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Sample records for poland flowering dates

  1. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  2. The mangosteen flowering date model in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand

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    Poontarasa OUNLERT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the economically important fruits of Thailand. Recent studies show that the climatic variability affects the flowering period of tropical fruit trees. The objectives of this study are: 1 to investigate the correlation between climatic factors (in particular with, rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and dry period before flowering and mangosteen flowering date and 2 to develop the poisson regression model to predict the flowering date of mangosteen in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. This model is useful in guiding farmers to manage mangosteen orchards. The results showed that the rainfall, the maximum and minimum temperatures, the relative humidity, and the dry period before flowering dates affect mangosteen flowering dates. The model which will be used as a guideline for mangosteen flowering date prediction was log(μ=10.85+0.0001x1-0.0564x2-0.0634x3-0.0232x4+0.0003x5 where μ where is the mean of mangosteen flowering date, x1 is rainfall, x2 is maximum temperature, x3 is minimum temperature, x4 is relative humidity, and x5 is dry period before flowering date.

  3. Male Specific Gene Expression in Dioecious Phoenix Dactylifera (Date Palm) Tree at Flowering Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ameri, A. A.; Al-Qurainy, F.; Gaafar, A. R. Z.; Khan, S.; Nadeem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is a long-living and evergreen important tree in the semiarid regions. Its fruit is rich in carbohydrate and fibres. Transcriptional profiling was compared among male and female trees of dioecious date palm at flowering stage. Male specific genes are expressed at flowering stage which was studied using the cDNA-SCoT marker. We developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of size 253 bp from male tree based on cDNA-SCoT fingerprinting. Further, developed SCAR marker was validated on the independently collected samples of both types of trees at flowering stage. The unique and specific band (253 bp) was amplified from male samples only whereas it was absent from female samples. (author)

  4. The radiocarbon dating of the neolithic flint mines at Krzemionki in central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babel, J.; Braziewicz, J.; JaskoIa, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.; Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.

    2005-01-01

    Ten samples taken from wooden torches and small fireplaces discovered at the Krzemionki neolithic flint mine localized in central Poland were dated using the AMS facility at Erlangen University. The radiocarbon results points two main periods of exploitation of studied mines, i.e. approximately to 3500-3100 BC and to 3100-2900 BC. The results are discussed in the aspect of the mine chronology. The new radiocarbon dates confirm the previous radiocarbon data obtained from other mine units in this part of the Krzemionki mine complex

  5. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

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    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  6. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  7. Increasing frost risk associated with advanced citrus flowering dates in Kerman and Shiraz, Iran: 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M; Grab, Stefan W; Thompson, Dave I; Roshan, Gholamreza

    2014-10-01

    Flowering dates and the timing of late season frost are both driven by local ambient temperatures. However, under climatic warming observed over the past century, it remains uncertain how such impacts affect frost risk associated with plant phenophase shifts. Any increase in frost frequency or severity has the potential to damage flowers and their resultant yields and, in more extreme cases, the survival of the plant. An accurate assessment of the relationship between the timing of last frost events and phenological shifts associated with warmer climate is thus imperative. We investigate spring advances in citrus flowering dates (orange, tangerine, sweet lemon, sour lemon and sour orange) for Kerman and Shiraz, Iran from 1960 to 2010. These cities have experienced increases in both T max and T min, advances in peak flowering dates and changes in last frost dates over the study period. Based on daily instrumental climate records, the last frost dates for each year are compared with the peak flowering dates. For both cities, the rate of last frost advance lags behind the phenological advance, thus increasing frost risk. Increased frost risk will likely have considerable direct impacts on crop yields and on the associated capacity to adapt, given future climatic uncertainty.

  8. Performance of a New Model for Predicting End of Flowering Date (bbch 69) of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The end of flowering date (BBCH 69) is an important phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.), in fact up to this date the growth is focused on the plant and gradually passes on the berries through fruit set. The aim of this study is to perform a model to predict the date of the end of flowering (BBCH69) for some grapevine varieties. This research carried out using three cultivars of grapevine (Maceratino, Montepulciano, Sangiovese) in three different locations (Macerata, Morrovalle and Potenza Picena), places of an equal number of wine farms for the time interval between 2006 and 2013. In order to have reliable temperatures for each location, the data of 6 weather stations near these farms have been interpolated using cokriging methods with elevation as independent variable. The procedure to predict the end of flowering date starts with an investigation of cardinal temperatures typical of each grapevine cultivar. In fact the analysis is characterized by four temperature thresholds (cardinals): minimum activity temperature (TCmin = below this temperature there is no growth for the plant), lower optimal temperature (TLopt = above this temperature there is maximum growth), upper optimal temperature (TUopt = below this temperature there is maximum growth) and maximum activity temperature (TC max = above this temperature there is no growth). Thus this model take into consideration maximum, mean and minimum daily temperatures of each location, relating them with the four above mentioned cultivar temperature thresholds. In this way it has been obtained some possible cases (32) corresponding to as many equations, depending on the position of temperatures compared with the thresholds, in order to calculate the amount of growing degree units (GDU) for each day. Several iterative tests (about 1000 for each cultivar) have been performed, changing the values of temperature thresholds and GDU in order to find the best possible combination which minimizes error

  9. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

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    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  10. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

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    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  11. Seasonal Prediction of Regional Surface Air Temperature and First-flowering Date in South Korea using Dynamical Downscaling

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    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal prediction of both the surface air temperature and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface air temperature data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (daily) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected daily temperature predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean temperature for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional temperature by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and

  12. Genetic and anatomical analysis of normal and abnormal flowers of date palm cultivar barhy derived from offshoot and tissue culture

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    Shair, O.H.

    2016-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis between 6 normal flower producing offshoot derived and 6 abnormal multiple carpel, flower producing tissue culture (TC) derived trees of cultivar (cv.) Barhy, was performed with the objective to check genetic variation if any at DNA level. DNA samples were extracted from pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both sets of plants. Amplified RAPD products were clearly detected with 30 primers used in this experiment but only 3 gave a few polymorphic bands which shows low level of genetic variation among the offshoot and TC derived plants. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed close genomic similarity among the 12 DNA samples with the range of 0.486-0.904 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. The average similarity among the 12 DNA samples was more than 50%. Floral abnormalities in TC derived plants were also studied microscopically. Abnormalities like more than three carpel development, abnormal ovule development and deformities of style and stigma were observed. The results show that the composition and the abnormalities of flowers in TC derived plants of cultivar Barhy may be attributed to epigenetic changes that takes place at different stages of tissue culture and not due to major changes at DNA level. (author)

  13. The effect of organic fertilizers and different sowing dates on yield and yield components of flower and grain of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

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    P Rezvani moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out suitable organic fertilizers for elimination of chemical fertilizers usage and the optimum sowing date in Pot Marigold cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2007 growing season. For this purpose a split plot experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main factor consist of four different fertilizers (50 kg.ha-1 N, 40 t.ha-1 Cow manure, 20 t.ha-1 Compost fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 Hen manure beside control (without fertilizer and three sowing dates (10th April, 1th May and 21th May were allocated as sub factor. The results showed that the length time of emergence to budding, budding to flowering and flowering to ripening decreased by delay in sowing date, significantly. By delay in sowing date, plant height and dry matter also decreased because of reduction of vegetative growing duration. The various fertilizers had not significant effect on developmental stages and morphological characteristics of Pot Marigold. Nitrogen fertilizer and Hen manure in compare of other treatments had significantly (p≤0.05 higher level in number of inflorescences, yield of inflorescences, yield of petal and seed yield. Thus, Hen manure can be a suitable replacement of chemical fertilizers in Pot Marigold cultivation. The various sowing dates showed significant effect on the most measured characteristics of seed and inflorescences yield components of Pot Marigold. The highest of all studied characteristics were obtained in 10th April and 1th May than 21th May sowing dates.

  14. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Genetic determinism of phenological traits highly affected by climate change in Prunus avium: flowering date dissected into chilling and heat requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; García, José Quero; Le Dantec, Loïck; Lafargue, Maria; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the genetic determinism of flowering date (FD), dissected into chilling (CR) and heat (HR) requirements. Elucidation of the genetic determinism of flowering traits is crucial to anticipate the increasing of ecological misalignment of adaptative traits with novel climate conditions in most temperate-fruit species. CR and HR were evaluated over 3 yr and FD over 5 yr in an intraspecific sweet cherry (Prunus avium) F1 progeny, and FD over 6 yr in a different F1 progeny. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) with major effect and high stability between years of evaluation was detected for CR and FD in the same region of linkage group (LG) 4. For HR, no stable QTL was detected. Candidate genes underlying the major QTL on LG4 were investigated and key genes were identified for CR and FD. Phenotypic dissection of FD and year repetitions allowed us to identify CR as the high heritable component of FD and a high genotype × environment interaction for HR. QTLs for CR reported in this study are the first described in this species. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of genes involved in CR and FD in sweet cherry which could be used to develop ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions. © 2014 INRA. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Effects of Sowing Date, Planting Pattern and Nitrogen Levels on Leaf and Flower Essential Oil, Yield and Component Yield Grain of Buckwheat (Fagopyroum esculentum Moench

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    M. R Sobhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Buckwheat which has been scientifically named Fagopyrum esculentum can be considered as a yearling broad-leaved plant belonging to the family of Polygonaceae which is known as false Cereal. Its seeds are in use as a nutritional and medicinal product that is due to the rutin content of them. As the population is rapidly increasing worldwide, a solution must be found to supply necessary food. What agriculture science is responsible for is to produce more products with better quality in order to meet this increasing population’s needs so that food poverty and starvation are more likely to be removed and keep food safety. Considering the fact that buckwheat is of a variety of medical, industrial and food applications and in our country and some other ones, it has not been seriously cultivated, this plant must be used as a new plant and it should be extensively applied in multiple planting systems (summer planting for commercial goals through producing seeds while its nutritional value is more than grain and it can be regarded as a rich source of high quality protein, amino acid necessary for lysine, high starch percent, minerals and vitamins for different applications involving cake flour, frumenty and soup and improving the optimal rate of rutin as a secondary metabolite having effective medical features concerning our country’s climatic conditions. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of sowing date, planting patterns and nitrogen on leaf and flower rutin, yield and yield component of Buckwheat plant, a field study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Agricultural Research Institute of Arak, Iran. The experimental design was regarded as the randomized complete block design in the form of split plot factorial with three replications. Planting treatments as the fundamental elements may be implemented at two levels including the mounds with the width of 50 cm associated with two planting rows regarding the

  17. Remarks about the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”

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    Michał Kokowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discuses the Bill of 23 March 2017 of the “Directive of the Minister of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland, dated ………… 2017”. It indicates serious flaws of this Bill regarding legislation and the science of science (including bibliometrics, and proposes significant amendments to the content of the provisions of this Directive.

  18. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  19. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  3. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  9. APPLICATION OF LiDAR DATE TO ASSESS THE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD – AN EXAMPLE FROM PODHALE REGION (SOUTHERN POLAND

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    M. Kamiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  10. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  11. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  12. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb apatite dating of Lower Cretaceous rocks from teschenite-picrite association in the Silesian Unit (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa Krzysztof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main products of volcanic activity in the teschenite-picrite association (TPA are shallow, sub-volcanic intrusions, which predominate over extrusive volcanic rocks. They comprise a wide range of intrusive rocks which fall into two main groups: alkaline (teschenite, picrite, syenite, lamprophyre and subalkaline (dolerite. Previous 40Ar/39Ar and 40K/40Ar dating of these rocks in the Polish Outer Western Carpathians, performed on kaersutite, sub-silicic diopside, phlogopite/biotite as well as on whole rock samples has yielded Early Cretaceous ages. Fluorapatite crystals were dated by the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method to obtain the age of selected magmatic rocks (teschenite, lamprophyre from the Cieszyn igneous province. Apatite-bearing samples from Boguszowice, Puńców and Lipowa yield U-Pb ages of 103± 20 Ma, 119.6 ± 3.2 Ma and 126.5 ± 8.8 Ma, respectively. The weighted average age for all three samples is 117.8 ± 7.3 Ma (MSWD = 2.7. The considerably smaller dispersion in the apatite ages compared to the published amphibole and biotite ages is probably caused by the U-Pb system in apatite being less susceptible to the effects of hydrothermal alternation than the 40Ar/39Ar or 40K/40Ar system in amphibole and/or biotite. Available data suggest that volcanic activity in the Silesian Basin took place from 128 to 103 Ma with the the main magmatic phase constrained to 128-120 Ma.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  8. Simulação de florescimento e da produção de milho através do modelo CERES: maize Mayze yeld and flowering date simulation by using CERES: Maize Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Maurício Paglis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização dos computadores na agricultura tem trazido inúmeros benefícios ao empresário rural. Entre tais benefícios, a utilização de programas de computador para simular o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas; bem como o seu uso na otimização de práticas culturais, tem se mostrado como uma opção. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o programa CERES-Maize na simulação do florescimento e produção de milho (Zea mays L., em diferentes cenários de investimento. Os resultados das simulações com o programa CERES-Maize mostraram que as diferenças entre as produções simuladas, comparadas com os dados obtidos em campo, estão entre os limites de 5% a 8% de erro, aceitáveis pelo programa. A mesma tendência foi verificada entre os valores observados e simulados para os dias de florescimento, em todos os cenarios. O programa CERES-Maize mostrou-se bastante robusto e eficiente nas simulações efetuadas. O uso desse programa pode ser visto como uma ferramenta adicional ao produtor no processo decisório, durante o planejamento da implantação da cultura.The use of computers in agriculture has brought several benefits to the farmers. Among these benefits, the use of crop models to simulate plant growth and development, as well as a tool for optimization process and decision support aid, has been an option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Ceres-Maize model to simulate maize flowering date and yield at different investment scenarios. Simulation results showed that the difference between simulated and observed yield data were in the 5% and 8% error range, acceptable for the program. The same tendency was observed when comparing flowering dates in all scenarios. The model was very efficient and suitable for all of the simulations performed. Without any doubt CERES-Maize may be used as a tool, by farmers, in the crop planning process.

  9. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  10. Bees substitute birds in pollination of ornitogamous climber Campsis radicans (L. Seem. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kołodziejska-Degórska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campsis radicans is an attractive climber with typical ornitogamous flowers, native to North America. In natural conditions this out-crossed plant is pollinated mostly by hummingbirds. In Poland, where C. radicans is cultivated as ornamental, it rarely sets seeds. The questions addressed in the present study were: (1 What animals pollinate its flowers in Poland?, and (2 What is the reason for infrequent fruit set? Field studies conducted in five localities in Poland showed that the principal pollinator is Apis mellifera, and the lack of seeds is usually caused by pollinator limitation or absence of genetically different pollen donor plants.

  11. From South to North: flowering phenological responses at different geographical latitudes in 12 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Lehoczky, Annamária; Filzmoser, Peter; Templ, Matthias; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pongrácz, Rita; Ortner, Thomas; Mert, Can; Czúcz, Bálint

    2014-05-01

    Phenological sensitivity of plants strongly depends on regional climate variability, moreover it is also influenced by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Plants in different environmental conditions (determined by geographical latitude and longitude, altitude, continentality) may show diverse responses to climate change. The first results of an international cooperation aiming at the analysis of plant phenological data along a latitudinal gradient over 12 European countries (Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland) are presented. The spatio-temporal changes in the flowering onset dates of common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) during the period of 1970-2000 were analysed. To characterise the environmental conditions driving the phenological responses, climatic variables (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, precipitation) obtained from a gridded observational dataset (E-OBS 9.0) and time series of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index were used. Preliminary results for this particular species found a gradual advance of mean flowering onsets along latitudes from 40° N to 65° N, at the rate of -0.12 to -0.32 day/year. Significant zonal differences were found in these rates, which can be explained by the sensitivity of flowering to climatic conditions while moving from Mediterranen to boreal regions of Europe. Thus our results were coherent with most observations in the literature, that higher latitudes can exhibit more pronounced responses, particularly in case of spring phenological events.

  12. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  13. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  14. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  15. Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flo, Víctor; Bosch, Jordi; Arnan, Xavier; Primante, Clara; Martín González, Ana M; Barril-Graells, Helena; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2018-01-01

    Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2) To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition. We monitored weekly flowering patterns in a Mediterranean scrubland community (23 species) over 8 years. Floral resource availability was estimated based on field measures of pollen and nectar production per flower. We analysed inter-annual variation in flowering phenology (duration and date of peak bloom) and flower production, and inter-annual and monthly variability in flower, pollen and nectar species composition. We also investigated potential phylogenetic effects on inter-annual variability of flowering patterns. We found dramatic variation in yearly flower production both at the species and community levels. There was also substantial variation in flowering phenology. Importantly, yearly fluctuations were far from synchronous across species, and resulted in significant changes in floral resources availability and composition at the community level. Changes were especially pronounced late in the season, at a time when flowers are scarce and pollinator visitation rates are particularly high. We discuss the consequences of our findings for pollinator visitation and plant reproductive success in the current scenario of climate change.

  16. Flowering dynamics, nectar secretion and insect visitation of Phacelia campanularia A. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wróblewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006, flowering dynamics and nectar secretion of Phacelia campanularia A. Gray flowers as well as the insect visitation rate were studied in the climatic conditions of Lublin, Poland. The flowering of phacelia started in the middle of June and lasted for 1.5 up to 2 months. Full bloom occurred between the third and fifth week of the flowering period of this taxon. For the study period, the average weight of nectar produced by 10 flowers was 75.64 mg, weight of sugars 11.31 mg, while their concentration in the nectar was 20.2%. Among the entomofauna foraging on the flowers of phacelia, honey bees were predominant, with their proportion among the pollinators accounting for 84.8%.

  17. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  18. An Apology for Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Prompting critical reflection on the common claim that flowers are always symbolic of female sexuality, the present article intends to explore symbolic roles of flowers in Persian literature and provide examples, mainly from Persian poetry, with the aim of refuting the claim. The writer, in fact, attempts to highlight overshadowed facets of flower symbolism by overshadowing carnal and ignoble readings of it. The reason why Persian literature has come into the focus of this study is that flowe...

  19. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  20. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  1. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  2. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  3. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  4. The development of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. in Polish conditions. II. Flowering and fruiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive development of tomatillo (husk tomato was investigated in the conditions of central Poland. The developmental cycle of tomatillo in Poland lasts 20-23 weeks, including 6 weeks in a greenhouse or a tunnel and is longer than in Mexico (15 weeks. The plant grows well in Poland and is fruiting aboundantly. The cv. Rendidora B1 was early fruiting and sensitive to drought so it should be cultivated in a garden. Cvs Bujna and Antocyjanowa were medium late or late and suitable for open-field cultivation. Fruit development lasts about 6 weeks. Fruiting was concentrated on the apparent lateral branches of the 1st and 2nd order during the large part of a vegetative season. Among the abscised generative organs predominated flowers and at the end of vegetative season the flower buds. The maximum abscission of flower buds and flowers took place about 2-4 weeks after the most intensive flowering and fruit set. The fruits of many individuals are easily cracking. After being abscised they are attacked frequently by Botrytis sp.

  5. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  6. PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELZER, A

    1965-04-01

    In the past few years medical education in Poland has undergone considerable change, particularly at the graduate and postgraduate levels, and has shown increasing Western influences. On the negative side, a physician who was trained in pre-war Poland and is now in the United States, noted mass production of physicians with modest clinical facilities and the preponderance of didactic lecturing over semi-individual instruction-conditions rather characteristic of most European medical schools. On the positive side were well-informed, up-to-date faculties and the thoughtful planning and organization of graduate and postgraduate medical education. The overall impression was a favorable one, but the system of schooling and of evaluation of students' work made it possible for indifferent students to progress to licensure.

  7. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  8. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  9. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  10. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  11. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  12. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  13. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  14. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  15. Influence of Irradiated Chitosan on Growth and Flower Quality of Gladiolus at Different Sowing Dates and Synthesis of Radiation Cross-Linked Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel for Agriculture Applications. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, U.; Ahmed, N. [Department of Horticulture, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Zahid, S.; Yashin, T., E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The plant growth promoter activity of irradiated chitosan on Gladiolus hortulanus cv. Amsterdam was studied. Chitosan was applied in the form of foliar spray at third leaf stage. Corms were sown at three different dates with 15-day intervals. Data on several parameters such as survival percentage, leaf area, plant height, number of florets per spike, and vase life were collected. Chitosan-treated plants showed superior results as compared to the control samples. Acrylic acid-based superabsorbent hydrogel was prepared using phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES) as cross-linker. Different amounts of PTES were incorporated and irradiated at different doses of up to a maximum of 30 kGy. The cross-linked acrylic acid showed hydrogel properties, and its swelling kinetics, gel fraction, and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) were studied. The swelling of hydrogel was also affected by pH, ionic strength, and temperature. These hydrogels can be further explored as a super water absorbent material in semi-arid and drought prone areas. (author)

  16. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  17. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  18. Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Flo

    Full Text Available Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1 To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2 To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition. We monitored weekly flowering patterns in a Mediterranean scrubland community (23 species over 8 years. Floral resource availability was estimated based on field measures of pollen and nectar production per flower. We analysed inter-annual variation in flowering phenology (duration and date of peak bloom and flower production, and inter-annual and monthly variability in flower, pollen and nectar species composition. We also investigated potential phylogenetic effects on inter-annual variability of flowering patterns. We found dramatic variation in yearly flower production both at the species and community levels. There was also substantial variation in flowering phenology. Importantly, yearly fluctuations were far from synchronous across species, and resulted in significant changes in floral resources availability and composition at the community level. Changes were especially pronounced late in the season, at a time when flowers are scarce and pollinator visitation rates are particularly high. We discuss the consequences of our findings for pollinator visitation and plant reproductive success in the current scenario of climate change.

  19. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andrée; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images PMID:16661844

  20. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  1. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  2. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  4. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  5. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  6. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  7. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  9. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  11. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  13. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  14. A model for photothermal responses of flowering in rice. II. Model evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Kropff, M.J.; Nakagawa, H.; Horie, T.; Goudriaan, J.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear model, the 3s-Beta model, for photothermal responses of flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was evaluated for predicting rice flowering date in field conditions. This model was compared with other three models: a three-plane linear model and two nonlinear models, viz, the

  15. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  16. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  17. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  18. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  19. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  20. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  2. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  3. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  4. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  5. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  6. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  8. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  9. Conservation and diversification of QTGs involved in photoperiodic flowering between rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eMatsubara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L. is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod, and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs, including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17 and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding.

  10. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  11. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... important export production in cut flower is carnation and it consists of 89% of cut flower export. ... irrigation management in arid and semi-arid regions will shift from emphasizing ..... Handbook of Plant and Crop. Stress (Ed: M.

  12. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  13. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  14. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  15. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  16. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  18. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  19. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  20. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  1. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  2. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  3. Poland's energy, a special case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Poland, the sixth member state in terms of population (39 million inhabitants) and with the eighth largest GDP in the EU, stands out more and more clearly on the environmental front, especially as far as energy is concerned. One of the reasons may be that in terms of GDP/capita Poland comes only 23 out of 27... The only European economy to have grown every year over the last twenty years, it has given higher priority than elsewhere to promoting growth, to production cost reduction and to limiting increases in consumer prices. (author)

  4. The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP, and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO, is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs, but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a. Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1, is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1 in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E, as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.

  5. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  6. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  7. The steps to forming a joint venture IPP in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Z.; Colligan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Poland represents the largest market in Central Europe with 38 million people and an installed electrical generating capacity of about 32 gigawatts. Since 1989, when the process of governmental restructuring along free market principals began, the allure to IPP developers has been evident, but is of yet unrealized. The natural model for IPP development in Poland would seem to be joint ventures with Polish generating companies. These enterprises already have sites, franchises, and a going business to contribute to a joint company. There are a number of reasons why so few deals have been concluded in Poland to date, and a number of barriers still exist that tend to hamper the realization of project finance funded power joint ventures. But, these barriers are not insurmountable. Overcoming them in the context of a joint venture relationship with a domestic partner requires patience, work, and an ability to bridge the gaps between the realities of working in a post-Communist environment and the practicalities of structuring projects that can be financed in the international capital markets. The new Energy Law in Poland establishes a framework for a viable private sector power generation business. But the enabling regulations are yet to be published or approved. There is still effective political risk on account of the uncertainty this creates. Pressure is mounting on the Polish Government, especially due to its expressed interest in joining the EU, to get the power sector to operate on private sector terms, if not in private hands. The trends are pointing in the direction of increased market driven policies and practices. The conclusion is that, despite the delays of the past, independent power projects will start to happen in Poland on a joint venture basis, with increasing frequency in the next years.

  8. Phenotypic selection on flowering phenology and pollination efficiency traits between Primula populations with different pollinator assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Li, Qing-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Floral traits have largely been attributed to phenotypic selection in plant-pollinator interactions. However, the strength of this link has rarely been ascertained with real pollinators. We conducted pollinator observations and estimated selection through female fitness on flowering phenology and floral traits between two Primula secundiflora populations. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection by subtracting estimates of selection gradients of plants receiving supplemental hand pollination from those of plants receiving open pollination. There was net directional selection for an earlier flowering start date at populations where the dominant pollinators were syrphid flies, and flowering phenology was also subjected to stabilized quadratic selection. However, a later flowering start date was significantly selected at populations where the dominant pollinators were legitimate (normal pollination through the corolla tube entrance) and illegitimate bumblebees (abnormal pollination through nectar robbing hole which located at the corolla tube), and flowering phenology was subjected to disruptive quadratic selection. Wider corolla tube entrance diameter was selected at both populations. Furthermore, the strength of net directional selection on flowering start date and corolla tube entrance diameter was stronger at the population where the dominant pollinators were syrphid flies. Pollinator-mediated selection explained most of the between-population variations in the net directional selection on flowering phenology and corolla tube entrance diameter. Our results suggested the important influence of pollinator-mediated selection on floral evolution. Variations in pollinator assemblages not only resulted in variation in the direction of selection but also the strength of selection on floral traits.

  9. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication

    OpenAIRE

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs i...

  10. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  11. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  12. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  13. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  14. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  15. Will phenotypic plasticity affecting flowering phenology keep pace with climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce A; Chaney, Lindsay; Shaw, Nancy L; Still, Shannon M

    2017-06-01

    Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity can accommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extent and variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to late November among gardens. Mixed-effects modeling explained 79% of variation in flowering date, of which 46% could be assigned to plasticity and genetic variation in plasticity and 33% to genetics (conditional R 2  = 0.79, marginal R 2  = 0.33). Two environmental variables that explained the genetic variation were photoperiod and the onset of spring, the Julian date of accumulating degree-days >5 °C reaching 100. The genetic variation was mapped for contemporary and future climates (decades 2060 and 2090), showing flower date change varies considerably across the landscape. Plasticity was estimated to accommodate, on average, a ±13-day change in flowering date. However, the examination of genetic variation in plasticity suggests that the magnitude of plasticity could be affected by variation in the sensitivity to photoperiod and temperature. In a warmer common garden, lower-latitude populations have greater plasticity (+16 days) compared to higher-latitude populations (+10 days). Mapped climatypes of flowering date for contemporary and future climates illustrate the wide breadth of plasticity and large geographic overlap. Our research highlights the importance of integrating information on genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity and climatic niche modeling to evaluate plant responses and elucidate vulnerabilities to climate change. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the

  16. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  17. Democratizing Education: A Case Study of Inclusive Schooling for Students with Special Needs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Jolanta; Winzer, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the democratization of education in the post-socialist space through an examination of inclusive schooling for students with special needs in Poland. It embeds the inclusive education reform and its attendant policies and practices within the political and social transitions that essentially dated from 1989 and saw Poland…

  18. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  19. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  20. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  1. Increasing temperature causes flowering onset time changes of alpine ginger Roscoea in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmalingam Mohandass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent herbarium-based phenology assessments of many plant species have found significant responses to global climate change over the previous century. In this study, we investigate how the flowering phenology of three alpine ginger Roscoea species responses to climate change over the century from 1913 to 2011, by comparing between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. According to the observations, flowering onset of the three alpine ginger species occurred either 22 days earlier or was delayed by 8–30 days when comparing the mean peak flowering date between herbarium-based phenology records and direct flowering observations. It is likely that this significant change in flowering onset is due to increased annual minimum and maximum temperatures and mean annual temperature by about 0.053°C per year. Our results also show that flowering time changes occurred due to an increasing winter–spring minimum temperature and monsoon minimum temperature, suggesting that these Roscoea species respond greatly to climate warming resulting in changes on flowering times.

  2. [Measles in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2005-01-01

    In Poland 48 measles cases were registered in 2003 (0.13 per 100,000 population)--of which 65% were cases imported from Chechnya and Afghanistan. Measles outbreaks occurred in 3 centers for immigrants. In total, 31 cases were reported, of which 96.8% were unvaccinated, and 93.5% were under 15 years of age. Of 17 local cases, 5 (29.4%) cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 3 (17.6%) in persons vaccinated with one dose and 7 (41.2%) in those vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). Among 12 vaccinated cases only one 2-year old child was recently vaccinated. The remaining cases were in the 3-7 and 10-24 age ranges. The most affected were infants (incidence 0.57 per 100,000), 1-year old (0.28) and 2-year old children (incidence 0.27). Cases among adolescents and adults over 15 years of age increased from 23.5% in 2002 to 47.1% in 2003. The increasing age of locally-acquired cases, together with constantly high immunization coverage indicates high effectiveness of vaccinations in Poland. Out of all reported cases 13 (38%) were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to measles in Poland in 2003. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic confirmation of one rash-like illness per 100 000 population. The performance of the surveillance system is insufficient with only 55 measles-compatible cases reported in 2003 (15% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 22 cases (40.0%) confirmed by IgM ELISA test. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  3. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  4. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  6. The nectary structure and nectar production in flowers of Daphne mezereum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Daphne L. comprises 100 plant species. This name is derived from the name of a nymph, one of the daughters of the rivergod Pineios, who was transformed into a laurel tree to escape the amorous Apollo. Two species, D. mezereum L. and D. cneorum L., grow in the wild in Poland. D. mezereum is more common, but it is rarely found in the whole country. D. cneorum grows in the Małopolska Upland and in the Lublin region. These taxa are fully protected in Poland. Various plant species of the genus Daphne are considered to be ornamental, medicinal, poisonous and bee plants. In the bark of D. mezereum and in leaf buds of D. odora Thunb., there is a high content of daphnin and more than 20% of coumarins. Plants of the genus Daphne are poisonous and contain harmful substances, among others a glycoside daphnin and a resinous substance mezerein. The nectaries in flowers of the family Thymelaeaceae are classified as annular or intrastaminal. The aim of this study was to analyse the location and structure of the floral nectaries as well as nectar production in flowers of D. mezereum. D. mezereum belongs to the earliest flowering (I-V melliferous plants. Densely packed flowers are borne in clusters of 2-3 in the axils of already fallen leaves. A pink corolla with fused petals has a diameter of 1-1.5 cm. Eight stamens are attached to the corolla tube. In Daphne flowers, the nectary surrounds a superior ovary borne on a gynophore. In D. merezeum, this gland forms a ring around the base of the ovary. In Daphne flowers, the stomata secrete nectar onto the nectary surface. The parenchyma cells of the nectary (longitudinal section consist of 4-7 layers. The vascular tissue supplying the nectary reaches the subnectariferous parenchyma, while the branches of phloem elements reach the base of the nectariferous parenchyma. Flowers of D. mezereum produce nectar in abundance. The colourful corolla filled with nectar attracts bees and butterflies.

  7. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  8. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  9. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.

  10. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  11. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  12. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  13. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  14. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  15. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate

  16. Radiation atlas of Poland 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Henschke, J.; Sosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection with support and commitment of the State Inspectorate for Environmental Protection carried out necessary surveys and collected materials which allowed to elaborate present edition of the Radiation Atlas of Poland (1997). Data presented in the form of maps provide readers with the information on the 137 Cs and natural radionuclides concentration in the environment. The average annual doses to the public from various sources of the ionizing radiation, e.g. doses from X-ray apparatus and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics or from the internal contamination of the human organism are also presented in the publication

  17. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  18. Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phenological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amy M.; Høye, Toke T.; Inouye, David W.; Schmidt, Niels M.

    2013-01-01

    Many alpine and subalpine plant species exhibit phenological advancements in association with earlier snowmelt. While the phenology of some plant species does not advance beyond a threshold snowmelt date, the prevalence of such threshold phenological responses within plant communities is largely unknown. We therefore examined the shape of flowering phenology responses (linear versus nonlinear) to climate using two long-term datasets from plant communities in snow-dominated environments: Gothic, CO, USA (1974–2011) and Zackenberg, Greenland (1996–2011). For a total of 64 species, we determined whether a linear or nonlinear regression model best explained interannual variation in flowering phenology in response to increasing temperatures and advancing snowmelt dates. The most common nonlinear trend was for species to flower earlier as snowmelt advanced, with either no change or a slower rate of change when snowmelt was early (average 20% of cases). By contrast, some species advanced their flowering at a faster rate over the warmest temperatures relative to cooler temperatures (average 5% of cases). Thus, some species seem to be approaching their limits of phenological change in response to snowmelt but not temperature. Such phenological thresholds could either be a result of minimum springtime photoperiod cues for flowering or a slower rate of adaptive change in flowering time relative to changing climatic conditions. PMID:23836793

  19. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  20. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  1. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  2. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  3. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  6. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  7. [Trichinellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Gołab, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still an epidemiological problem in Poland as well as in other countries in the European Union (EU). Across the EU, reporting cases oftrichinellosis is mandatory. In Poland, tirchinellosis is an endemic disease, occurring mainly in territories where it is customary to eat raw meat products prepared from pigs and wild boars. The aim of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in the year 2010 in comparison to previous years. Cases of trichinellosis infections were classified according to criteria contained in the definition approved by the European Committee on 28th April 2008 amending the decision 2002/253/EC, and was introduced in Poland in 2009. Case definitions used in are available at http://www.pzh. gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/inne/Def_PL2_Rob1 h.pdf. An infection was classified and reported as Trichinella spp. if the genus of Trichinella that caused the infection was not specified using molecular examination. In 2010 the number of registered human trichinellosis cases was similar to the average number of cases from the last several years, and it did not exceed 55 (the exceptions were in 2004 and 2007, when larger outbreaks occurred). In 2010, 51 Trichinella infections were registered, yielding an infection rate of 0.13 per 100 000 inhabitants. The infections occurred in 5 voivodeships (table 1). Using the criteria from the definitions, 41 cases were classified as probable and 10 were confirmed cases. Trichinella infections diagnoses were based on the presence of clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link. Serological diagnostic tests confirming the presence of Trichinella antibodies was performed in approximately 20% of the cases. Four individual cases were reported, along with 4 outbreaks in which a total of 47 people were infected? The infections were generally mild. Twenty-two infected persons were hospitalised (43%). Just like in previous years, no trichinellosis-related deaths were reported. The

  8. Gender Identification in Date Palm Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Faisal Saeed; Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad J; Sadia, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings.

  9. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  10. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC flowering period floral emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which are leafless at this time. Experimental results were integrated into the MEGAN biogenic emission model and simulations were performed to estimate the contribution of floral BVOC emissions to the total urban BVOC flux during the spring flowering period. The floral BVOC emitted during this three-month simulation are equivalent to 11% of the integrated monoterpene flux for the Boulder urban area.

  11. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  12. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Evaluation of olive flowering at low latitude sites in Argentina using a chilling requirement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybar, V.E.; Melo-Abreu, J.P. de; Searles, P.S.; Matias, A.G.; Del Rio, C.; Caballero, C. M.; Rousseaux, M.C.

    2015-07-01

    Olive production has expanded significantly from the Mediterranean Basin into the New World over the last two decades. In some cases, cultivars of European origin have been introduced at a large commercial scale with little previous evaluation of potential productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a temperature-driven simulation model developed in the Mediterranean Basin to predict normal flowering occurrence and flowering date using cultivar-specific thermal requirements was suitable for the low latitude areas of Northwest Argentina. The model was validated at eight sites over several years and a wide elevation range (350–1200 m above mean sea level) for three cultivars (‘Arbequina’, ‘Frantoio’, ‘Leccino’) with potentially different chilling requirements. In ‘Arbequina’, normal flowering was observed at almost all sites and in all years, while normal flowering events in ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ were uncommon. The model successfully predicted if flowering would be normal in 92% and 83% of the cases in ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Frantoio’, respectively, but was somewhat less successful in ‘Leccino’ (61%). When flowering occurred, the predicted flowering date was within ± 7 days of the observed date in 71% of the cases. Overall, the model results indicate that cultivar-specific simulation models may be used as an approximate tool to predict whether individual cultivars will be successful in new growing areas. In Northwest Argentina, the model could be used to identify cultivars to replace ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ and to simulate global warming scenarios. (Author)

  14. Hybrid corporate governance: a choice for Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Samól, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research investigation is to consider the potential opportunities through which corporate governance may be developed to better suit the developing commercial culture within Poland. In order to do this, I formulate the following research questions: ‘What are the weaknesses of the Polish corporate governance system?’, ‘What changes should be made to corporate governance in Poland?’, and ‘Is a hybrid corporate governance model a choice for Poland?’ The concept of hybridisatio...

  15. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  16. Efikasi Chitosan untuk Memperpanjang Flower Longevity Bunga Anggrek Dendrobium Hibrida dalam Pot (Potted Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKEWIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effication of Chitosan on Lengthening The Flower Longevity of Potted Orchid ofDendrobium Hybrid. The aim of the current research is to investigate general effects of Chitosantreatment on the flowering of Dendrobium orchid and to find out the optimum concentration of Chitosanin lengthening flower longevity of potted orchid of Dendrobium hybrid. Results of the research showedthat Chitosan application significantly affected variables of the number of flower per-plant, the length ofindividual flower, period of time to get full blooming, and the flower longevity. The best results for thoseof variables was achieved with Chitosan concentration of 0.15%.

  17. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  18. Phenodynamics of production and chemical pools in mayapple and flowering dogwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, F.G. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an understanding of the seasonality of biomass production and chemical storage among selected forest species as an aid to the analysis and management of a forest ecosystem model. The specific goals to accomplish the objectives included: (1) the construction of phenological calendars to be superimposed on the civil calendar, such that the seasons of the year are not marked by calendar dates but rather by dated groups of phenological events; (2) to develop a capability to predict onset of the generative phase (flowering) from heat unit summation methods; (3) to illustrate the role of phenology to biomass production and chemical storage in two indicator species, mayapple and flowering dogwood; and (4) to develop the capability to predict aboveground and below ground standing crop biomass in dogwood. Observations in this study focused on the generative phases (flowering) of individual plants and colonies of plants as indicators of productivity. 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  20. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  1. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  2. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  3. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae from northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Adrian Martínez-Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  4. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  5. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  6. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  7. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  8. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  9. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  10. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  11. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  12. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  13. Punk and Anarchist Squats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghey, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Squats are of notable importance in the punk scene in Poland, and these spaces are a key aspect of the relationship between anarchism and punk. However, the overlap of squatting, punk, and anarchism is not without its tensions. This article, drawn from ethnographic research carried out between 2013 and 2014, explores the issues around punk and anarchist squats in Poland, looking at: criticisms levelled at punk squats by ‘non-punk’ squatting activists (e.g. Przychodnia in Warsaw); instances of...

  14. The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Jiang, Haiyang; Cheng, Beijiu

    2018-01-01

    Flowering time (heading date) and panicle branch number are important agronomic traits that determine yield in rice (Oryza sativa). The activation of flowering requires histone methylation, but the roles of trimethylation of Lys 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in modulating heading date and panicle development are unclear. Here, we showed that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle branching. The rice (Oryza sativa) WD40 protein OsWDR5a interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1/SET domain group protein 723 (SDG723) to form the core components of the COMPASS-like complex. Plants in which OsWDR5a or OsTrx1 expression was decreased by RNA interference produced fewer secondary branches and less grain and exhibited a delayed heading date under long-day and short-day conditions, whereas loss of OsWDR5a function resulted in embryo lethality. OsWDR5a binds to Early heading date 1 to regulate its H3K4me3 and expression levels. Together, our results show that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle development and suggest that modulation of H3K4me3 levels by the COMPASS-like complex is critical for rice development. PMID:29440594

  15. Parameters necessary for in vitro hydroponic pea plantlet flowering and fruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the development of culture systems to stimulate the reproductive and fruiting processes in vitro has not been earnestly exploited. Nonetheless, the ability to promote sterile flowering and fruiting would have commercial applications in the agricultural, food and medical industries. Non-ir...

  16. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.

  17. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  18. Summer Flowering Cover Crops Support Wild Bees in Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Wong, Jessica S; Thorp, Robbin W; Miles, Albie F; Daane, Kent M; Altieri, Miguel A

    2018-02-08

    Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers. This study evaluates the influence of summer flowering cover crops and landscape diversity on the abundance and diversity of vineyard bee populations. We showed that diversity and abundance of wild bees were increased on the flowering cover crop, but were unaffected by changes in landscape diversity. These findings indicate that summer flowering cover crops can be used to support wild bees and this could be a useful strategy for grape growers interested in pollinator conservation as part of a broader farmscape sustainability agenda. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇ´, Višnja; žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-07-01

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe. Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during

  1. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇetic, Višnja; Žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-07-01

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe.Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during the

  2. flowers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... the formation and asymmetrical collapse of microcavities in the vicinity of cell walls leading to the generation of microjets rupturing the cells in plant. The aim of this paper was to explore the optimum ultrasonic extraction condition of flavonoids and phenolics and provide some theoretical basis for integrative ...

  3. Impact of Climate Variability on Flowering Phenology and Its Implications for the Schedule of Blossom Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism destinations characterized by spring blossom festivals (e.g., cherry blossom festival became increasingly popular around the world. Usually, spring blossom festivals should be planned within the flowering period of specific ornamental plants. In the context of climate and phenological change, whether the administrators of tourism destinations had perceived and responded to the flowering phenological variability is still unknown. Using the data of climate, blossom festival dates (BFD of three tourist attractions, and first flowering dates (FFD of specific species in Beijing, China, we analyzed the flowering phenological response to temperature and the impact of FFDs on BFDs from 1989 to 2016. It was shown that the flowering time of ornamental plants varied significantly among years in response to temperature variability. The administrators of Beijing Botanical Garden and Yuyuantan Park determined peach BFD and cherry BFD based on their experience rather than FFD of corresponding plants. Therefore, the mismatch between BFD and FFD occurred frequently at these two locations. However, the administrator of Jingshan Park scheduled the peony BFD following the variance of FFD of tree peony. These results revealed the various perceptions of climate change impacts for stakeholders of blossom festivals.

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. rainfall and temperature effects on flowering and pollen productions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON FLOWERING AND POLLEN. PRODUCTIONS IN COCOA ... chocolate or for extracting cocoa butter. Although, all cultivated .... healthy flowers of the selected clones. These flowers were stored in ...

  8. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  9. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  10. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  11. A new method for promoting lily flowering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.

  12. Symbolic Dynamics, Flower Automata and Infinite Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foryś, Wit; Oprocha, Piotr; Bakalarski, Slawomir

    Considering a finite alphabet as a set of allowed instructions, we can identify finite words with basic actions or programs. Hence infinite paths on a flower automaton can represent order in which these programs are executed and a flower shift related with it represents list of instructions to be executed at some mid-point of the computation.

  13. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Weller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max. Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally.

  14. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  15. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  16. The influence of abscisic acid on the ethylene biosynthesis pathway in the functioning of the flower abscission zone in Lupinus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmowicz, Emilia; Frankowski, Kamil; Kućko, Agata; Świdziński, Michał; de Dios Alché, Juan; Nowakowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process activated in response to exogenous (e.g. changing environmental conditions) and endogenous stimuli (e.g. phytohormones). Ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) are very effective stimulators of flower abortion in Lupinus luteus, which is a widely cultivated species in Poland, Australia and Mediterranean countries. In this paper, we show that artificial activation of abscission by flower removal caused an accumulation of ABA in the abscission zone (AZ). Moreover, the blocking of that phytohormone's biosynthesis by NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) decreased the number of abscised flowers. However, the application of NBD - an inhibitor of ET action - reversed the stimulatory effect of ABA on flower abscission, indicating that ABA itself is not sufficient to turn on the organ separation. Our analysis revealed that exogenous ABA significantly accelerated the transcriptional activity of the ET biosynthesis genes ACC synthase (LlACS) and oxidase (LlACO), and moreover, strongly increased the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) - ET precursor, which was specifically localized within AZ cells. We cannot exclude the possibility that ABA mediates flower abscission processes by enhancing the ET biosynthesis rate. The findings of our study will contribute to the overall basic knowledge on the phytohormone-regulated generative organs abscission in L. luteus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro flowering ofDendrobium candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Xu, Z; Chia, T F; Chua, N H

    1997-02-01

    Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or shoots to flower within three to six months with a frequency of 31.6%-45.8%. The flowering frequency can be further increased to 82.8 % on the average by pre-treatment of protocorms in an ABA-containing medium followed by transfer onto MS medium with BA. The induction of precocious flowering depends on the developmental stage of the experimental materials (protocorms, shoots and plantlets) used, and usually occurs only when mt formation is inhibited.

  18. The Variation of Oncidium Rosy Sunset Flower Volatiles with Daily Rhythm, Flowering Period, and Flower Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tien Chiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental crop worldwide, and in recent years, the characteristics of the flower aroma have become a concern for breeders. This study used headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds to study the aroma characteristics of Onc. Rosy Sunset. A total of 45 compounds were identified, with the major compound being linalool. Onc. Rosy Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 10:00 to 12:00 and lowest from 20:00 to 24:00. The inflorescence emitted the highest quantities of volatile compounds during stages 3–6, which then decreased with the aging of the flowers. In Onc. Rosy Sunset, the sepals and petals were the major parts for the floral fragrance emission, in which linalool content was the highest, whereas the lip and column had a different composition of major volatile compounds, of which benzaldehyde, β-myrcene, and β-caryophyllene dominated.

  19. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  20. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  1. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  2. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  3. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  4. Flowering plants of Hedera helix L. in the Grunwald district of the city of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Korszun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period from September 2008 to July 2009 in the Grunwald district in the city of Poznań, Poland, a total of 609 localities of flowering English ivy were recorded, for which 769 plants were described. These plants were found in different localities, most of them euhemerobic. The biggest number of flowering specimens was recorded in home gardens. Support for climbing plants was mainly provided by trees and shrubs, including fruit trees – pear and apple trees. Among the other tree species, the biggest group comprises Scots pine, common birch, European larch and common locust. Other types of supports included fences, buildings and elements of small architecture. A very high number of specimens in the generative stage in the Grunwald district indicates considerable popularity and at the same time very good adaptation of ivy not only to the climatic conditions of the city of Poznań, but also to anthropogenic changes in the habitat.

  5. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  6. POLAND AND TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY - AN ENDURING ATLANTICIST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Longhurst

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990’s Poland pursued a security policy steered by Atlanticism and a close bond with the United States. Atlanticism shaped Warsaw’s choices on all key security issues during the past decade, but became particularly apparent after 9/11 when Poland lent its full support to the US-led war on terror. Whilst membership in the EU will affect the priorities and conduct of Polish security policy, it is argued here that the deep-seated nature of Atlanticism in Polish strategic culture , together with the broader implications of enlargement upon the EU’s foreign policy ambitions will ensure that Poland will remain a keen Atlanticist in the New Europe.

  7. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  8. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  9. History of pediatric neurology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz

    2010-02-01

    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  10. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  11. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  12. Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants: habits, practices and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Helio Junqueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants reproduces the main typical conditions of developing countries, which it shares with other nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa. These include low per capita consumption rates, the centralization of purchases in a few traditional items, and the concentration of demand on dates and special occasions of the national calendar of celebrations. However, in recent decades, strong growth rates have been observed for this sector, signaling a potent and promising market for producers, wholesalers, retailers, floral designers, landscapists and other professionals working in the floral segment. This article analyzes original quantitative research data applied throughout Brazil, from 2014 to 2016, by the market intelligence firm Hórtica Consultoria and by the Union of the Retail Trade of Flowers and Ornamental Plants of the State of São Paulo (Sindiflores, revealing preferences, habits, practices and tendencies for the consumption of flowers and ornamental plants in Brazil.

  13. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Optimal timing of reproduction within a season may be influenced by several abiotic and biotic factors. These factors sometimes affect different components of fitness, making assessments of net selection difficult. We used estimates of offspring fitness to examine how pre-dispersal seed predation...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...

  14. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  15. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  16. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  18. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  19. [Poland: cholera to typhus, 1831-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska, M A

    1999-12-01

    In this article devoted to Poland's direct and indirect role in the elaboration of contemporary international health structures and to her reputation as an epidemic reservoir of Europe, we consider how Poland came to be perceived as the cordon sanitaire of the West. Traditionally seen as upholding Western values, in the 19th and 20th centuries the country became increasingly associated with "Eastern plagues"-cholera and then typhus-coming from Russia and which could spread to the rest of Europe if Poland did not manage to contain them. When Poland was reconstituted as a nation-state in 1918, the new country won international recognition through her successful attempts to contain a typhus epidemic sweeping westwards from Russia. The Polish government convened the first European, League sponsored, health conference following the First World War. A Polish doctor, L. RAJCHMAN, was chosen to head up the League of Nations Health Organisation (forerunner of the WHO) and later (1946) founded UNICEF. Finally, we examine the key issue of exanthematous typhus in both world wars, exemplifying how a disease can come to be "ideologized", in this case by Nazi Germany. Typhus was the pretext used- in the name of "public health"-for segregating Polish citizens of Jewish origin and even killing them. Paradoxically, typhus was in the process of being eradicated when the war began and German policy of mass resettlements, sequestration, and starvation only spurred the epidemic they supposedly wished to control.

  20. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  2. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  3. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  4. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  5. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  6. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  7. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  8. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  9. Museums in Cultural Tourism in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowiak, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the museums, their potential and their significance for cultural tourism in Poland. Its aims are achieved through a presentation of registered national museums, ‘monuments of history’, museum buildings and the cultural activities undertaken by these institutions

  10. Assessment of atmosphere degradation step in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents characterization of the state of air pollution in Poland. It describes the size of emission and the size of concentration of dust and SO 2 and NO x pollution. It compares ascertained size of pollution the permissible concentration. It calls special attention to spatial differentiation of state of air pollution. (author). 26 refs

  11. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  12. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  13. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  14. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  15. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  16. Colorful Collage: Visions of Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The technique of what people today call "collage" is not new. In Victorian times, elaborate art was created from bristly horsehair as a type of collage. The modern collage dates to the early 1900s when Picasso pasted newspaper on a drawing. In 1919 Karl Schwitters, a German artist, developed collage into an art form that was as important as…

  17. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  18. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  19. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  20. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  1. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  2. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  3. Doubly Disadvantaged? The Relative Age Effect in Poland's Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubajczyk, Krystian; Świerzko, Kamil; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity) of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.

  4. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  5. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  6. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  7. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  8. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  9. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  10. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  11. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  12. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time ... which would greatly enhance the use of G. darwinii-specific desirable genes in ... used to determine all linkage groups, the order of groups on the same ... age groups.

  13. Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...

  14. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstruction of late spring phenophases in Poland and their response to climate change, 1951–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Czernecki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenology is primarily seen as an indicator of the impacts of climate change. The strongest biological signal of climatic change is revealed by phenological data from the period after 1990. Unfortunately, the Polish nationwide network of phenological monitoring was terminated in 1992, and was only reactivated in 2005. Here, we attempt to reconstruct late spring phenophases of flowering of Syringa vulgaris L. and Aesculus hippocastanum L. across several sites in Poland from 1951 to 2014 using the GIS-based approach (if observations from neighboring stations were available and multiple regression modeling with stepwise screening and bootstrap resampling. It was found that the air temperature and its indices explain over 60% of the variance, giving an accuracy of 3.0–3.4 days (mean absolute error and correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.78 for lilac and horse chestnut, respectively. Altogether, both plant species showed a statistically significant advancement in the onset of flowering with an average rate of 1.7 days per decade. We also found that the final trend is the result of rapid acceleration of the increase in air temperature after the 1990s, while most of the trends for late spring were ambiguous before that period.

  16. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  17. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  18. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  19. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  20. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  1. Does flower phenology mirror the slowdown of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Although recent global warming trends in air temperature are not as pronounced as those observed only one decade ago, global mean temperature is still at a very high level. Does plant phenology – which is believed to be a suitable indicator of climate change – respond in a similar way, that is, does it still mirror recent temperature variations? We explored in detail long-term flowering onset dates of snowdrop, cherry, and lime tree and relevant spring temperatures at three sites in Germany (1901–2012) using the Bayesian multiple change-point approach. We investigated whether mean spring temperature changes were amplified or slowed down in the past decade and how plant phenology responded to the most recent temperature changes. Incorporating records with different end points (i.e., 2002 and 2012), we compared differences in trends and inferred possible differences caused by extrapolating phenological and meteorological data. The new multiple-change point approach is characterized by an enhanced structure and greater flexibility compared to the one change point model. However, the highest model probabilities for phenological (meteorological) records were still obtained for the one change point (linear) model. Marked warming trends in the recent decade were only revealed for mean temperatures of March to May, here better described with one or two change point models. In the majority of cases analyzed, changes in temperatures were well mirrored by phenological changes. However, temperatures in March to May were linked to less strongly advancing onset dates for lime tree flowering during the period 1901-2012, pointing to the likely influence of photoperiodic constraints or unfulfilled chilling requirements. Due to the slowdown of temperature increase, analyses conducted on records ending in 2002 demonstrated distinct differences when compared with records ending in 2012. Extrapolation of trends could therefore (along with the choice of the statistical method

  2. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  3. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  4. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  5. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  6. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  7. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  8. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  9. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  10. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  11. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  12. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  13. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  14. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  15. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  16. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  18. Development of Social Building Societies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a genesis of Social Building Societies in Poland starting from National Housing Fund through Workers Housing Estates Society in 1934.1939, announcement of cheap building system in New Housing Order in 1993 to Barbara Blida's and Irena Herbst's legislative initiative leading to establish Social Building Societies in 1995. According to International Permanent Social Building Committee social housing consists in supply houses with fixed minimum standard of comfort and equip...

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  20. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  1. Multicultural Leadership Strategies : case: Company X, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Khanh Ye Le, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying multicultural leadership strategies which are used by the team leaders in Company X, Poland. Furthermore, this thesis examines how these strategies are implemented in daily management to prevent cultural conflicts. The study used deductive approach with the assistance of qualitative research method. Secondary data was collected from reliable books, articles and Internet while primary data was collected through observations and interviews. The literature f...

  2. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  3. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  4. Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice. However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4. ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the "florigen" genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice.

  5. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  6. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  7. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  8. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  9. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  10. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  11. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  12. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  13. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Induced mutation altering flower colour in Chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S K [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Flirt' is a double Korean type, small flowered Chrysanthemum of red colour. Rooted cuttings were treated with 1.5-2.5 krad gamma rays. A chimeral flower colour mutant was detected after 1.5 krad treatment. After purification through repeated cuttings a mutant clone was developed and released as commercial cultivar 'Man Bhawan'. It produces bi-coloured flower-heads: yellow and red at full bloom stage becoming completely yellow later on. By chromatography, 6 pigment spots could be identified in the variety 'Flirt' but only 5 in the mutant, violet (hRf 69.83) being absent. Spectrophotometric analysis of petal extracts showed presence of three peaks in both 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage but only two in 'Man Bhawan' at fading stage. (author)

  15. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  16. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-01-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  17. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: okikuchi@net.ipen.br

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  18. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  19. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  20. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  1. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  2. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  3. Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ling Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.

  4. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is the principal forage grass utilized in Danish agriculture and underpins the beef and dairy sectors. It is characterized as having high digestibility, high nutritional value, and high productivity during vegetative growth. However, at the reproductive growth...... genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...

  5. Pollination in avocado flowers (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda

    2008-01-01

    The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...

  6. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  7. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  8. Growth, flowering and fruiting in vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc star

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... ... under natural conditions is favoured by shortened day-length and cool night temperatures (Van Overbeek and Cruzado, 1948; ..... pineapple plants after acclimatization b) flower of formation c) growth flower d) formation fruit ...

  9. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  10. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  12. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  13. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant

  14. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  15. Revision of Nymphaea candida range - new data on the distribution and habitat preferences of the species in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of geobotanical and taxonomic studies on the distribution and habitat requirements of Nymphaea candida in southern Poland. The researches were conducted in southern Poland in 2003-2009, in the provinces of Lower Silesia, Lublin, Małopolska, Opole, Silesian province as well as, in southern parts of Mazowieckie and Lubuskie. Flowers, leaves and fruits of Nymphaea species were collected from 27 locations. Altogether pollens from 73 populations of N. candida and 18 of N. alba from all the researched area were measured. The trophic level of an ecosystem was evaluated according to the results of the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, transparency and biological parameters. As the result of the studies of more than 200 water bodies, 57 localities of N. candida were documented within the investigation area. The populations of N. candida occupy mid-forest water bodies and river ox-bow lakes. A significant number of populations was also found in artificial reservoirs - fish ponds. The most suitable habitat conditions for N. candida occur in shallow waters in the shore zone with the amplitude of the water column vary from 0.5 to 2 m. Regarding the trophy level, N. candida occupies different habitats, mainly mesotrophic and also eutrophic with high content of organic matters. Considering the 15 checked morphological parameters, especially the stigma diameter, the number of carpellary teeth, flower and pollen diameters, the found and collected specimens of N. candida significantly differ from N. alba. The study confirms that N. candida ocurrs in whole lowland Poland without any regional distribution gaps. According to the IUCN guidelines to species assessment the data gathered during the presented study do not allow to classify N. candida as a vulnerable species in Poland. Still existing populations for more than 150 years, numerous stable locations, abundant populations, a habitat accessibility, a biotope extent, an

  16. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...

  17. Nauriaq Aglagvinmi (The Flower in the Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mary L.; And Others

    This elementary language text is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak. It contains a story about a flower that begins to grow in a rug in a classroom. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the…

  18. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  19. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  20. Internet log service for flower supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thors, M.

    2004-01-01

    This summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. Sponsored by the Dutch product board for horticulture, available technology was tested and integrated by researchers at the Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, WUR, into a system to

  1. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... and the production of dry matter in crops (Cockram et al. 2007). Thus ..... is repressed by AP1 in emerging flower primordia (Liu et al. 2007). ..... conserved QTLs for disease resistance and seed size (Kim et al. 2009b).

  2. Flower opening and closure: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the

  3. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars

  4. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  5. Tuhar pulse flowers corroding by corrosive pollutants | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These acids in turn develop micro electrochemical cell with flower of Tuhar pulse which destroy flowering of arhar pulse. Other factors are acid rain, global warming and depletion of ozone layer affecting the production of arhar pulse. Key words: Tuhar (Arhar) pulse flowers, pollutants, particulates, micro electrochemical cell, ...

  6. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystematic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The

  7. Determinants of Debt-Equity Choice – Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kazmierska-Jozwiak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of debt-equity choice has so far been widely discussed in literature. The aim of the paper is to analyse the determinants of capital structure of Polish enterprises. We analysed factors that may impact the indebtedness. This analysis fills in the gap in worldwide studies with the case of a country representing the group of „emerging markets”. The paper examines capital structure determinants of non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. We used five independent variables compatible with the up-to-date achievements in the field. The results indicate that there is an evidence of a significant negative relationship between the size of a company, its growth rate, profitability, tangibility and the level of total debt. The study shows positive relationship between growth prospects of the company and the debt level. The results of the study indicate that the pecking order theory better explains the changes in indebtedness of analysed companies than other capital structure theories. Obtained results are mostly consistent with earlier studies conducted in the Poland and with studies in Western economies.

  8. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  9. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  10. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  11. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  14. A new record of Typha shuttleworthii (Typhaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobis Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new locality of Typha shuttleworthii W.D.J. Koch & Sond. in Poland. The species was found in wet roadside ditch in Kryg village near Gorlice (ATPOL grid square EG09. The distribution map of the species in Poland is provided.

  15. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  16. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  17. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  18. Radiocarbon dating of bone samples by liquid scintillation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, C.S.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Cruz, M.V.; Pessin, G.; Pazdur, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    It is developed and adapted methodology for radiocarbon dating of bone samples. The collagen, the most representative fraction of age of bone samples, was extracted by Login method. To eliminate/minimize the contamination of gaseous compounds (nitrogen oxides) produced during the collagen combustion, two methods were used: CO 2 precipitation as Ba CO 3 and Sr CO 3 with subsequent acid hydrolysis. It was determined the efficiency of combustion of collagen sample, the performance of methods in the CO 2 purification and the effect of atmospheric 14 CO 2 contamination and radioactivity of reagents in the determination of 14 C activity. To verify the accuracy of the method, it was realized a laboratory intercomparison, analysing bone and collagen samples also dated by 14 C laboratories of Gliwice, Poland and Groningen, the Netherlands. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  20. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  1. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  2. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  3. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  4. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  5. Market of venison meat in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  6. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  7. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  8. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  9. Thermoluminescence dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  10. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Bud Differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnolias are widely cultivated for their beautiful flowers, but despite their popularity, the molecular mechanisms regulating flower bud differentiation have not been elucidated. Here, we used paraffin sections and RNA-seq to study the process of flower bud differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata. Flower bud development occurred between 28 April and 30 May 2017 and was divided into five stages: undifferentiated, early flower bud differentiation, petal primordium differentiation, stamen primordium differentiation, and pistil primordium differentiation. A total of 52,441 expressed genes were identified, of which 11,592 were significantly differentially expressed in the five bud development stages. Of these, 82 genes were involved in the flowering. In addition, MADS-box and AP2 family genes play critical roles in the formation of flower organs and 20 differentially expressed genes associated with flower bud differentiation were identified in M. sinostellata. A qRT-PCR analysis verified that the MADS-box and AP2 family genes were expressed at high levels during flower bud differentiation. Consequently, this study provides a theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of flowering in M. sinostellata, which lays a foundation for further research into flowering genes and may facilitate the development of new cultivars.

  12. Mobile Application to Identify Indonesian Flowers on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Karlita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many people love flowers, they do not know their name. Especially, many people do not recognize local flowers. To find the flower image, we can use search engine such as Google, but it does not give much help to find the name of local flower. Sometimes, Google cannotshow the correct name of local flowers. This study proposes an application to identify Indonesian flowers that runs on the Android platform for easy use anywhere. Flower recognition is based on the color features using the Hue-Index, shape feature using Centroid Contour Distance (CCD, and the similarity measurement using Entropy calculations. The outputs of this application are information about inputted flower image including Latinname, local name, description, distribution and ecology. Based on tests performed on 44 types of flowers with 181 images in the database, the best similarity percentage is 97.72%. With this application, people will be expected to know more about Indonesia flowers. Keywords: Indonesian flowers, android, hue-index, CCD, entropy

  13. Explaining the apparent paradox of persistent selection for early flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Emily J; Rowe, Locke; Stinchcombe, John R; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2017-08-01

    Decades of observation in natural plant populations have revealed pervasive phenotypic selection for early flowering onset. This consistent pattern seems at odds with life-history theory, which predicts stabilizing selection on age and size at reproduction. Why is selection for later flowering rare? Moreover, extensive evidence demonstrates that flowering time can and does evolve. What maintains ongoing directional selection for early flowering? Several non-mutually exclusive processes can help to reconcile the apparent paradox of selection for early flowering. We outline four: selection through other fitness components may counter observed fecundity selection for early flowering; asymmetry in the flowering-time-fitness function may make selection for later flowering hard to detect; flowering time and fitness may be condition-dependent; and selection on flowering duration is largely unaccounted for. In this Viewpoint, we develop these four mechanisms, and highlight areas where further study will improve our understanding of flowering-time evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  15. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  16. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  17. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... treatments were successful in producing clones with largely differing degrees of flowering. However, we found no negative correlation between flowering and vegetative propagation and competitiveness. Early and strongly flowering southern provenances showed less clonal growth and higher mortality, but within...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  18. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  19. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  20. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  1. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  2. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  3. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  4. Is Bumblebee Foraging Efficiency Mediated by Morphological Correspondence to Flowers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikumi Dohzono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for certain types of flowers in bee species may be an adaptation for efficient foraging, and they often prefer flowers whose shape fits their mouthparts. However, it is unclear whether such flowers are truly beneficial for them. We address this issue by experimentally measuring foraging efficiency of bumblebees, the volume of sucrose solution consumed over handling time (μL/second, using long-tongued Bombus diversus Smith and short-tongued B. honshuensis Tkalcu that visit Clematis stans Siebold et Zuccarini. The corolla tube length of C. stans decreases during a flowering period, and male flowers are longer than female flowers. Long- and short-tongued bumblebees frequently visited longer and shorter flowers, respectively. Based on these preferences, we hypothesized that bumblebee foraging efficiency is higher when visiting flowers that show a good morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube. Foraging efficiency of bumblebees was estimated using flowers for which nectar quality and quantity were controlled, in an experimental enclosure. We show that 1 the foraging efficiency of B. diversus was enhanced when visiting younger, longer flowers, and that 2 the foraging efficiency of B. honshuensis was higher when visiting shorter female flowers. This suggests that morphological correspondence between insects and flowers is important for insect foraging efficiency. However, in contradiction to our prediction, 3 short-tongued bumblebees B. honshuensis sucked nectar more efficiently when visiting younger, longer flowers, and 4 there was no significant difference in the foraging efficiency of B. diversus between flower sexes. These results suggest that morphological fit between the proboscis and the corolla tube is not a sole determinant of foraging efficiency. Bumblebees may adjust their sucking behavior in response to available rewards, and competition over rewards between bumblebee species might change visitation patterns

  5. Presentation of the Polish family in primers used in the Second Republic of Poland (in Poland between the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARZYNA KOCHAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was a time of great significance in the history of the Polish nation. It was characterised by immense enthusiasm because of Poland's newly regained independence, however, the country wrestled with many post-partition problems. One of them was, for instance, a lack of a cohesive administration system resulting from regional administrative differences among the Polish partitioned territories. The main task for education, also in need of adjustment to the new circumstances, was to standardise its system because of the dissimilar educational procedures available in the Second Republic. The new social, political and economic situation also required up-to-date syllabuses and corresponding textbooks. Hence, 31 primers were published in the interwar period. Their reading texts dealt with various thematic fields; they were, for example, associated with the subject of the family as being close to the children's experience and feelings.The present paper aims at comparing if, and to what extent, the portraits of families presented in the primers were adequate to real models of families in the interwar Poland.

  6. Orphanages run by nuns in Druga Rzeczpospolita (The Second Republic of PolandPoland between 1918-1939. An outline of the history of foster care (outside the family in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDYTA BARTKOWIAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available : Child foster care organized by nuns and meant for children deprived of infamily upbringing dates back as far as the 13 century. The prototypes of orphanages run by nuns were medieval hospitals, that is care institutions for all those in need. The beginnings of care/educational work with orphaned and abandoned children are connected with the activity of The Holy Spirit de Saxia male congregation, whose members were called “duchaki” in Poland. Since the 16 century the members of the Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of Charity congregations have specialized in institutional foster care. In nationally sovereign Druga Rzeczpospolita orphanages run by nuns were numerous and they were characterized by relative financial stability, the continuity of educational processes and creativity in finding new solutions to be used in the work with the children who were cared for

  7. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  8. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  9. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  11. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hůla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  12. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  13. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  14. Deterministic diffusion in flower-shaped billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Klages, Rainer; Gaspard, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    We propose a flower-shaped billiard in order to study the irregular parameter dependence of chaotic normal diffusion. Our model is an open system consisting of periodically distributed obstacles in the shape of a flower, and it is strongly chaotic for almost all parameter values. We compute the parameter dependent diffusion coefficient of this model from computer simulations and analyze its functional form using different schemes, all generalizing the simple random walk approximation of Machta and Zwanzig. The improved methods we use are based either on heuristic higher-order corrections to the simple random walk model, on lattice gas simulation methods, or they start from a suitable Green-Kubo formula for diffusion. We show that dynamical correlations, or memory effects, are of crucial importance in reproducing the precise parameter dependence of the diffusion coefficent.

  15. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  16. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  17. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  18. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  19. Flower Retail in Kazakhstan: Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Talgat, Baidauletov; Alikhan, Abdigali

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary Flower retail industry in Kazakhstan is estimated to be around USD $80-100 million. Current market environment allows for entrance of a new player, focused on highly lucrative part segment of the market. Our business will differentiate itself by offering exceptional level of service while retaining competitive market prices. This business plan describes a way to turn USD $204,000 into a business with a turnover above $ 7 million in four years by capturing premium 10% o...

  20. How do plant communities and flower visitors relate? A case study of semi-natural xerothermic grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Chmura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between the species composition of flower visitors and plants in the semi-natural xerothermic grasslands in southern and central Poland. Thirty 10 × 10 m permanent plots were laid out in total, mainly in nature reserves. The vegetation units studied were classified according to the Braun-Blanquet system; these were phytocoenoses of the Festuco-Brometea classes Inuletum ensifoliae, Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati and the transitional plant community. Entomological research was performed using the Pollard method within the same plots. A particular site was visited only once and different sites were studied between April and August 2008. We applied, among others, co-correspondence-analysis Co-CA, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and redundancy analysis (RDA to investigate the co-occurrence patterns of plants and flower visitors and their biotopic requirements. We found that the species composition of flower visitors cannot be predicted by floristic composition when the duration of the study is restricted to one day (but under similar weather conditions; however, there is a positive relationship between the species richness of insects and plants and a positive relationship between the number of plant species and the abundance of flower visitors. The Ellenberg moisture index and the cover of meadow species significantly explained the species composition of insects. The three various vegetation units and five dominant xerothermic species, i.e. Adonis vernalis, Anemone sylvestris, Inula ensifolia, Linum hirsutum and Carlina onopordifolia that were studied across time differed in the species richness of insects. Our results demonstrate that possible patterns in the species composition and the assembly rules of flower visitors are not apparent when the Pollard method is applied. Based on the data obtained using this method, the flower visiting assemblages seem not to be driven by competition and they primarily

  1. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  2. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  3. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  4. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  5. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  6. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  7. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  8. Updating dating down under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  9. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bryła

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice, triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006 was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN, DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05 any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B, enniatin B1 (Enn-B1, enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1, 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A, 70

  10. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  11. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  12. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  13. New and rare species of anamorphic fungi for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of and disease symptoms caused by five fungal species parasitizing on plants of the Słowiński National Park and the Drawieński National Park (both located in north-western Poland are presented. Of the species, Ramularia celastri and Ascochyta irpina are new for Poland, and Ascochyta geraniicola, Phyllosticta caricis and Septoriella junci have earlier rarely been found in this country. Moreover, the latter three fungi were found on plants so far not reported in the literature to be their hosts. Finally, the known distribution of the fungi characterized in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented.

  14. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  15. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  16. Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, T.P.

    1985-04-01

    Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

  17. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  18. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  19. Yield in almond is related more to the abundance of flowers than the relative number of flowers that set fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tombesi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almond tree yield is a function of the number of flowers on a tree and the percentage of flowers that set fruit. Almonds are borne on spurs (short proleptic shoots that can have both leaves and flowers. Almond tree spur dynamics research has documented that previous year spur leaf area is a predictive parameter for year-to-year spur survival, spur flowering and to a lesser extent spur fruiting, while previous year fruit bearing has a negative impact on subsequent year flowering. However, a question remained about whether yields are more dependent on flower numbers or relative fruit set of the flowers that are present. The aim of the present work was to compare the importance of flower abundance with that of relative fruit set in determining the productivity of a population of tagged spurs in almond trees over a 6-year period. Overall tree yield among years was more sensitive to total number of flowers on a tree rather than relative fruit set. These results emphasize the importance of maintaining large populations of healthy flowering spurs for sustained high production in almond orchards.

  20. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Poland poddavalsya inventory changes. His origins are taking beginning in late and early vosemnadtsatoho devyatnadtsatoho century, when Polish state zahvatchyky sozdaly The first kadastrovыe otchetы. Austria, Prussia and Russia sozdalytry kadastrovыe system, three yspolzuyuschye system recovery country yzmerenyya.Vo TIME 1918 - 1939 Manuscript kadastrovыe bыly oriented work on the creation edynoy nalohovoy system for vsey territory of the country. After the war bыly zavershenы work. Modernization of the cadastre prodolzhalas in the direction Increase the accuracy and quality of data. At present Time Inventory Accounting vkljuchaet buildings, premises and plots zemelnыh, as well tesno svjazana with zemelnыm registers / ypotekoy. Information, soderzhaschayasya in Nam, everybody yspolzuetsya participants in the control nedvyzhymostyu (surveyors, otsenschykamy, brokers and upravlyayuschymy nedvyzhymostyu, courts and admynystratyvnыmy authorities zanymayuschyhsya territorial-prostranstvennыm Planning. Polskoy origins cadastral area. The first records of kadastrovыh measurement bыly sdelanы 4.5 million. Years ago. Poland was once zaklyuchalas Business surveyor in oblahorazhyvanyy. At the end trynadtsatoho century bыla Created rank post of High - korolevskyy podkamernыy, tasks kotorogo All selskohozyaystvennыe and lesnыe uhodya bыly ohvachenы oblastyu pochvovedenyya, classification of land osushchestvljaetsja edynoobrazno for vsey country on grounds ofytsyalnoy classes tablytsы land. THIS classification talk at kachestve and soil fertility. Class is determined on a 6-point scale (8 to pahotnыh land. This allows us to Compare Quality of land in any point of the country. By law dolzhna bыt yspolzovana in the Economic Planning and spatial statistics population in sudebnom and administrative razbyratelstve. All ofysы ymeyut access for cadastre data bases online free. Chastnyya Faces and company mogut Require info sobstvennoy REAL

  1. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  2. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  3. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  4. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lazarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  5. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  6. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  7. Mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliusz Unrug

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana from natural sites and those contaminated by heavy metals (Niepołomice Forest, both on lowlands and mountainous areas in Poland, was carried out. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum-type was higher in ferns growing on tree stumps than in specimens developing directly on the soil. Additionally, an increase in mycorrhiza intensity and arbuscular richness with the rising ground humidity was observed. In comparison to natural sites, mycorrhizas from the areas contaminated by heavy metals were much less developed and the roots were often infected by parasites. Two morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi have been described The most common was a fine endophyte (Glomales.

  8. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  9. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  10. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  11. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  12. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  13. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  14. Control of the first flowering in forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, W. [Inst. od Dendrology, Kornik (Poland); Cecich, R.A. [U.S.D.A.-Forest Service, Columbia, MO (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-04-01

    Precocious flowering provides opportunities to shorten a breeding cycle. A tree may flower for the first time when sufficient crown development has occurred and there are enough meristems to support both vegetative and reproductive buds. Precocious flowering can be promoted through the use of cultural techniques, such as photoperiod, accelerated growth, gibberellins and water stress. The length of the juvenile phase is dependent on genetic and environmental variables that affect achievement of a minimum size, and is positively correlated with the height of the plants within a family. Selection pressure can be applied successfully to the precocious flowering character, and crossed or inbred lines of precocious flowering progeny can be developed. Various levels and amounts of genetic control have been implicated in the control of precocious flowering. 90 refs, 1 tab

  15. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  16. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  17. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  18. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  19. Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, V K; Gupta, N C; Pandey, A C; Sharma, V P

    1996-09-01

    The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.

  20. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  2. Photosynthetic utilization of radiant energy by CAM Dendrobium flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, G.H.; Hew, C.S.; He, J.

    1997-01-01

    14 CO 2 fixation was observed in orchid Dendrobium flowers; its rate decreased with the flower development. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in different developmental stages of flowers was compared to other green plant parts (leaf, inflorescence stalk, and fruit capsule). The photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) (Fv/Fm) of a leaf was 14-21 % higher than that of a mature flower perianth (sepal, petal, and labellum) which had a much lower total Chl content and Chl a/b ratio. A higher quantum yield of PS2 (ΦPS2) than in the mature flowers was observed in all green parts. Flower sepals had higher Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, and Fv/Fm values than the petal and labellum. During flower development the Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, Fv/Fm, and qN decreased while ΦPS2 and qP remained constant. An exposure of developing flowers to irradiances above 50 µmol m -2 s -1 resulted in a very drastic drop of ΦPS2 and qP, and a coherent increase of qN as compared to other green plant organs. A low saturation irradiance (PFD of 100 µmol m -2 s -1 ) and the increase in qN in the flower indicate that irradiation stress may occur since there is no further protection when the flower is exposed to irradiances above 100 µmol m -2 s -1 . A low Chl/carotenoid ratio in mature flower perianth as a consequence of Chl content reduction in the course of flower development suggests a relief of irradiation stress via this mean. (author)

  3. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  4. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  5. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  6. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  7. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  8. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  9. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  10. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  11. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  12. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  13. Assessment of the internal quality of stored flower bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Maria Gerarda van

    2002-01-01

    Many flower bulbs have a life cycle of a year or more, flowering either in spring or in summer. Nevertheless, year-round production of cut flowers has become common practice in horticulture. To control flowering, which is necessary for the year-round production of flowers, bulbs are exposed to

  14. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Natalia Skrajda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Edible flowers has been used for thousands of years. They increase aesthetic appearance of food, but more often they are mentioned in connection with biologically active substances. The main ingredient of the flowers is water, which accounts for more than 80%. In small amounts, there are also proteins, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and minerals. Bioactive substances such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds determine the functional properties of edible flowers. Aim: The aim of this work was to characterize the phenolic compounds found in edible flowers and compare their antioxidant activity. Results: This review summarizes current knowledge about the usage of edible flowers for human nutrition. The work describes the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of some edible flowers. Based on literature data there is a significant difference both in content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity between edible flowers. These difference reaches up to 3075-fold in case of antioxidant potential. Among described edible flowers the most distinguishable are roses, peonies, osmanthus fragans and sambuco nero. Conclusions: Edible flowers are the new source of nutraceuticals due to nutritional and antioxidant values.

  16. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano; Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    The present paper presents the CO 2 production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO 2 production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  17. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches.

  18. Ozone and infection of geranium flowers by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-01-01

    Flowering plants of geranium cultivars were exposed to 0.2, 0.35, and 0.55 ppm ozone for 4-hr periods at 20/sup 0/C in a greenhouse fumigation chamber. Three fully-opened flower heads were sprayed with a spore suspension of Botrytis cinerea at 2000, 1000, or 500 spores/ml immediately before exposure to ozone began. Sterile distilled water was sprayed on noninoculated flower heads. All flowers were examined for evidence of infection 24 hr after the end of the ozone-exposure periods. All flower heads were then removed and placed in wet, loosely tied plastic bags and incubated at 20/sup 0/C for 72 hr, with examination at 24-hr intervals for evidence of infection. Ozone at 0.2 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent or inhibit flower infection by B. cinerea at all inoculum levels. Natural infection also occurred on some noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.35 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent infection, but did inhibit pathogenesis at the 500-spore/ml inoculum level and on noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.55 ppm caused moderate injury on all plants. Ozone at this level did not prevent infection, but did restrict pathogenesis on all inoculated and noninoculated flowers.

  19. Profile and behavior of flower consumer: subsidies for marketing actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of per capita consumption of flowers in Brazil is still low when compared with other countries. Among several factors that may be linked to this growth gap, the establishment of few or ineffective marketing strategies was cited. In this context, we present the results of the profile and behavior of flower consumer, aiming to subsidize marketing actions for the retail segment of flower supply chain. The study was conducted through interviews with 300 people of both genders at the moment they were buying flowers at 22 flower shops in the Paraná coast. This region was selected due to its potential for flower production and commercialization, which is similar to other Brazilian regions and other countries where the flower market has economic relevance. The female gender was identified as the major consumer (n = 62.7%, with tendency of increase in consumption as education level advanced (Spearman correlation coefficient, p < 0.05 = for own use r = 0.122; p = 0.039; for gift r = 0.174; p = 0.003. The acquisition average of 4.4 ± 1.9 times per year was registered, with preferential consumption of orchids (n = 36.3% for own use and roses (n = 86.7%, for gift. The flower retail trade did not meet the expectations of consumers, especially in relation to price, promotions, and production quality. The male gender and the elderly consumer class may represent important alternatives to increase the current consumption of flowers.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSA CANINA FLOWERS AGAINST SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Rovná

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa canina flowers were screened against various plant pathogenic microbial strains to study the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers were screened applying agar well diffusion method against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960 and three microscopic filamentous fungi strains Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata, respectively. The best antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the best antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Escherichia coli.

  1. Carbon isotope discrimination and yield of upland rice as affected by drought at flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINHEIRO BEATRIZ DA SILVEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments involving upland rice genotypes, sown in various dates in late season, were carried out to assess the relationship of carbon isotope discrimination with grain yield and drought resistance. In each one of the three years, one trial was kept under good water availability, while other suffered water shortage for a period of 18-23 days, encompassing panicle emergence and flowering. Drought stress reduced carbon isotope discrimination measured on soluble sugars (deltas extracted from stem uppermost internode at the end of the imposition period, but had relatively less effect on bulk dry matter of leaves, sampled at the same period, or that of uppermost internodes and grains, sampled at harvest. The drought-induced reduction in deltas was accompanied of reduced spikelet fertility and grain yield. In the three trials subjected to drought, genotypes with the highest yield and spikelet fertility had the lowest deltas. However, this relationship was weak and it was concluded that deltas is not a sufficiently reliable indicator of rice drought resistance to be useful as a screening test in breeding programs. On the other hand, grain yield and spikelet fertility of genotypes which were the soonest to reach 50% flowering within the drought imposition period, were the least adversely affected by drought. Then, timing of drought in relation to panicle emergence and to flowering appeared to be a more important cause of yield variation among genotypes than variation in deltas.

  2. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  3. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-01-01

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier fl...

  4. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, I M; Lemon, P; Palileo, A; Bremner, J B

    1996-06-10

    The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at a dosage of 100 mg/kg mouse. Statistical analysis using Kruskall Wallis one-way analysis of variance by Ranks showed that SQFw2D is different from the control group (tetracycline + corn oil) at alpha = 0.001. GC-MSD of isolate SQFwB2D shows 2 peaks at Rt = 19.860 (SQFwB2D-1) and 20.242 min (SQFwB2D-2) with relative peak heights of 16:1, respectively. Spectral analyses show that SQFwB2D-1 is 24 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-7,trans-22-dien-3 beta-ol or spinasterol.

  6. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds.

  7. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  8. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  10. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  11. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  12. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; Vleeschouwer, Francois De; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Roux, Gael Le; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon and 210 Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Slowinskie Blota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P S equence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210 Pb measurements.

  13. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  14. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...

  16. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial

  17. Polyploidy levels of Chinese large-flower chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... color, and is regarded as one of two flower spectacle in the world (Chen, 2001). However, their genetic backgrounds as well as genetic relationships are lack of knowledge. Large-flower chrysanthemum has been cultivated for more than 1, 600 years (Zhao et al., 2009). It experienced long-term arti-.

  18. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...

  19. The effect of flowering on adventitious root-formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selim, H.H.A.

    1956-01-01

    The rooting of cuttings from day-neutral tomato was not influenced by flower development, nor by SD or LD treatments of them or of the mother plants. In cuttings of the SD plant Perilla crispa flower initiation and development severely inhibited rooting. Leaves produced about 61 %

  20. Effects of rainfall, competition and grazing on flowering of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds, hares and small antelope consumed 10-50% of the flowers. Size-class distributions indicated that little recent recruitment had taken place on a ranch where palatable plants were scarce and where O. sinuatum flower production was severely depressed by grazing sheep.Language: English. Keywords: Asteraceae ...

  1. Cytokinin treatment and flower quality in Phalaenopsis orchids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... We previously documented an N-6-benzyladenine (BA) protocol to increase spike and flower number in. Phalaenopsis .... Sigma) at dusk. The powders of BA, Kin, and 2-. iP were each dissolved in 1 N NaOH and diluted for spraying. The duration to anthesis, spike and flower number, spike length. (from the ...

  2. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce ...

  3. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  4. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  5. Liandratite from Karkonosze pegmatites, Sudetes, Southwestern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszczak, Witold

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of liandratite, U6+(Nb,Ta)2O8, was determined from material collected in Niobium, Yttrium, Fluorine type (NYF) pegmatites of the Karkonosze intrusion (Sudetes, SW Poland). Liandratite occurs mainly as rims, up to 40 µm thick, and fracture infillings in fergusonite-(Y) and other Nb-Ta-Ti minerals. Its formation was related to the fluid-driven alteration of primary minerals by three potential mechanisms: (i) direct replacement of a primary mineral by liandratite; (ii) breakdown of the primary mineral to liandratite and a product with the composition of minerals of the pyrochlore group; (iii) multistage alteration, which involved: removal of A-site cations (mostly Y + REE with the exception of U4+) and formation of phases with the composition of pyrochlore group minerals; then crystallization of U-, Bi-, Pb-rich pyrochlores and their replacement by liandratite. The chemical compositions of liandratite formed by the breakdown of different primary minerals are also different, mainly in their U, Ti and Nb contents. Excess Ti, relative to the U6+Nb2O8 end-member, is incorporated into the structure together with additional U. The Ti content of liandratite, and partially through this the U content, are dependent on the nature of the precursor mineral.

  6. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  7. Development trends in mining technologies. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1983-01-01

    Research programs on underground black coal mining in Poland are discussed. It is assumed that no major technology changes will take place by the year 2000. Second generation of mining technologies will be used after the year 2000. The following technologies of the second generation are discussed: in-situ gasification, chemical coal disintegration, manless hydraulic mining with hydraulic transport. Research programs on technologies of the second generation should guarantee their commercial and economic use by the year 2000. The following targets for research programs aimed at increasing productivity, reducing mining cost, reducing labor and increasing safety in mining, covering the next 2 decades are comparatively evaluated: increasing advance rate of longwall faces, increasing machine time of integrated face systems by at least 20%, improving design of powered supports for eliminating rock falls, development of heavy-duty face systems for longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, development of face systems for mining thick coal seams on their whole thickness, slice mining thick coal seams with artificial roofs, bidirectional longwall mining by shearer loaders, use of more elastic and reliable mining systems.

  8. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  9. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  10. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  11. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  12. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  13. Pistil Development in 2 Types of Flowers of Xanthoceras sorbifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qing; Gao Shumin; Li Fenglan

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate flower development and female abortion during sex differentiation of Xanthoceras sorbifolia, anatomical observations and comparative study on differential proteins were carried out in different developmental stages of two types of flowers of this species. It was found that the selective abortion happened in male flower before the formation of megasporocyte. Special proteins related to the female abortion were found through 2-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. Protein A1 (14.2 kD) only existed in florescence of male flower, while B1 (13.7 kD) and B2 (18.2 kD) disappeared in that stage of male flower. They were all considered to be relative to pistil abortion of Xanthoceras sorbifolia.

  14. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  15. THE EFFECT OF ETHREL ON THE DURATION OF FLOWERING OF MALE FLOWERS SQUASH PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT GENETIC EXPRESSIVENESS OF FLOWER GENDER IN THE KRASNODAR REGION CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the genotype of monoecious plants Cucurbitaceae family may have different gender expressions: predominantly female, mixed and predominantlymale type of flowering. However, the degree of sexual differentiation can be changedunder the influence of abiotic and endogenous factors. Among the chemicals that affect the level of female flowering in pumpkin crops, preparations based on 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon or Etrelle are the most promising for hybrid seed production. Study of plant response of squash Cucurbita pepo var. giromontina with varying sex expressions on the treatments with Etrelle revealed common conformities and specificities of preparation action in the condition of Krasnodar region. It is shown the use of treatment once is not effective even if the high concentration range, 500-1100 mg/L, was taken. On gender switch was effectively influenced successive plant treatments with Etrelle at stages of 3-5 true leaves in a wide concentration range from 250 to 700 mg /L., where the restraining was that the start of male flower blossoming was 14-25 days after female flower blossoming. K69 line with predominantly female flowering was more responsive to the variation of concentration and frequency of treatments whereas the line K49 with male flowering was less responsive to the frequency of treatments. It is shown that in the range of effective concentrations, Etrelle may have phytotoxic effects on the growth and development of squash plants at the time of restraining flowering of male flowers. It is important to  ake that into account when choosing a regime of preparation treatments for chemical castration of maternal forms in hybrid seed production of this crop.

  16. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Fagel, Nathalie; Cheburkin, Andriy; Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie; Fialkiewicz, Barbara; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

    2009-01-01

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  17. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  18. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  19. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  20. Diterpenoids from the flowers of Rhododendron molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai-Zhen; Yao, Sheng; Tang, Chunping; Ke, Changqiang; Li, Lu; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang

    2014-05-23

    A new seco-kalmane-type diterpenoid, seco-rhodomollone (1), five new grayanane-type diterpenoids, rhodomollein XXI (2), 6-O-acetylrhodomollein XXI (3), 6,14-di-O-acetylrhodomollein XXI (4), rhodomollein XXII (5), and 2-O-methylrhodomollein XI (6), and two new kalmane-type diterpenoids, rhodomolleins XXIII (7) and XXIV (8), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the flowers of Rhododendron molle collected in Guangxi Province, China. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were defined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Compound 1 possesses an unprecedented 1,5-seco-kalmane skeleton presumably derived by cleavage of the C-1-C-5 bond of the kalmane skeleton. Compounds 2-4 represent the first examples from a natural source of grayanane-type diterpenoids with a chlorine substituent.