is breached in cases when the appeal is mandatory. The authors also discuss the fact that very often a mandatory appeal can lead to a high number of cases being solved outside the courts.

  16. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

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    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  17. Radiation technique in conservation of antique objects - achievement in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the progress of the radiation technique in conservation of antique objects in Poland was presented. From two, quite different problems: radiation's disinfection or consolidation, only the first one was applied in our country. The technique of radiation disinfection and desinsection was applied only in the nine cases, in spite of numerous propaganda's information's and advertisement's actions. It were both wooden antiques (altars, sculptures, furniture), sandstone sculpture and prison footwear. In the first case it was connected with destruction of the wood's pest, in the second with bacteria which were destroying of the object inside and in the third with the elimination of the moulds, fungus and bacteria. Differ dose of gamma radiation was applied, depending on the kind and size of initial infection. The time of the operation depended on the quality of the dose rate which was connected first of all with the size and shape of the object. Decisive significance for obtained values of irregular distribution absorbed radiation dose had the type of the material in which the object was done and it's size. (author)

  18. Importance of hard coal in electricity generation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Franciszek; Strozik, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Polish energy sector is facing a number of challenges, in particular as regards the reconstruction of production potential, diversification of energy sources, environmental issues, adequate fuels supplies and other. Mandatory implementation of Europe 2020 strategy in terms of “3x20” targets (20% reduction of greenhouse gases, 20% of energy from renewable sources, and 20% increase of efficiency in energy production) requires fast decision, which have to be coordinated with energetic safety issues, increasing demands for electric energy, and other factors. In Poland almost 80% of power is installed in coal fired power plants and energy from hard coals is relatively less expensive than from other sources, especially renewable. The most of renewable energy sources power plants are unable to generate power in amounts which can be competitive with coal fires power stations and are highly expensive, what leads o high prices of electric energy. Alternatively, new generation of coal fired coal power plants is able to significantly increase efficiency, reduce carbon dioxide emission, and generate less expensive electric power in amounts adequate to the demands of a country.

  19. Liquidity Analysis of Innovative and Traditional Businesses in Poland

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    Monika Bolek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the liquidity of Polish non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, dividing them into two groups: companies with the intangible to fixed assets ratio higher than the median, deemed to be innovative businesses, and companies with the intangible to fixed assets ratio lower than the median, deemed to be traditional businesses. Our results show that liquidity management is different in these two groups when analyzing the cash conversion cycle, the current and quick ratios, and liquid assets. The authors use data representing the Polish economy on the assumption that it can be considered a model one for other developing countries. Poland is at the beginning of this road, completing its systemic transformation after 20 years of efforts, as society has been building an innovation-based economy. Skills in the field of financial management will have to be developed as data analysis described in this paper reveals poor liquidity management. The authors will follow the development of the Polish economy (called a European tiger to show how it has changed over time.

  20. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPETITIVENESS OF FARMS IN POLAND

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    Anna Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the competitiveness of the regional diversity of farms in Poland. The study was conducted on a sample of commodity holdings participating in the Polish FADN in 16 voivodeships for the years 2010–2012. The study was based on indicators of competitiveness in terms of production factors and results. Research shows that labour resources and the eff ectiveness of their use are important aspects of regional diversity of competitiveness of farms. In regions where this factor is present in excess (Małopolskie, Świętokrzyskie, Mazowieckie, Łódzkie and Lubelskie voivodeships, labor productivity was relatively low. These regions are also characterized by lower production potential expressed by the agricultural area of an average farm. The greatest competitive advantages in terms of production profi tability were achieved by farms in Dolnośląskie voivodeship, where there were also some of the highest rates of profi tability of assets.