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  1. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  2. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  3. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

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    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  4. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

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    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  5. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  6. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  7. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  8. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  9. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  10. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  11. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  12. Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luísa de Nazaré

    2013-01-01

    The study Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work fixes the analysis of Simonides’ corpus in a broader investigation on lyric poets’ mobility. At the end of Archaic Age, Simonides of Ceos (c. 556-468 B.C.) already represents the terminus of a long tradition of poetic mobility from which appear certain echoes in the Homeric Poems and in Hesiod’s Works and Days. In the “Introduction”, we discuss these and also other testimonies of the existence, in ancient times, of wa...

  13. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

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    Kaspiris Angelos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  14. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  15. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

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    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  16. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  17. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

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    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  18. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

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    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  20. Entertainment in View of Politicians in Ancient Greece and Rome

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    Valdas Pruskus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the cultural and social conditions of the entertainment phenomenon in Ancient Greece and Rome and the attitude of the authorities to it. The appearance of entertainment is closely related to the worship of cult of Gods. It is shown that the Romans being more materialistic and pragmatic paid less attention to spiritual entertainment than Greeks who fostered dramatic performances. Greek rulers and noblemen saw relaxational and educational function of the entertainment and also considered it as reducing tension and promoting solidarity. However, they did not intrude into its practical organization and had only a monitoring position, whereas the Romans were more interested in daily life and its bodily pleasures. Accordingly in recreational activities – games there dominated the spirit of competition, especially the gladiators games, which were bloody and cruel, but heated passions of spectators whose majority was comprised of plebs. There is shown that the authorities considered the entertainment as an effective tool to reach political aims, especially for gaining the support of commons in various elections, so they financed gladiators’ performances generously.This tradition is still topical in the flow of years. These days it has become the constituent part of the political marketing.

  1. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

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    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    to the original experience (not merely thinking of the truth. Moreover, Plato seeks to free philosophy from the tyranny of authorship, from the rule of an ego limited to a narrow space and time. The talking in his writings is wholly left to Socrates and numerous other interlocutors, while he himself is – most tellingly – referred to as the absent one.  The view of earlier wisdom, grounded by Aristotle on the principle of a spiritual struggle and difference, is thus still conceived by Plato as a continuity. The two key points of Plato’s attitude to philosophical heritage as traced in this paper – the experience of the past as a golden age of wisdom and the perception of philosophy as a sequence of thought, a kind of spiritual genealogy – are already present in early Greek epic poetry and Herodotus’ historiography. As demonstrated in the paper, they similarly predominate in the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius. Therefore his text cannot be read as a typical Hellenistic phenomenon, but rather as a work prompting us, now as then, to reconsider the philosophical heritage of Ancient Greece. The present study is designed retrospectively. Running from an analysis of the state of the art and a definition of Aristotle’s concept of philosophical history back to Plato, Herodotus, and early Greek epic poetry, it seeks to reach the original source of the Greek view of the past, and to place Diogenes Laertius’ work in the field of Greek philosophical thought by the principle of continuity. In the same way, the inquiry into the subject shifts, time and again, to a methodological inquiry into what and how the history of philosophy can tell us today.

  2. Management of fractures of the humerus in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: an historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2009-01-01

    , and multifragmented fractures. In Late Antiquity, complications from powerful traction or tight bandaging were described by Paul of Aegina (circa AD 625-690). Illustrations from sixteenth and seventeenth century surgical texts are included to show the ancient methods of reduction and bandaging. The richness...... of written sources points toward a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis, reduction, and bandaging of humeral fracture in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome....

  3. Burial customs, the afterlife and pollution of death in ancient Greece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Funerary practices in ancient Greece were influenced by contemporary views on the afterlife and by concepts of pollution, but also by a desire to limit costs and a need to prevent the process of burial from causing inconvenience to the community or providing an opportunity for exploitation by those with ulterior political ...

  4. Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

    1977-01-01

    This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

  5. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordanidis, A.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Karamitrou-Mentessidi, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics

  7. Tweeting in the Agora: An Historical Documentary of Educational Structures and Discourse in Ancient Greece and in Modern Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the systems and structures of formal and informal education in Ancient Greece under the leadership of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and the systems and structures of education and discourse on social media, specifically on blogs and Twitter. Using historical documentary research methodology of primary and secondary…

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in ancient Greece: The Obtuse Man of Theophrastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Marcelo M; S da Silva, Bruna; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bau, Claiton Hd; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2018-04-01

    We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sentences describing The Obtuse Man written by Theophrastus are similar to several symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and he would probably be currently diagnosed with this disorder as an adult. To our knowledge, this is the oldest description compatible with the current conception of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults in the Western literature. Differently than the moralistic view of ancient Greece regarding those symptoms, the medical attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder conception may be advantageous to patients since it might reduce prejudice and allow individuals to seek treatment.

  9. Management of fractures of the humerus in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome: an historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Stig

    2009-07-01

    Fractures of the humerus have challenged medical practitioners since the beginning of recorded medical history. In the earliest known surgical text, The Edwin Smith Papyrus (copied circa 1600 BC), three cases of humeral fractures were described. Reduction by traction followed by bandaging with linen was recommended. In Corpus Hippocraticum (circa 440-340 BC), the maneuver of reduction was fully described: bandages of linen soaked in cerate and oil were applied followed by splinting after a week. In The Alexandrian School of Medicine (third century BC), shoulder dislocations complicated with fractures of the humerus were mentioned and the author discussed whether the dislocation should be reduced before or after the fracture. Celsus (25 BC-AD 50) distinguished shaft fractures from proximal and distal humeral fractures. He described different fracture patterns, including transverse, oblique, and multifragmented fractures. In Late Antiquity, complications from powerful traction or tight bandaging were described by Paul of Aegina (circa AD 625-690). Illustrations from sixteenth and seventeenth century surgical texts are included to show the ancient methods of reduction and bandaging. The richness of written sources points toward a multifaceted approach to the diagnosis, reduction, and bandaging of humeral fracture in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

  10. An Introduction to Plato's Theory of Athletics : For an Understanding of the Concept of Sport in Ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    木庭, 康樹

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to consider Plato's theory of athletics from the three viewpoints of techne, soma, and pathos, focusing on his descriptions of athletics. It seems that these three viewpoints give a broad perspective for us to consider, athletics not only in ancient Greece, but also sport in modern society. This is because the three Greek words, techne, soma, and pathos, have such large meanings which are different from modern words like technique, body and emotion, and the three viewpoints wo...

  11. Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475

  12. The representation of the dichotomy of spirit and body in the culture of Ancient Greece

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    T. V. Teslenko

    2017-06-01

    In Aeschylus’s tragedies the most important problems of the opposition of the individual and the society are represented on the stage; Sophocle, who made the tragedy «go down from Heaven to the Earth» paid great attention to the man in his inner world transformations; Euripides, who described people as they were in their real lives, also connected his intentions with presentation of the inner world of human beings, both man and women. Especially interesting is the role of women in Euripides’ tragedies: the most remarkable examples of self-sacrifice are given by Euripides’ heroines. The Greek woman in Euripides’ tragedies is a morally mature human being, she is self-conscious, and her attitude to the world is critical. Special attention should be paid to the consideration of the Appolonian and Dionysian forces which are declared to be «the primary conflict» of the Western culture. Being a philosophical and literary dichotomy in Sophocles’ and Euripides’ tragedies, they represent the transformations, which led to their confluence. The corporal sensuality of the Ancient Greece literature, promoting the transformations of sensuality into art, nowadays is still one of the key narratives of Western culture, both in its high and low versions.

  13. Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  14. Breaking News: Decoding the earliest "computer": The antikythera astrolabe. Science and technology in ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, I.

    In the Easter of 1900, just off the tiny island of Antikythera in the Aegean Sea, sponge-fishers from Simi found by chance a very important ancient shipwreck dated to 2nd to the early 1st century B.C. The plethora of objects included bronze fragments of furniture, marble and bronze statues and statuettes, pottery, luxury glass and silver vases, wooden parts of the ship and other. Of the most important find was a corroded bronze mechanism embedded to calcareous cemented matter caused by the seawater. The mechanism was associated to the School of Poseidonius of Rhodes and dated c.87 B.C. The mechanism is a four piece fragmentary, fragile and partly missing calculating device with geared wheels, display scales and Greek inscriptions, displayed at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Early research (1902-1934) was made by Svoronos, Stais, Rados, Rediadis, Theophanides and even attempted a reconstruction. Later research (1953-1974) was applied by mechanical engineer in collaboration with Karakalos (1973) who applied industrial X-ray radiography and recovered revolutionary structural data and 30 geared wheels. Dr Derek de Solla Price made a second model (two replicas) (Price, 1974). Since then, several other models were made by Roumeliotis, Freeth (2002 a, b), Casselman and Lysozyme. The third research phase (1990 till today) was studied by computer scientists (Bromley and Gardner) as well as mechanical engineer Michael Wright, Greenwich Museum, London. The film images were taken by the laborious X-ray linear tomography. A replica was made by Michael Wright upgrading earlier model by Price producing eventually modifications till this year. The last research effort (2005 till today) the mechanism was studied by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project researchers from a consortium of public and private establishments led by Mike Edmunds University of Cardiff and included Universities of Athens and Thessaloniki, The National Archaeological Museum Athens, the

  15. Investigating kinship of Neolithic post-LBK human remains from Krusza Zamkowa, Poland using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Anna; Chyleński, Maciej; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Malmström, Helena; Ehler, Edvard; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Łukasik, Sylwia; Bednarczyk, Józef; Piontek, Janusz; Jakobsson, Mattias; Dabert, Miroslawa

    2017-01-01

    We applied an interdisciplinary approach to investigate kinship patterns and funerary practices during the middle Neolithic. Genetic studies, radiocarbon dating, and taphonomic analyses were used to examine two grave clusters from Krusza Zamkowa, Poland. To reconstruct kinship and determine biological sex, we extracted DNA from bones and teeth, analyzed mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNPs using the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity panel generated on Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms, respectively. We further dated the material (AMS 14 C) and to exclude aquatic radiocarbon reservoir effects, measures of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes for diet reconstruction were used. We found distinct mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U5b2a1a, K1c and H3d in the first grave cluster, and excluded maternal kin patterns among the three analyzed individuals. In the second grave cluster one individual belonged to K1a4. However, we could not affiliate the second individual to a certain haplogroup due to the fragmented state of the mitochondrial genome. Although the individuals from the second grave cluster differ at position 6643, we believe that more data is needed to fully resolve this issue. We retrieved between 26 and 77 autosomal SNPs from three of the individuals. Based on kinship estimations, taking into account the allelic dropout distribution, we could not exclude first degree kin relation between the two individuals from the second grave cluster. We could, however, exclude a first degree kinship between these two individuals and an individual from the first grave cluster. Presumably, not only biological kinship, but also social relations played an important role in the funerary practice during this time period. We further conclude that the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel may prove useful for first degree kin relation studies for samples with good DNA preservation, and that mitochondrial genome capture enrichment is a powerful tool for excluding direct

  16. Malaria and the Decline of Ancient Greece: Revisiting the Jones Hypothesis in an Era of Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christopher; Hamlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Between 1906 and 1909 the biologist Ronald Ross and the classicist W.H.S. Jones pioneered interdisciplinary research in biology and history in advancing the claim that malaria had been crucial in the decline of golden-age Greece (fourth century BCE). The idea had originated with Ross, winner of the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the importance of…

  17. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  18. 2013 Arthur O. Lovejoy Lecture: A Cognitive History of Divination in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Greeks drew advice from oracles, dreams, entrails, the movements of birds, sneezes, and myriad other sources for divination. Classicists typically study such phenomena as examples of occult religion, or for their use as a social mechanism for managing dissent and forging consensus. Ancient philosophical accounts by contrast go a longer way toward considering them seriously, on their own terms. They take them as an invitation into developing speculative accounts of non-standard epistemological schemes. Plato is examined as a case study of a more general Greek philosophical tendency to treat divination as something akin to what we might call intuition.

  19. Reasons for relativism: Feyerabend on the 'Rise of Rationalism' in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that essential features of Feyerabend's philosophy, namely his radicalization of critical rationalism and his turn to relativism, could be understood better in the light of his engagement with early Greek thought. In contrast to his earlier, Popperian views he came to see the Homeric worldview as a genuine alternative, which was not falsified by the Presocratics. Unlike socio-psychological and externalist accounts my reading of his published and unpublished material suggests that his alternative reconstruction of the ancient beginnings of the Western scientific tradition motivate and justify his moderate Protagorean relativism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining cross-cultural differences in autism spectrum disorder: A multinational comparison from Greece, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, J L; Matheis, M; Burns, C O; Esposito, G; Venuti, P; Pisula, E; Misiak, A; Kalyva, E; Tsakiris, V; Kamio, Y; Ishitobi, M; Goldin, R L

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. Despite the fact that ASD is reported worldwide, very little research exists examining ASD characteristics on a multinational scale. Cross-cultural comparisons are especially important for ASD, since cultural differences may impact the perception of symptoms. Identifying behaviors that are similarly reported as problematic across cultures as well as identifying behaviors in which there is cultural variation could aid in the development and refinement of more universally effective measures. The present study sought to examine similarities and differences in caregiver endorsement of symptom severity through scores on the Baby Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT). The BISCUIT was utilized to examine ASD core symptomology in 250 toddlers diagnosed with ASD from Greece, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Significant differences in overall ASD symptom severity and endorsement were found between multinational groups. Implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Sirius Cult in Ancient Greece. Aristaios and the Formation of the Attico-Cycladic Mythological Substratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoupi, A.

    Pivotal figure of Sirius myth among the inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Greece (ca.1600-1100 B.C.) is Aristaios protector of the shepherds and hunters teacher of cheese-making and the art of hunting , of oil-making and bee-keeping , honey and honey - mead, god of medicinal herbs and the cooling Etesian winds of mid-summer. The aim of this paper is to detect a) the inventors of Sirius astromyth within the boundaries of prehistoric Greek maritime Civilization (the Pelasgian substratum), b)the geographical distribution of this myth via its main divine figure (colonization of Western Mediterranean and the Prehistoric trade of silphium with the North African Coast , Kadmos and cultural relationships with Eastern Mediterranean connection with Thesaly, Northern Greece, Arcadia, Argos, Attica, Minoan Crete and Cyclades, N.W. Greece), c)the elements of Sirius cult worshipped by the insular population of the Aegean, d)the historical pathway of this astromyth and its survival to the later periods of Cycladic history (Keians coins, Keian traditions, modern Keian names and localities) e)the immigration of its symbols (the hunting lion, the motif of the dogs, deities with fertilizing and creative properties) and f) the environmental setting which gave birth to this astromyth (disturbance of wind patterns, teleconnections with Indian monsoons and NAO, climatic oscillations, pestilence in Eastern Mediterranean).

  2. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-12-01

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  3. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  4. Eocene upper shoreface facies from the Circum-Rhodope belt, NE Greece: sedimentological evidence for an ancient rocky shore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalov, Atanas; Ivanova, Daria; Bonev, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    lithofacies transitions, small-scale cycles, and internal key stratal surfaces in the Eocene rocks testifies that the upper shoreface deposits were accumulated during a single transgressive phase. The particular absence of convincingly recognized beachface facies can be explained with the so called "cannibalization" mechanism (cf. Sheppard, 2006). The present-day exposures of the basement and covering rocks are consistent with the assumption of a paleoisland having homogeneous lithology. The prolonged erosional destruction of its rocky coast was gradually terminated and after the cessation of marine wave-cutting processes and contemporaneous deposition the remaining emerged cliffs of Lower Cretaceous limestones were continuously degraded by subaerial processes. The obtained results may elucidate the geological evolution of the hydrocarbon-bearing Thrace Basin and to promote the basin-wide correlation of its thick (~9000 m) sedimentary record. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the National Science Fund of Bulgaria, Grant DDVU 02/94. References Cattaneo, A., R. J. Steel. 2003. Transgressive deposits: a review of their variability. - Earth Sci. Rev., 62, 187-228. Sheppard, T. H. 2006. Sequence architecture of ancient rocky shorelines and their response to sea-level change: an Early Jurassic example from South Wales, UK. - Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 163, 595-606.

  5. Vegetation cover in an ancient agricultural landscape: the Proszowice Plateau (southern Poland as a case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kotańska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on vegetation cover in the Proszowice Plateau (Małopolska Upland, southern Poland in 1997-1999 were carried out. This vast area (770 sq. km, hitherto not in this respect investigated, is covered with arable fields in 80%. This area has been used for agriculture since the Neolithic age. The aim of the paper is to show the present state of the vegetation and flora in face of the growing man's impact upon living biotas and their environment. The Braun-Blanquet phytosociological method was used, yielding 1030 relevés. In effect, a total of 48 plant associations and communities were found. Plateaux and gently slopes are covered with arable fields. In the cereal communities Vicietum tetraspermae and in the root crops Echinochloo-Setarietum are mostly found. In the wide and shallow stream valleys moist and wet meadows (Calthion, Magnocaricion predominate, and the stands of the xerothermic grassland (Festuco-Brometea occur in places not used for agriculture: on steep escarp-ments between fields and on steep slopes of hills, gullies and stream banks. Small and scarce forests (Querco-Fagetea are preserved on plateaux and on gently slopes. In the stream banks they consist of willow thickets (Salicion and fragments of riverside carr (Alno-Padion. Basing on the relevé material and floristic checklists a total of 860 vascular plant species was recorded, in this 19.2% of rare and endangered. The flora is of lowland character; c. 80% are native species. The characteristic feature of the Proszowice Plateau is the occurrence of the xerothermic grassland and wet meadows, in which species rare in other regions of the country flourish.

  6. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  7. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  8. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  9. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  10. Surirella prespanensis sp. nov. and Surirella hinziae sp. nov., two new diatom (bacillariophyceae) species from ancient lake prespa (macedonia/albania/greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Hamilton, Paul B.; Levkov, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Surirella is a polyphyletic and highly diverse diatom genus with more than 500 species described worldwide. Within a study of its diversity and distribution in the Republic of Macedonia, ancient Lake Prespa has been investigated, as “sister” to Lake Ohrid and part of a unique lake system with

  11. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  12. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  13. Science and Library in the Ancient Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.

  14. The Development of Topography in Ancient and Active Orogens: Case Studies of Landscape Evolution in the Southern Appalachians, USA and Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean Francis

    Understanding the development of topography is fundamental to the geosciences. Topography represents the sum of all tectonic and geodynamic processes that force the earth's surface upward paired with those that act to bring it down. Spatial and temporal changes in topographic relief can modulate the various feedbacks between atmospheric, earth surface and rock exhumation processes, sediment flux, and the magnitude and style of gravity driven natural hazards. Plate tectonics provides the first-order framework necessary to understand how topography is built through the interaction of lithospheric plates. However, density contrasts in the mantle can also influence the elevation of the earth's surface through dynamic topography, while poorly understood nuances of mountain building at convergent margins complicate drawing direct connections between tectonics and topography. Such linkages are further confounded by non-linearity between rock uplift and erosion, variations in rates of deformation, changes in climate and the properties of bedrock. Great advances in our understanding of the evolution of topography have been achieved, yet numerous questions remain regarding the evolution of topography in ancient and active orogens. This research addresses knowledge gaps in the development of topography through case-studies of landscape evolution in the southern Appalachians Mountains, USA and the forearc overlying the Hellenic subduction zone. Chapter 1 explores the origins of modern topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, where tectonic activity ceased prior to 200 Ma. Conventional theories invoked to explain modern relief in the region are challenged. Quantitative analyses of digital elevation models and numerical modeling are coupled to provide the magnitudes and timing of changes in topographic relief. The results suggest that the southern Appalachians experienced a phase of topographic rejuvenation during the Miocene that increased the distance between the

  15. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  16. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  17. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  18. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  19. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were obtai...

  20. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  1. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  2. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  3. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequen...

  4. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  5. Old Age, the Ancient Military, and Alexander's Army: Positive Examples for a Graying America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples from ancient Greece and Rome illustrating working aged and intergenerational dependence. Describes normal active participation of elderly as officers and common soldiers in ancient military as example of their capabilities. Notes that Alexander the Great's army, in particular, depended on contributions of older men. (Author/NB)

  6. The ancient origins of obstetrics, a role for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, V; Serarcangeli, C

    2000-06-01

    Ancient literature, epics and medical texts well testify the existence of a female competence in Obstetrics since the time of Hippocrates. Until the Imperial Age, both in Greece and in Rome, women were the only ministers of the rites involving birth and death: in particular, delivery was the special moment in which a specific female competence was required.

  7. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerden, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or

  8. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  10. Ancient Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  11. Tertiary Education in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Pol...

  12. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  13. CMS Virtual Tour Greece

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    More than 500 high-school students from 7 locations in Greece visit virtually the CMS experiment. Read more about this record-breaking event here: http://home.web.cern.ch/students-educators/updates/2014/02/students-visit-heart-cms-detector

  14. School Psychology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Allina

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the present educational system in Greece at all levels and describes special education services. Describes the place of school psychology in Greek educational and professional structures and the major problems that the field is currently facing. Delineates emerging trends and presents recommendations for the alleviation of problems.…

  15. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  16. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties....... This study has recreated OVDO and applied the ointment to abdominal mouse skin, in vitro. To assess the efficacy of OVDO, the transdermal transfer of morphine was measured when given as OVDO and compared to morphine administered in the form of a solution of Opium + PBS (ringer). Olympic Victor's Dark...

  17. The Origin of a Jury in Ancient Greece and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Dmitriy Yu.; Sakhapov, Rinat R.; Faizrahmanov, Damir I.; Safin, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the implementation of the democratic principles in the court and judicial process in the trial by jury by the example of the history and development of this institution in Russia. The authors used different methods and approaches, in particular, historical, systemic and Aristotelian method, concrete…

  18. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-01-01

    The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, l...

  19. Have health trends worsened in Greece as a result of the financial crisis? A quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Hessel, Philipp; Leone, Tiziana; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Health in Greece deteriorated after the recent financial crisis, but whether this decline was caused by the recent financial crisis has not been established. This article uses a quasi-experimental approach to examine the impact of the recent financial crisis on health in Greece. Data came from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey for the years 2006-09. We applied a difference-in-differences approach that compares health trends before and after the financial crisis in Greece with trends in a control population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable with Greece before the crisis. We used logistic regression to model the impact of the financial crisis on poor self-rated health, controlling for demographic confounders. Results provide strong evidence of a statistically significant negative effect of the financial crisis on health trends. Relative to the control population, Greece experienced a significantly larger increase in the odds of reporting poor health after the crisis (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). There was no difference in health trends between Poland and Greece before the financial crisis, supporting a causal interpretation of health declines in Greece as a result of the financial crisis. Results provide evidence that trends in self-rated health in Greece worsened as a result of the recent financial crisis. Findings stress the need for urgent health policy responses to the recent economic collapse in Greece as the full impact of austerity measures unfolds in the coming years.

  20. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  2. THE LEISURE IN ANCIENT ROME: CHRONICLES OF AN EMPIRE RISE

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano KORSTANJE

    2009-01-01

    The present research is aimed at describing scientifically how the citizenship practiced the leisure in Ancient Rome ranging from I B.C and I D. C centuries. Almost 123 years of history that deserves being uncovered. Readers who wish having clear how leisure conformed in High Empire should refer to classical biographers such as Cornelius Tacitus and Caius Suetonius. In different manners, both have contributed to understand further about how Romans lived. Like in Greece, mythology encouraged t...

  3. “Looking at the Earth from Outer Space: Ancient Views on the Power of Globes”

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Christian

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This text was written for the International Globes Symposium organized by the Stewart Museum in Montreal (19-23 October 2000). It is devoted to the use and meanings of terrestrial globes in ancient Greece and Rome, as tools for meditation and "travels of the soul". The history of ancient geography should include the spiritual and intellectual practices linked with maps and globes and explore the relationship between science and philosophy. The topic of the cosmic trave...

  4. Greece at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    Greece, one of CERN*'s founding Member States, inaugurated its first Industrial Exhibition at the Meyrin site on Tuesday, 14 October. After a meeting with CERN's Director General, Professor Christopher Llewellyn Smith, Professor Emmanuel Frangoulis, the General Secretary of the Greek Ministry of Industry, accompanied by Prof Emmanuel Floratos, Greek delegate to CERN council visited the DELPHI experiment on the LEP collider, guided by Andromachi Tsirou, a Greek physicist.

  5. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  6. Hippocrates, Galen, and the uses of trepanation in the ancient classical world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missios, Symeon

    2007-01-01

    Trepanation is the process by which a hole is drilled into the skull, exposing the intracranial contents for either medical or mystical purposes. It represents one of the oldest surgical procedures, and its practice was widespread in many ancient cultures and several parts of the world. Trepanation was used in ancient Greece and Rome, as described in several ancient texts. Hippocrates and Galen are two of the most prominent ancient Greek medical writers, and their works have influenced the evolution of medicine and neurosurgery across the centuries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Hippocrates' and Galen's written accounts of the technique and use of trepanation in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Examination of those records reveals the ancient knowledge of neurological anatomy, physiology, and therapeutics, and illustrates the state and evolution of neurosurgery in the classical world.

  7. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  8. Aging in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  10. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  11. Educational Psychology Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka-Paraskeva, Sophia

    1984-01-01

    Research on testing, use of intelligence scales, and use of personality scales is a major part of educational psychological research in Greece. A great deal of research has also been done in Greece on the problem of evaluating current educational practice. (BW)

  12. CoNeXT: Ancient Ink as Technology (University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2016-01-01

    and space. The two inventions spread throughout the ancient Mediterranean to Greece, Rome and beyond, and they remain a central medium for communication in the modern world. X-ray synchrotron sources provide exciting new perspectives of fundamental importance within the Human Sciences. The CoNeXT project...

  13. Hippocratic views on Paediatric Dentistry and Ancient Greek origins of Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, G; Kousoulis, A A; Karamanou, M; Marineli, F; Tsoucalas, I; Androutsos, G

    2012-12-01

    Hippocrates, the father of medicine, expressed some very interesting ideas on dentistry. His remarks on paediatric dentistry and orthodontics are quite impressive and influenced its practice in ancient Greece. Here we examine his writings in order to find the most important dental references.

  14. From Museum to Monitor: The Visual Exploration of the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harward, V. Judson

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered in viewing original works of art for scholarship purposes, and argues that a combination of videodisks and computers offers a cost effective method of reproduction. A description of the development of the Perseus Project, a visual database of ancient Greece, focuses on advantages to scholars. (CLB)

  15. the healing hand: the role of women in ancient medicine 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast with the struggle of 19th and 20th century women all over the world to be admitted to medical schools, women in ancient Greece and Rome were apparently increasingly at liberty to practise medicine from the 4th century BC onwards. The available evidence offers conclusive proof of this more tolerant attitude.

  16. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  17. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  18. [The history of medicine in the ancient time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarová, Drahomíra

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the history of medicine in the ancient Greece; from the cult of the God Asklepios, to the founder of the scientific rational medicine, Hippokrates. The humoral theory of Hippokrates is explained (the human body consists from four liquids) and his ideal of a physician's approach to a patient is emphasized. In the Hellenistic period the medical development continued in the Alexandria Medical School (Herofilos and Erasistratos). At first, not much attention was given to medicine and scientific health prevention in ancient Rome. Only 293 AD have physicians from Greece first been invited to Rome--e.g. Asklepiades. During the reign of C. lulius Caesar, foreigners, who engaged in medical practice, were granted Roman citizenship and thanks to a number of benefits the medical condition in Roman Empire blossomed. Medical clinics (iatreia), infirmaries (valetudinaria) and, under the influence of Christianity, hospitals were established. In the 2nd century AD ancient medicine reached its climax with physician Galenos, who created the entire system of medical science and became the most significant, but also last medical figure of ancient Rome.

  19. A description of the methods used to obtain information on ancient disease and medicine and of how the evidence has survived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Neil H

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the common modalities that are available for researching ancient medicine and disease as well as explaining how some of these sources have survived to modern day. These are explained under the three broad headings of palaeopathology, artefacts, and texts. The descriptions use a variety of examples from ancient societies including in the Bronze Age, Babylonia and Assyria, ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and ancient Rome to help explain these modalities. In addition, a review of the advantages and disadvantages of using these tools is included to help current and future historians in stimulating future research in this fascinating area.

  20. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  1. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  2. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  3. PUBLİC OPİNİON CONCEPT İN ANCİENT GREECE AND ROME

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Necdet

    2017-01-01

    Public opinion continued presence of different forms in each period of history. This situation will be taken seriously There are good reasons. Common thought / opinion in the presence of the ancient Greek vocabulary testified great wealth, at least as a means of sliding that will reduce our errors. . In this approach, one concept that emerged Doxa / Δόξα / false opinion in ancient Greece, in the first level, it stands as a synonym for thought. Roma was largely influenced by the ancient Greek...

  4. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  5. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  6. Greece Experience of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan V. Labzhaniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism offers a real opportunity to invite investments, decline unemployment and increase production, which will help to overcome crisis and come to sustainable development, badly needed for Greece now.

  7. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  8. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  9. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  10. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  11. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair.

  12. Limb amputations from the ancient times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Kasior, Iwona; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-26

    Amputations, or the removal of limbs at different levels, have been performed since the ancient times. The first reports of amputations originate from the ancient ruins in Egypt, where primitive prosthetic toes were found in the tombs of the Pharaohs. In Europe, during the period of ancient Greece and Rome, various examples of amputations were described on amphoras and mosaics. During the middle ages, the body was marginalized and replaced by the worship of human spirituality. As a result reports of amputations from that time period are scarce. True development of amputation and prosthetic techniques took place during the Renaissance and centuries that followed. Present-day indications for amputation are similar to those utilized in the ancient times. The greatest development of limb amputation techniques and prosthetic methods began in the 20th century and continues to this day. Despite the development of new techniques in prosthetics, many solutions have their roots in designs originating in the ancient times and differ only in their structural design.

  13. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  15. Secuencia de Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Rosa Lemus Lago

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de síndrome o secuencia de Poland, en un niño de 3 años, caracterizado por ausencia del pectoral mayor derecho, una sindactilia parcial entre el 2do. y el 3er. dedo de la mano derecha, además un anillo constrictor congénito en la muñeca derecha y menos profundo en la izquierda. Se hace el árbol genealógico, se revisan los antecedentes patológicos familiares, prenatales, perinatales, posnatales, así como la morbilidad y el desarrollo del niño.

  16. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  17. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  18. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  19. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  20. Corruption in Greece or Corruption of Greece? The "Modern" Triumphalism

    OpenAIRE

    Lambropoulou, Effi; Iosifidis, Theodoros; Papapamanolis, Nikos; Bakali, Eleftheria; Ageli, Stella; Bakirli, Erifyli; Massouri, Garyfalia

    2008-01-01

    Crime as a Cultural Problem. The Relevance of Perceptions of Corruption to Crime Prevention. A Comparative Cultural Study in the EU-Accession States Bulgaria and Romania, the EU-Candidate States Turkey and Croatia and the EU-States Germany, Greece and United Kingdom

  1. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  2. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  3. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  4. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  5. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.

  6. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  7. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  8. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  9. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  10. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  11. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  12. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  13. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  14. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  15. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this series of articles, we intend to have a glimpse of some of the landmarks in ancient In- dian mathematics with special emphasis on num- ber theory. This issue features a brief overview of some of the high peaks of mathematics in an- cient India. In the next part we shall describe. Aryabhata's general solution in integers ...

  17. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  18. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  20. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  1. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Number Theory for its own sake, as a great 'intellectual challenge, has a long history, particularly here in India. Already in the 7th century, Brahmagupta made impor- tant contributions to what is now known (incorrectly) as. Pell's equation.: Michael Atiyah ([1], p.913). In number theory, the grandest achievements of ancient.

  2. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  3. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Mathematics in Ancient India. 3. Brahmagupta's Lemma: The Samasabhavana. Amartya Kumar Dutta is an Associate Professor of. Mathematics at the. Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. His research interest is in commutative algebra. Part 1, An overview, Reso- nance, VoL7, No.4, pp.4-19,. 2002. Part 2.

  4. Incest in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many controversies that surround the problem of incest in Ancient Egypt. One of them is belief that incest was practiced exclusively by the Royal families, which is incorrect. I will try to show that at this time we don’t have satisfactory explanation of this kind of behavior, but that there are interesting suggestions for further research.

  5. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  6. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.

  7. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  8. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  9. Measles in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  10. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  11. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  12. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  14. Health economic evaluation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.

  15. Orthodox Education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox educational system has been meeting important tasks, which is raising a general mental level of clergy and faithful. Its foundation was driven by needs of the Orthodox Church. Educating a young generation in the spirit of the Orthodoxy happened to be the main task of the enlightened class. Brotherhood, monastery and parish school were to be part of this program. The Orthodox education shaped religious life, helped preserve the religious and national identity of the believers. An evidence of that is the fact, that only those localities preserved “the Greek faith “, in which next to the monasteries were schools. Higher education, and especially Mohyla Academy, shaped by the then elite, played a vital role in the history of Orthodox Church in the Republic and neighboring countries. A similar role had to play in the interwar period College of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw and in post-war Orthodox Section of the Christian Academy of Theology Presented here outline of history of Orthodox education in Poland indicates to the, appreciated by clergy and hierarchy, need of development of theological schools. Theological schools played and still play important role in shaping the attitudes of clergy and faithful. Schools provide necessary pastoral resources, shape Orthodox cultural and scientific environment. Theological education has remained an essential element for the proper functioning of Orthodox Church in the Polish Republic.

  16. Bacteria in ancient sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to ascertain the role of biological activity in ancient sediments, two microbiological studies were carried out. The first was on pleistocenic clay sediments on land, the second on deep oceanic sediments. In the present paper by direct counting the samples is demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a range of 10 5 to 10 7 . Further studies must be carried out to ascertain the activities by in situ incubation methods

  17. Childbirth in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Geoffrey

    2004-11-01

    Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt.

  18. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  19. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  20. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  1. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  2. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  3. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  4. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  5. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  6. Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila perfoliata L. is a maritime sand-dune species naturally occurring in Asia and southeastern Europe. In Europe it also is found in ruderal habitats rarely, mainly along railway lines. In Poland the species was first recorded in the 1950s; it was found only at railway stations where iron ore was offloaded from the Kryvyi Rih region, Ukraine. Recently it was found in a new type of habitat: the roadside of a main road in the Carpathians. The paper characterizes the current status, distribution and habitat spectrum of this alien species in Poland.

  7. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  8. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  9. Ancient Greek view of perinatal risk issues: from myth to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatology is a new medical discipline, originating in the 1960s, and aiming to prevent, diagnose and treat problems to the mother, fetus and neonate, prior, during and after delivery.  As above issues, applying to perinatology, are diachronically present, it is of interest to explore how they were previously viewed and coped with, particularly in ancient times.Ancient Greece is considered the cradle of Western medicine. Thus, the reasonable question arises, what did Ancient Greeks think about unusual conditions, encountered around delivery, like premature birth, small for gestational age babies, twin pregnancy, as well as inability to give birth vaginally, and thus to apply what we nowadays call an emergency cesarean section.

  10. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  11. Indoor radon measurements in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, C.; Molfetas, M.; Ntalles, K.; Georgiou, E.; Serefoglou, A.

    1987-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out in order to measure air concentrations of radon 222 and 220 isotopes in Athenian houses, as a first step of a national survey in Greece. In this paper the authors deal with radon concentration in air and water and will rely on measurements conducted in Greece. (author)

  12. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  13. The differential impact of the financial crisis on health in Ireland and Greece: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, P; Vandoros, S; Avendano, M

    2014-10-01

    Greece and Ireland suffered an economic recession of similar magnitude, but whether their health has deteriorated as a result has not yet been well established. Based on five waves (2006-2010) of the European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey a (DID) approach was implemented that compared trends in self-rated health in Greece and Ireland before and after the crisis with trends in a 'control' population (Poland) that did not experience a recession and had health trends comparable to both countries before the crisis. Logistic regression using a (DID) approach. A simple examination of trends suggests that there was no significant change in health in Greece or Ireland following the onset of the financial crisis. However, DID estimates that incorporated a control population suggest an increase in the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Greece (OR = 1.216; CI = 1.11-1.32). Effects were most pronounced for older individuals and those living in high-density areas, but effects in Greece were overwhelmingly consistent in different population sub-groups. In contrast, DID estimates revealed no effect of the financial crisis on the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Ireland (OR = 0.97; CI = 0.81-1.16). DID estimates suggest that the financial crisis led to higher prevalence of reporting poor health in Greece but not in Ireland. Although the research design does not allow the authors to directly assess the role of specific policies, contextual factors including policy responses may have contributed to the different effect of the crisis on the health of the two countries.

  14. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  15. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  16. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration.

  17. Obscuring the ancient artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiography is a non-destructive method which is preferable for ancient artifacts. X-rays, gama rays, beta rays and neutrons can be used for radiography. Differences of them and application materials can be different. In this study, the radiographic techniques are determined with application parameters according to materials of the artifacts, and some interesting examples are given. Therefore, investigation of the artifacts can be realized for definition of physical properties, manufacturing techniques and quality controls of them easily by the application of the radiography. (author)

  18. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  19. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  20. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  1. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in urban areas: the sensitive case of historical cities." The Action TU1208 is coordinated by "Roma Tre University" (Rome, Italy) and the TS was hosted by the Cracow University of Technology (Cracow, Poland). It was attended by 25 PhD students and early-career investigators coming from Albania, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Trainers and Trainees had the great honour and privilege to carry out practical sessions in St Leonard's Crypt, in cooperation with the companies Restauro (Toruń, Poland) and Geoservice (Athens, Greece). Over the centuries, city centres have been continuously changing, developing and adapting to the requirements of society, architectural planning and advancing technology. Under the pressure of urbanisation, many cities and towns have significantly expanded and the limited space in their centres has been exploited more intensively. The shallow subsurface of historical cities is nowadays a very complicated scenario including reams of pipes, cables, rubble, bars and slabs of reinforced concrete, backfilled excavation trenches and pits, cellars, wells, cavities, tunnels, graves, walls and foundations of former houses, churches, monasteries, town fortifications, along with several other modern and ancient structures and manufacts. For the prospection of such a diversified, multilayered, intricate and complex underground environment, both for archaeological and civil-engineering purposes, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very effective non-destructive geophysical method. GPR is a powerful tool not only for the prospection of subsurface but also for the non-invasive testing of historical buildings, fountains, historical bridges, sculptures, frescoes, pottery and other objects collected in museums: it can give information about their state of preservation, it can significantly help to address a restoration project properly, and sometimes it can also help to achieve information of

  2. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  3. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  4. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”. In 201 number of tetanus cases recorded in Poland was 13. It amounted to six men and seven women. Among those 9 was over 59 years of age. Out of them 4 people died. All were women over 69 years of age. Tetanus is an infectious disease acquired in the environment and associated with the contamination of wounds. Infections and deaths could be prevented by vaccination. Particular risk life and health carries illness after 60 years of age.

  5. Integrated Education in Contemporary Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanel, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the most important aspects, organizational principles and achievements in the field of integrated education in Poland. The author outlines the dynamics of the development of institutions of integrated education and institutions with integrated sections between 1989 and 2010. She describes the actual state of teaching…

  6. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  7. English Language Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…

  8. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  9. Measles in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", and measles case-based reports from 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 84 measles cases registered in Poland in 2013 (incidence 0.22 per 100,000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.18 per 100,000) and children aged 1 year (1.27 per 100,000). In 2013, 56 cases (66.7%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 82.8% do 99.5% (primary vaccination in children born in 2012-2007) and from 73.6% to 93.2% (booster dose in children born in 2004-2001). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). Two hundred seven cases (80%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. In 2013, the epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in comparison to proceding year. The sensitivity of measles surveillance improved but is still

  10. Measles in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPHNIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system, measles case-based reports from 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et all., Warszawa 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In total, there were 110 measles cases registered in Poland in 2014 (incidence 0.29 per 100,000), from which 87 cases (79%) were confirmed with laboratory test. That was more than in 2013 - when 84 cases were reported and incidence was 0,22. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 1 year (3,43 per 100,000). In 2014, 76 cases (69%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 79.7% do 94.8% (primary vaccination in children born in 2004-2013) and from 77.7% to 85.8% (booster dose in children born in 2005-2011). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). In whole country the total number of suspects

  11. "At times these ancient facts seem to lie before me like a patient on a hospital bed'--retrospective diagnosis and ancient medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, K H

    2004-01-01

    Research in ancient medical history, Greek and Roman as well as Mesopotamian and Egyptian, is usually done by philologically trained scholars; the ability to read texts in their original language is fundamental (though not sufficient) for any substantial work. There is, however, in such works the notion that something may be missing in fully understanding medicine of a certain time and culture. Does a medical historian of ancient medicine need, in addition to his philological and historical skills, a medical education? And in what way is a 'medical approach' to ancient medicine useful? Is it possible to stand at the bedside of a Hippocratic patient as a clinician or reconstruct the 'pathocoenosis', as Mirko D. Grmek (+ 2000) coined it, of ancient Greece? The present paper outlines the problem of applying present medical knowledge to ancient sources and touches on the topic of primary perception of disease and illness. An important aspect is that disease entities change in their socio-cultural setting. Examples ranging from the supposed Lupus erythematodes of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon to cases in the Hippocratic Epidemiae and plague descriptions of Greek authors illustrate the problem of retrospective diagnosis.

  12. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  13. Pertussis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rudowska, Jolanta

    In Poland, they are still recorded high number of cases whooping cough - five-year median for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 are similar and amount to 5.2 and 5.5 per 100 000 population. The trend of the incidence of pertussis in a high percentage of adults that was observed in years between 2009-2011 (the results of the National Research Epidemiology of Pertussis), in subsequent years, ie. 2012-2014 was halted. Still the most effective strategy to prevent illness is the vaccination according to the current vaccination calendar. The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2014, including vaccine coverage of children. Assessment of the epidemiology of pertussis in Poland was based on analysis of individual reports of suspected cases of pertussis sent to the NIPH-NIH by the regional sanitaryepidemiological stations, data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011” and bulletin “Immunizations in Poland in 2014 “ (MP Czarkowski et al, Warsaw 2015, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In 2014, number of registered cases of whooping cough was 2 100. The incidence was 5.5 per 100,000 and it was slightly lower than in the previous year (5.5/100,000). The highest incidence (46%) occurred in children aged 15 years and older. 601 people were hospitalised (28.6% of total). In 2014, there were no deaths from whooping cough. The incidence of whooping cough observed in 2014 is comparable to the previous year and it indicates a fixed circulation of bacteria in the environment and still continuing infection vulnerability of the population.

  14. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  15. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  16. [Sculptor of The Cripple of the Geneva Museum of Art and History. An ancient Greek portrayal of hemimelia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasen, V

    1997-01-01

    An archaic Greek terracotta vase in the Art and History Museum at Geneva depicts a man deprived of his left arm and with two legs ending in a stump below the knees. Did he suffer from a traumatism (amputation), a mutilating disease or congenital malformation (hemimelia)? A survey of written and iconographic sources throws light on the methods and limits of ancient surgery, and on the chances of survival of abnormal children in archaic and classical Greece.

  17. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  18. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  20. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  1. THE LEISURE IN ANCIENT ROME: CHRONICLES OF AN EMPIRE RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano KORSTANJE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at describing scientifically how the citizenship practiced the leisure in Ancient Rome ranging from I B.C and I D. C centuries. Almost 123 years of history that deserves being uncovered. Readers who wish having clear how leisure conformed in High Empire should refer to classical biographers such as Cornelius Tacitus and Caius Suetonius. In different manners, both have contributed to understand further about how Romans lived. Like in Greece, mythology encouraged the conflict confronting sons against their fathers. The glory, fame and power were values that a child learned from the cradle. For that, in the lapse of few decades Rome transformed in a military and economic power that subdued all known world for more than four centuries. Under such a circumstance, leisure worked as a vehicle towards hegemony and ideology preventing social fragmentation as well as encouraging a rural migration to urban cities.

  2. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  3. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  4. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Seventeen cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2003. All of them were imported: 13 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 1 from Indonesia. In 8 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 14 were men and 3 were women. The youngest patient was 10 and the oldest 63, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (6 cases), professional (4 cases) and missionary (4 cases) travel. One death from falciparum malaria was reported in Poland in 2003. In 4 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  6. [Malaria in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Twenty mine cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2004. All of them were imported: 22 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 3 from South America In 2 cases country of origin was unknown. In 14 cases P. falciparumn etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 20 were men and 9 were women. Age of the patients was 11 to 250 years. 6 of the patients were in the age group 11 to 20 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits and professional travel. One death from falciparumn malaria was reported in Poland in 2004. In 11 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  7. [Malaria in Poland in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Twenty cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2005. All of them were imported including 3 cases of relapse: 16 from Africa, 2 from South America, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. In 16 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 4--P. vivax. Among the cases 14 were men and 6 were women. The youngest patient was 1 and the oldest 56, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (9 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). In 7 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented, including at least 4 for whom it was judged inappropriate. In other prophylaxis was not used (5 cases) or the information was missing. No malaria deaths were reported in Poland in 2005.

  8. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  9. First palaeoseismological results from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pavlides

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief account of our approach to trends in palaeoseismological research that are currently emerging in Greece, with the application of modern investigative methods practised world-wide in active tectonic zones. These techniques include fault stratigraphy in trenches, and dating recent fault reactivations in order to understand and distinguish palaeoseismic events along specific segments of active faults, named Gerakarou (Mygdonia Basin, Thessaloniki area, Palaeochori Fault (Kozani-Grevena, Western Macedonia, Souli (Petousi, Epirus, and Volos-Larissa (Thessaly plain. Four palaeoearthquakes were investigated on the Gerakarou fault segment, with a uniform slip rate and return period around 7000 years. In Western Macedonia "aseismic areas" the Servia-Palaeochori recently activated fault shows a -3500 year quiescence. Three coseismic events on the Souli Fault pre- and post-date to 26000 year deposits.

  10. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brianas, Jason

    2004-01-01

    .... For the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and subsequent 11 March 2004 Madrid bombings in Spain complicated an already robust Greek security plan...

  12. The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Katsios

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights the interaction between the underground economy and corruption, focussing on the regional dimensions of the problem in south-eastern Europe. It discusses the theoretical approach to underground economic activities and focuses on the determinants of the Greek economy, the tax and national insurance burdens and the intensity of the relevant regulations in Greece, concluding that Greece shows profound signs of a transition country in terms of the high level of regulation lea...

  13. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  14. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  15. Analysis of ancient silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, Christophe; Marchetti, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Writing from the numismatist point of view, the authors open this paper by reviewing critically the use of scientific methods for the studies of ancient coins. They also report about an application of the PIXE method at low incident proton energy to one of the most celebrated and known coinage in the ancient history: the Athenian silver coins of the fifth century BC. The results of those analyses indicate that the metallic composition of several coins usually taken as ancient imitations of Athenian coins does not differ from that of the genuine ones. Those analyses confirm what the authors have inferred from numismatic sources: These coins are probably genuinely Athenian

  16. Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T; Roma, E; Foxon, K M; Templeton, M R; Buckley, C A

    2013-01-01

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus there is a huge need for sustainable and cost-effective WATSAN facilities, particularly in cities of the developing world. The objective of this study was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient WATSAN systems for the contemporary developing world. Selected WATSAN systems in ancient Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Yucatan peninsula are briefly introduced and then discussed in the context of the developing world. One relevant aspect is that public latrines and baths were not only a part of daily life in ancient Rome but also a focal point for socialising. As such they would appear to represent a model of how to promote use and acceptance of modern community toilets and ablution blocks. Although public or community toilets are not classified as improved sanitation by WHO/UNICEF, this is a debatable premise since examples such as Durban, South Africa, illustrate how community toilets continue to represent a WATSAN solution for urban areas with high population density. Meanwhile, given the need for dry sanitation technologies, toilets based on the production of enriched Terra Preta soil have potential applications in urban and rural agriculture and warrant further investigation.

  17. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  18. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  19. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  20. Meottomyces dissimulans (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first sites of Meottomyces dissimulans (Berk. & Broome Vizzini in Poland. About a dozen basidiomata in all stages of development were observed in poplar and alder-willow thickets. The macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated, and the distribution of the species in Poland is given.

  1. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  2. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  3. Rabies in Greece; historical perspectives in view of the current re-emergence in wild and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Tzani, Myrsini; Tasioudi, Konstantia E; Kalachanis, Kostantinos; Mangana-Vougiouka, Olga; Rigakos, George; Dougas, George; Seimenis, Aristarchos M; Kontos, Vassileios

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been rabies free since 1987 while no human cases have been seen since 1970. The re-emergence of rabies in Northern Greece during 2012-2013 in wild and domestic animals prompted a systematic review of historical evidence of the presence of the disease in the country from ancient years till the present. Historical data is presented along with efforts to prevent disease in animals and humans especially during the high prevalent periods in the country in the mid-20th century. These efforts serve as a guide to current extensive efforts to prevent spread especially in the wild and domestic animal populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary lightning observations over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis G.

    2012-02-01

    The first Precision Lightning Network, monitoring the Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning stroke activity over Greece and surrounding waters is operated and maintained by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. This paper studies the regional (land/water interface), seasonal and diurnal variability of the CG strokes as a function of density, polarity and peak current. Additional investigation uniquely links the CG stroke current to sea surface salinity and cloud electrical capacitance. In brief, this study's major findings area as follows: (1) The seasonal maps of thunder days agree well with the regional climatic convective characteristics of the study area, (2) the CG diurnal variability is consistent with the global lightning activity observations over land and ocean, (3) the maxima of monthly averaged CG counts are located over land and water during typical summer and fall months respectively for both polarities, (4) CG peak currents show a distinct seasonality with larger currents during relatively colder months and smaller currents during summer months, and (5) strong linear trends between -CGs and sea surface salinity; (6) this trend is absent for +CGs data analysis of the employed database relate to the thunderstorm's RC constant and agrees with previous numerical modeling studies.

  5. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  6. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    This work is an outreach approach to an ubiquitous recent problem in secondary-school education: how to face back the decreasing interest in natural sciences shown by students under 'pressure' of convenient resources in digital devices/applications. The approach rests on two features. First, empowering of teen-age students to understand regular natural events around, as very few educated people they meet could do. Secondly, an understanding that rests on personal capability to test and verify experimental results from the oldest science, astronomy, with simple instruments as used from antiquity down to the Renaissance (a capability restricted to just solar and lunar motions). Because lengths in astronomy and daily life are so disparate, astronomy basically involved observing and registering values of angles (along with times), measurements being of two types, of angles on the ground and of angles in space, from the ground. First, the gnomon, a simple vertical stick introduced in Babylonia and Egypt, and then in Greece, is used to understand solar motion. The gnomon shadow turns around during any given day, varying in length and thus angle between solar ray and vertical as it turns, going through a minimum (noon time, at a meridian direction) while sweeping some angular range from sunrise to sunset. Further, the shadow minimum length varies through the year, with times when shortest and sun closest to vertical, at summer solstice, and times when longest, at winter solstice six months later. The extreme directions at sunset and sunrise correspond to the solstices, swept angular range greatest at summer, over 180 degrees, and the opposite at winter, with less daytime hours; in between, spring and fall equinoxes occur, marked by collinear shadow directions at sunrise and sunset. The gnomon allows students to determine, in addition to latitude (about 40.4° North at Madrid, say), the inclination of earth equator to plane of its orbit around the sun (ecliptic), this

  7. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece.

  8. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  9. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2016. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016”. 6 698 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2014. The incidence rate was 17.4 cases per 100 000, withlarge variability between voivodeships from 9.3 to 26.5 per 100 000. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2010- 2014 was 2.1%. 6 066 cases had no history of previous treatment i.e. 15.8 per 100 000. 632 cases i.e. 1.6 per 100 000 – 9.4% of all registered subjects were relapses. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 2014 was 6311 i.e. 16.4 per 100 000. Pulmonary cases represented 94.2% of all TB cases. In the presented year 387 extrapulmonary TB cases were reported. Children with TB (70 cases) accounted for 1.0% of all cases notified in Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis increases with age from 1.2 per 100 000 among children to 30.4 per 100 000 among patients 65 years old and older. The incidence among men i.e. 24.6 per 100 000 was 2.3 times higher than among women i.e. 10.7 per 100 000. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 45 to 49 years – 40.4 vs. 9.3. The TB incidence in rural population was lower than in urban, respectively 17.0 per 100 000 and 17.7 per 100 000. The number of all registered culture positive TB cases, including relapses, was 4

  10. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  11. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2012 in Poland and to compare with the corresponding EU data. Analysis of case- based clinical and demographic data on TB patients from Central TB Register, of data submitted by laboratories on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2012, data from National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report "Tuberculosis Surveillance in Europe, 2014 (situation in 2012). 7 542 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2012. The incidence rate was 19.6 cases per 100 000, with large variability between voivodships from 10.6 to 30.2. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2008-2012 was 2.4%. 6 665 cases had no history of previous treatment; 17.3 per 100 000. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 7 018; 18.2 per 100 000. The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all registered cases was 6.9% (524 cases). In 2012, 36 patients had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis (0.5% of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis). TB was diagnosed in 95 children (1.3% of all cases, incidence 1.6). The incidence of tuberculosis increased progressively with age to 34.8 among patients 65 years old and older. The mean age of new TB cases was 53.1 years. The incidence among men (27.4) was more than two times higher than among women (12.2). The incidence rate in rural population was lower than in urban; 20.2 vs. 18.6. Bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary cases (4870) constituted 69,4% of all pulmonary TB cases. The number of smear positive pulmonary TB cases was 2 778 (39.6% of all pulmonary cases). In 2012 in the all group of TB patients in Poland there were 276 (3.7%) of homeless and 1 905 (25.3%) of unemployed. There were 48 foreigners registered among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (0.6%) and 243 cases

  12. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  13. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  14. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  15. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  16. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  17. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Greece. The introduction is followed by four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about the country, 2. the historical development of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the authorís goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Greeceís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Greek approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Greek reality The National Actuary.

  18. Recent records of hypogeous fungi in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Diamandis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty among Greek farmers who are in search of new and profitable crops has increased interest in truffle cultivation. Recent research has come up with 23 taxa of hypogeous fungi new for Greece including gastronomically valuable species. Natural ecosystems of Quercus pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex and Q. coccifera seem to be rich in hypogeous species. Ecosystems with Corylus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Mediterranean pines and even poplar plantations were found to also host hypogeous fungi. These records, supported by historical information about the existence of truffles in Greece, seem to be encouraging hints for systematic truffle cultivation.

  19. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  1. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  2. Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales occurs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of sporocarps and spores of Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales, a fungus for the first time found in Poland, are described and illustrated. Endogone lactiflua was wet sieved and decanted from a sample taken from the zone extending from the upper soil layer to rhizosphere of Pinus sylvestris growing in a forest dune in northern Poland. The recovered spores mainly occurred in large and compact sporocarps, although both small aggregates with a few spores and single zygosporangia of this fungus were also isolated. Endogone lactiflua is the fourth species of the genus Endogone found to occur in Poland. The distribution of the fungus in the world is also presented.

  3. “To the glory that was Greece": Hellenic patterns in Poe's poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsokanos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available “To the glory that was Greece": Hellenic patterns in Poe's poetry. Abstract: Edgar Allan Poe’s poetry has repeatedly drawn the attention of many literary critics since his poems have meticulously been delved into from different perspectives. Undeniably, a multitude of references that allude to ancient Greek mythology and classical literature are present within his verses. These have been noticed and delineated by noteworthy Poe scholars such as Scott Peeples, Kenneth Silverman, Daniel Hoffman and Kevin Hayes in several of their researches in the past. However, despite the wide range of studies that have been published, one cannot encounter any mention regarding the existence of Hellenic motifs or even a reference to an apparent Hellenism in Poe’s poetry. In an effort to outline what has already been affirmed with respect to this topic and to unearth additional links between Poe’s works and Greece, the present essay aims to determine the presence of Hellenic motifs in Poe’s “To Helen” and “Lenore”. Keywords: Poe, Greece, Greek mythology, ancient Greece, Helen of Troy, Hellenic motifs. // “To the glory that was Greece”: Patrones helénicos en la poesía de Poe. Resumen: La poesía de Edgar Allan Poe ha llamado la atención de muchos críticos literarios ya que sus poemas han sido meticulosamente analizados desde distintas perspectivas. De forma innegable, una multitud de diferencias que aluden a la mitología griega y a la literatura clásica están presentes en sus versos. Estas referencias han sido detectadas por académicos notorios de Poe como Scott Peeples, Kenneth Silverman, Daniel Hoffman y Kevin Hayes. Sin embargo, a pesar de la amplia variedad de estudios hasta la fecha, nadie ha establecido mención alguna sobre la existencia del elemento griego o incluso sobre el aparente helenismo de la poesía de Poe. En un esfuerzo por delinear lo que ya ha sido dicho con respecto al tema y por descubrir vínculos adicionales

  4. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist...... as to how reliable the conclusions of many of the published studies are. In this paper we outline first the problems associated with aDNA studies, and secondly present potential guidelines designed so as to enable non-specialist readers the opportunity to critically assess the quality of aDNA publications....

  5. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar BOJAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It results from the analysis that important role in new the EU member countries are played by endogenous factors as institutional undergrowth and low social capital level, what deteriorates the development of SME networks in those countries. Experience of Andalusia region in Spain benchmarked to organizations in new the EU member countries can give desired effects in the scope of improvement of co-operation with public sector, product marketing and promotion and also in facing expectations of consumers for safe and healthy food in international markets.

  6. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  7. Thrown Away Like Rubbish - Disposal of the Dead in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lindenlauf

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In this article, the literary and archaeological evidence for burial practices that can be associated with the English expression ‘to be disposed of like rubbish’ are discussed. These disposal methods ('átaphon rhíptesthai' include the exposure of corpses to carrion animals, to the elements, as well as the disposal of corpses into the sea, pits or natural fissures without burial rites. They also include cases in which graves were dug up in order to throw their contents out. Here, the Greek expressions for the English phrase ‘to be thrown away like rubbish’ are explored, as well as its relation to Morris’ (1987 influential concept of the ‘non-formal burial’. The analysis of the symbolism of various disposal methods has been based on both literary and archaeological sources. Also addressed are issues such as the intersection of the exclusion from full and proper burial procedures with social status and social groups. Lastly, the dangers for the living and the dead associated with casually disposed of human remains are briefly tackled, including the transformation of the souls of the deceased into spirits and their loss of human-ness.

  8. Aristotle (384-322 BC): philosopher and scientist of ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P M

    2006-01-01

    Aristotle's studies encompassed the entire world of living things. Many of his descriptions and classifications remain sound today. Although not a physician, he exerted a profound influence on medicine for the next 2000 years.

  9. Atomic Pioneers Book 1 From Ancient Greece to the 19th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1970-01-01

    This brief booklet gives a snapshot view of 25 men, each of whom contributed an important building block to the foundations of atomic science. The 25 men are: Anaxagoras; Archimedes; Avogadro, Amedeo; Berthollet, Claude Louis; Berzelius, Jons Jakob; Boyle, Robert; Bruno, Giordano; Copernicus; Dalton, John; Davy, Humphry; Democritus; Descartes, Rene; Empedocles; Fpicurus; Franklin, Benjamin; Galilei, Galileo; Gassendi, Pierre; Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Lavoisier, Antoine; Leucippus; Lucretius; Newton, Isaac; Proust, Joseph Louis; Pythagoras; and Wollaston, William Hyde.

  10. From ancient Greece to the cognitive revolution: A comprehensive view of physical rehabilitation sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pernía, David; González-Castán, Óscar; Huepe, David

    2017-02-01

    The development of rehabilitation has traditionally focused on measurements of motor disorders and measurements of the improvements produced during the therapeutic process; however, physical rehabilitation sciences have not focused on understanding the philosophical and scientific principles in clinical intervention and how they are interrelated. The main aim of this paper is to explain the foundation stones of the disciplines of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech/language therapy in recovery from motor disorder. To reach our goals, the mechanistic view and how it is integrated into physical rehabilitation will first be explained. Next, a classification into mechanistic therapy based on an old version (automaton model) and a technological version (cyborg model) will be shown. Then, it will be shown how physical rehabilitation sciences found a new perspective in motor recovery, which is based on functionalism, during the cognitive revolution in the 1960s. Through this cognitive theory, physical rehabilitation incorporated into motor recovery of those therapeutic strategies that solicit the activation of the brain and/or symbolic processing; aspects that were not taken into account in mechanistic therapy. In addition, a classification into functionalist rehabilitation based on a computational therapy and a brain therapy will be shown. At the end of the article, the methodological principles in physical rehabilitation sciences will be explained. It will allow us to go deeper into the differences and similarities between therapeutic mechanism and therapeutic functionalism.

  11. From Ancient Greece to Modern Education: Universality and Lack of Generalization of the Socratic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Andrea P.; Pezzatti, Laura; Battro, Antonio M.; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Two thousand four hundred years ago Socrates gave a remarkable lesson of geometry, perhaps the first detailed record of a pedagogical method in vivo in history [Plato. (2008). "Apologia de Socrates. Menon. Cratilo." Madrid: Alianza Editorial]. Socrates asked Meno's slave 50 questions requiring simple additions or multiplications. At the…

  12. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  13. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  14. In the light of science our ancient quest for knowledge and the measure of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaides, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    The birth of science in ancient Greece had a historical impact that is still being felt today. Physicist Demetris Nicolaides examines the epochal shift in thinking that led pre-Socratic philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE to abandon the prevailing mythologies of the age and, for the first time, to analyze the natural world in terms of impersonal, rationally understood principles. He argues not only that their conceptual breakthroughs anticipated much of later science but that scientists of the twenty-first century are still grappling with the fundamental problems raised twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking at the vast sweep of human history, the author delves into the factors that led to the birth of science: urbanization, the role of religion, and in Greece a progressive intellectual curiosity that was unafraid to question tradition. Why did the first scientific approach to understanding the world take place in Greece? The author makes a convincing case that, aside from factors of geography...

  15. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  16. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  17. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  18. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  19. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  20. Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, P; Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Villa, T G

    2004-07-01

    Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved.

  1. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  2. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  3. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  4. Vegetation ecology of Kalodiki Fen (NW Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimopoulos, P.; Sykora, K.V.; Gilissen, C.; Wiecherink, D.; Georgiadis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands around the Mediterranean Sea have decreased considerably in number and quality. Greece has lost two thirds of its wetlands during the last seventy-five years; however, many wetlands with considerable conservation value remain. Kalodiki Fen is an inland, freshwater wetland

  5. Intrafamily Acculturation of Values in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, James

    1991-01-01

    Responses to a family-values questionnaire administered to 678 members of 226 3-person families (2 parents and 1 child) from rural and urban Greece indicate that acculturation of traditional family values differs for urban and rural environment, gender, and generation. Analysis suggests a trend toward individual not traditional collectivist…

  6. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  7. Metamorphism of bauxites on Naxos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a petrological-mineralogical and geochemical study of the metamorphosed karstbauxites on the island of Naxos, Greece. The bauxites have been subject to an Eocene highpressure metamorphism (M1), followed by a Late Oligocene-Miocene medium-pressure metamorphism

  8. Additional records of Actiniaria (Anthozoa) from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Hartog, den J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A small collection of four species of Actiniaria, partly representing new records for Greece and the eastern Mediterranean, is described and discussed. These four species are: Bunodeopsis strumosa Andres, 1881, Edwardsia claparedii (Panceri, 1869), Actinia cari delle Chiaje, 1825, and Phymanthus

  9. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  10. Medical practice in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tzitzis, Panagiotis M

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius was called "a great doctor for every disease". Asclepius was born in Trikala, Thessaly, in the middle of Greece, where the first Asclepeion was established. Patients coming to the Asclepeia were first taking cleaning baths and then entered the main Asclepeion, where they were examined by priests-therapists and were accommodated in certain areas-rooms of the Asclepeion. Inscriptions found in marble plaques describe treatment of some diseases and the sum of money paid for every treatment. These were the first medical records and fees in ancient Greece. Patients were considered as a unique psychosomatic entity. Patients followed many instructions in order to relax and rest, submitted daily baths, exercises, massages, entertainment attending theatrical or poetic or athletic races, reading special books, promenades, special diets or were kept fasting and were instructed to take many kinds of medicine per os, suppositories, ointments, eye drops etc. The main diseases treated in the Asclepeia were: chronic neuropsychological disorders, skin diseases and chronic lung diseases. Other diseases gynaecological, ophthalmic and surgical were also treated. Today, like in the ancient Asclepeia, the psychology of patients is important and certain preparatory drugs are administered before the actual main treatment of surgery or of some psychic disorders. In Aalborg, Denmark, a large prototype medical university hospital, is scheduled to be built in an area of 350acres within the next 15 years. The psychosomatic dogma and principals of a "green building" will be well respected. The Asclepeion of the island of Kos, where as we know Hippocrates was born, was built on the 5th century B.C. and functioned till the 4th century A.D. and had three floors. The Asclepeion had many dedications, of which many parts of the human body in marble: an ear, a damaged penis and two breasts. Surgical tools were also found and are now exhibited in the Dion Museum. After the 4th century A.D. the

  11. SOME CARACTERISTICS WRESTLING DEVELOPMENT IN THE SLAVEHOLDING SYSTEM IN EGYPT AND GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališa Radović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest slaveholding countries were founded in the fertile valleys of the big rivers: Euphrates, Tigris, Hoangho, Yangtse – Kiang, Nile, Indies and Ganges in the period between 4000 and 3000 yeares BC, and they represented the beginning of slave- holding system which lasted until the year of 476. The first traces and knowledge on wrestling can be founded in the ancient civiliza- tions at first in Mesopotamia, then in the territory of Far East and in the Mediterranean which belongs to the territory of the Middle East. Vavylon, Egypt, Imolia, China, Crete, Mycenaee, Greece and Rome are rich with various archeological and other facts which mention wrestling as important fighting skill of that time. Wrestling in Egypt and Gree- ce had important place and role according to the historical facts, some of which wil be established in this study

  12. “To the glory that was Greece": Hellenic patterns in Poe's poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsokanos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Allan Poe’s poetry has repeatedly drawn the attention of many literary critics since his poems have meticulously been delved into from different perspectives. Undeniably, a multitude of references that allude to ancient Greek mythology and classical literature are present within his verses. These have been noticed and delineated by noteworthy Poe scholars such as Scott Peeples, Kenneth Silverman, Daniel Hoffman and Kevin Hayes in several of their researches in the past. However, despite the wide range of studies that have been published, one cannot encounter any mention regarding the existence of Hellenic motifs or even a reference to an apparent Hellenism in Poe’s poetry. In an effort to outline what has already been affirmed with respect to this topic and to unearth additional links between Poe’s works and Greece, the present essay aims to determine the presence of Hellenic motifs in Poe’s “To Helen” and “Lenore”.

  13. Remedium memoriae. The Peripatetic construction of the intellectual history of Greece. Dicaearchus’ Biography of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Afonasin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peripatetic Dicaearchus composed a series of works dedicated to the intellectual history of Greece. In a sense, he was the first ancient author to write a comprehensive history of philosophy, centered on such key figures, as the Seven Sages, Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato. The sages are known for their highly practical maxims and general rules of right conduct; Pythagoras developed a new lifestyle and promulgated it in his public and private teaching; Socrates introduced a new form of intellectual and moral pursuit; while Plato founded an institutional framework for philosophical studies having thus paved the way to a systematic research, conducted by the Peripatetics. The evidences are translated on the basis of a new edition of Dicaearchus’ fragments, prepared by Mirhady (2001.

  14. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  15. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  16. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  17. THE SINGLE AND ETERNAL GREECE OF RALLOU MANOU: A SURVEY OF HER WORK FROM A SLAV STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadežda Mosusova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Greeks were celebrating the 100th anniversary of the birth of their talented and in many ways incomparable artist Rallou Manou (1915-1988. Year 2013 marked the 25th anniversary of her death. The current paper is depicting extraordinary personality of this many faceted woman which deserves continued research and new discoveries. Working for 45 years for the Greek theater, actually from 1938 until 1988 (excluding three war years, Rallou Manou realized over 70 stage works, spreading her art all over Greece and abroad, performing both with her ensemble and with her school. Being an offspring of foreign dancing trends, German and American, Manou has chosen to follow her own style in performing and choreographing, combining the opulent heritage of Greek ancient and folk tradition with the modern and contemporary dance. The goal of Manou’s art was to present her homeland as an unity, with the motto that there is no question of an ancient or a modern Greece, but one - single and eternal. Aim of this paper is also to keep from oblivion ideas and work of Rallou Manou, focusing actual researchеs on her links with the Slavonic world of dance.

  18. Aktywnośc filozoficzna kobiet w Grecji okresu klasycznego (WOMEN'S PHILOSOPHICAL ACTIVITY IN CLASSICAL GREECE

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    Bartłomiej Ramian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss in this paper the matter of philosophical activity of women in classical Greece. Hardly ever can characters of women philosophers be found in textbooks concerning history of ancient philosophy. This is relevant to the social situation in Greece of that time, where women existed on the margins of public life. To show this, they refer to Aristotle's work, as much as to non-philosophical sources. In spite of the fact that women's activity was reduced to the private sphere, a number of woman philosophers appear in the history of Greek thought. Circumstances which enabled them to take up activity on this ground were varied. Some of the women were members of philosophical schools, in case of others it seems that a particular personal situation played a key role, as they were either daughters or wives of philosophers. Regardless of the reasons, taking up philosophical activity must have required great courage and determination. Without any doubt, women philosophers must have been uncommon characters and their development on this ground can be seen as overcoming the social role imposed on them.

  19. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900-1950: An Oral History Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hionidou, Violetta

    2016-10-01

    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept 'gifts'; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers' lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks.

  20. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  1. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  2. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...

  3. Becoming Classical Artemis: A Glimpse at the Evolution of the Goddess as Traced in Ancient Arcadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Albert Zolotnikova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the evolution of the goddess Artemis in Ancient Greek religion from prehistoric till late historic times. In the related studies, still there is no certainty as to the beginning of worship of Artemis in Ancient Greece and her original concept. Moreover, Artemis’ appearance in the early historic period with the features of the prehistoric Mountain-Mother-Goddess, the Mistress of Animals, the goddess of lakes, the goddess of trees, the goddess of birth and child-care, on the one hand, and as a virgin-huntress who presented rudimentary traits of bear-goddess and deer-goddess, on the other, raises questions whether Artemis originally had all these hypostases or acquired them gradually through assimilation with different goddesses. This paper argues that the concept of Artemis as attested during the historic period was the result of its long development, which consisted of two major phases. Originally, Artemis was a goddess of wild animals and herself was imagined as a bear and a doe. Perhaps, from the beginning, she was regarded as a guardian of sacred rules and a punisher for inappropriate religious behavior. Gradually, Artemis was identified with the old universal goddess of nature and received from her connection with mountain-tops and lakes, responsibility for plant growth and fertility in general, obligation to protect childbirth, etc.. In this paper, the evolution of the concept of Artemis is traced on the basis of her cults practiced in Arcadia, one of a few areas of Ancient Greece where ethno-cultural continuity remained unbroken from prehistoric to late historic times.

  4. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  5. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  6. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  7. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  8. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  9. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  10. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  11. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  12. Country policy profile - Greece. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014

  13. Youth unemployment in Greece: Measuring the challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N. F.; Blanchflower, David G.

    2015-01-01

    A historically high level of youth unemployment presents Greece with a huge social and economic challenge. This paper analyses various dimensions of this challenge. We argue that though the conventional definition of "youth" is the 16-24 age group, there is a strong case for considering 25 to 29-year-olds as sharing common problems with conventionally defined youth. There are also grounds for examining why females seem to fare worse than males in the Greek labour market. The negative effects ...

  14. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  15. Sahana4Greece (brochure A5)

    OpenAIRE

    Harris V Georgiou (MSc,PhD)

    2016-01-01

    Sahana platform is an internationally recognized and award-winning free software (FOSS) for logistical support of volunteering/rescue teams, relief organizations and NGOs in emergency response situations and disaster relief missions. The operational deployment of Sahana in Greece provides a substantial boost to the logistics of teams, organizations and even individual volunteers that engage actively in the islands of eastern Aegean sea, as well as improved collaboration and coordination with ...

  16. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  17. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  18. The precursory earthquake swarm in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hellenic subduction region displays the same precursory swarm phenomenon as has been found in comparable regions of New Zealand and Japan. In the earthquake catalogue of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 10 past sequences of precursory swarms and related major mainshock events have been identified. These correlate, in respect of location, magnitude and time, with the 9 sequences previously identified in New Zealand, and 9 in Japan, bringing the total of sequences to 28, and the totals of related events (allowing for clustering to 56 precursory swarms and 42 mainshock events. The results add strength to the hypothesis that swarms are long-range predictors of mainshock events. A close similarity between the swarm and aftershock magnitudes in a given sequence is also confirmed in Greece, supporting the proposal that swarms are an integral part of the seismogenic process in subduction regions. Further, the modelling of swarms as part of an overall increase in seismicity, the onset of which marks the onset of seismogenesis, is well illustrated from past sequences in Greece. Formal tests are being carried out in Greece, in parallel with New Zealand and Japan, to ascertain the performance of the hypothesis as a basis for long-range synoptic forecasting.

  19. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  20. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... interested in students from this region. Commercial Setting Poland Poland is a prime target from which U.S... size. The dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1...

  1. Doping in sports in ancient and recent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea A

    2010-01-01

    Doping in sports is the use of forbidden techniques and/or the assumption of prohibited substances by athletes in order to increase physical performances. The origin of the word doping is today still discussed; however some sources indicate that an African tribe, the Kaffirs, gave the name of "dop" to a beverage that was largely consumed in religious ceremonies as a stimulant drink. Diet modifications were among the most widely used procedures to increase physical performance in sports in the classical world. Beside diet measures, the assumption of "magical" potions deriving from the vegetable and animal realms to improve physical fitness and sportive performance is documented both in ancient Greece and Rome. The composition of these preparations is not yet fully clear, but they probably contained stimulants such as alcohol or hallucinating mushrooms. Vegetal stimulants were largely used in the nineteenth century, a period in which pharmacology and laboratory medicine were established and achieved remarkable scientific results. In the twentieth century different chronological and operative phases may be detected in the evolution of doping practices. To prevent these practices, from the sixties an intense struggle against doping in sports was begun at an international level. Doping in sports is unfair with respect to competitors and dangerous for health.

  2. Dietetics in ancient Greek philosophy: Plato's concepts of healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, P K; Lascaratos, J G

    2001-07-01

    Plato (5th-4th century BC), one of the most important philosophers of Greek antiquity, left a valuable spiritual heritage, compiled in his famous dialogues. His teachings extend to almost every single field of human knowledge. Among other philosophical concepts, Plato's works are imbued with the fundamental principle of moderation. This spirit is characteristically evident in his references to human diet. According to the philosopher, a moderate and thus a healthy diet, consists of cereals, legumes, fruits, milk, honey and fish. However, meat, confectionery and wine should be consumed only in moderate quantities. Excesses in food lead to ailments and therefore should be avoided. Plato considers physicians responsible for the regulation of human diet, for medicine is a science and not merely an art as in the case of cookery. The dietary pattern presented in Platonic dialogues shares many common components with the highly-reputed Mediterranean diet. As a whole, Plato's writings represent a valuable source for the study of the nutritional customs during the classical period of ancient Greece.

  3. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  4. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  5. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  6. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  8. Wind Vanes in Ancient Mesopotamia, About 2000-1500 B.C..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Parpola, S.

    1983-10-01

    A search made of the Sumerian and Akkadian literature for indications of the possible existence of wind vanes in the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations resulted in two discoveries. First, in one Akkadian fable, originally written between about 1800 and 1600 B.C., mention was made of a wind vane. It follows from the context of the fable that the vane was made of wood, while the name of the vane suggests that it was in the shape of a bird. Second, three Sumero-Akkadian vocabularies of this period give three different Sumerian names for the single Akkadian name for vane. The Sumerian names appear to be genuine Sumerian terms and not translations of the Akkadian term. All three Sumerian names suggest that the vanes were made of wood; one of the three may possibly indicate that the vane was made in the form of either a fish (shark?) or a mythological water monster. Since the Sumerian culture flourished before about 2000 B.C. (the Ur III dynasty ruled from about 2100to 2000 B.C.), it seems that in the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations there were wind vanes about 4000 years ago, i.e., about 2000 years earlier than reported in ancient China and classical Greece.

  9. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  10. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  11. Cultivation of Vitis vinifera L. in the light of former publications and today in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the countries of the Mediterranean Basin viticulture has been dealt with for centuries. It was known to the ancient civilizations of the Middle East and grapevines were widely planted in Greece and Rome. The vineyard was part of the utility garden, usually occupying large areas and at the same time being a connection with the landscape. Creeper vine was also used in decorative gardens as an ornamental plant for various types of buildings and garden structures. The Polish tradition of planting vineyards dates back to the Middle Ages and is mainly associated with the activities of monks, although it was not as common as in the countries of southern Europe. However, in Polish gardening literature and in the literature that describes the development of the art of gardening, you can find lots of tips on how to grow grapevines, their varieties and the descriptions of the vineyards.

  12. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  13. Tricholoma ustaloides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. in Poland is presented, based on literature data and the results of mycological investigations in oak-hornbeam forest associations in the Kotlina Raciborska basin. The paper reports the morphology of the discovered basidiomata, the habitat where they were found, and ITS sequence data for the specimens, and briefly discusses similar species and the ecology of the presented fungus. The location given in the paper is currently the only known station of T. ustaloides in Poland. The importance of secondary habitats for survival of this taxon is stressed.

  14. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  15. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  16. Neutron activation analysis of Lerna ceramics (Greece) at Early Bronze Age: local production and trade exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful tool for determining the provenance of ancient ceramics. A sophisticated analytical system for gamma-ray spectrometry, designed specifically for the chemical analysis of ceramics by thermal neutron activation, was used to determine the concentrations of twenty elements in samples of ancient pottery. The measurements were made relative to the standard pottery of Perlman and Asaro. The purpose of the work was to study the production of fine pottery at the settlement of Lerna, in the Argolid of Greece, during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BC). About half of the 50 samples analysed formed the major compositional group, which was attributed to Lerna. It included, besides the majority of the samples from the second phase of the Early Bronze Age (Lerna III), several samples from the third phase (Lerna IV); that is, from levels immediately succeeding the great destruction which marks the end of the Lerna III settlement. A small number of objects forms a second group of local origin and includes 4 of the 5 clay sealings sampled. Among the archaeologically unusual objects, several could be attributed to Lerna, while others were characterized as imports [fr

  17. Using Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures in Order to Infer Climatic and Dietary Information in Roman Edessa, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Dimitra-Ermioni; Dotsika, Elissavet

    2017-12-01

    Even though many isotopic studies have been conducted on ancient populations from Greece for the purpose of dietary reconstruction; mostly through carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals of bone collagen, less attention has been given to the utility of apatite signatures (oxygen and carbon) as dietary and palaeoenvironmental tools. Moreover, until recently the isotopic signal of tooth enamel for both the purposes of environmental and dietary reconstructions has been rarely assessed in ancient Greek societies. Therefore, the present study aims to provide with novel isotopic information regarding Edessa; a town in Northern Greece, during the Roman period. The current study primarily aims to explore the possible differentiation between the present climatic conditions in Edessa in relation to those occurring at the Roman period. Secondly, this study aims to reveal the significant utility of enamel isotopic signatures (carbon and oxygen) in palaeoenvironmental and palaeodietary studies regarding ancient human remains. The isotopic analyses have been conducted at the Stable Isotope and Radiocarbon Unit of INN, NCSR “Demokritos”. The population of Roman Edessa (2nd-4th c. AD) consists of 22 individuals, providing with 19 bone samples and 16 enamel ones. The mean enamel oxygen value is at -7.7 ±1.1 %0, the bone apatite mean oxygen value at -9.2 ±1.9 %0, and finally the mean carbon enamel value is at -11.7 ±1.2 %0. Oxygen values probably indicate that Edessa had a cooler climate during the Roman times in relation to present conditions, even though more research should be carried out in order to be more certain. In addition, the possible existence of non-local individuals has been revealed through the oxygen teeth enamel-bone apatite spacing. Finally, the carbon enamel signature has pointed out possible differentiations between the adult and the juvenile diet. Based on Edessa’s findings, the stated study strongly encourages the enamel oxygen and carbon isotopic signals

  18. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  19. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  20. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  1. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. I. The genus Parmotrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jabłońska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on four Parmotrema species in Poland, P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. perlatum and P. stuppeum. They are mainly known from southern part of the country, mostly in the Carpathians. P. perlatum is reported also from Northern Poland and Central Poland. For P. stuppeum, so far known from single locality only, three new sites are reported. All the species seem to be rare and endangered in Poland. This work is the first part of a larger series which will present data on selected genera of the lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland.

  2. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  3. Chernobyl radioactivity in grain produced in Greece in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.; Panetsos, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl radioactive cloud reached Greece in the first days of May 1986. During this period, the gain was in maximum growth; therefore, in absorbing the radionuclides it has become an excellent indicator of the deposited radioactivity. Measurements carried out in grain samples which were obtained from Greece are reported and some conclusions regarding population doses are presented

  4. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  5. Chemical compositions of ancient coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Hisao; Notsu, Kenji; Nishimatsu, Shigeyoshi; Fuwa, Keiichiro; Iyama, Hiroyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical composition of ancient coins may be useful to know the provenance of raw ore materials, technique of minting, route of circulation, and governmental policy or economical conditions of the epoch when they were minted. Thirteen elements (major: Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn, minor: Fe, As, Sb, trace: Co, Mn, Ni, Au, Ag, Se) in Chinese and Japanese ancient coins were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that, in both Chinese and Japanese coins, a transition from Cu-Pb-Sn system to Cu-Zn system occurred in the 15 -- 16 th century in China and in the 18 th century in Japan. Compositional ranges in Cu-Pb-Sn coins extend to 50 -- 80% Cu, 15 -- 35% Pb and 6 -- 15% Sn, respectively, and there seems to be no systematic compositional change with a function of their ages. As to the Cu-Zn coins, the Cu to Zn ratio of Chinese coins is distinctly different from that of Japanese ones, being about unity for Chinese coins and 4 for Japanese ones. In general, Japanese coins are much more abundant in As and Sb than Chinese ones. It is an important problem whether they are impurities of major elements or some components intentionally added in the course of minting. (author)

  6. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  7. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  8. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  10. Poland's syndrome associated with chronic granulocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R; Afonso, E; Benedito, M; Maricato, L

    1991-10-01

    Poland's syndrome has been sporadically associated with haematological neoplasms, namely acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The authors present the case of a child in whom this syndrome coexists with a Philadelphia negative, chronic granulocytic leukaemia, which has only required one course of treatment with busulphan in two and a half years of follow-up.

  11. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  12. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  13. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  14. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  15. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  16. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  17. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the

  18. Popular Toys in Poland: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Teresa

    1984-01-01

    Describes the toys made by rural craftsmen in Poland. These toys, some of the liveliest manifestations of folk art, are appreciated by rural society. Efforts are now being made to familiarize urban children with this type of toy, both through a museum and through folk toy corners in nursery schools. (Author/CB)

  19. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  20. SEED INDUSTRY IN POLAND AND ITS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the seed industry in Poland and assessment of changes in supply, demand and prices on the market of classified seed of cereals in Poland. The discussion relates to the main groups of participants making up the breeding and seed industry, i.e. the breeding, seed, as well as breeding and seed entities. The characteristics of entities from the breeding and seed industry’s environment has also been presented. The article presents the analyses of the cereal seed market in Poland between the years 2008-2012, including the changes in supply, demand and market prices. The analyses indicated an increase in sales of the certified seeds in Poland by 25.3%. Winter wheat was the dominant seed in terms of trade structure throughout the entire period. The increase in sales of classified seeds in the cereal segment took place in conditions of significant seed prices’ increase in the studied period.

  1. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parda, Natalia; Henszel, Lukasz; Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, an estimated 2 000 HCV infections are reported annually, of which chronic stage of infections predominates (>95%). It is estimated that seroprevalence of anti-HCV and prevalence of active infections in the general population amount to ca 0.95% (more than 320 000 persons) and 0.6% (230 000 persons), respectively. The alarming finding is that approximately 90% of persons diagnosed with HCV infection are unaware of the condition and consequently hepatitis C virus may be transmitted to their contacts. The objective of the present article is to determine the epidemiology of HCV infections in Poland in 2012 comparing to the preceding years. The assessment of epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland was based on the analysis of aggregated data from the State Sanitary Inspection, published in "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). The data on mortality due to hepatitis C, which was obtained from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of Central Statistical Office, were also employed. In 2012, Poland reported 2 292 HCV infections, meeting 2005 definition (incidence 5.95), of which 1.4% were co-infections with HCV and HBV (33 cases). Compared to the data of 2011, the incidence was slightly lower (2 338; 6.07). Given 2009 definition, a total of 2 265 cases were reported (5.88), which constituted an increase of 3.5% compared to the data from the previous year (2 241; 5.82). Overall, 217 fatal cases due to hepatitis C were reported in 2012, of whom only 9 (4%) were due to acute stage of infection. Compared to the data from 2011, the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland has not changed significantly. The alarming fact is the increasing number of deaths due to hepatitis C. Probably, it suggests delayed diagnosis of HCV infections. Thus, it is a necessity to promote early diagnosis of HCV infections which can

  2. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  3. A possible Roman Period sword from Grzybowo (Grzybowen, Masuria, NE Poland. The archaeological and technological context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żabiński

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a recent stray find of a sword fragment with a possible stamp from Masuria in NE Poland. It was found close to a Roman Period cemetery of the Bogaczewo Culture. On typological grounds, the sword can be classified as a Roman Period weapon. However, the results of metallographic examinations suggest that the find may have been made either from very clean bloomery steel (or hypoeutectoid crucible steel or from mass-made Industrial Age steel (Bessemer, Thomas, Siemens-Martin, etc.. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the sword would rather imply a pre-Industrial Period steel. In conclusion, it is carefully suggested that the weapon may be a genuine Ancient sword, although its final recognition as a Roman Period weapon could only be verified by finds made from similar metal in undoubted Roman Period contexts.

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  5. Intensive Survey Data from Antikythera, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bevan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Antikythera Survey Project was an interdisciplinary programme of fieldwork, artefact study and laboratory analysis that considered the long-term history and human ecology of the small Greek island of Antikythera. It was co-directed by Andrew Bevan (UCL and James Conolly (Trent, in collaboration with Aris Tsaravopoulos (Greek Archaeological Service, and under the aegis of the Canadian Institute in Greece and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Its various primary datasets are unusual, both in the Mediterranean and beyond, for providing intensive survey coverage of an entire island’s surface archaeology.

  6. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  7. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    the name "Meligalas" translates to the serenely beautiful meaning: "the village of milk and honey." 27. McNeill, 170. 28. Averoff-Tossizza, 118. 29...only encourage the rebels, and undermine the morale of the Greek army. To this charge MacVeagh replied to the State Department, " childish and petulant...to the communist belligerents in the Civil War, and thus loss of Greece would symbolize a loss for the United States in the Cold War contest

  8. A guide to ancient protein studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendy, Jessica; Welker, Frido; Demarchi, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    the phylogenetic reconstruction of extinct species to the investigation of past human diets and ancient diseases. However, there is no explicit consensus at present regarding standards for data reporting, data validation measures or the use of suitable contamination controls in ancient protein studies...

  9. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In an earlier article [1] we had discussed some aspects of ancient Babylonian mathematics as deciphered froIn various clay tablets excavated from modern Iraq, viz. the Pythagoras theorem and also the sexagesimal num- ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study ...

  10. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  11. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  12. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    analyses of ancient DNA. We also investigated the sample size and temporal span of the ancient DNA sequences needed to estimate phylogenetic timescales reliably. Our results show that the range of sample ages plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the results but that accurate and precise......In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...... of the ancient samples, which can be estimated by radiocarbon dating the source material or by dating the layers in which the material was deposited. Both methods involve sources of uncertainty. The performance of Bayesian phylogenetic inference depends on the information content of the data set, which includes...

  13. [The role of ancient astrology in preparation for a secular natural science and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Markham J

    2011-01-01

    The Persian period in the Near East (from c. 500 BCE) represented the first example of globalisation, during which advanced cultural centres from Egypt to Afghanistan were united under a single rule and common language. Paul Unschuld has drawn attention to a scientific revolution in the late first millennium BC, extending from Greece to China, from Thales to Confucius, which saw natural law replace the divine law in scientific thinking. This paper argues for new advances in astronomy as the specific motor which motivated changes in scientific thinking and influenced other branches of science, including medicine, just as the new science of astrology, which replaced divination, fundamentally changed the nature of medical prognoses. The secularisation of science was not universally accepted among ancient scholars, and the irony is that somewhat similar reservations accompanied the reception of modern quantum physics.

  14. Colchicum genus in the writings of ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Papaioannou, Theodoros; Panayiotakopoulos, George; Saridaki, Zenia; Vrachatis, Dimitrios A; Karamanou, Marianna

    2018-01-14

    The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen. Our article discusses them, while at the same time presents the most notable authorities who have used Colchicum plants in herbal medicine and toxicology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Narrative and Cultural History in the Hippocratic Treatise On Ancient Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romani Mistretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ‘history of medicine’ outlined by the author of the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine, in order to reflect on the relationship between medicine and narrative in Classical Greece. At the outset of the work, the author provides an account of the beginnings of his discipline, conceiving of medicine’s history as a continuum of research and findings that unravel the nature of the human body and the cause of diseases. As this paper shows, the physician-narrator assigns to his craft a crucial role in fostering the birth and progress of human civilization. The rhetorical goals of the historical account are, as I argue, attained through a subtle narrative strategy. In fact, the narrator locates the origins of medicine within a teleological framework, marked by strong emphasis on the heuristic method that characterizes the past, the present, and the future of medical knowledge at once.

  16. Characterization of ancient Greek coins using non-destructive TOF neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siouris, I M; Katsavounis, S; Kockelmann, W

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of ten ancient Greek silver coins from the Treasure collection of Gazoros (CH IX 61) found in Serres- North Greece; as well as two silver coin replicas, has been carried out using a polychromatic neutron beam of large cross-section to obtain diffraction patterns from the entire objects. The diffraction profiles indicate that there are three distinct categories of coins. The first one is a set of three coins consisting mainly of silver and copper alloy phases with high quantities of Cu 2 O and CuCl . The second group is formed of coins with high silver/ copper alloy ratio and the third is a collection of five coins consisting of very high purity silver. The comparison between the diffraction profiles of the original coins to those of the replicas present distinct variations that may be used to differentiate the different groups.

  17. Evaluation of atmospheric instability indices in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marinaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of instability indices in assessing atmospheric instability is examined for the areas of Attica, Thessaly and Central Aegean and Crete, Greece. Generally, many indices have been developed to estimate the troposphere's stability for forecasting purposes. At this study several instability indices, commonly used in Meteorology, are computed based on radiosonde data. Firstly, the indices are computed for several months based on the 00:00 and 12:00 UTC radiosonde data during the period 1981–2003. Statistical methods were used to compare and test the effectiveness of these indices in the described area using meteorological data from seventeen meteorological stations of Greece. Thus, the potential of monitoring the atmospheric instability conditions is examined. The next stage of this study is an effort to test the thresholds of the existing indices in order to improve the results of these indices. It seems that this effort can make a good simulation to the assessment of instability, contributing to local level weather forecasting.

  18. Microphysical Characterization of Aerosol Signatures over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshath Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed microphysical characterization is presented for aerosol spectra over three major areas over Greece, namely- the Area West of Crete (AWC, the Greater Thessaloniki area (GTA and the Greater Athens Area (GAA based on measurements made by Varotsos (2005. Aerosol size distributions along with cloud droplet concentrations were gathered from data collected from the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-300 and Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-100X flown on a Falcon aircraft over Greece (Varotsos, 2005. However, the microphysical and dynamical characterisation of the observations were left largely unexplored (for this later paper, particularly with regard to their growth and activation into cloud condensation nuclei. A suite of models involving Large Eddy Simulations and an Adiabatic Parcel Model were used to achieve this. The UK Met Office large eddy model (LEM reveals that mild to moderate updraughts in the range of 0.5 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 were present over Athens during June 1997, over the regions containing the aerosol bands. The sophisticated parcel model was then been applied to this data to study the growth of aerosol in the updraughts present and further, to explore the possibility of rainfall. It is found that the grown droplets have radii spanning a range of 6 μm to 100 μm indicating a hundredfold increase over initial size and the region spanning height from 2700 to 3000 meters contains precipitable water.

  19. The genus Eustigmaeus Berlese (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2016-11-13

    The present study summarizes the previous limited knowledge on the genus Eustigmaeus from Greece. Based on material collected from many localities, nine species are recorded from Greece for the first time and four species, Eustigmaeus irregularis sp. nov., E. fantinoui sp. nov., E. microvacuolatus sp. nov., and E. capitatus sp. nov. are described as new to science. Additionally, males of five known species of Eustigmaeus are described for the first time. A list of the world species of the genus Eustigmaeus and a key to species of this genus recorded in Greece are provided.

  20. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  1. Development of laser technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents chosen development threads of laser technology and associated branches of optoelectronics in this country. An occasion to summarize the work and show their current status is the 50 th anniversary of construction of the first laser. The first laser in Poland was launched successfully in 1969, almost simultaneously at WAT and PW. Domestic achievements in this area are summarized every three years by Symposium on Laser Technology held traditionally in Swinoujscie. The work carried on in Poland concerns technology of laser materials, construction of new lasers and associated equipment as well as laser applications. Many technical teams participate in laser oriented European structural and framework projects. Ths is an invited paper to present participation of Polish teams in such European projects as EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research, FLASH - Free ELctron Laser in DESY Hamburg, E-XFEL - European X-Ray FEL, ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure, and HIPER.

  2. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  3. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  4. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  5. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know so...

  6. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary

  7. Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewska-Jakubik, Ewa; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. In 2014, annual, incidence rate of scarlet fever in Poland was about 9% lower in comparison to previous year. There were 22 855 cases all over the country and the incidence was 59.5 per 100,000 population; depending on the voivodeship ranged from 19.5 in podkarpackie to 93.2 in pomorskie. The highest incidence was noted among 4-year-old children (981.4) and 5-year-old children (971.0). However the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.7% of all cases. The incidence among men (67.2) was higher by 28.5% than incidence among women (52.3). Incidence rate in urban areas, in any size town, was higher than in rural areas. Overall incidence in urban areas was 66.4; in rural areas - 49.0. 1,11% of patients were hospitalized. There were no reported deaths related to scarlet fever. In the surveillance of scarlet fever it is necessary to ensure that the collected data will be valid and reliable. Very low specificity of this surveillance may not only impinge on the assessment of epidemiological situation of this disease in Poland but also overshadow the situation of other diseases, including diseases under elimination program (rubella, measles). This is one of the greatest challenges facing sanitary inspection in the coming years.

  8. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  9. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  10. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Micha? R.; Stanowski, Edward; Pa?nik, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods ...

  11. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  12. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  13. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  14. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  15. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

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    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  16. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bieniasz; Zbigniew Gołaś

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the ...

  17. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  18. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

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    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  19. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  20. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  2. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  3. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  4. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  5. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  6. Terminological Analysis of the Corpus of Ancient Greek Medical Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čengić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Selected writings of Corpus Hippocraticum, the oldest extant body of medical texts which were written in the period between the 5th and the 4th century BC, were subject of linguistic research based on discourse analysis. From this aspect, Hippocratic texts are treated as representatives of one of the first professional jargons of western civilization. The emphasis is placed on the formal levels of linguistic description in order to establish formal peculiarities of the Hippocratic discourse. Approach to formal characteristics of Hippocratic discourse stresses some wider contextual elements like interactions between philosophy and medicine, elements of orally established society, spread of literacy, creation of domain of public communication and influence of its rules to different aspects of communication in ancient Greece. The formal linguistic features of the   Hippocratic discourse are classified into groups of dialect features, terminological differentiation, rhetoric techniques and strategies, structural characteristics, presence of author and audience, syntactical peculiarities and elements of the context. Terminological differentiation in Hippocratic discourse is a very important level of formal description because it is considered to be one of the hallmarks of a professional discourse. It refers to the existence of a specific subset in the linguistic system which includes specially created technical terms. Hippocratic discourse shows different degrees of technical differentiation. The formalisation of the presence of author and audience is considered to be an essential element of a technical discourse as well. It is considered to be a later element which entered the technical discourse under the influence of sophistic rhetoric and rules of public communication (doctrine of persuasive communication. Approach to the  dimension of  context includes analysis of all the utterances which  relate to various aspects of wider social context

  7. European Patient Summary Guideline: Focus on Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berler, Alexander; Tagaris, Anastassios; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The European Patient Summary (PS) guideline specifies a minimal dataset of essential and important information for unplanned or emergency care initially defined in the epSOS project with aim to improve patients' safety and quality of Care. The eHealth Network of European Union (EU) Member State (MS) representatives established under Article 14 of the EU directive 2011/24 on patient rights to cross-border healthcare adopted PS guideline in November 2013 and since then the guideline has been part of MS strategic eHealth implementation plans, standardization efforts, and concrete regional, national, European and international projects. This paper reviews implementation efforts for the implementation of an operational patient summary service in Greece drawing on challenges and lessons learned for sustainable standards-based large scale eHealth deployment in Europe and abroad, as well as the reuse of best practices from international standards and integration profiles.

  8. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  9. Country policy profile - Greece. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff, subsidies a tax exemption and a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a tax exemption and a subsidy scheme. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014). The Greek progress report was released by the EC in March 2014. This EurObserv'ER report reports on a new Greek law: 'Measures for the support and development of Greek economy within the scope of application of Law 4046/2012 and other provisions', published in the Government Gazette on 7 April 2014, introducing various new elements in the Greek RES policy

  10. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  11. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  12. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  13. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  14. First confirmed record of Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulis Georgios

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper confirms the presence of Elodea canadensis Michx. in Greece and outlines the history of contradictory relevant reports. This is also the first report of the species′ presence in the transboundary lake Great Prespa.

  15. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...

  16. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...

  17. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  18. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  19. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, C K

    1984-04-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  20. Archaeomagnetic dating in Greece: new directional results from two contemporaneous kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, Evdokia

    2013-04-01

    Detailed archaeomagnetic study was carried out on a ceramic workshop excavated at Kato Achaia (Greece). Two ancient circular brick kilns were discovered during the works for the construction of a house at Parodos Papaflessa Street, in the center of Kato Achaia village. According to archaeological evidence, both kilns were part of a bigger ceramic workshop, probably used for the production of bricks or ceramics. Systematic archaeomagnetic sampling was carried out collecting 9 brick samples from the first kiln (KL3) and 12 brick samples from the second kiln (KL5). All samples were independently oriented in situ using a magnetic compass and an inclinometer. Systematic magnetic measurements have been carried out in order to determine the main magnetic carrier of the samples and to check their thermal stability. Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) experiments pointed to magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main magnetic minerals in most of the samples. These results are also confirmed by the thermal demagnetization of the three IRM components curves that in almost all cases show the dominance of the magnetically soft fraction (archaeomagnetic procedures have been used to determine the archaeomagnetic direction registered by the bricks during the kilns last firings. Stepwise thermal demagnetization procedures reveal a single-component, stable remanent magnetization. The direction of the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) has been obtained from principal component analysis and the kilns mean directions were calculated using the Fisher statistics. The archaeomagnetic ages of both kilns have been obtained using the most recent developments in data elaboration and were calculated after comparison of the kilns archaeomagnetic parameters with the declination and inclination reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Dating results are in very good agreement with archaeological evidence of the site and suggest that both

  1. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  2. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  3. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  4. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-01-01

    The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  5. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Ragkos; Anna Siasiou; Vasiliki Lagka; Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Zaphiris Abas

    2013-01-01

    Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the tra...

  6. Comparison and Historical Evolution of Ancient Greek Cosmological Ideas and Mathematical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotsis, Antonios D.

    2005-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the cosmological ideas and mathematical models in ancient Greece. We show that the heliocentric system introduced by Aristarchus of Samos was the outcome of much intellectual activity. Many Greek philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers such as Anaximander, Philolaus, Hicetas, Ecphantus and Heraclides of Pontus contributed to this. Also, Ptolemy was influenced by the cosmological model of Heraclides of Pontus for the explanation of the apparent motions of Mercury and Venus. Apollonius, who wrote the definitive work on conic sections, introduced the theory of eccentric circles and implemented them together with epicycles instead of considering that the celestial bodies travel in elliptic orbits. This is due to the deeply rooted belief that the orbits of the celestial bodies were normal circular motions around the Earth, which was still. There was also a variety of important ideas which are relevant to modern science. We present the ideas of Plato that are consistent with modern relativity theories, as well as Aristarchus' estimations of the size of the Universe in comparison with the size of the planetary system. As a first approximation, Hipparchus' theory of eccentric circles was equivalent to the first two laws of Kepler. The significance of the principle of independence and superposition of motions in the formulation of ancient cosmological models is also clarified.

  7. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland

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    Kubiak K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001. There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.

  8. Flood impact assessment on the development of Archaia Olympia riparian area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaporti, Christina; Podimata, Marianthi; Yannopoulos, Panayotis

    2013-04-01

    A long list of articles in the literature examines several issues of flood risk management and applications of flood scenarios, taking into consideration the climate changes, as well as decision making tools in flood planning. The present study tries to highlight the conversation concerning flood impacts on the development rate of a riparian area. More specifically, Archaia (Ancient) Olympia watershed was selected as a case study area, since it is considered as a region of special interest and international significance. In addition, Alfeios River, which is the longest river of Peloponnisos Peninsula, passes through the plain of Archaia Olympia. Flood risk scenarios allow scientists and practitioners to understand the adverse effects of flooding on development activities such as farming, tourism etc. and infrastructures in the area such as road and railway networks, Flokas dam and the hydroelectric power plant, bridges, settlements and other properties. Flood risks cause adverse consequences on the region of Archaia Olympia (Ancient Olympic stadium) and Natura 2000 site area. Furthermore, SWOT analysis was used in order to quantify multicriteria and socio-economic characteristics of the study area. SWOT analysis, as a planning method, indicates the development perspective by identifying the strengths, weaknesses, threads and opportunities. Subsequent steps in the process of intergraded River Management Plan of Archaia Olympia could be derived from SWOT analysis. The recognition and analysis of hydro-geomorphological influences on riparian development activities can lead to the definition of hazardous and vulnerability zones and special warning equipment. The former information combined with the use of the spatial database for the catchment area of the River Alfeios, which aims to gather multiple watershed data, could serve in preparing the Management Plan of River Basin District 01 where Alfeios R. belongs. Greece has to fulfill the obligation of implementing River

  9. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

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    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  10. Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    1999-01-01

    Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the

  11. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  12. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

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    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  13. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  14. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

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    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  15. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  16. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

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    Michał R. Janik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods : A questionnaire regarding the numbers and types of bariatric procedures performed between 2007 and 2014 was e-mailed to all members of the Bariatric Society (a branch of the Association of Polish Surgeons and to 28 surgical departments. Trend analyses from 2007 to 2014 were performed. Results: Among the surgical departments, 16 (57% responded. The results showed that 1499 bariatric procedures were performed in Poland in 2014, with 96.4% done laparoscopically. The highest number was from Masovian Voivodeship. The most commonly reported procedures were laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG (60.7%, followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (19.2%, mini gastric bypass (11.1%, and adjustable gastric banding (7.6%. Most significant was the rise in prevalence of LSG from 8.0% to 60.4% of the total bariatric procedures from 2007 to 2014. Conclusions : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently the most frequently performed bariatric procedure in Poland. The accuracy of the national survey of procedures would be enhanced if we could create a national registry.

  17. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

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    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE ANCIENT MONGOLIAN PLACE-NAME ALONG THE SILK ROAD

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    Nashunwuritu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Silk Road” is an ancient commercial trade channel connecting China with Asia, Africa and Europe and a major link of the economy, politics and culture of the East and West as well. In the 13th Century, with the westward expedition of Mongolian, the communication and integration of culture among different countries was accelerated, which led to many Mongolian place-names scattered in the countries along the silk-road, such as Khwarezmia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Kipchak, Persian, involving today's Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Serbia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India and many other countries and regions. The place-name is a kind of important factor that can represent the changes of culture, economic in history. We analyzed the current place-names in different countries or regions with different language to find out ancient Mongolian place-names, and marked the names on the digital map. Through the changes and transition of the place-name, we explored the development of Mongolian language changes itself, Mongolian blends with other languages, and furtherly reveal information of culture exchange.

  19. Research on the Ancient Mongolian Place-Name Along the Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashunwuritu; Baiyinbateer; Duoxi

    2016-06-01

    "Silk Road" is an ancient commercial trade channel connecting China with Asia, Africa and Europe and a major link of the economy, politics and culture of the East and West as well. In the 13th Century, with the westward expedition of Mongolian, the communication and integration of culture among different countries was accelerated, which led to many Mongolian place-names scattered in the countries along the silk-road, such as Khwarezmia, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Kipchak, Persian, involving today's Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Serbia, Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India and many other countries and regions. The place-name is a kind of important factor that can represent the changes of culture, economic in history. We analyzed the current place-names in different countries or regions with different language to find out ancient Mongolian place-names, and marked the names on the digital map. Through the changes and transition of the place-name, we explored the development of Mongolian language changes itself, Mongolian blends with other languages, and furtherly reveal information of culture exchange.

  20. Campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bożena

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison with the situation in the previous years. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” for the years 2012- 2014, extended by the information from the individual questionnaires of diseases and forms of the epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology and also on data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. In 2013 in Poland it was registered 552 cases of campylobacteriosis, while in 2014 the number of registered cases was 652. It is respectively by almost 30% and 50% more than in 2012. The overall incidence for 2013 was 1.43 and for 2014 it was 1.69 per 100 000. In 2013 all reported cases were classified as confirmed, whereas in 2014 – number of confirmed cases was 650, and two as probable. Both in 2013 and in 2014 incidence much higher than the total for the in three provinces: Śląskie (respectively 3.89 and 4.7/ 100 000), Warmińsko- Mazurskie (4.42 and 3.53/ 100 000) and Lubuskie (3.03 and 4.51/100000) incidence was both in 2013 and 2014 Markedly higher then for the country as a whole. The percentage of hospitalization was higher than in previous years and amounted in 2013 to 71.4% and in 2014 to 74.4%. In 2013 Campylobacter species was identified in more than 83% of patients and in almost 87% in 2014. In 2013 over 77% and in 2014 as much as 82% of cases were caused by C. jejuni, and correspondingly more than 6% and almos 5% by C.coli. As in previous years, the majority of cases, in 2013 - 435 (79%) and in 2014 - 491 (75%) occurred in the age group 0-4. In 2013 therte were recorded two, and 2014 - 7 outbreaks caused by Campylobacter jejuni. In Poland, despite the gradual

  1. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

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    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  2. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  3. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  4. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

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    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  5. Social Activation of the Elderly in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Artykuł wpłynął do redakcji 21.08.2015; po recenzjach zaakceptowany 21.04.2016. The issue concerning activation of the elderly is mainly presented in raports or special programmes aimed at preventing the seperation of senior citizens from the society. The examination of social activity among the old is frequently conducted in scientific literature.The first part of this research paper focuses on the selected ways and forms of social activation of older people in Poland, including Senior in...

  6. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

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    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  7. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

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    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  8. Most common mental problems in the elderly as viewed by medical school students in Poland, Belarus and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cybulski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of respondents on the most common mental and psychological problems of the elderly over 60 years of age. Material and methods: The study was conducted between January 2013 and November 2014 in three study groups: Polish, Belarusian and Greek students. A total of 600 (200 for each group respondents were tested with a questionnaire developed by the authors. Women dominated in study groups. Three quarters of the study population consisted of people between the ages of 21 and 25 years. An analysis of the education level of respondents showed that almost 60% of respondents studied nursing, 30% – physiotherapy and 10% – other courses of studies. Results: More than half of all respondents (50.8% were afraid of old age. The vast majority of students in each group (a total of 88.3% stated that it is better for the elderly not to be alone and to have a family. Loneliness (61.5%, the sense of helplessness (52.7% and depression (50.8% were mental problems of the elderly that were most often indicated by the respondents. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the younger generations on problems associated with aging and old age, including mental health problems. The study showed significant differences in the perception of mental health problems of elderly people, depending on respondents’ country. There is a need for a change in the functioning of the care systems for the elderly, which would involve perceiving a family as an institution able to provide care services for old people.

  9. Polychaetes of Greece: an updated and annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboura, Nomiki; Katsiaras, Nikolaos; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The last annotated checklist of marine polychaetes in Greece was published in 2001. Since then, global taxonomic progress, combined with many new species records for Greece, required a thorough review of the taxonomic, nomenclatural and biogeographic status of the national species list. This checklist revises the status of all extant polychaete species reported from the Greek Exclusive Economic Zone since 1832. The work was undertaken as part of the efforts on compiling a national species inventory (Greek Taxon Information System initiative) in the framework of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure. New information This checklist comprises an updated and annotated inventory of polychaete species in Greek waters, compiled from literature reports, online databases, museum collections and unpublished datasets. The list provides information on 836 species-level taxa from Greece, of which 142 are considered questionable. An additional 84 species reported in the past are currently considered absent from Greece; reasons for the exclusion of each species are given. Fourteen species are reported here for the first time from Greek waters. At least 52 species in the present list constitute in fact a complex of cryptic or pseudo-cryptic species. Forty-seven species are considered non-native to the area. In addition to the species-level taxa reported in this checklist, eleven genera have been recorded from Greece with no representatives identified to species level. One replacement name is introduced. For each species, a comprehensive bibliographic list of occurrence records in Greece and the synonyms used in these publications are provided as supplementary material. Where necessary, the taxonomic, nomenclatural or biogeographic status is discussed. Finally, the findings are discussed in the wider context of Mediterranean polychaete biogeography, taxonomic practice and worldwide research progress. PMID:29362552

  10. Moldovan Perception of Greece as a Tourism Destination

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    Stela Cazacu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research study analyzes Moldovans' intentions to visit Greece, and their perceptions of Greece's image as a tourism destination, according to the following dimensions: (1 environmental beauty and convenience, (2 country's citizens, (3 place and architectural structure, (4 shopping and tourist accommodation and (5 similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. The goal is split into four objectives. Design/methodology/approach: For attaining the goal, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered. The empirical study was conducted in the capital of Moldova. The findings are based upon a sample of 139 respondents. Findings: The findings reveal that, overall, Greece's image as a tourist destination among Moldovan consumers is partially positive. The perceptions of the tourism dimensions were evaluated in the descending order as follows: place and architectural structure, shopping and tourist accommodation, environmental beauty and convenience, country's citizens and similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. Research limitations/implications: As it was undertaken only in the capital of Republic of Moldova and because most respondents are young people and females, the findings of this investigation do not absolutely reflect the perceptions of all Moldovans. Also, because the number of respondents is small, it is not representative of the whole Moldovan population. Hence, the results might not be very realistic and accurate. Originality/value: This study provides insightful theoretical implications and practical recommendations in creating marketing strategies that would help in managing and improving Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan tourists. Also, no study, at least to the researcher's knowledge, has evaluated Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan consumers. Finally, due to the increasing number of Moldovan tourists in Greece, it is important that Greece grasps this

  11. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  12. Diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas

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    Gusani Niraj J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancient schwannomas are degenerate peripheral nerve sheath tumors that very rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They generally reach large proportions before producing symptoms due to mass effect. We describe three cases of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas and discuss the diagnosis and management of these tumors. Case presentations Three female patients with retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas were reviewed. One patient presented with several weeks of upper abdominal pain and lower chest discomfort, whereas back pain and leg pain with associated weakness were predominant symptoms in the remaining two. Abdominal imaging findings demonstrated heterogeneous masses in the retroperitoneum with demarcated margins, concerning for malignancy. The patients successfully had radical excision of their tumors. Histological examination showed encapsulated tumors that displayed alternating areas of dense cellularity and areas of myxoid matrix consistent with a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma. Conclusion A diagnosis of ancient schwannoma should be entertained for any heterogeneous, well encapsulated mass in the retroperitoneum. In these cases less radical surgical resection should be considered as malignant transformation of these tumors is extremely rare and recurrence is uncommon following excision.

  13. Re-assessing the last 3,000 years of archaeological and biological sea-level data from Israel and Greece to identify East Mediterranean trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Dorit; Dean, Silas; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Bechor, Benny; Evelpidou, Niki; Baika, Kalliopi; Theodoulou, Theotokis A.

    2016-04-01

    The last 3,000 years of relative sea level (RSL) in Israel are derived primarily from archaeological indicators with additional bio-construction indicators (Dendropoma petraeum reefs at the edge of the abrasion platform along the Israeli coast). The current study examines whether sea-level fluctuations (above and mainly below present-day MSL) observed along the coast of Israel can also be observed in other East Mediterranean areas like Greece so that better evaluations can be made of local and regional driving mechanisms. There are three objectives for achieving this goal: 1) Identify new and already published archaeological and biological RSL indicators from this period in Israel and Greece; 2) Assess the reliability of both existing and new indicators using consistent standards to determine which types most accurately indicate ancient RSL and with what degree of uncertainty; 3) Correct the data for isostatic and tectonic effects. The survey collected nearly 140 archaeological indicators from Israel and about 120 from Greece. Of the Israeli indicators, some 120 were deemed reliable enough for reconstructions, whereas in Greece only 40 were, and not all of these from tectonically stable areas. The Israeli data includes 31 dates obtained from Dendropoma reefs in Israel. The higher reliability of the Israeli dataset may stem from a smaller coastline and more focused SL research over the past few decades. In Greece, many measurements were taken before precise surveying methods were available, and published without sufficient metadata. The two regional datasets reveal chronological gaps and disparities: Israel has a strong set of many indicators from the Roman Period (~2000BP) to present, but fewer from 3000-2000BP, while Greek indicators are strongly clustered in the Classical to Hellenistic Periods (2500-2000BP). On-going research is focusing now also on the last Millennial Greek sea levels (mainly the 'Venetian' period). Results however suggest some correspondence

  14. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  15. Neutron-activation study of figurines, pottery, and workshop materials from the Athenian Agora, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillieres, D.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic specimens from the excavations of the Agora of ancient Athens, Greece, including material from factories, i.e., trial firing pieces, pottery and figurine wasters, datable to the Protogeometric, Subgeometric, and Classical Periods, and stylistically related figurines and pottery were analyzed by neutron activation. The factory material from the three distinct chronological periods separated respectively into three significantly different compositional groups, indicating either that separate sources of clay were used during each of these periods or that some other significant changes in the traditions of fabrication had occurred. Many of the figurines and sherds analyzed coincided in composition with one of these three groups and therefore were shown to be consistent with the output of Athenian workshops. Some specimens of Corinthian style formed a separate compositional group as did some other specimens that agreed in composition with a clay from Aegina. Comparison of these results with previous analyses on file in the Brookhaven Data Bank revealed a number of specimens that corresponded both in style and composition to the Agora material. Most significant was a sizable amount of Classical Greek pottery excavated in southern France, in Israel, and in Cyprus that conformed in composition to the Attic Classical Group. 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordas, Konstantinos; Papastergios, Georgios; Tziantziou, Lamprini; Neofitou, Nikolaos; Neofitou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca(2+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO(3)(-) values which may pose a risk to human health.

  17. Update of geothermal energy development in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutroupis, N.

    1992-01-01

    Following the completion of the Geothermal Reconnaissance Study in Greece and the successful drilling of seven deep geothermal wells in the Aegean islands of Milos and Nisyros, PPC started the first step towards geothermal development for electricity production as follows: A geothermal electric pilot plant of 2 MW e nominal capacity was installed on the Zephyria plain in Milos island (1985). During a nine month operation of the plant, problems connected with its long term operation were solved (hot reinjection of the high salinity brine, turbine washing etc). A feasibility study regarding exploitation of the Nisyros geothermal resources was completed and PPC connected Nisyros island electrically to Kos island via submarine cables. As consequence of the reaction against geothermal development by the people of Milos in early 1989, the power plant is still out of operation and the feasibility study planned for Milos has been postponed. For similar reasons the Nisyros drilling contract for five new geothermal deep wells has not come into force as yet. This paper summarizes the main PPC geothermal activities to date, the problems caused by the reactions of the Milos and Nisyros population and the relevant PPC countermeasures, as well as outlining the PPC development program for the near future

  18. Abortion policy and practice in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, E

    1996-02-01

    Despite its illegality until recently, abortion is estimated to have been responsible for almost half of the sharp postwar decline in the Greek birth rate. This article examines abortion as a part of a Greek contraceptive culture which has taken shape during the postwar period both in response, and in resistance to, a variety of macro- and micropolitical institutions and forces. During much of this period, pronatalist policies and discourses of both state and church combined to foreclose most medical contraceptive alternatives. In contrast, illegal abortion was a relatively safe, medicalized procedure widely practiced by doctors. Even after being legalized in 1980, female medical contraceptive methods continue to be rejected by the great majority of Greek women, and abortion and male methods of birth control remain the principal means of controlling fertility. The article focuses on the specific abortion practices and meanings of three generations of married women living in the city of Rhodes, capital of the Dodecanese Province of Greece's Eastern Aegean, and explores the ways in which they have been shaped by, and reflect, local cultural understandings of the body, health, sexuality, morality, motherhood and childhood, as well as micropolitical relations within the family.

  19. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  20. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  1. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  2. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  3. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  4. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  5. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  6. Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler; Burkett; Tarkanian

    1999-06-18

    Ancient Mesoamerican peoples harvested latex from Castilla elastica, processed it using liquid extracted from Ipomoea alba (a species of morning glory vine), and fashioned rubber balls, hollow rubber figurines, and other rubber artifacts from the resulting material. Chemical and mechanical analyses of the latex and of the processed rubber indicate that the enhanced elastic behavior of the rubber relative to the unprocessed latex is due to purification of the polymer component and to an increase in the strength and number of interchain interactions that are induced by organic compounds present in I. alba. These ancient peoples' control over the properties of latex and processed rubber gave rise to the Mesoamerican ball game, a central ritual element in all ancient Mesoamerican societies.

  7. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  9. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  10. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  11. Inferring Past Environments from Ancient Epigenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhman, David; Malul, Anat; Carmel, Liran

    2017-10-01

    Analyzing the conditions in which past individuals lived is key to understanding the environments and cultural transitions to which humans had to adapt. Here, we suggest a methodology to probe into past environments, using reconstructed premortem DNA methylation maps of ancient individuals. We review a large body of research showing that differential DNA methylation is associated with changes in various external and internal factors, and propose that loci whose DNA methylation level is environmentally responsive could serve as markers to infer about ancient daily life, diseases, nutrition, exposure to toxins, and more. We demonstrate this approach by showing that hunger-related DNA methylation changes are found in ancient hunter-gatherers. The strategy we present here opens a window to reconstruct previously inaccessible aspects of the lives of past individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. The electricity consumption and economic growth nexus: Evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.; Dagoumas, Athanasios S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to cast light into the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece in a multivariate framework. For this purpose we used cointegration techniques and the vector error correction model in order to capture short-run and long-run dynamics over the sample period 1970–2011. The empirical results reveal that in the long-run electricity demand appears to be price inelastic and income elastic, while in the short-run the relevant elasticities are below unity. We also argue that the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Greece is bi-directional. Our results strengthen the notion that Greece is an energy dependent country and well directed energy conservation policies could even boost economic growth. Furthermore, the implementation of renewable energy sources should provide significant benefits ensuring sufficient security of supply in the Greek energy system. This evidence can provide a new basis for discussion on the appropriate design and implementation of environmental and energy policies for Greece and other medium sized economies with similar characteristics. -- Highlights: •We examine the causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. •We used cointegration techniques to capture short-run and long-run dynamics. •The relationship between electricity consumption and GDP is bi-directional. •Residential energy switching in Greece is still limited. •The implementation of renewable energy sources should ensure security of supply

  13. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FOREIGN DEBT IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The impact of foreign debt growth on the social and economic performance of Greece was shown. The parameters of GDP, consumption, interest rates, unemployment and government spendings were analyzed. Methodology. Data obtained for 2001-2014 was used for regression analysis, vector autoregression and as well as Kalman filter. Results. A multi-faced analysis of the debt for EU-member states and Greece in particular was performed. The events and decisions of Greek authorities leading to the crisis were summarized in structural and logical scheme. The recommendations for the economic policy of Greece, based on the performed analysis were suggested. The practical applications. Establishment of all weaknesses and empirical testing of the necessary indicators in this study was the basis for the justification of measures to stabilize the economic situation in Ukraine and Greece. Value/originality. The Mandel-Fleming model and the model of balance of savings-investments was used for the first time for the theoretical interpretation of the nature of the debt crisis in Greece, that under the influence of capital inflows caused by the deterioration of the current account balance and interest rate cuts. The increase in foreign borrowings has led to an increase in the budget deficit and reduction in savings. Also for the first time performed regression-correlation analysis, in particular the Kalman filter is used to study the effect of debt on macroeconomic performance of the Greek economy.

  14. Radon concentration measurements in waters in Greece and Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Tzortzi, A.; Thanassas, D.; Serefoglou, A.; Georgiou, E.; Vogiannis, E.; Koukouliou, V.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 35 measurements in Greece and 15 in Cyprus were performed. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Greece were from (1.1±0.5) to (410±50) Bq/L. The corresponding concentrations in underground potable waters in Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) Bq/L and (15±4) Bq/L. High concentrations, viz. (120±20), (320±40) and (410±50) Bq/L, were observed in three samples collected from the city of Arnea Chalkidekis in northern Greece. One water sample from Lesvos Island (north-eastern part of Greece) exhibited a radon concentration of (140±20) Bq/L. Six samples of hot spring water from the city of Loutraki (Attica prefecture), characterized as 'medicinal drinking water', contained concentrations of radon between (220±10) and (340±20) Bq/L. Radon concentrations in potable and non-potable underground water in Greece and Cyprus ranged between (0.4±0.3) and (15±4) Bq/L, whereas in surface water the range was from (2.7±0.8) to (24±6) Bq/L. (P.A.)

  15. Spatial analysis of the electrical energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2017-01-01

    The Electrical Energy Demand (EED) of the agricultural, commercial and industrial sector in Greece, as well as its use for domestic activities, public and municipal authorities and street lighting are analysed spatially using Geographical Information System and spatial statistical methods. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level 3. The aim is to identify spatial patterns of the EED and its transformations such as the ratios of the EED to socioeconomic variables, i.e. the population, the total area, the population density and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Based on the analysis, Greece is divided in five regions, each one with a different development model, i.e. Attica and Thessaloniki which are two heavily populated major poles, Thessaly and Central Greece which form a connected geographical region with important agricultural and industrial sector, the islands and some coastal areas which are characterized by an important commercial sector and the rest Greek areas. The spatial patterns can provide additional information for policy decision about the electrical energy management and better representation of the regional socioeconomic conditions. - Highlights: • We visualize spatially the Electrical Energy Demand (EED) in Greece. • We apply spatial analysis methods to the EED data. • Spatial patterns of the EED are identified. • Greece is classified in five distinct groups, based on the analysis. • The results can be used for optimal planning of the electric system.

  16. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  17. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  18. Look and Do Ancient Greece. Teacher's Manual: Primary Program, Greek Art & Architecture [and] Workbook: The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece [and] K-4 Videotape. History through Art and Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Ann Campbell

    This resource, containing a teacher's manual, reproducible student workbook, and a color teaching poster, is designed to accompany a 21-minute videotape program, but may be adapted for independent use. Part 1 of the program, "Greek Architecture," looks at elements of architectural construction as applied to Greek structures, and…

  19. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  20. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... such as extinct horses, cave bears, the marsupial wolf, the moa, and Neanderthal. In the past few years, this technology has been extended to the study of infectious disease in ancient Egyptian and South American mummies, the dietary habits of ancient animals, and agricultural practices and population dynamics...

  1. [Emigration and immigration in Greece: recent trends and political questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pteroudis, E

    1996-01-01

    "In order to give an account of the migrations related to Greece, the Greek territory can be characterized by several attributes that account for the way in which a certain form of migration has been understood in relation to this country. Therefore, Greece can be spoken of, not only as a space of work, circulation, settlement, especially for the citizens of the EEC and for clandestine immigrants, but also as a space of retirement, retreat and transit, whether for refugees or for people belonging to a Greek minority.... We will attempt a statistical approach of the migratory phenomenon as well as a presentation of the figures for each country of origin, and a global appreciation of the economic and social importance of these migratory movements for Greece." The implications for migration policy are discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND ITA) excerpt

  2. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  3. Characteristics of low-enthalpy geothermal applications in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andritsos, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece); Dalabakis, P. [Land Reclamation Institute, NAGREF, 574 00 Sindos, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karydakis, G. [IGME, Geothermal Energy Section, Sp. Loui 1, 136 77 Acharnes (Greece); Kolios, N. [IGME, Branch of Central Macedonia, Frangon 1, 546 26 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fytikas, M. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 540 06 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    The paper offers a brief overview of the current direct geothermal uses in Greece and discusses their characteristics, with emphasis to the economical and technical problems encountered. Greece holds a prominent place in Europe regarding the existence of promising geothermal resources (both high and low-enthalpy), which can be economically exploited. Currently, no geothermal electricity is produced in Greece. The installed capacity of direct uses at the end of 2009 is estimated at about 155 MW{sub t}, exhibiting an increase of more than 100% compared to the figures reported at the World Geothermal Congress 2005. The main uses, in decreasing share, are geothermal heat pumps, swimming and balneology, greenhouse heating and soil warming. Earth-coupled and groundwater (or seawater) heat pumps have shown a drastic expansion during the past 2-3 years, mainly due to high oil prices two years ago and easing of the license requirements for drilling shallow wells. (author)

  4. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizum....... macrorrhizum are presented here for the first time. The nuclear DNA content (2C values) of 2.84 pg for G. kikianum and 2.83 and 2.87 pg for two G. macrorrhizum populations from Greece probably corresponds to a 2n=92 cytotype while the smaller genome size of 1.45 pg in a population of G. macrorrhizum from Mt...... Smolikas, Greece may correspond to a 2n=46 cytotype...

  5. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  6. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  7. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  9. Malaria in Greece, 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakali, A; Patsoula, E; Spanakos, G; Danis, K; Vassalou, E; Tegos, N; Economopoulou, A; Baka, A; Pavli, A; Koutis, C; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kremastinou, T

    2012-11-22

    Malaria, which was endemic in Greece in the past, was officially eliminated in 1974. Since that time and up to 2010, a number of imported cases (ranging from 19 to 76) have been annually reported. The total number of reported laboratory-confirmed cases between 1975 and 2010 was 1,419. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 628 (44%) of these cases, while P. vivax was found in 524 (37%). Of the total cases, 1,123 (79%) were male (ratio males vs. females: 3.78). Age was only available for 490 cases, of which 352 (72%) belonged to the 18-40 year-age group. Of the 382 malaria cases reported from 1999 to 2010 for which the region/country of acquisition was known, 210 (55%) were from Africa and 142 (37%) from Asia. The massive introduction of economic migrants, in the period from 1990 to 1991 and from 2006 onwards, mainly from countries where malaria is endemic, resulted in the appearance of introduced sporadic cases. In Peloponnese, Central and East Macedonia, Thrace and East Attica, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (e.g. Anopheles sacharovi, A. superpictus and A. maculipenis) that can act as plasmodia vectors are abundant and during the summer of 2011, 27 P. vivax cases were reported in Greek citizens residing in the agricultural area of Evrotas in Lakonia and without travel history. As further P. vivax malaria cases occurred in the Lakonia and East Attica areas in 2012, it is becoming urgent to strengthen surveillance and perform integrated mosquito control that will help eliminate the potential risk of malaria reintroduction and reestablishment.

  10. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  11. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.

    1984-10-01

    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  12. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.

  13. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (Entrepreneurship" co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the Ministry of Education and Relegious Affairs.

  14. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  16. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  17. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  18. From the Infinity (Apeiron) of Anaximander in Ancient Greece to the Theory of Infinite Universes in Modern Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    The notion of the infinite, with the modern meaning of the term, was first introduced by the Greek philosopher Anaximander (6th Century BC). Anaximander introduced the apeiron (the boundless) as the beginning of everything (the first principle). According to his theory, the apeiron is undefined and ever moving. It gives birth to the contradictory terms of warm and cold, and of moist and dry, and their perpetual strife. Man is able to comprehend the result of this eternal process from the vast plurality of things and the infinite number of Universes. The cosmological aspect in Anaximander's theory is beautiful; innumerable worlds are born from the apeiron and absorbed by it, once they are destroyed. Thus, the apeiron is related to the eternal, through out time, cosmological procedure. The cosmological problem of the vastness of the Universe or of the innumerability of Universes is an elementary philosophical problem, while the Theory of Big Bang bounded with the notion of time-space, is a starting point for understanding the models that describe our Universe.

  19. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  20. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  1. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  2. The structure of residential energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries

  3. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L; Patsoula, Eleni; Tegos, Nicholas; Hansson, Helle H; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Vakalis, Nicholas C; Tseroni, Maria; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-12-27

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However, in 2009 and 2010 six and one autochthonous cases were reported culminating with a total of 40 autochthonous cases reported in 2011, of which 34 originated from a single region: Laconia of Southern Peloponnese. In this study the genotypic complexity of the P. vivax infections from the outbreak in Greece during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease. Three polymorphic markers of P. vivax were used; Pvmsp-3α and the microsatellites m1501 and m3502 on P. vivax isolates sampled from individuals diagnosed in Greece. Thirty-nine isolates were available for this study (20 autochthonous and 19 imported), mostly from Evrotas municipality in Laconia region, in southern Greece, (n = 29), with the remaining representing sporadic cases originating from other areas of Greece. Genotyping the Evrotas samples revealed seven different haplotypes where the majority of the P. vivax infections expressed two particular Pvmsp-3α-m1501-m3502 haplotypes, A10-128-151 (n = 14) and A10-121-142 (n = 7). These haplotypes appeared throughout the period in autochthonous and imported cases, indicating continuous transmission. In contrast, the P. vivax autochthonous cases from other parts of Greece were largely comprised of unique haplotypes, indicating limited transmission in these other areas. The results indicate that several P. vivax strains were imported into various areas of Greece in 2011, thereby increasing the risk of re-introduction of malaria. In the region of Evrotas ongoing transmission occurred exemplifying that further control measures are urgently needed in this region of southern Europe. In circumstances where medical or travel history

  4. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  5. A Swarm of Ancient Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited

  6. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  7. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  8. Material characterization of ancient Indian copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ancient Indian copper; material characterization; electrochemical behaviour; rust analysis; corrosion rate. Abstract. A chalcolithic (2350–1800 BC) copper chisel from Balathal has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, microstructural and electrochemical methods. The surface patina was composed of sulfates ...

  9. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  10. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  11. Ancient Indian Mathematics – A Conspectus*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strikingly close to modern mathematics, repre- sent the various levels of intellectual attainment. There is now increasing awareness around the world that as one of the ancient cultures, India has contributed sub- stantially to the global scientific development in many spheres, and mathematics has been one of the recognized.

  12. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages

  13. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  15. Perry: American renaissance of an ancient beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...

  16. The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

  17. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures,…

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  19. [Gynecology and obstetrics in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, P; Josset, P; Colau, J C

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed scriptural and archeologic sources of information concerning gynaecology and obstetrics as practiced in ancient Egypt. Knowledge of anatomy was rudimentary but precocious diagnosis of pregnancy was practiced. An obstetrical chair had been used since the VIth dynasty. The Egyptians were the first to describe prolapsus of the genital organs. The pessary was a known treatment. Spermicidal mixtures were used for contraception.

  20. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the