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Sample records for poland 1970 1991 sectoral

  1. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  2. EL NUEVO MODELO INDUSTRIAL EN EL SECTOR TEXTIL DE LA PROVINCIA DE ALICANTE (1970-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sebastiá Alcaraz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios industriales vertebrados alrededor de la industria textil en la provincia de Alicante, han atravesado una profunda crisis desde 1970 hasta 1991. Las dificultades mostradas para adaptarse a las innovaciones, a la apertura de los mercados y al incremen- to de la competencia de países que disponen de abundante materia prima o de mano de obra más barata han modificado sus características geográficas.

  3. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  4. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  5. REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kotowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and worldwide, corporate social responsibility has a growing interest of managers, business institutions, investors and the government. Thus, it becomes progressively determinant of corporate governance and priority in building a comprehensive development strategy. CSR is used by large companies. However, this does not mean that SMEs sector companies operate less responsible than large one. Each enterprise, regardless of size, operates in a specific social surroundings and market environment, which are affected by different groups of stakeholders. They may affect enterprise reinforcing effect on - contribute to its success or failure. It is therefore important that the managers should be able to identify social groups in the enterprise and its environment and respect their claims, needs, rights and expectations. The aim of this paper is to show the application of CSR by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and the manner of result presentation. This article lists tools of corporate social responsibility, examples of practices and research results in the SMEs sector in Poland.

  6. Long-term epidemiological observation of asbestos-related diseases in Poland, 1970-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, B; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos constitutes a major public health concern. Despite this in many countries, data and registration systems for occupational asbestos-related diseases are non-existent or poorly developed. To analyse the incidence of occupational asbestos-related diseases in Poland between the years 1970 and 2015, with particular emphasis on the periods after introduction of a ban on asbestos and following introduction of a surveillance programme. Analysis based on all medically recognized cases, certified as occupational diseases and reported obligatorily from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. During the period 1970-2015, 4983 cases were reported as asbestos-related diseases. The most prevalent were asbestosis, lung cancer, diseases of pleura or pericardium and mesothelioma. A considerable increase in the number of such cases from the beginning of their registration until 2004 occurred after introduction of the Amiantus programme, a nationwide programme of periodic medical examinations for former asbestos workers. Introduction of a medical surveillance programme improved case recognition and allowed a more reliable estimate of the number of reported asbestos-related diseases.

  7. The changing structure of the electric power industry, 1970--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95--91) requires the Administrator of the Energy information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. To assist in meeting these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry, 1970--1991. The purpose of the this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the US electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects

  8. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  9. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1991 - December 1991; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract

  10. Managed care and a process of integration in health care sector: a case study from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore a causal nexus between contract type (financing rules and scale of responsibilities) and tendency towards integration between Polish health care providers. For more than 40 years Polish health care sector structures were fully integrated. The law introduced in 1991 initiated development of a system of contracts between public payer and the independent medical services' providers. After a few years, new legislation enabled much faster movement from an integrated model of provision towards separating a public 'third party payer' from health services providers. After reforms in 1999, in the context of poor enforcement mechanisms, unit financing rules proved to be one of the weaknesses of the Polish health care system. By enhancing a structure-disintegrating process, cost-per-case contracts destroyed those of organizational and professional networks (both formal and informal ones) which could guarantee coordinated, continuous and high quality health care for people. On the other hand, in 2002, 2 of the 17 Sickness Funds implemented contractual arrangements typical for the managed care system. The primary care providers who realized pilot experiment, took on responsibility for coordinating treatment of the enrolled patients and for management of financial resources assigned for the health care packages broader than usual in Poland. Capitation payment was the major technique of financing those providers. Using a case study descriptive analysis, it is argued here that capitation prospective payment for wide packages of health care may encourage spontaneous (bottom-up) integration between primary and secondary care providers.

  11. Observed changes in extreme precipitation in Poland: 1991-2015 versus 1961-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pińskwar, Iwona; Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.

    2018-01-01

    Several episodes of extreme precipitation excess and extreme precipitation deficit, with considerable economic and social impacts, have occurred in Europe and in Poland in the last decades. However, the changes of related indices exhibit complex variability. This paper analyses changes in indices related to observed abundance and deficit of precipitated water in Poland. Among studied indices are maximum seasonal 24-h precipitation for the winter half-year (Oct.-March) and the summer half-year (Apr.-Sept.), maximum 5-day precipitation, maximum monthly precipitation and number of days with intense or very intense precipitation (respectively, in excess of 10 mm or 20 mm per day). Also, the warm-seasonal maximum number of consecutive dry days (longest period with daily precipitation below 1 mm) was examined. Analysis of precipitation extremes showed that daily maximum precipitation for the summer half-year increased for many stations, and increases during the summer half-year are more numerous than those in the winter half-year. Also, analysis of 5-day and monthly precipitation sums show increases for many stations. Number of days with intense precipitation increases especially in the north-western part of Poland. The number of consecutive dry days is getting higher for many stations in the summer half-year. Comparison of these two periods: colder 1961-1990 and warmer 1991-2015, revealed that during last 25 years most of statistical indices, such as 25th and 75th percentiles, median, mean and maximum are higher. However, many changes discussed in this paper are weak and statistically insignificant. The findings reported in this paper challenge results based on earlier data that do not include 2007-2015.

  12. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  13. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zubrzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legal regulations relating to Renewable Energy Sources, including the biogas sector. It discusses biogas production technologies, the current state and perspectives of agricultural biogas production in Poland, the production capabilities of Polish biogas plants and factors contributing to the attractiveness of the biogas sector. The following economic and ecological aspects of biogas production were considered in the study: profitability and environmental impacts, including reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Despite numerous problems, the Renewable Energy Sources Act provides an opportunity for the growth and development of the biogas industry in Poland.

  14. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  15. The role of transport sector in CO2 reduction in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skwierz Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction from the atmosphere, resulting from the International Treaties signed by Poland is a serious challenge that requires a complex action in all economy sectors. The UE action plan towards low carbon economy is in line with conclusions of the 21st UN Climate Change Conference (COP21, held in Paris in 2015. The current EU climate and energy objective is to reduce its GHG emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. The transportation must play a vital role in achieving the target. The transport sector in Poland now is responsible for 15% of the total domestic CO2 emissions and this share is expected to grow as a consequence of economic development. The potential for CO2 reduction in this sector is significant. Unlocking this potential can be beneficial for the Polish economy and rational in terms of cost. For example, it would help to stem dependence on oil import, contribute to air quality improvement and accelerate the process of transport infrastructure modernization. Defining the pathways of the future development of the transport sector in Poland under given environmental restrictions requires extensive analysis and appropriate tools to evaluate the effectiveness of various policy instruments, which affect the level of demand and consequently the GHG emissions. In the article, a new “bottom-up” energy model has been proposed to make such assessments. The model, named STEAM-PL (Set of Tools for Energy Demand Analysis and Modeling, has been elaborated to predict future energy demand and emissions of pollutants based on long-term economy and policy scenarios in all economy sectors in Poland. The paper presents the methodological basis for the construction of the model and shows the results obtained for different scenarios concerning the future development of the transport sector.

  16. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  17. A Return To Europe: Poland And Western Security Structures Since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Poland joined NATO and the EU, and discusses how it has been shaped not only through geography and history, but also through membership in—and...less confined environment may be able to provide answers and a direction to an otherwise handicapped Europe. If Poland invests political capital and... handicapped Europe. Poland has successfully integrated into three Western security institutions— NATO, the EU, and the Weimar Triangle. The criteria

  18. The Government Response to the Private Sector Expansion in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Kwiek, Marek; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Boer, Harry; File, Jon; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the trademarks of transformation of Polish higher education is its tumultuous and inconsistent path of development driven by the rapid growth of private sector higher education. Such an expansion has been often described as a ‘sudden, shocking and unplanned’ phenomenon which revolutionized

  19. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers

  20. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  1. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Prebensen, K.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  3. The Content of Professional Training of Specialists for the Economic Sector in the Republic of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorodnia Alla A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in the Republic of Poland. The author emphasizes that economic education is a special kind of education, content and procedural components of which have a significant impact on the formation of both professional and personal criteria of personal and professional development of competent specialists, who will influence the development and course of the various economic processes that will be able to determine the improvement of society as a whole and each individual in particular. The author also notes that the economic education is developing in students a clear understanding of scientific laws of economic development, especially concerning market relations; purposeful, systematic forming in the future experts economic knowledge, high level of organization and creative initiatives of their preparation for highly professional work, skillfully careful attitude to nature; developing the habit of practical use of economic knowledge in real life. The content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in Poland is determined by the educational standards for the field of research, in particular — the economy

  4. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  5. Climate change and its effect on agriculture, water resources and human health sectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, M.; Karg, G.; Pińskwar, I.; Radziejewski, M.; Graczyk, D.; Kedziora, A.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2010-08-01

    Multi-model ensemble climate projections in the ENSEMBLES Project of the EU allowed the authors to quantify selected extreme-weather indices for Poland, of importance to climate impacts on systems and sectors. Among indices were: number of days in a year with high value of the heat index; with high maximum and minimum temperatures; length of vegetation period; and number of consecutive dry days. Agricultural, hydrological, and human health indices were applied to evaluate the changing risk of weather extremes in Poland in three sectors. To achieve this, model-based simulations were compared for two time horizons, a century apart, i.e., 1961-1990 and 2061-2090. Climate changes, and in particular increases in temperature and changes in rainfall, have strong impacts on agriculture via weather extremes - droughts and heat waves. The crop yield depends particularly on water availability in the plant development phase. To estimate the changes in present and future yield of two crops important for Polish agriculture i.e., potatoes and wheat, some simple empirical models were used. For these crops, decrease of yield is projected for most of the country, with national means of yield change being: -2.175 t/ha for potatoes and -0.539 t/ha for wheat. Already now, in most of Poland, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during summer, hence the water storage (in surface water bodies, soil and ground) decreases. Summer precipitation deficit is projected to increase considerably in the future. The additional water supplies (above precipitation) needed to use the agro-potential of the environment would increase by half. Analysis of water balance components (now and in the projected future) can corroborate such conclusions. As regards climate and health, a composite index, proposed in this paper, is a product of the number of senior discomfort days and the number of seniors (aged 65+). The value of this index is projected to increase over 8-fold during 100 years. This is an

  6. Investments in the Quebec energy sector: Increase of 27% in 1991 and forecast rise of 9% in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the sums invested in 1991 and the projected investments for 1992 in the Quebec energy sector. Historical data back to 1982 are also included. In 1991, the total investment rose to $4,328 million, or 27% more than in 1990. The year 1992 is expected to see a more modest 9% increase in energy investments. The relative value of energy investments compared to total Quebec investments was 15.6% in 1991 and is forecast to attain 16.9% in 1992. The large increase in energy investment is largely due to investments in the electric power sector, which receives ca 93% of Quebec energy investment. In the petroleum sector, preliminary data indicate that total investment in 1991 and 1992 will be $192.5 million and $203.1 million respectively, mostly for refining and distribution. In the natural gas sector, the historical data show a large peak at 1983 of $424 million, descending to the $50-70 million level starting in 1987. Natural gas investments in 1991 rose to $101.6 million, most of which went towards extending the distribution network. For 1992, $68.5 million is forecast to be invested. In the electric power sector, total 1991 investment was ca $4 billion, a 29% increase over 1990; 1992 investment is forecast at $4.46 billion. In 1991, the investment in electricity production totalled ca $2 billion and investment in power transmission $970 million, the latter mainly dedicated to construction of a 450 kV dc power line and to a network improvement program. Investment in power distribution was $567 million, while other investments such as communications, buildings, and technological activities amounted to $450 million. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Contribution of population growth to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan, 1880-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Kennedy, G

    1984-09-01

    The authors measured the positive and negative contributions of population and labor force growth to the growth of per capita income and sectoral output in Japan in the 1880-1970 period. A 2-sector growth accounting model that treats population and labor growth as separate variables was used. 3 alternative methods were used: the Residual method, the Verdoorn method, and the factor augmenting rate method. The total contribution of population cum labor growth to per capita income growth tended to be negative in the 1880-1930 period and positive in the 1930-40 and 1950-70. Over the 1880-1970 period as a whole, population cum labor growth made a positive contribution to per capita income growth under the Residual method (0.35%/year), the factor augmenting rate method (0.29%/year), and the Verdoorn method (0.01%/year). In addition, population cum labor growth contributed positively to sectoral output growth. The average contribution to agricultural output growth ranged from 1.03% (Verdoorn) - 1.46%/year (factor augmenting rate), while the average contribution to nonagricultural output growth ranged from 1.22% (Verdoorn) - 1.60%/year (Residual). Although these results are dependent on the model used, the fact that all 3 methods yielded consistent results suggests that population cum labor growth did make a positive contribution to per capita income and sectoral output growth in Japan. These findings imply that in economies where the rate of technical change in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors exceeds population growth, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities may be preferable; on the other hand, policies that reduce agricultural elasticities are to be avoided in economies with low rates of technical change. Moreover, in the early stages of economic development, policies that increase agricultural income and price elasticities should be considered.

  8. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  9. The Tobacco Sector in Poland vs. the Czech Republic: an Analysis of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz SROKA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of the problems inherent in the tobacco sector in Poland and the Czech Republic, and analyses the impact of the global financial crisis on the growth of the industry. The paper commences with a market analysis of the sector in Poland and the Czech Republic, describing the key players involved and their respective market share; we then go on to compare the sectors in both countries, analysing in detail the impact of the crisis upon them. The main part of the paper concentrates on the impact of the global financial crisis on the sector in both countries. We also present two-year forecasts regarding growth in the industry. The conclusion of the paper is that the global financial crisis did not significantly influence the sectors and that the decrease in the consumption of tobacco products was mostly the result of other factors, such as a change in lifestyle and the effects of the ‘grey’ (parallel market.

  10. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (1991 ? 2012 ??.): ????????-???????? ??????

    OpenAIRE

    ??????????, ??????? ?????????????

    2015-01-01

    ? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????-???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ? 1991 ?. ?? 2012 ?. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ????????-??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????. ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ...

  11. Sector externo, crecimiento económico y bienestar en Baja California: 1970-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García Montaño

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene el objetivo de presentar los efectos del desarrollo del sector externo de Baja California en el crecimiento de la economía local y en relación con algunos indicadores del bienestar social. También se estudian algunos indicadores nacionales comparativos entre la entidad y los promedios nacionales, tal que permitan ubicar las especificidades del desarrollo de Baja California. El trabajo se divide en varios apartados: ciclos económicos, comportamiento del sector externo y sus relaciones con el producto interno bruto y la inflación. Todas estas variables interactúan en este estudio macroeconómico regional.La conclusión, hace referencia a que en Baja California el sector externo cumple el papel determinante para el crecimiento económico y el bienestar social; por lo tanto, cualquier trastorno negativo en sus variables desagregadas impacta inmediatamente las tasas de crecimiento y los niveles de vida de la población bajaca1iforniana, fundamentalmente los cambios extraordinarios del tipo de cambio peso-dólar y los ajustes de las políticas en comercio exterior. De ahí la actualidad del estudio, dado que el Tratado de Libre Comercio de México con Estados Unidos y Canadá tendrá, seguramente, importantes impactos en la entidad.

  12. Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Electricity sector analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The present report is the final electricity sector analysis report in the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds'. As part of the project a number of quantitative analyses have been carried out for the electricity sector. The report presents the results of those electricity sector analyses. The present project aims at: 1. Identifying major issues relating to the restructuring and liberalization process in the Polish electricity and the gas sector, 2. Setting up an overview of the Polish electricity and natural gas sector, 3. Setting up scenarios for development of electricity and gas markets in the period to 2020, 4. Updating the Balmorel model with recent data for the Polish electricity system, 5. Analyzing future consequences of liberalization of energy markets for the producers, consumers and the Polish economy and society as a whole, 6. Presenting the possibilities and preparing a practical guide for using EU funds and community programmes for large infrastructure projects in the energy sector. (BA)

  13. LEGAL REGULATIONS AND THE MARKET OF INSURANCE SERVICES IN THE SME SECTOR IN 2014-2015 AS EXEMPLIFIED BY POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Oniszczuk – Jastrząbek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from banking and telecommunications services, insurance is the most dynamically developing market in Poland. Since 1990, when the law on insurance activity was passed, the number of insurance companies has increased considerably. The quick adoption of the above-mentioned law was related to the system transformation and an urgent need to adjust that sector of the economy to the standards applicable in capitalist countries. The unification of the law and adoption of international insurance conventions have stimulated the growth of that sector. The offer of insurance companies has been extended to include new and better services, ranging from basic vehicle or property insurance to complicated financial insurance. A broadly conceived insurance market consists of two basic components, i.e. insurers who represent the supply of insurance coverage and policyholders, or persons with a property interest, who represent demand. A person who concludes an insurance contract with an insurer is a policyholder. This article presents the legal regulations concerning of insurance services undertaken by enterprises in Poland.

  14. New estimates of labour productivity in the manufacturing sectors of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnikhof, Erik; Ark, Bart van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide benchmark comparisons of manufacturing unit value ratios and productivity levels for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland relative to Germany in 1996. On average, manufacturing prices were about half of those in Germany for all three countries. Hungary was characterised by

  15. Work-Related Identity of Clinical Research Sector Employees in Poland Against Professional Transformation of the Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozierkiewicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Established professions and knowledge workers identify more with their professional groups than with their organisations. The purpose of the study was to fnd what kind of work-related identities are shown by clinical research sector employees in Poland, what is the intensity of those identities and which one is dominant. Methodology: The study started with qualitative interviews dedicated to professional changes and to work-related identity. The latter was selected for the main quantitative part of the study and its fve types were defned related to the trained profession, the practised profession, organizational, relational and task-related work identities. Intensity of these pre-defned identities was tested with a use of a questionnaire completed by 147 representatives of the sector under study. Statistical analysis of the collected data verifed the research hypotheses that assumed a certain gradation of these work-related identities. Results: Professional identity related to the practised occupation was placed on the highest level followed by task-related identity. Relational and organisational identities were classifed on the third and fourth levels. Identity related to the trained occupation achieved the lowest score. The employing organization type had no effect on the manifested professional identity. Originality value: As a developing new occupation, the study group itself was an interesting population for studying work-related identity. Combining the qualitative and quantitative methods enabled evaluation of the results against the professional changes shaping the sector, which can have an impact on building the work-related identity of its employees.

  16. Assessing the performance of the construction sectors in the Baltic states and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podvezko Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the evaluation of the construction market performance in three Baltic States, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, based on using structural statistical criteria. The evaluation covers various periods of time, embracing the time before the economic crisis, in 2007, during the economic crisis, in 2009, and after the economic crisis, in 2013. For assessing the efficiency of their construction sectors’ performance, the investigated countries are arranged in the order of preference according to this indicator by using three multiple-criteria decision making methods (MCDM, such as SAW, TOPSIS and COPRAS. These evaluation methods are based on determining the weights of the structural criteria used. For this purpose, three various methods, including the entropy, the method of the criteria impact loss (CILOS and a new method of determining the objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW suggested by the authors. The results obtained allowed the researchers to assess the construction market performance in the considered states in various periods of time, to compare them with other countries and to rank them based on this parameter. Therefore, the suggested method of market performance evaluation may be used as an effective supplementary aid for determining the priorities in the future business development, as well as for studying the competitive markets or directing the cash flows of an enterprise to the appropriate areas.

  17. The role of health sectors in disaster preparedness. Floods in southeastern China, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X

    1993-01-01

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made, usually are unpredictable. Efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from a disaster should be put forth before it occurs. A brief survey is presented of the worst flood to occur in a hundred years that affected eight provinces in Southeast China. The disaster preparedness and response for Anhui Province, the hardest hit area, is summarized. The disaster preparedness was comprehensive, and cooperation was achieved among various specialties: military forces; firefighters; civil engineers; mechanics; police; provincial governors; the medical sectors; and so forth. Among these groups, the role of medical sectors was of great importance in reducing disease that would have resulted from such a disaster. The measures undertaken by the medical sectors included development of an organization to reduce the impact of disaster; training of medical personnel in techniques of rescue and in treatment of victims in disaster areas; development of a plan to assist the leadership in decision-making and establishing support for disaster preparedness; and maintaining sufficient capacity in general hospitals for the admission of victims from disaster areas.

  18. Challenges of sustainable development in the mining and metallurgy sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bluszcz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the degree of involvement of Polish companies from the mining and metallurgical industry in activities for sustainable development. Various initiatives, which aim to promote sustainable development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR are discussed. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR and it forms the basis for sustainable development. The paper also presents problems of integrated reporting of CSR activities and an index of socially responsible companies which is the Respect Index, introduced by the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Two presented companies from the analysed sector are listed by the Respect Index.

  19. Límites y equilibrios de poder en la disputa por un territorio insular caribeño: el caso de San Andrés (1970-1991)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Andrés Sánchez-Aguirre

    2015-01-01

    La isla de San Andrés ha sido un territorio pretendido por diferentes gobiernos a través de la historia. Desde inicios del siglo XX varias naciones han estado relacionadas con disputas por el control de este lugar -especialmente Nicaragua y Colombia (con la presencia es - tadounidense de trasfondo). En esta oportunidad, se ha recurrido a la revisión y análisis de algunas investigaciones históricas y reportajes periodísticos -estos últimos publicados entre 1970 y 1991-, con miras a detallar ...

  20. Air Emissions of Selected Substances from Particular Sectors Including Metallurgy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargulewicz I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP, dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, Pb and Cd subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP. It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households. Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.

  1. Are Firms in Corporate Groups More Resilient During an Economic Crisis? Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jankowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate groups are specific types of business networks that generate particular advantages for firms. They allow corporates to reduce costs, develop the pool of resources and increase the flexibility of operations and responses to external shocks among others. The above mentioned benefits are of even greater importance during times of economic turbulence. Their involvement in a corporate group should theoretically allow firms to perform better. The aim of this study is to verify whether corporate group membership truly translated into a firm’s higher input competitiveness and a firm’s better performance during the recent economic crisis. First, we try to investigate if the input competitiveness is higher in the case of firms being members of corporate groups. Second, we test whether the involvement in a corporate group matters for the performance of the firms. Using critical in-depth literature studies and conducting the primary empirical research using the CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing method we strive to verify the following hypothesis - the higher a company’s input competitiveness during the economic crisis, the better a competitive position the company achieves. The empirical research encompasses more than 700 corporates from the manufacturing sector in Poland during the global economic crisis and shortly afterwards. To investigate the issue we use the following methods of statistical analysis – cluster analysis, non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients. The results of the study show that firms involved in both Polish and international corporate groups were more resilient during the economic crisis than those which were not.

  2. MANAGING IT SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF INNOVATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES OF THE ICT SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ciesielska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient IT service management is a current area of concern and the focus of on-going improvement for both business and science. The high dynamics of the software market, globalisation and delivery of high quality IT services are challenges that small and medium-sized enterprises must face. The drive towards innovation in the SME sector cannot concentrate only on the product but also on the process and organization. ITSM frameworks and good industry practices are an effective tool to help support innovation in providing IT services. This article aims to identify barriers to and benefits of ITSM implementation in SMEs of the Polish ICT sector and interpret the obtained results in the context of creating innovation. The article present the results of primary data collection among 345 small and medium-sized enterprises of the ICT sector in Poland.

  3. Fragilidad financiera y fuga doméstica de capitales en el sector productivo colombiano. (1970-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Melo

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la crisis financiera que padeció Colombia en 1982 y sus repercusiones en la economía del país, a partir de una premisa básica: las crisis financieras tienen como cusa fundamental el comportamiento financiero de las empresas productivas y de dos hipótesis centrales: la primera señala que entre 1970 y 1982 la economía colombiana pasó de una estructura financiera relativamente fuerte a una cada vez más frágil y la segunda plantea que, en el periodo de análisis, el comportamiento financiero de las empresas no financieras condujo a una fuga doméstica de capital (respecto a sus usos productivos y hacia circuitos financieros domésticos.

  4. Globalisation and Wage Inequality: A Comparison of the Manufacturing Sector in Canada and the United States from 1970 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Grenier; Akbar Tavakoli

    2009-01-01

    This article compares Canada and the United States in terms of the evolution of the relative wages of production and non-production workers in the manufacturing sector. The results show that the wage ratio is affected by similar economic globalisation variables in each country. Other than technological changes, however, the overall effect of globalisation is more pronounced in Canada. Among economic globalisation variables, such as technological changes and imports from developing countries, ...

  5. Acumulación y sector financiero en Colombia (1970-1979 : una interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenjo Galarza Fernando

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo resume las conclusiones mas importantes de un estudio cuyo objetivo era interpretar el proceso de acumulación en Colombia en los últimos años y e1 papel del sector financiero en dicho proceso. La idea en mente no era tanto hacer nuevas descubrimientos o cubrir el universo de la economía del país, sino experimentar con nuevas teorías y en la medida de lo posible, presentar una interpretación novedosa de los asuntos tratados. EI trabajo es entonces producto de la insatisfacción no solo con las interpretaciones del desarrollo económico colombiano derivadas de las teorías dominantes, sino también con estas mismas teorías.

  6. The rate of the productivity of human resources, capital, and energy in sub-sectors of industry during 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parandakh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the rate of productivity of human resources, capital, and energy (electricity in a selection of sub-sectors of industry (basic metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber and plastic products, and food products during 1991-2011 using the econometric methods. For this purpose, first, the amount of the stability of the model's variables in time series was tested. Then, the existence of co-integration between them was determined and, finally, the productivity of the model was calculated using ARDL. According to the results, the elasticity of labor force, capital and energy were 1.07, 1.47 and -0.23, respectively.

  7. Gómez Correal, Diana Marcela. 2012. Dinámicas del movimiento feminista bogotano. Historias de cuarto, salón y calle. Historias de vida (1970-1991. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia ISBN: 9789587196535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta obra la antropóloga y magister en historia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Diana Marcela Gómez Correal, reconstruye el feminismo de la segunda ola en Bogotá, entre 1970 y 1991. Es una narración estructurada en cinco capítulos, que destaca el papel de los sujetos en la construcción de la historia, mediante las historias de vida de diez de las protagonistas en estos años, y resalta el vínculo que su praxis establece entre lo que se considera privado y lo público-político. Sus testimonios van tejiendo la historia en primera persona, incluso la autora interviene como “sujeto ubicado” (p. 35 con una perspectiva feminista. Su preocupación por las dinámicas organizativas internas se explica por la intención de llenar un vacío en la historiografía del movimiento feminista, el cual es enmarcado dentro del más amplio movimiento social de mujeres. El análisis se nutre también de la categoría de género, puesta en el contexto de la “interseccionalidad” con los patrones de opresión de raza y clase.

  8. Teaching Self- and Social Competencies in the Retail Sector: Findings from Vocational Schools in Germany, Italy and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeling, Sabrina; Pilz, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use teaching and learning units specially devised for development of self-competencies and social competencies in the retail sector to explore how learners assess these units in relation to acceptance, quality and self-assessment of improvement in their own performance. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. How does the European Regional Development Fund finance energy efficiency and renewable investments in housing sector in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is leading the global fight against climate change, and has made it a top priority. Its ambitious targets are spelt out in the EU Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package which commits Member States to curb their CO 2 emissions by at least 20% by 2020 through improved energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. The housing sector, responsible for 40% of the EU CO 2 emissions, represents a huge potential for energy and emissions savings. The policy at EU level is adopted and the facts are clear - we know in which sectors and how to act to achieve the common objectives. The EU even allocates some funds for EE/RES actions in housing sector, e.g. through the Cohesion policy. Since May 2009, all EU Member States can allocate 4% of their total ERDF allocations to energy efficiency measures in housing, in particular social housing. It would seem that all the conditions are favorable but the reality is different - EE/RES actions are still not the priority of the EU Member States and/or the European funds are rarely used for this type of actions. The case of three EU-12 countries - Bulgaria, Poland and Romania - proves that the Structural Funds available for improvement of housing and particularly social housing sector, are not fully used also for the following reasons: Housing and social housing are not the priorities or national budgets allocated to these sectors are not sufficient to co-finance projects supported by the Structural Funds: - In Romanian operational programs, (social) housing is mentioned very vaguely - eligible measures are not specified in details. - In Bulgaria, the priorities in the operational programs are well identified, however municipalities have difficulties to find even 5% co-financing for their EE/RES projects as national budget is not allocated to this type of measures. Administration of the Structural Funds and criteria of their use are complicated; national governments are lacking human capacities to

  10. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  11. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  12. S. 1030: A bill to authorize private sector participation in providing products and services to support Department of Energy defense waste cleanup and modernization missions, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 9, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US Senate on May 9, 1991 to authorize private sector participation in providing products and services to support Department of Energy defense waste cleanup and modernization. Congress finds that the management and cleanup of nuclear and hazardous waste and the modernization of Department of Energy facilities must be pursued expeditiously in order to protect the health and safety of the public and workers

  13. How Does Innovative Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Operate in the ECEC Sector? Insights from a Cross-Analysis of Cases in Denmark, Italy and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Chiara; Jensen, Bente; Wyslowska, Olga; Iannone, Rosa Lisa; Mantovani, Susanna; Karwowska-Struczyk, Malgorzata

    2018-01-01

    This article offers insights into what characterises innovative continuous professional development (CPD) in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) by analysing similarities and differences from case studies of exemplary approaches to innovative CPD in Denmark, Italy and Poland. The comparative analysis focuses on four features…

  14. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  15. Financial Globalisation and Sectoral Reallocation of Capital in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ziv Chinzara; Radhika Lahiri; En Te chen

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of financial globalisation on intra-sector and inter-sector firm level reallocation of capital in South Africa using panel data for the period 1991-2008. The measure of efficient reallocation of capital is based on the variation of firm's marginal returns to capital around the optimal level, while the measure of financial globalisation is constructed by tracing the financial reforms/restrictions that took place in South Africa since the 1970s. We find that financ...

  16. SYeNERGY: the satellite data-based platform for energy sector in Poland, the pilot study with PGE S.A. company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatkowska, Martyna; Kiryla, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at presentation of SYeNERGY project, which is designed to develop the on-line platform applying satellite data in order to support various actors in the Energy Market in Poland. According to the Amendment of the Law on Renewable Energy Sources from 22.06.2016 r. in Poland, the recipients of the energy biomass - Energy Companies, are obliged to obey to the rules of local biomass (the biomass can be obtained from the distance of maximum 300 km in straight line from the CHP) and biomass' sustainable acquisition (the biomass cannot be collected from the areas under protection of: NATURA 2000, Reservations, National and Regional Parks). The entire responsibility of obtaining the biomass according to the law is put on the recipients of the biomass - Energy Companies. This situation was found by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography as a motivation for development of the system which would enable to efficiently check if the acquired biomass fulfill the requirements of local biomass and sustainable acquisition and would deliver the estimation of the biomass to be obtained. In the beginning of 2017, the agreement between the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography and PGE S.A. - one of the biggest energy companies in Poland was signed in order to conduct the pilot application of SYeNERGY platform in their everyday work.

  17. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the Corporation undertook an examination of its future direction, having completed the divestment mandate assigned to it in 1986. This examination resulted in a reorientation of the Corporation's objectives toward enhancing participation in the energy sector by the Aboriginal Peoples and northern communities of the province. The Corporation's cash assets increased to $33 million in 1991, largely attributable to a Suncor dividend of $14.2 million. The financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Management is also responsible for the other information in the annual report, which is consistent with that contained in the financial statements

  18. Location-allocation model for external beam radiotherapy as an example of an evidence-based management tool implemented in healthcare sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Adam Michał; Więckowska, Barbara

    2018-02-21

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is one of three key treatment modalities of cancer patients. Its utilisation and outcomes depend on a plethora of variables, one of which is the distance a patient must travel to undergo the treatment. The relation between distance and utilisation is clearly visible in Poland. At the same time no strategic investment plan is observed. This work proposes a method of resolving these two issues. We propose a mixed-integer linear programming model that aims to optimise the distribution of linear accelerators among selected locations in such a way that a patient's journey to the nearest EBRT is as short as possible. The optimisation is done with observance of international guidelines concerning EBRT capacity. With the use of proposed theoretical framework, we develop a national, strategic plan for linear accelerator investments. According to model assumptions decentralisation of EBRT, together with new equipment purchases, is required to ensure optimal access to EBRT. The results were incorporated into Healthcare Needs Maps for Poland. The plan based on the results of this study, implemented by 2025, should deal with the most pressing concerns of Polish EBRT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The employee's productivity in the health care sector in Poland and their impact on the treatment process of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiek A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Rosiek,1,2 Aleksandra Rosiek-Kryszewska,3 Łukasz Leksowski,4 Tomasz Kornatowski,2 Krzysztof Leksowski2,5 1Ross-Medica, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Public Health Department, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 5Department of General Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Military Clinical Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland Background: Increasing the engagement of employees in the treatment process of patients may benefit a hospital and employee productivity and may result in better patient care and satisfaction with medical services. Given this, the first step in improving the quality of patient care is better availability of doctors for patients in a hospital ward.Methods: The research for this paper was conducted in six health care units in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian province in Poland. The research assessed how the elements relating to employees’ behavior and things characteristic to medical service influence patients’ willingness to recommend a hospital.Results: Patients’ perception of services is linked with the behavior of medical employees and their engagement in the treatment process.Conclusion: Our research indicates that individual employee recognition and collective recognition of hospital employees as a whole were identified as the most important factors in employee engagement in the treatment process (employee productivity and patients’ satisfaction with medical service. Keywords: employee’s productivity, workplace interventions to enhance health, hospitals, organizational health, medical staff, public health

  20. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces in No...

  1. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  2. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  3. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  4. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  5. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  7. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  8. Preliminary figures for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Neste Corporation's net sales during 1991 totalled USD 12.6 billion, an increase of 11 % over the figure for 1990. The largest growth in net sales took place in Neste Oil's trading activities and sales of in-house-produced crude oil. In the chemicals sector. particular growth was recorded in resins production. Gas, Shipping and Exploration and Production performed slightly better than during 1990. Oil's performance remained satisfactory. The performance of Chemicals, however, fell back considerably, primarily, as a result of the worldwide drop in prices in the petrochemicals and plastics industries. As a result, the Corporation's overall result was substantially below the good level recorded in 1990. The Corporation's operating margin totalled USD 650 million

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Poland syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Poland syndrome Poland syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Poland syndrome is a disorder in which affected individuals ...

  10. 1970 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    Washington's 1970 timber harvest of 6.46 billion board feet was 7.8 percent below the near record harvest of 7 billion board feet established in 1969. Timber harvests on all public lands declined 13 percent with a 9.0-percent reduction in western Washington and a 22.9-percent drop in eastern Washington. State lands led the decline in public production with a 142-...

  11. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  12. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  13. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  14. Tertiary Education in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The polish tertiary education report was undertaken by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in consultation with the Ministry of National Education and Sports of Poland (MoNES). The modernization of higher education and other tertiary education services has become an increasing focus of public concern in Poland. A major purpose of the report is to discuss important issues in Pol...

  15. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    , particularly in areas such as pharmaceuticals, are highly regressive. The health status of the Polish population has improved substantially, with average life expectancy at birth reaching 80.2 years for women and 71.6 years for men in 2009. However, there is still a vast gap in life expectancy between Poland and the western European Union (EU) countries and between life expectancy overall and the expected number of years without illness or disability. Given its modest financial, human and material health care resources and the corresponding outcomes, the overall financial efficiency of the Polish system is satisfactory. Both allocative and technical efficiency leave room for improvement. Several measures, such as prioritizing primary care and adopting new payment mechanisms such as diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), have been introduced in recent years but need to be expanded to other areas and intensified. Additionally, numerous initiatives to enhance quality control and build the required expertise and evidence base for the system are also in place. These could improve general satisfaction with the system, which is not particularly high. Limited resources, a general aversion to cost-sharing stemming from a long experience with broad public coverage and shortages in health workforce need to be addressed before better outcomes can be achieved by the system. Increased cooperation between various bodies within the health and social care sectors would also contribute in this direction. The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; they describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. World

  16. Physics 1963-1970

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Physics: 1963-1970 focuses on the history, developments, and trends in physics, including the applications of lasers, semiconductors, and electrodynamics. The book first offers information on events, laws of nature, and invariance principles and the shell model. Topics include magic numbers, atomic analogue, individual orbits in the nucleus, and the use of invariance principles and approximate invariances. The text also ponders on the production of coherent radiation by atoms and molecules, including basic maser principles, maser clocks and amplifiers, and application of lasers. The

  17. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  18. La creciente incidencia de China en el desarrollo económico de Chile. El sector cuprífero y la industria forestal en el marco de la paradoja de la abundancia (1970-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sepúlveda, Humberto Andrés

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación pretende dar a conocer, desde la perspectiva de la maldición de los recursos, el impacto desencadenado por el sector cuprífero chileno — liderado por Codelco— y la industria forestal —encabezada por la Compañía Arauco y la Celulosa CMPC— para satisfacer el creciente protagonismo de China como el principal destino de las exportaciones remitidas por dichas áreas productivas. La tesis se estructuró en siete capítulos que se distribuyen en tres partes, a los que se le...

  19. La creciente incidencia de China en el desarrollo económico de Chile. El sector cuprífero y la industria forestal en el marco de la paradoja de la abundancia (1970-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sepúlveda, Humberto Andrés

    2017-01-01

    [spa] La presente investigación pretende dar a conocer, desde la perspectiva de la maldición de los recursos, el impacto desencadenado por el sector cuprífero chileno — liderado por Codelco— y la industria forestal —encabezada por la Compañía Arauco y la Celulosa CMPC— para satisfacer el creciente protagonismo de China como el principal destino de las exportaciones remitidas por dichas áreas productivas. La tesis se estructuró en siete capítulos que se distribuyen en tres partes, a los que se...

  20. El control de la contaminación atmosférica en México (1970-1980): tensiones y coincidencias entre el sector salud y los industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Coloballes, Natalia Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Una vez que el gobierno mexicano adoptó las políticas y soluciones esbozadas por organismos internacionales y países altamente industrializados, para combatir la contaminación atmosférica, en la década de l970, se pueden observar las controversias, derivadas del marco legislativo y administrativo, entre el sector salud, gestor de la calidad del aire, y los industriales, sobre los que recaían buena parte de las acciones contra la contaminación. La hipótesis es la siguiente: Los problemas actua...

  1. El control de la contaminación atmosférica en México (1970-1980) : tensiones y coincidencias entre el sector salud y los industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Coloballes, Natalia Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Una vez que el gobierno mexicano adoptó las políticas y soluciones esbozadas por organismos internacionales y países altamente industrializados, para combatir la contaminación atmosférica, en la década de l970, se pueden observar las controversias, derivadas del marco legislativo y administrativo, entre el sector salud, gestor de la calidad del aire, y los industriales, sobre los que recaían buena parte de las acciones contra la contaminación. La hipótesis es la siguiente: Los problemas actua...

  2. Expenditure on health research in South Africa, 1991/1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research in 1991/1992, 56,1 % by the tertiary education sector and 20,7% by the Medical Research Council. .... expenditure on health research in their annual reports. This is partiCUlarly true of institutions like the ..... Stock Exchange, exceeded R3 billion in 1991"6 These data, if correct, suggest that less than 3% of turnover ...

  3. 1970-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Esteve Palós

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los microdatos de los censos mexicanos de 1970, 1990 y 2000, en este artículo se examina la homogeneidad de los matrimonios y uniones atendiendo al nivel de instrucción de los cónyuges en las últimas tres décadas, caracterizadas por una fuerte expansión de la escolaridad, por el incremento de los rendimientos de la educación y por la reducción progresiva de las diferencias de género en materia educativa. Tres conclusiones brotan del examen de los datos: el aumento significativo de la homogamia entre los más escolarizados, la consolidación de dos zonas extendidas de homogamia, y la reducción de las diferencias en torno a la manera en que los hombres y las mujeres incorporan la educación en la selección conyugal.

  4. (1954-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe las tensiones y relaciones entre las esferas tecnológica, económica y política que configuran la biografía pública de la televisión en Cali (Colombia, entre los años de 1954 y 1970. El texto es resultado del análisis de información publicada diariamente en la prensa local durante este periodo, con énfasis en los campos de información noticiosa, opinión y publicidad. Se pretende contribuir al desarrollo de una historia social de los medios de comunicación en Colombia desde un contexto regional.

  5. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. [Demographic effects on development from 1970 to 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras Macias, A

    1990-01-01

    Although significant advances were achieved in Mexican school enrollment and educational status between 1950 and 1970, nearly half of 1970 entrants in the labor market had fewer than 5 years of formal schooling. Fertility and population growth rates began to decline in the 1970s, and the gross national product (GNP) was still growing at the rapid rate of 6.2%, although employment in the formal sector was increasingly limited. Income distribution did not alter greatly for the poorest households; in 1970, 1977, and 1983 the poorest 40% of households received around 11% of total income. The fertility decline continued in the 1980s, but it was not homogeneous in all social groups. During 1970-86 the poorest and least educated sectors had an average of nearly 3 children more than the wealthier and better educated. The poor population grew at a rate of 3% annually, while those with higher incomes grew at 1.3%. During the 1980s the economic crisis significantly affected social spending. Government spending as a percentage of GNP declined from 8% in the 1980s to 3.8% in 1988. The GNP grew at negative rates in 1982, 1983, and 1986, and at rates below demographic growth rates in 1987 and 1988. The economically active population grew at almost 3.5% annually, while employment only increased by 0.9%. A significant proportion of the skilled labor force was obliged to seek employment in the informal sector, placing additional pressure on the poor and unskilled.

  7. DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS AND SOURCES OF FUNDING ON HOTEL MARKET IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Semmerling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel market in Poland is related to trends on touristic market. This sector is developing dynamically, in Poland as in the whole world. In the years 2001-2014 numbers of hotels in Poland increased double. Most of new hotels are 4 and 5 stars. Important for new objects is building conference centres and SPA, which makes touristic season longer. Main source of finances hotel investments in Poland are own sources and EU funds. Crucial importance is the franchise. Forecasts for hotel market are really great. Till 2017 the count of tourists, who take advantage of hotels, should still increase.

  8. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996; Postawy spoleczne wobec energetyki jadrowej w Polsce w latach 1989-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latek, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  10. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  11. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  12. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  13. Aging in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  15. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  16. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  17. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  18. May 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  19. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1970 - 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.E.; Edwards, K.J.

    1978-05-01

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published during 1970 to 1974. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA) which covered the period 1895 to 1970. Following reference to bibliographies, books and pamphlets, and a few items omitted from the previous bibliography, main items are grouped under the headings Reports, Journal articles and Conference papers and are listed chronologically. There are indexes to subject, author, and document number, the latter including the issuing body. (UK)

  20. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  1. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  2. Using of the banking services by individual farmers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the structure and dynamics of credit indebtedness of agricultural holdings and farmers’ bank deposits in Poland in 1996-2009. The aim of this article was to describe the financial relationships agricultural holdings with banks, and characteristics farmers as purchasers of banking services, including the identification of specific attitudes and behaviours of farmers in the banking market, which differ from other groups of bank customers (non-agricultural entrepreneurs, individuals. Agricultural holdings were analysed as a sector. The source of empirical data were statistics of NBP (National Bank of Poland, GUS (Central Statistical Office and FADN.

  3. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  4. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  5. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  6. Collaborative Advantage in Public and Social Services: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janina SZYMANKIEWICZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the relationships between the third and the public sector, with a particular focus on relations with local government units (LGUs on the example of Poland. The article characterises the essence and rules of collaboration between the social and public sectors in Poland, and determines the meaning of the cooperative development of strategy of collaborative advantage. It also presents a useful tool which facilitates the realisation of such a task – a model of strategic cross-sector collaboration.

  7. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  8. Market bulletin - February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in February 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  9. Market bulletin - April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in April 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  10. Market bulletin - January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in January 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  11. Market bulletin - March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in March 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  12. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This report provides highlights on the activities and achievements of CSIR in the year 1991. An outline of the CSIR structure and financial reports are also presented in the report....

  13. Avaldus : [13. jaanuar 1991

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1991-01-01

    NSVL juhtkonna aktsioonidest Balti riikide suhtes. Vene keeles vt. Путь к переговорам с Союзом ССР. Т. 1 : март 1990 г. - май 1991 г. : Вильнюс,1991, lk. 239-240

  14. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  16. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  17. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  18. Sectoral innovation foresight. Biotechnology sector. Final Reeport. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.W.; Meis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s (e.g. recombinant DNA technology) into the full grown economic activity of today. The set of technologies that constitute the field of biotechnology thus find their applications in different sectors, most notably in

  19. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair.

  20. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  1. 1970-1997 energy balance-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to bring together a consistent and harmonized set of statistical data on energy economics in the French territory. The information is based on the global and structural approach of the different energy balance-sheets published between 1970 and 1997. The first chapter gives a general idea of the energy situation of the passed year and outlines the evolution of the main aggregates (production, primary and final consumption etc..) comparatively to those of the general economy. The second chapter is devoted to the history of energy economics. Time series of indicators and diagrams allow to precise the structural modifications that occurred during the last decades. The main transformations in the national energy production and the development of the different energy sources in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors and in the transportation sector are described too. The third chapter gives numerical data on energy for the last 28 years using the common Mtpe unit (million of tons of petroleum equivalent). These balance sheets are based on new energy keeping methods and use identical equivalence coefficients. The last chapter presents the energy balance sheets for the last three years, using the proper units for coal, petroleum, gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  2. Fatal accidents at work in agriculture associated with alcohol intoxication in Lower Silesia in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, Tomasz; Rorat, Marta

    2017-02-28

    Determining the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and the level of intoxication in victims of fatal occupational accidents is necessary to improve work safety. The circumstances of the accident and the time between alcohol consumption and death are important factors. A retrospective review of 18 935 medico-legal autopsy reports and toxicological reports performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland, in the years 1991-2014. The study protocol included circumstances, time and cause of death, injuries, quantitative testing for the presence of ethyl alcohol, gender and age. There were 98 farm-related fatalities. There were 41.8% (N = 41) of victims who had been intoxicated - 95.1% (N = 39) of them were males aged 19-70 years old, 4,9% (N = 2) were females aged 37-65 years old. In 8 cases the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 50-150 mg/dl; in 15 cases it was 150-250 mg/dl and in 18 cases it was > 250 mg/dl. In 21 cases, the BAC was determined using alternative material and 76% (N = 16) victims were in the alcohol elimination phase with 19% (N = 4) victims in the alcohol absorption phase. The most common causes of death were traffic accidents, drowning and deaths resulting from being caught in or hit by moving parts of machinery or equipment. Alcohol consumption is a crucial risk factor in fatal agricultural accidents. In order to establish the time of alcohol consumption, all victims of agricultural accidents should be tested for alcohol concentration in their blood and urine or vitreous. Improving safety at work requires that the sobriety of employees should be monitored before and during work. Med Pr 2017;68(1):23-30. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. The bioeconomy in Poland within the context of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the potential of the development of bioeconomy in Poland in the context of the European Union (EU). The analyses take into account the concept of bioeconomy, the overview of documents referring to the bioeconomy in the EU, including policy frameworks and agendas. Many countries including Poland emphasise the importance of bioeconomy, but have not yet developed a complex strategy. The state of bioeconomy in Poland is characterised by the sectors of agriculture, forestry and food production, as well as parts of the chemical, biotechnology and energy industries. In 2014 the global production volume in the Polish bioeconomy amounted to PLN 343 billion with the sector employing almost 3 million staff. However, the structure of the bioeconomy is dominated by traditional sectors, such as agriculture and agro-food industries. This article presents the analysis of research and development activity in Poland from 2009 to 2015. It reports the position of Poland on GMOs and their future development potential. It is worth mentioning that many EU states including Poland have declared themselves as being "GMO-free countries". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  5. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  6. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  7. Secuencia de Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Rosa Lemus Lago

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de síndrome o secuencia de Poland, en un niño de 3 años, caracterizado por ausencia del pectoral mayor derecho, una sindactilia parcial entre el 2do. y el 3er. dedo de la mano derecha, además un anillo constrictor congénito en la muñeca derecha y menos profundo en la izquierda. Se hace el árbol genealógico, se revisan los antecedentes patológicos familiares, prenatales, perinatales, posnatales, así como la morbilidad y el desarrollo del niño.

  8. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  9. The First 25 Years of Computers in Education in Poland: 1965 – 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Sysło , Maciej ,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The first regular informatics lessons in schools were organised in Poland in the second half of the 1960s. Some of the lessons in Wrocław were devoted to programming a mainframe computer located at the university, and school students in Warsaw had a chance to learn theoretical models of computers and foundations of computations.In the mid-1970s, the government of Poland recognised the importance of computers in the state economy and also in preparing the society for ne...

  10. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  11. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  12. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  13. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  14. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  15. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author)

  16. Review: 1991 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is NUEXCO's annual summary of the previous year's (1991) events. There are reviews of major nuclear developments in each continent, as well as international developments. Specific topics include fuels, waste management, new facilities, and decommissioning. Nuclear activities in the following countries are noted: South Africa, Yemen, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Namibia, France, Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, India, Pakistan, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Italy, Czechoslovakia, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Uraguay

  17. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, R.; Lesniak, L.; Malecki, P.; Stachura, Z.; Wojciechowski, H. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The material presented describing the scientific activities of the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 is the first annual report in several years.The arrangement of the report from various departments reflect the present structure of the Institute and is meant to help in the future task of reconstructing the Institute. Few guidelines proposed by the editorial board gave the individual departments much freedom in selecting the material and choosing the volume and format of presentation. (author).

  18. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Hauff, J.

    2000-09-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO 2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO 2 emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil

  19. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  20. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  1. Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Yin, Xuemei; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Shaoqing; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions for the EU28 during 1991–2012 are accounted. • The EU28 are classified into four groups based on GHG emission structure. • It can facilitate classified management of GHG emissions. • The EU case shows the common but differentiated principle in emission reduction. - Abstract: Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/land-use change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO 2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions

  2. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  3. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  4. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  5. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Joseph E.; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Woodberry, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and ...

  7. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  8. Energy balances of OECD countries 1970/1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The present volume provides standardized energy balance sheets expressed in a common unit of tons of oil equivalent for all OECD Countries. It covers the years 1970 to 1982 year by year and includes many revisions and additions to data previously published. The balances in the present volume are based on data published in OECD Energy Statistics 1971-1981 and OECD Energy Statistics 1981-1982. Tables for each OECD Country include production, import, export, consumption by the different industries, transportation, agriculture, residential sector of the different energies: solid fuels, petroleum, gas, nuclear power and hydroelectricity [fr

  9. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decourt, M.; Le Bervet, L.; Leroy, R.; Mangano, M.; Said, A.

    1992-06-01

    DAPNIA, department of Astrophysics, Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Associated Instrumentation is a new CEA department, created in July 1991. This report makes the synthesis and gives the prospects of department activities. In Nuclear Physics, 3 topics are studied: nuclear structure with DAPNIA superconducting post-accelerated tandem and GANIL cyclotron, thermodynamics properties with GANIL cyclotron and LNS, and hadronic systems with SPS and SLAC. In Particle Physics, DAPNIA participates in experimental program that has been decided to establish the validity of Standard Model near to electron-positron colliders of LEP. Cryo magnetism and superconducting cavity laboratories contribute to DAPNIA programs and participate in outer programs

  10. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decourt, M.; Le Bervet, L.; Leroy, R.; Mangano, M.; Said, A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1990-1991 activity report of Nuclear Physics Institute (at Orsay) is presented. The purpose and evolution of research fields are summarized. The following topics are presented: in experimental research, nuclear structure, ground states and low energy excited states, high excitation energy nuclear states, heavy ion collision phenomena, intermediate energy nuclear physics, radiochemistry of lanthanides and actinides and heavy ion interactions material and surface; in theoretical physics, nuclear structure and dynamics, particle physics, field theory, statistical physics, variational principles and quantization of chaotic systems and mathematical methods. The Nuclear Physics Institute works also on the development of several multidetectors (EUROGAM, INDRA, EDEN) and accelerators (AGOR, MACSE, Tandem)

  11. Environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.; Wilt, G.; Balke, B.K.; Surano, K.A.; Hoppes, W.G.; Tate, P.J.; Steenhoven, J.C.; Fields, B.C.; Garcia, L.M.; Lamson, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of its commitment to environmental compliance and accountability, LLNL prepares this report each year to communicate the results of monitoring and compliance activities. Analytical data are produced from sampling of air, sewage effluent, groundwater, surface water, soil, vegetation and foodstuff, and through measurement of environmental radiation. The Environmental Protection Department performed more than 150,000 analyses of environmental samples during 1991. This Executive Summary provides a comprehensive synopsis, organized along the general outline of the report, and furnishes an overview of the supporting methodologies, data, and findings that are presented in the chapters that follow

  12. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  13. Chickenpox in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1;2). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used (3). In 2014, 221 628 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 575.9 and was lower than in 2013 (463.6). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship (35 321), the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship (5 346). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years. The chickenpox incidence among men was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (543.4). The incidence among rural residents (595.0) was higher by 9.8 % than among urban residents. Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 467. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 63 608. In 2014, there was increase in the incidence of chickenpox in Poland. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  14. Measles in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Karasek, Ewa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Program coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", and measles case-based reports from 2012 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 70 measles cases registered in Poland in 2012 (incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.08 per 100 000) and children aged 1 year (2.47 per 100 000). In 2012, 37 cases (52,9%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 83.6% do 99.6% (primary vaccination in children born in 2011-2006) and from 76.6% do 96.7% (booster dose in children born in 2003-2001). Performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 127 measles-compatible cases reported in 2012 (33% of expected reports). Fifty cases (71%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. The epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in 2012 in comparison to proceding year. The results indicate a need to further promote Measles Elimination Program in Poland, maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  15. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  16. North America's wood pellet sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter; Daniel Toth

    2009-01-01

    The North American wood pellet sector is profiled in this paper. A small pellet industry has existed since the 1930s, but its main growth occurred in the wake of the energy crisis in the 1970s. Its current spurt is even greater, growing from is set to reach 6.2 million in 2009. Most plants are small, relying on sawmill residues for fiber and thus are limited to 100,000...

  17. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the ne...... needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climateprotection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options....... to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissionstrading system.To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still...

  18. Orthodox Education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox educational system has been meeting important tasks, which is raising a general mental level of clergy and faithful. Its foundation was driven by needs of the Orthodox Church. Educating a young generation in the spirit of the Orthodoxy happened to be the main task of the enlightened class. Brotherhood, monastery and parish school were to be part of this program. The Orthodox education shaped religious life, helped preserve the religious and national identity of the believers. An evidence of that is the fact, that only those localities preserved “the Greek faith “, in which next to the monasteries were schools. Higher education, and especially Mohyla Academy, shaped by the then elite, played a vital role in the history of Orthodox Church in the Republic and neighboring countries. A similar role had to play in the interwar period College of Orthodox Theology at the University of Warsaw and in post-war Orthodox Section of the Christian Academy of Theology Presented here outline of history of Orthodox education in Poland indicates to the, appreciated by clergy and hierarchy, need of development of theological schools. Theological schools played and still play important role in shaping the attitudes of clergy and faithful. Schools provide necessary pastoral resources, shape Orthodox cultural and scientific environment. Theological education has remained an essential element for the proper functioning of Orthodox Church in the Polish Republic.

  19. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During 1991 Ontario Hydro's activities reflected a company in transition marked by changing customer needs, new social demands and global economic pressures. The nuclear system performed below expectations, although performance improved over 1990. Technical problems prevented the utility from bringing Darlington NGS unit 1 into service. Ontario Hydro has committed about $4 billion to extend the lives of fossil and hydroelectric stations and restore nuclear performance. In September Ontario Hydro's management structure was reorganized again. Policy, planning and strategic efforts were put under the direction of the Chair. All operating functions were to report directly to the President. New Board committees were formed to guide environmental activities and promote a better understanding of aboriginal and northern affairs. The unfavourable economic and operating conditions of 1991 affected financial performance. An 11.8% rate increase was announced for 1992. Electricity demand increased by 1.3%over 1990 to 139.1 million megawatt hours. Major capital additions have been deferred by at least seven years. Uranium contracts were canceled with Rio Algom and Denison Mines. Administrative and support budgets were cut, and executive salaries frozen. A number of quality improvement programs have been implemented with the cooperation of labour groups, reducing the amount of time needed for the retubing of the Pickering-4 reactor. (L.L.)

  20. Food production in Poland, compared to selected European Union Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesińska-Kowal, Joanna; Drabarczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the food sector in Poland during 2008-2012, compared to selected European Union Member States, and to define the factors affecting growth of the sector under consideration. The structure of sold production of the Polish food industry and the levels of food production in Europe are presented in the paper. Discussion covers quantitative fluctuations in the number of businesses and production value of food products, as well as employment and salaries ...

  1. The 1970-1976 education reform in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto González Villarreal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the education reform enacted in the earlier half of the 1970s in Mexico, as a paradigmatic case of the effect of criticism and social movements on the formation of government programs. The historical process is reconstructed on the basis of the concept of regimes of governmentality, developed by Foucault (1991 and the so-called Anglo-Foucauldian scholars Burchel, Gordon and Miller (1991; Rose (1999; Dean (1999; and Rose, O’Malley and Valverdes (2006. The text discusses the formation and development of a mentality of government that reflects on the educational movements of 1968 and 1971 as expressions of the growing illegitimacy of the institutions of political control, school, family and political authority. In response to that burgeoning rejection, it became necessary to overhaul and refashion the intervening authorities, the purposes, media and institutions of biopolitical control. In particular, the educational reform of 1973 was an attempt to reshape the processes of subjectivation that had been being employed since the 1968 crisis, and to integrate controls over citizens’ daily lives into the powers of the State security apparatus.

  2. Debt of households in the banking sector in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the debt concerning both home and consumer loans is described. The quality of the credit portfolio of households and the indicator of burdening their profits with credit are also presented. During the discussed period a certain acceleration in the lending growth, as for as households are concerned, is observed. The increased borrowing burden ratio falling on households’ income at disposal is a worrying phenomenon. This fact alongside with the negative economic effects in the period of the present global financial crisis may contribute to tightening the lending policies of banks, as well as limit the households’ access to credits in order to finance their needs.

  3. Is Deindustrialization Causing High Unemployment in Affluent Countries? Evidence from 16 OECD Countries, 1970-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Christopher; Pichler, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the possibility that deindustrialization has been contributing to the persistently high unemployment rates experienced by most affluent countries since the mid-1970s. Combining insights from Lilien's (1982) "sectoral shift" thesis and the literature on deindustrialization, the authors assert that the decades-long contraction of…

  4. 1970: ESO arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    In 1970, CERN and ESO signed a collaboration agreement for the construction of the Observatory’s first telescope. That same year, ESO’s Telescope Division and Sky Atlas laboratory settled on the CERN site in Meyrin. Let’s turn back to the beginnings of this lasting and fruitful alliance.   Martin Cullum, ESO physicist from 1973 to 2009 In 1974, when I attended my first international conference on behalf of ESO, the first thing people asked was: “Where are you from?” “ESO,” I would say. The response: ‘'What on Earth is ESO?” Nowadays, people I meet seem to know more about ESO than I do! It is clear that ESO profited enormously from its sojourn at CERN. The wise decision of the ESO Director General at the time, Adriaan Blaauw, to move to Geneva allowed ESO to build up its technical expertise to be able to build world-beating projects like the VLT, which has undoubtedly been the most exciting scientif...

  5. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  6. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  7. Rubella in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella to be confirmed with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012". In 2012, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of rubella - 6 263 cases (in 2011, 4 290 cases) - and the increase in incidence (from 11.1 per 100 thousand. 16.3). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (118.0 per 100 000). As in 2011, the incidence of rubella in boys and men was higher than the incidence in girls and women (25.6 versus 7.5). In 2012, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2012, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  8. Mumps in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (1). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2014 was also used. In total, there were 2 508 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2014. Incidence of mumps was 6.5 per 100,000 and it was higher by 3.1 % in comparison with 2013 and lower by 9.7 % in comparison with median for the years 2008-2012. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 4 years (61.3 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.8 per 100,000) was higher than in women (5.3). In 2014, 31 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.0% and it was lower by 0.5 % in comparison with year 2013 (97.5 %). Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  9. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  10. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  11. Daresbury 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report gives an overview of the activities over the year 1991/92. There are more than 4000 registered uses of the facilities at Daresbury so only the highlights can be included. The largest programme is that centred on the Synchrotron Radiation source. During the year this was shut down so that a second superconducting wiggler magnet could be installed. The smallest programme is that associated with Theory, Computational Science and Computing. Collaboration between the Medical and the Science and Engineering Research Councils reflects the interest of both in structural biology. A feasibility study for an Advanced Proton Source has been undertaken as part of the long-term planning for the laboratory. The work on EUROGAM, a Joint UK/France Gamma-Ray Detector is reported. A list of publications of scientists using the facilities at the laboratory is included. Separate appendices are available on the SRS, NSF (Nuclear Structure) and the Theory, Computational Science and Computing facilities. (UK)

  12. 1991 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute for fisical year 1991. The highlights of the reports are the following: 1) research and development covering food and agriculture, public health and safety, high technology materials development, development of nuclear-based techniques, and industry; 2) scientific and technological services; 3) nuclear regulations, licensing safeguards; 4) planning and technical assistance; 5) human and financial resources. List of experts/mission, foreign travels of Philippine Nuclear Research Institute personnel, research contract, technical cooperation projects and technical papers are also included. Also during this period the signing of Memorandum of Agreement on a 5-years cooperative program on the use of gamma radiation to develop improved rice varieties in the country. (ISD)

  13. EIA publications directory, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Enacted in 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the Department's independent statistical and analytical agency, with a mandate to collect and publish data and prepare analyses on energy production, consumption, prices, and resources, and projections of energy supply and demand. This edition of the EIA Publications Directory contains titles and abstracts of periodicals and one-time reports produced by the EIA from January through December 1991. This edition supplements EIA Publications Directory 1977--1989 and EIA Publications Directory 1990. The body of the Directory contains citations and abstracts arranged by broad subject categories, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas and subcategories such as reserves, produces and byproducts, and marketing and economics. All reports are indexed alphabetically by subject and title and numerically by report number

  14. BESSY annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report 1991 is drawn up as in the previous years, with general information on the organisational structure of the institution and its general purposes being given ahead of the research-specific reports. The achievements and developments in the fields of machines and experiments are reported, including contributions from the Litography laboratory of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructural Studies and Techniques, and from the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, followed by reports on basic research work. The machine developments are reported in varions contributions, and a list of publications shows all available and known scientific publications resulting from research work done at the BESSY installations by the various users. Diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses are listed separately. (orig.) [de

  15. 1991 Year in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Events in the Canadian nuclear industry from June 1991 to June 1992 are highlighted, with emphasis on the role of the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) and its committees. Korea purchased a second CANDU 6 at the end of 1990, with the prospect (since realized) of two further sales. Canada agreed to assist Romania in financing the completion of Cernovoda 1, which is expected to come on stream in 1994, the first of four units. The Saskatchewan government decided not to ratify a memorandum of understanding with AECL on a study of the CANDU 3 reactor in that province (but an agreement has since been reached). At the time of writing, the CNA was hoping to be allowed to make a submission to the Ontario Hearing Board in favour of the nuclear option

  16. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  17. Gypsophila perfoliata (Caryophyllaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypsophila perfoliata L. is a maritime sand-dune species naturally occurring in Asia and southeastern Europe. In Europe it also is found in ruderal habitats rarely, mainly along railway lines. In Poland the species was first recorded in the 1950s; it was found only at railway stations where iron ore was offloaded from the Kryvyi Rih region, Ukraine. Recently it was found in a new type of habitat: the roadside of a main road in the Carpathians. The paper characterizes the current status, distribution and habitat spectrum of this alien species in Poland.

  18. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  19. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  20. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  1. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012. About 2 500-3 000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology are recorded in Poland every year. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2012, was based on the results of analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP. et al., Warsaw, 2013, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2012 in Poland 3 088 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. More than 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of inflammatory meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2012 compared to 2011 did not change significantly.

  2. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2013". In 2013 in Poland 3,116 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 50% of these were viral infections. The epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2013 compared to 2012 did not change significantly.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science, and of the Minutes of Signature thereof are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 10 April 1970.

  4. Greening of Industry in the Baltic States and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-01-01

    The industries in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland struggle to adapt to European standards of energy and environment. The Norwegian Energy Efficiency Group (NEEG) is establishing a network for the food processing industries in these four countries. The goal is to make this sector more energy efficient and friendly to the environment before the countries join the EU in 2004. The four countries have defined five strategic goals for the industry: (1) Improved environment, (2) Energy efficiency, (3) Reduced consumption of natural resources, (4) Production of ''safe food'' and (5) Competitive power on the EU market and at home

  5. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  6. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  7. Tetanus in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”. In 201 number of tetanus cases recorded in Poland was 13. It amounted to six men and seven women. Among those 9 was over 59 years of age. Out of them 4 people died. All were women over 69 years of age. Tetanus is an infectious disease acquired in the environment and associated with the contamination of wounds. Infections and deaths could be prevented by vaccination. Particular risk life and health carries illness after 60 years of age.

  8. Integrated Education in Contemporary Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanel, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the most important aspects, organizational principles and achievements in the field of integrated education in Poland. The author outlines the dynamics of the development of institutions of integrated education and institutions with integrated sections between 1989 and 2010. She describes the actual state of teaching…

  9. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  10. English Language Teaching Profile: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    A profile of English language teaching in Poland is provided in outline form. The following topics are dealt with: the role of English in the country, teaching hours per week in English at each educational level, English language versus English literature, public examinations, syllabuses and textbooks, specialized English programs, adult English…

  11. Measles in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", and measles case-based reports from 2013 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations. In total, there were 84 measles cases registered in Poland in 2013 (incidence 0.22 per 100,000). The highest incidence rate was observed among infants (2.18 per 100,000) and children aged 1 year (1.27 per 100,000). In 2013, 56 cases (66.7%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 82.8% do 99.5% (primary vaccination in children born in 2012-2007) and from 73.6% to 93.2% (booster dose in children born in 2004-2001). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). Two hundred seven cases (80%) were confirmed by IgM ELISA test. In 2013, the epidemiological situation of measles deteriorated in comparison to proceding year. The sensitivity of measles surveillance improved but is still

  12. Measles in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna

    Since 1998, Poland has been actively participating in the Measles Elimination Program, coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO). It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPHNIH. In order to confirm or exclude the case of measles specific measles IgM antibodies should be measured using Elisa test, or molecular testing (PCR) should be performed to detect the presence measles virus RNA in biological material. To assess epidemiological situation of measles in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, and Measles Elimination Program implementation status. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system, measles case-based reports from 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations and data published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP Czarkowski et all., Warszawa 2015, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In total, there were 110 measles cases registered in Poland in 2014 (incidence 0.29 per 100,000), from which 87 cases (79%) were confirmed with laboratory test. That was more than in 2013 - when 84 cases were reported and incidence was 0,22. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 1 year (3,43 per 100,000). In 2014, 76 cases (69%) were hospitalized due to measles. No deaths from measles were reported. Vaccination coverage of children and youth aged 2-11 years ranged from 79.7% do 94.8% (primary vaccination in children born in 2004-2013) and from 77.7% to 85.8% (booster dose in children born in 2005-2011). In 2013, 127 measles-compatible cases were reported (67% of expected reports). In whole country the total number of suspects

  13. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of E-Commerce Development on the Warehouse Space Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembińska Izabela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of discussion in the article is the impact of e-commerce sector on the warehouse space market. On the basis of available reports, the development of e-commerce has been characterized in Poland, showing the dynamics and the type of change. The needs of e-commerce sector in the field of logistics, in particular in the area of storage, have been presented in the paper. These needs have been characterized and at the same time, how representatives of the warehouse space market are prepared to support companies in the e-commerce sector is also discussed. The considerations are illustrated by the changes that occur as a result of the development of e-commerce on the warehouse space market in Poland.

  15. Pertussis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rudowska, Jolanta

    In Poland, they are still recorded high number of cases whooping cough - five-year median for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 are similar and amount to 5.2 and 5.5 per 100 000 population. The trend of the incidence of pertussis in a high percentage of adults that was observed in years between 2009-2011 (the results of the National Research Epidemiology of Pertussis), in subsequent years, ie. 2012-2014 was halted. Still the most effective strategy to prevent illness is the vaccination according to the current vaccination calendar. The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2014, including vaccine coverage of children. Assessment of the epidemiology of pertussis in Poland was based on analysis of individual reports of suspected cases of pertussis sent to the NIPH-NIH by the regional sanitaryepidemiological stations, data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2011” and bulletin “Immunizations in Poland in 2014 “ (MP Czarkowski et al, Warsaw 2015, NIPH-NIH, GIS). In 2014, number of registered cases of whooping cough was 2 100. The incidence was 5.5 per 100,000 and it was slightly lower than in the previous year (5.5/100,000). The highest incidence (46%) occurred in children aged 15 years and older. 601 people were hospitalised (28.6% of total). In 2014, there were no deaths from whooping cough. The incidence of whooping cough observed in 2014 is comparable to the previous year and it indicates a fixed circulation of bacteria in the environment and still continuing infection vulnerability of the population.

  16. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  17. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwierzchowski Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In District Heating Systems (DHS there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3 TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  18. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  20. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellyn, W. [ed.] [Nesbit (William) and Associates, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Jennings, C. [ed.] [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  1. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  2. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  3. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam......, it emerges that efficiency differences between sector switchers and exit/entry firms exist. Distinguishing between switchers and firm entry/exit is crucial for understanding the contribution of firm turnover to overall productivity growth. Moreover, we uncover distinct and illuminating firm and sector...

  4. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  5. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  6. Research laboratories annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The 1990-1991 activities, of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's research laboratories, are presented in this report. The main fields of interest are chemistry and material sciences, life and environmental sciences, nuclear physics and technology

  7. June 1991 Pinatubo, Philippines Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southwestern part of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Prior to 1991, it had been dormant for...

  8. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  9. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  10. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Seventeen cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2003. All of them were imported: 13 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 1 from Indonesia. In 8 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 14 were men and 3 were women. The youngest patient was 10 and the oldest 63, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (6 cases), professional (4 cases) and missionary (4 cases) travel. One death from falciparum malaria was reported in Poland in 2003. In 4 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Twenty mine cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2004. All of them were imported: 22 from Africa, 2 from Asia and 3 from South America In 2 cases country of origin was unknown. In 14 cases P. falciparumn etiology was confirmed. Among the cases 20 were men and 9 were women. Age of the patients was 11 to 250 years. 6 of the patients were in the age group 11 to 20 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits and professional travel. One death from falciparumn malaria was reported in Poland in 2004. In 11 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented. In other prophylaxis was not used or not documented.

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    Twenty cases of malaria were reported in Poland in 2005. All of them were imported including 3 cases of relapse: 16 from Africa, 2 from South America, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. In 16 cases P. falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 4--P. vivax. Among the cases 14 were men and 6 were women. The youngest patient was 1 and the oldest 56, 11 of the patients were in the age group 21 to 40 years. Most commonly the reasons for travel were tourism or family visits (9 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). In 7 cases some kind of chemoprophylaxis was documented, including at least 4 for whom it was judged inappropriate. In other prophylaxis was not used (5 cases) or the information was missing. No malaria deaths were reported in Poland in 2005.

  14. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  15. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Balandynowicz, H.W. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Innovations in Tourism Policy: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek W. Kozak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness depends to a large extent on innovation. This is true about tourism also. This article focuses on the differences in innovations implemented in the field of tourism policy. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the differences in innovations in tourism policy. The key hypothesis suggests that in the countries undergoing the process of transformation, introduction of innovations is difficult and depends to a large extent on the capability to adopt the new post-industrial tourism paradigm. Poland serves here only as an exemplification of this phenomenon. An additional hypothesis suggests that public policy employs in practice more often “goal substitution” (instead of complex and demanding goals; for instance modernization or renovation instead of urban regeneration or culture or tourism, whereas the business sector is more product-oriented (in line with the new post-industrial paradigm. The article analyses public 2007-2013 strategies (and, to some extent, projects for 2014-2020, but first of all it compares the implementation of the strategy within the operational programs and in private sector activities. Finally, referring to Poland as part of the European Union, the paper proposes that new EU regulations may bring a change in non-product approach to tourism development policy.

  17. Análisis de la formación y consolidación del espacio social del área metropolitana de Madrid a través del estudio de la actuación del sector inmobiliario entre 1957 y 1970 / Analysis of the formation and development of the social space [...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tamayo Palacios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl estudio de la actuación del sector inmobiliario en el área metropolitana de Madrid desde los últimos años de la década de los cincuenta hasta finales de los sesenta, periodo donde se produjo un crecimiento del parque residencial madrileño sin precedentes que todavía hoy tiene una importante presencia en el conjunto de la edificación madrileña, y el análisis de su relación con el actual mapa de distribución de rentas, indica que la primera tuvo una influencia decisiva en la formación y consolidación del segundo, si bien esta influencia es mucho más clara en la periferia que en las áreas centrales de la ciudad.Por otro lado, se comprueba cómo, utilizando el conjunto de ingredientes formado por la valoración de los tejidos históricos, la ubicación de la vivienda social, el papel del planeamiento, el valor asociado a la centralidad, las estrategias comerciales del sector y los límites físicos, se puede construir de forma bastante fiel la imagen del espacio social del área metropolitana de Madrid que tenía el sector inmobiliario en los años sesenta. Palabras clave Cohesión social, sector inmobiliario, vivienda, MadridAbstractThe study of the real estate activity within the metropolitan area of Madrid during the late fifties up to the 60´s, outlined by an extraordinary residential growth in Madrid, indicates its decisive influence to the current income distribution map, particularly in the periphery of the city. On the other hand, the study shown how, using the ingredients set formed by the valuation of historic fabric, the location of social housing, the role of planning, the value associated with the central, the sector trading strategies and the physical limits, one can construct a fairly accurate picture of the social space of the metropolitan area of Madrid who had the real estate sector in the sixties.KeywordsSocial cohesion, real estate, housing, Madrid

  18. Poland syndrome: rare presentation in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Hayrettin; Akkas, Yucel; Doganay, Selim

    2010-08-27

    Poland syndrome was first described in 1840 by Alfred Poland while still a medical student and the other components of the syndrome were described at London Guy's Hospital following the dissection of a cadaver's hand, which had hypoplasia and syndactyly. The incidence of Poland syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 30,000 live births. In the present case report, two Poland syndrome patients with ipsilateral hypomastia and a reduction in the axillary/pectoral hairs diagnosed during adulthood are presented; one patient was affected on the left side and had widespread cafe au lait spots, and the other patient had respiratory dysfunction due to multiple rib anomalies.

  19. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  20. Energy efficiency indicators of Italy (1970-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Angelo, E.; Perrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Bianco, R.

    1996-02-01

    This report is aimed at presenting the results of the energy efficiency evolution in Italy for the 1970-1992 period Results come from the data-base developed under the SAVE/EnR project on `Cross countries comparison on energy efficiency indicators`. In order to be comparable among countries, efforts have been made to harmonize the data collection as well as the definition and the calculation of energy efficiency indicators. Selected indicators are considered in order to illustrate the potentiality of the project (around 200 different energy efficiency indicators can be calculated and presented). Emphasis is put on the interpretation of the so-called `techno-economic indicators` as well as explanatory indicators both for the economic and techno-economic approaches. Industry, transport, tertiary, residential and transformation sectors have been analyzed.

  1. Slum, Development in Yogyakarta City 1970-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Slum, a dwelling that is statutorily unfit for human habitation, is still the big problem in, especially, cities of developing countries. This article highlights the development of slums in Yogyakarta City along 1970-2000, and it’s merely focused on spatial and socio-ecological development. The aims of the study is to analyze the distribution and development process of slum dwellings. Distribution of slum area is taken from interpretation of time-series aerial photos. The change of extent and distribution of slum is analyzed using Geographic Information System. To obtain the socio-economic characteristics of slum dwellers, the survey method is chosen. The respondent are selected randomly among head of household that represent each settlement units. Quality of settlement are determined by total score of 15 selected variables. The result shows that the first category of slum was increased 74.4 hectares from year 1970 to 2000, the second category was increased 47.6 hectares, and the third was 131.1 hectares. Nevertheless, the process of slum development in Yogyakarta City includes in "continuous" type, which slowly and long period of creation. Densification and aging process is two of the main causes of slum expansion. Distribution of slum unit were driven by rivers that next to city center. According to this research, it’s found out that the slum dwellers are characterized by the new migrant who had low income and education, working in the informal sector, and renting the house.

  2. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  3. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  4. Health physics, 1991 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1992-12-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, radiation protection services are provided by HS-1, -4, and -12, and technical support is provided to Laboratory groups that work with significant quantities of fissile material by HS-6. The mission of all these groups is to protect Laboratory workers, the public, and the environment from radiation associated with Laboratory operations. In this report, 1991 radiation protection performance trends are presented. These data show that, in general, the collective external dose equivalent quantities from penetrating (gamma, x-ray, and neutron) radiation and from nonpenetrating (beta and low-energy photon) radiation decreased over most of 199 1. In general, the number of confirmed contaminations of skin and personal clothing increased in the first quarter of 1991 but decreased markedly in subsequent quarters. Finally, there were no confirmed intakes (through ingestion or inhalation) of radioactive material at eight facilities in all of 1991. The 1991 radiation protection activities of the Laboratory, conducted at both the Nevada Test Site and at Los Alamos, are presented and discussed. These activities include extemal dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation-monitoring instrumentation, sample analyses, workplace monitoring, radioactive air emissions management, nuclear criticality safety, radiological emergency response, radiological training, radiological audits and investigations, and radiological records. This report details routine activities, including any significant changes and improvements in 1991; additional activities, including special investigations, studies, and reviews; publications and presentations; and professional activities, including professional memberships, training received, and conferences attended

  5. Forty years of increasing suicide mortality in Poland: Undercounting amidst a hanging epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfer Peter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide rate trends for Poland, one of the most populous countries in Europe, are not well documented. Moreover, the quality of the official Polish suicide statistics is unknown and requires in-depth investigation. Methods Population and mortality data disaggregated by sex, age, manner, and cause were obtained from the Polish Central Statistics Office for the period 1970-2009. Suicides and deaths categorized as ‘undetermined injury intent,’ ‘unknown causes,’ and ‘unintentional poisonings’ were analyzed to estimate the reliability and sensitivity of suicide certification in Poland over three periods covered by ICD-8, ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively. Time trends were assessed by the Spearman test for trend. Results The official suicide rate increased by 51.3% in Poland between 1970 and 2009. There was an increasing excess suicide rate for males, culminating in a male-to-female ratio of 7:1. The dominant method, hanging, comprised 90% of all suicides by 2009. Factoring in deaths of undetermined intent only, estimated sensitivity of suicide certification was 77% overall, but lower for females than males. Not increasing linearly with age, the suicide rate peaked at ages 40-54 years. Conclusion The suicide rate is increasing in Poland, which calls for a national prevention initiative. Hangings are the predominant suicide method based on official registration. However, suicide among females appears grossly underestimated given their lower estimated sensitivity of suicide certification, greater use of “soft” suicide methods, and the very high 7:1 male-to-female rate ratio. Changes in the ICD classification system resulted in a temporary suicide data blackout in 1980-1982, and significant modifications of the death categories of senility and unknown causes, after 1997, suggest the need for data quality surveillance.

  6. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Ireland. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Dominick

    A study viewed the existing motor vehicle sector, structure, and trading conditions and identified and analyzed the best and most significant continuing vocational training practices in Ireland. In 1991, the motor vechicle sector accounted for 6.2 percent of the Gross National Product. Employment in the sector has decreased from an estimated…

  7. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  8. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  9. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  10. Meottomyces dissimulans (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first sites of Meottomyces dissimulans (Berk. & Broome Vizzini in Poland. About a dozen basidiomata in all stages of development were observed in poplar and alder-willow thickets. The macro- and micromorphological characters of the Polish specimens are described and illustrated, and the distribution of the species in Poland is given.

  11. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  12. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  13. The long-term development of the energy input in transportation, 1970-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiren, P.B. [E.F.C.E.E., Mechelen (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    This paper is a - modest - statistical and economic analysis of the energy input in the transportation sector over the past twenty-five years (1970 - 1995) and an attempt at looking ahead over the next twenty-five years (1995 - 2020). After World War II passenger cars and trucks became the means of transportation par excellence and are still the main vehicle for moving around, both men and freight. Energy input statistics were born. Let us see what they teach us. (EG)

  14. Scenarios for ITS telecommunications technologies development in Poland for the years 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz BARTCZAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows four scenarios for the development of ITS communications technologies in Poland for the years 2007-2013. Global Business Network methodology is used to make up the scenarios. The basic dimensions of the scenarios are (a type of sectors in the national economy (public vs. private, (b type of communications technology (wireline vs. wireless. The scenarios present possible futures.

  15. „New Economy” as a Challenge for Foreign Direct Investment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Poniatowska-Jaksch

    2013-01-01

    The internet, digital technology, information and communications technology (ICT) have created the so-called „new economy”, one that is based on entrepreneurship in knowledge creation and sharing, innovation and creativity, and utilizing information technology for developing and selling new products and services. The new economy is also characterized by changes in the competitive structure of industries. Sectors with a high potential for development, based on ICT, are at a low level in Poland...

  16. Liberalisasi di Inggris, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanafi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Under Margareth Tarcher leadership in 1970-an, Great Brittain lead a global process of transforming the role of the state in governing the econmy. The attempt to leaved the old framework of Keynesian welfare state and embarking on neoliberal terrain inevitably brought about the changing of class structure and marginalise the labour in order to gain international advantage.

  17. American Women's History during the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hugh Davis

    1988-01-01

    Surveys current literature dealing with the 1970s feminist movement, concentrating on national public policy. Remarks that little of the research is archival because the Nixon and Carter presidential papers were just recently opened. Offers predictions for the second wave of reconstruction and interpretation that will follow the opening of the…

  18. Asian Studies Survey--Spring 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Kayoko

    Of a questionnaire sent to 1700 Asian students enrolled in the 1970 spring semester at Los angeles City College, 659 (38%) responded. Returns were mostly from those of Japanese or Chinese ancestry who were categorized as (1) foreign-born, (2) native-born, and (3) those from Hawaii. A distinct language barrier between the foreign-born and…

  19. An Empirical Assessment of the Risk of Carbon Leakage in Poland - Working Paper No. 08/13,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a particularly carbon intensive economy. This has created concern that it may be particularly exposed to carbon leakage. However, there is an absence of robust and transparent empirical research on carbon leakage risks in Poland. This study aims at filling this gap by assessing the impact of EU climate policy, in particular the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, on Polish industry. With no mitigating measures, a small number of Polish industrial sectors would face significant carbon costs. However, with free allocation, banked surplus allowances and a carbon price of euros 30/ton, only one sector would face direct carbon costs in excess of 5% of operating profits. Three sectors face direct carbon costs in the order of 1-3% of operating profits; three face no direct carbon costs. With direct compensation for indirect carbon costs (electricity price increases), the two most affected sectors would face indirect costs of 3.5 to 5.5% of gross value added with a carbon price of euros 30/ ton. The vast majority of Poland's trade in energy intensive sectors occurs within the EU. It is important to maintain a harmonized climate policy to avoid internal market distortions. There is thus a negligible risk of carbon leakage in Poland under current policy. The mitigating measures in the EU Directive remove the vast majority of direct and indirect carbon costs for Polish industry. EU climate policy can be made more stringent without inducing risks of significant carbon leakage. The current benchmarking system appears to be reasonably effective at not structurally disadvantaging less carbon efficient Member States like Poland. And it is vital to maintaining a harmonized climate policy. Finding a harmonized way to address indirect carbon costs may unlock Polish support for future policy. (authors)

  20. 1990-1991 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1990-1991 activity report of LYON Nuclear Physics Institute is presented and includes the following topics: scientific and technical works in theoretical physics, high and intermediate energy nuclear physics, low and mean energy nuclear physics and multi-field physics (by means of AMPHORA multidetector, EUROGAM high performance gamma multidetector); theses, congress contributions and published papers

  1. Annual report 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Annual Report 1991-92 contains an update on the NRPB's role in international and national standards, the technical services provided by the NRPB, their work on environmental, biomedical and physical sciences, the status of NRPB publications giving advice, the NRPB's finances, its senior directing staff and finally NRPB members. (UK)

  2. 1991 LLWAS anemometer test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Performance tests of anemometers under icing and snow conditions were conducted during 1990-1991 on the test field at : Rochester, MN and in icing chambers and wind tunnels at Sterling, VA. These tests were done for the FAA LLWAS program : to test se...

  3. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2016. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016”. 6 698 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2014. The incidence rate was 17.4 cases per 100 000, withlarge variability between voivodeships from 9.3 to 26.5 per 100 000. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2010- 2014 was 2.1%. 6 066 cases had no history of previous treatment i.e. 15.8 per 100 000. 632 cases i.e. 1.6 per 100 000 – 9.4% of all registered subjects were relapses. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 2014 was 6311 i.e. 16.4 per 100 000. Pulmonary cases represented 94.2% of all TB cases. In the presented year 387 extrapulmonary TB cases were reported. Children with TB (70 cases) accounted for 1.0% of all cases notified in Poland. The incidence of tuberculosis increases with age from 1.2 per 100 000 among children to 30.4 per 100 000 among patients 65 years old and older. The incidence among men i.e. 24.6 per 100 000 was 2.3 times higher than among women i.e. 10.7 per 100 000. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 45 to 49 years – 40.4 vs. 9.3. The TB incidence in rural population was lower than in urban, respectively 17.0 per 100 000 and 17.7 per 100 000. The number of all registered culture positive TB cases, including relapses, was 4

  4. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  5. Tuberculosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2012 in Poland and to compare with the corresponding EU data. Analysis of case- based clinical and demographic data on TB patients from Central TB Register, of data submitted by laboratories on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2012, data from National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report "Tuberculosis Surveillance in Europe, 2014 (situation in 2012). 7 542 TB cases were reported in Poland in 2012. The incidence rate was 19.6 cases per 100 000, with large variability between voivodships from 10.6 to 30.2. The mean annual decrease of TB incidence in 2008-2012 was 2.4%. 6 665 cases had no history of previous treatment; 17.3 per 100 000. The number of all notified pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 7 018; 18.2 per 100 000. The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all registered cases was 6.9% (524 cases). In 2012, 36 patients had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis (0.5% of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis). TB was diagnosed in 95 children (1.3% of all cases, incidence 1.6). The incidence of tuberculosis increased progressively with age to 34.8 among patients 65 years old and older. The mean age of new TB cases was 53.1 years. The incidence among men (27.4) was more than two times higher than among women (12.2). The incidence rate in rural population was lower than in urban; 20.2 vs. 18.6. Bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary cases (4870) constituted 69,4% of all pulmonary TB cases. The number of smear positive pulmonary TB cases was 2 778 (39.6% of all pulmonary cases). In 2012 in the all group of TB patients in Poland there were 276 (3.7%) of homeless and 1 905 (25.3%) of unemployed. There were 48 foreigners registered among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (0.6%) and 243 cases

  6. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  7. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  8. Sectoral Innovation Watch Space and Aeronautics Sectors. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The space and aeronautics sectors are high-technology sectors and belong to the most innovative sectors in Europe1. Analysis of CIS4 data shows that the space and aeronautics sectors continue to be very innovative. 85% of the firms is engaged in intramural R&D. Total R&D expenditures are between 21%

  9. Trends in coal use - global, EU and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Wojciech; Wyrwa, Artur; Olkuski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    That aim of this paper is to compare trends in global, European use of coal with tendencies in Poland, one of heavy coal dependent countries. Polish power generation is unique among OECD countries, the share of both hard coal and lignite in power generation reaches 81% [1]. Climate policy of European Union is to phase out intensive greenhouse gases sectors, thus to transform Polish power generation into less carbon intensive. Although such policy is generally accepted in Poland, the paste and practically proposed regulation that excludes coal generation from capacity mechanisms, is considered as threat to energy security. Coal is the base for generation for one simple reason, abundant in European scale hard coal reserves and significant capacities in lignite. Natural gas reserves allow to supply about 1/3 of consumption, but prices and supplies dependent hitherto on contracts with GAZPROM did not allow to develop significant generation capacities. Renewable resources are limited, there is not much possibilities for hydro, wind and solar. Poland is also one of the countries of poor air quality, traditional coal based space heating systems plus obsolete car fleet generate vast emissions, especially during the winter. Only recently this became top priority of environmental authorities. This situation is subject to transformation, government, managers are aware that the role of coal needs to be decreased, but there are two main questions, the paste of transformation and the future energy mix. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the expected changes in Polish energy mix are comparable or differ from the global and European tendencies.

  10. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.; Hollen, G.Y.

    1992-06-01

    This report provides selected accounts of significant progress in research and development achieved by Physics Division personnel during the period January 1, 1991, through December 31, 1991. It also provides a general description of the goals and interests of the Division, very brief descriptions of projects in the Division, and a list of publications produced during this period. The report represents the three main areas of experimental research and development in which the Physics Division serves the needs of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the nation in defense and basic sciences: (1) fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and biophysics; (2) laser physics and applications, especially to high-density plasmas; (3) defense physics, including the development of diagnostic methods for weapons tests, weapons-related high energy-density physics, and other programs

  11. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  12. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Strategy in the Public and Private Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, John; Greve, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . These and other factors complicated efforts to apply New Public Management and similar frameworks in strategy concepts in a governmental context. Partly also the traditional private-sector focus on single organizations did not resonate with the growth of network governance from the 1990s. The authors argue......Strategic concepts and practices first evolved in the private sector, so they evoked much controversy when they migrated to the public sector from the late 1970s onwards. Partly this was about their (in)applicability to the distinctive features of government organizations, in particular their focus...... on public as well as private value, their situation in a political rather than a market environment, their almost exclusive capacity to use legal authority to achieve purposes, and the extent to which they often need to share power over personnel and resources with other public sector agencies...

  14. Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales occurs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of sporocarps and spores of Endogone lactiflua (Zygomycota, Endogonales, a fungus for the first time found in Poland, are described and illustrated. Endogone lactiflua was wet sieved and decanted from a sample taken from the zone extending from the upper soil layer to rhizosphere of Pinus sylvestris growing in a forest dune in northern Poland. The recovered spores mainly occurred in large and compact sporocarps, although both small aggregates with a few spores and single zygosporangia of this fungus were also isolated. Endogone lactiflua is the fourth species of the genus Endogone found to occur in Poland. The distribution of the fungus in the world is also presented.

  15. Sustainable forest management in Poland – theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruk Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conception of sustainable development has been implemented into practice in numerous economic sectors, including forestry. Forest ecosystems are extremely important in the global ecological system, therefore maintenance and appropriate management of forest resources according to sustainable development principles have engaged a great deal of attention. The concept of sustainable forest management (SFM encompasses three dimensions: ecological, economic and social. A powerful tool to promote SFM are criteria and indicators. The aim of the article was evaluation of SFM in Poland, using one of the methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. According to data available, Polish forestry has a number of advantages: Poland has avoided the problem of deforestation, forest area has been permanently increasing, there has been observed improvement of forest health and vitality as well as a significant share of forests has carried out protective functions with no impact on timber production. Poland’s model of SFM is an adaptive process of balancing the ever-changing set of economic, environmental and social expectations. Such a complicated undertaking requires constant assessing and adjusting forest practices, in response to new circumstances, scientific advances and societal input

  16. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  17. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  18. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  19. Argentina: Camino del desendeudamiento. 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Nemiña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza las transformaciones de la política financiera en la Argentina durante el período 1991-2011. Para ello, se estudian las principales acciones del Estado orientadas a enfrentar la problemática de la deuda pública y el financiamiento, así como las relaciones establecidas con el sector financiero y el FMI. La evolución de la política financiera argentina resalta uno de los contrapuntos más sobresalientes entre el período de la convertibilidad vigente hasta 2001 y la etapa posterior. El régimen de convertibilidad implicó el sostenimiento de una moneda nacional sobrevaluada, la cual determinó el progresivo incremento de la deuda pública y alentó el proceso de financiarización de la economía. En cambio, el régimen de la posconvertibilidad, apoyado en el mantenimiento de un tipo de cambio competitivo junto al superávit fiscal y comercial, ha contribuido a promover la actividad productiva por sobre la financiera. Esto, junto a la reestructuración de la deuda, ha permitido sostener un proceso de reducción gradual del endeudamiento público en términos relativos, liberando recursos para fomentar el mercado interno. Consecuentemente, con posterioridad a 2002 se observa una erosión de la capacidad de condicionamiento estructural sobre la dinámica del crecimiento de los acreedores, el FMI, y el sector financiero en general, en simultáneo con la obtención de mayores grados de autonomía financiera por parte del Gobierno Nacional. Finalmente, se analizan los desafíos que impone la crisis internacional a la continuación de este sendero.

  20. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de; Flores, Tarcisio Santos; Cruz, Nathalia Gracielle da Silva; Diamantino, Hugo Duarte; Barroso, Livia Alves; Rocha, Bruna Almeida; Souza, Romulo Luiz Mendes; Ramos, Pedro Camilo; Macedo, Marcio Henrique Marques

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  1. Renewable energies in France 1970-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Malaysia: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Malaysian government announced tax incentives for fiscal year 1991/92 by cutting export duties on crude oil to encourage companies to develop more oil fields. The export duty exemption on cost recovery oil was increased from the current 20% to 50% on April 1, 1991. Nearly 115,200 sq mi of shallow-water acreage off Malaysia has been awarded to PS contractors, leaving only about five blocks remaining. Therefore, Petronas plans to award deeper water blocks (water depths of 655 ft or more) in the second half of this year, once terms are finalized. It is understood that these areas will be offshore of Sarawak and Sabah, covering in excess of 38,000 sq mi. Petronas the that there would be some improvement in the PSC terms for the deep-water areas

  3. Trends in the association between height and socioeconomic indicators in France, 1970–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, Julie; Ferrie, Jane; Silventoinen, Karri; Guéguen, Alice; Stringhini, Silvia; Nabi, Hermann; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Average physical stature has increased dramatically during the 20th century in many populations across the world with few exceptions. It remains unclear if social inequalities in height persist despite improvements in living standards in the welfare economies of Western Europe. We examined trends in the association between height and socioeconomic indicators in adults over three decades in France. The data were drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys: a multistage, stratified, random survey of households, representative of the population, conducted in 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2003. We categorised age into 10-year bands, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 years. Education and income were the two socioeconomic measures used. The slope index of inequality (SII) was used as a summary index of absolute social inequalities in height. The results show that average height increased over this period; men and women aged 25–34 years were 171.9 and 161.2 cm tall in 1970 and 177.0 and 164.0 cm in 2003. However, education-related inequalities in height remained unchanged over this period and in men were 4.48 cm (1970), 4.71 cm (1980), 5.58 cm (1991) and 4.69 cm (2003), the corresponding figures in women were 2.41, 2.37, 3.14 and 2.96 cm. Income-related inequalities in height were smaller and much attenuated after adjustment for education. These results suggest that in France, social inequalities in adult height in absolute terms have remained unchanged across the three decades under examination. PMID:20400383

  4. Materials Department. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsewell, A.; Hansen, N.

    1992-03-01

    Selected activities of the Materials Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1991 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: Materials Science, Materials Engineering and Materials Technology. A survey is given of the Department's participation in international collaboration and of its activities within education and training. Furthermore, the main figures outlining the funding and expenditure of the Department are given. Lists of staff members, visiting scientists, publications, lectures and poster presentations are included. (au)

  5. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  6. DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szwacka-Mokrzycka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The private sector, dominated by small and medium enterprises (SME, has been rapidly developing in Poland. Small and medium enterprises are defined as economic entities hiring not more than 250 employees and have turnovers lower than 50 million euros per year. The functioning of small and medium enterprises supports a decrease in unemployment, contributes to introduction of innovative operations and products as well as significantly influences GDP generation. The SME sector faces many barriers limiting their development. They include mainly social, financial and law barriers. Operations of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, Academic Business Incubators and other entities support small entrepreneurship. Recently, marketing in small and medium enterprises has particularly influenced their survival. A marketing programme consists of four elements a product, price, distribution, and promotion and is described as the marketing mix. In the paper, results of research in randomly selected enterprises of the SME sector are presented. The aim of the research was to diagnose a range of marketing operations’ use in these companies. The conducted research displays that marketing activity is used mainly for promotion in the investigated enterprises and to a small extent for managing a product’s portfolio in a firm. 

  7. 1991 and 1992 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The Vivitron project, started in 1986 could allow in late 1989 a first test of the electrostatic generator at 10.7 MV. At the beginning of 1991, a maximum voltage of 17.6 MV could be reached. Unfortunately a first pollution occurring in May 1991, followed by a major accident in August 1991, resulting also in a pollution of the machine, stopped all test runs for about one year. Since April 1992 the measurements could be started again and maximum voltages between 21 and 22 MV were obtained several times. However damages of different elements occurred, mainly on the horizontal isolating boards. Installation of different types of spark gaps allowed to ensure a reliable operation for voltages between 16 and 19 MV with typically 3 sparks per day. Therefore the mounting of the acceleration tube has been decided in Jan.1993 with scheduled first beams at the end of 1993 at these voltages. This allows to cover nearly 90 pc of the first physic programs mainly linked by the use of Eurogam phase II which should be available at the VIVITRON at the beginning of 1994. Studies concerning these different problems are reviewed

  8. Generation Gap Management in Restructured Metallurgical Enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdzik Bożena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of generation gap management resulting from personnel restructuring in foundries in Poland. Structural changes to steelworks led to a sharp decline in employment caused by decreased steelworks production. New hiring was limited as a part of employment rationalisation in the steelworks sector. Such personnel policy eventually led to a generation gap. Ratios between individual age groups of employees are imbalanced at steelworks: the numbers of young personnel are low and of those aged 50+ are high. This research forecasts changes in employment levels for the 2013-2019 period, aimed at closing the generation gap. The paper consists of three parts: (1 a descriptive analysis of labor market demographics in Poland’s steel industry; (2 proposed methodology for HR management model, and (3 econometric models forecasting labor demographics in Poland’s steel industry.

  9. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.

  10. The feasibility of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions trading in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missfeldt, F. [ed.; Hauff, J.

    2000-10-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO{sub 2} emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO{sub 2} emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream

  11. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  12. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  13. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  14. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  15. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  16. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  17. "TV Guide": Images of the Status Quo, 1970-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Jean E.; Harmon, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes 521 "TV Guide" cover stories from 1970-1979, examining their power to influence television audiences. Asserts that, although viewer options increased substantially throughout the 1970s, "TV Guide" failed to keep pace with those changes. (MM)

  18. Global Estimated Net Migration Grids by Decade: 1970-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Estimated Net Migration by Decade: 1970-2000 data set provides estimates of net migration over the three decades from 1970 to 2000. Because of the lack of...

  19. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  20. Heat flow variation with depth in Poland: evidence from equilibrium temperature logs in 2.9-km-deep well Torun-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Wróblewska, M.; Szewczyk, J.; Čermák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2008), s. 307-315 ISSN 1437-3254 Grant - others:Polish Ministry of Science(PL) 4 T12B 00429 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : equilibrium deep temperature logs * heat flow variation with depth * Northwestern Poland Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2008

  1. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  2. Corruption in schools? The scale and sources of corruption perceptions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wysmułek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the scale and sources of views on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector in Poland. Through the use of public opinion surveys, I answer questions on how the corruption level in Polish educational institutions has changed over time and how it compares to other public institutions (such as the health care sector and police and to the situation in other European countries. My goal is to investigate the effect of individual-level predictors of perceiving schools as corrupt in Poland, with special attention given to structural determinants and previous bribe-giving experiences of respondents. The results reveal that in Poland relatively few respondents have experienced recent acts of giving bribes in schools or perceive educational institutions as corrupt. However, there is a structural pattern behind the sources of negative opinions. The effect of socio-economic determinants on views relating to corruption in Polish schools is strongly pronounced and trends in the opposite direction compared to the effects reported in other European countries.

  3. Race, Ethnicity and Employment, 1970-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Sandefur, Gary D.; Powers, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Published government statistics and social science research have documented employment trends for the 1960-1980 period. During the 1960s, the percentage of Black, White, and other men who worked full-year (48 or more weeks per year) increased, and the gap between Blacks and Whites, and Whites and others narrowed (Smith and Welch 1986; Sandefur and Pahari 1987). This improvement did not continue in the 1970s, however, and the percentage of Black, White and other men who worked full-year declin...

  4. Pinjarra 1970: Shame and the Country Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Ferrell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinjarra in 1970 lay on an extraordinary cusp. It lagged along a fault line between one order and another; or rather, it squatted at a precipice, over which its cherished values had already been dashed to pieces. In 1967, Aboriginal people were at last, by national referendum, declared citizens of Australia. In 1969, Alcoa began to prepare the site in the hills behind Pinjarra for the open-cut mining of the largest bauxite deposit so far discovered in the world. The past met the future, and they didn’t recognise each other.

  5. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  6. 1970ndate kultuuriruumi idealism / Sirje Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Sirje, 1949-

    2002-01-01

    Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ja Hansapanga galerii organiseeritud seminarist, mis alustas programmi "Lisandusi kunstiloole", mille eesmärk on hõlmata sõjajärgse kunsti teemasid ja probleeme. Rotermanni soolalaos oli samal ajal Jüri Okase retrospektiivnäitus. 2002. a. on Zimmerli Rutgersi ülikooli ja Jane Voorhaas Zimmerli kunstimuuseumi väljaandel N. & N. Dodge kunstikogu põhjal ilmunud raamat eesti, läti ja leedu kunstist aastatel 1945-1991 "Art of the Baltics"

  7. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments ≥ FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments

  8. Activity Report 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnegaard, E.; Aastroem, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    This report covers the activities at the Department of Automatic Control at Lund University during the period 1 July 1990 - 30 June 1991, which is the academic year 1990/91. During this period Bo Eliasson and Lars Rundqwist completed their PhD theses. This brings the total number of PhDs graduating from our department to 33. Twenty-one students completed their MSc degree at the department. One book, seventeen journal papers and 48 conference papers were published by staff members. Research has continued in established areas such as adaptive control, expert control, computer aided control engineering, robotics, and information technology

  9. Role and impact of different types of financial institutions on economic performance and stability of the real sector in selected EU member states

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Jurek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyse the impact of the financial sector on the real sector of the economy in the selected old (France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom) and new (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) EU member states. The specific objectives are: 1. Analysis of the influence of financial institutions on financing the real economy. 2. Identification of sectoral and national differences in the financial sectors and consequences of these divergences for the real sect...

  10. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    . This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring...

  11. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  12. Lyme disease in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    In Poland registration of all cases of Lyme disease is conducted by the Epidemiological Unit of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Most cases of Lyme disease occur in the North- East region of Poland; however, it is important to note that the disease is no longer solely a problem of this region of Poland. The aim of this work is to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2012 as compared to the situation in the previous years. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland was made on the basis of an analysis of individual notifications of suspected Lyme disease submitted to NIZP-NIH by the Provincial Sanitary- Epidemiological Stations; as well as data from "Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2012" bulletin, and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" bulletin (MP Czarkowski and Co, Warsaw 2013, NIPH-NIH, NCI). In 2012 there were 8 782 registered cases of Lyme disease and it is 4.3% higher than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country amounted to 23.8 per 100 000 people. The highest incidence rate was recorded in Podlaskie province - 75.5 per 100 000 people. 2 063 people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease. In 2012 incidence rate of Lyme disease was gradually dropping down. The registered number of cases was reduced by 4.1% in comparison to the previous year. There is still a fairly low percentage of cases detected with diagnostic test called Western blot method.

  13. Reconciling religious identity and reproductive practices: the Church and contraception in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Dannefer, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    After the fall of state socialism in Poland in 1989, a Catholic-nationalist government assumed power. The new political power of the Catholic Church resulted in severe restrictions on family planning (FP) services. Yet, Poland's fertility rate declined sharply, suggesting that women are controlling their fertility despite restrictions. This study examined the Church's influence on women's contraceptive decisions, and how women reconcile religious teachings with their contraceptive use. We conducted a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews, in Gdańsk, Poland with sexually active women aged 18-40. The quantitative sample included 418 respondents; the qualitative sample included 49 respondents. Despite restrictions on FP services, modern contraceptive use among our sample was 56%, up from 19% in 1991. Catholicism played a relatively small role in respondents' contraceptive decisions; though 94.2% of respondents were Catholic, 79% reported that the Church had little or no influence on reproductive decisions. Women's explanations for how they reconcile their reproductive practices with Catholicism included using elements of religion to support contraceptive use, prioritising responsibility for family and financial considerations over the Church's prohibitions, and challenging the Church's credibility in FP matters. Our findings underscore women's struggles under post-socialist reproductive policies that limit FP access. Despite religious, political, and economic obstacles, contraceptive use has increased dramatically, indicating that FP is a high priority for women in Poland. Policies should respond to women's needs. Comprehensive, state-sponsored FP and sex education are urgently needed and the state should legitimise such services.

  14. Sources of Labor Growth in Malaysian Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poo Bee Tin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing sector plays an important role in Malaysianindustrial development. High growth rates and technology expan-sion in the manufacturing sector resulted in a substantial increasein demand for labor. This process of rapid growth and changes in thedemand for labor were also accompanied by changes in laborstructure and skills. At the same time, the range of activities andproducts became more diversified and, correspondingly the compo-sition of manpower sub sectors changed significantly. This studyemployed the input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA.The analysis computed the compositional manpower change as aresult of decomposition. The result of this study indicates thatsources of labor growth in the manufacturing sector were favored bychanges in the final demand structure. Within the changes in thefinal demand structure, changes in domestic demand structure werethe dominant source of employment growth between 1978 and 1991and the overall period 1978-2000. However, from 1991 to 2000,employment change was due mainly to changes in export structure.Changes in the structure of domestic demand had a relatively strongand increasing effect on service workers, production and relatedworkers, transport equipment operators, laborers, and clerical andrelated workers during the 1978-1991 period. Changes in the exportstructure were the main factor that had an increasing effect on the employment of high skill workers and sales workers. However,during the second sub period of 1991-2000, manpower growth wasexports structure driven. Keywords: input-output; labor; manufacturing; structural decomposition analysis

  15. Annual report scientific activities 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    In 1991 the TRIUMF project welcomed the announcement by the government of Canada of its intent to join British Columbia and Canada's foreign partners in the construction of KAON. The ongoing science program of TRIUMF was beset with funding shortfalls but continued to provide world-class science. its science and technology transfer. The science covered in this report includes, a very important and difficult experiment on radiative muon capture which probes the standard model of quarks, leptons and unified forces. In the proton hall the new TISOL facility is providing important new information on nucleosynthesis in stars. In materials science studies with muons the elucidation of the properties of high-temperature superconductors remains of great interest. In 1991 the materials studied for this purpose include C 60 , colloquially termed 'bucky balls'. The TRIUMF/KAON Technology Transfer Office, funded by the provincial government, aided in the development of many new ventures. In the meantime a variety of accelerator studies prospered, some pertaining to the improvement of the existing TRIUMF cyclotron and some to TRIUMF's future. (659 refs.)

  16. Site environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassady, C.K.; Gordon, K.W.; Holland, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Environmental Protection Program conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, in calendar year 1991. This program routinely monitors radioactive and chemical materials at the Sandia site and in the surrounding area. The Environmental Protection Department of SNL, Livermore, prepared this report in accordance with the requirements of Department of Energy Orders 5484.1 and 5400.1. It documents, evaluates, and interprets effluent and environmental monitoring data. These data are used in part to determine Sandia's compliance with environmental laws and regulations. Much of the off-site monitoring data presented in this report has been collected by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which provides off-site environmental monitoring for both facilities. The Environmental Monitoring Program at SNL, Livermore, augments LLNL's program by performing on-site and perimeter monitoring, and by monitoring airborne and liquid effluents. Based on comparison to appropriate safety standards and background measurements, operations at SNL, Livermore, in 1991 posed no significant threat to the public or the environment

  17. The contribution of medical care to changing life expectancy in Germany and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Ellen; Scholz, Rembrandt; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    This paper assesses the impact of medical care on changes in mortality in east Germany and Poland before and after the political transition, with west Germany included for comparison. Building upon Rutstein's concept of unnecessary untimely deaths, we calculated the contribution of conditions considered responsive to medical care or health policy to changes in life expectancy between birth and age 75 [e(0-75)] for the periods 1980/1983-1988 and 1991/1992-1996/1997. Temporary life expectancy, between birth and age 75, has been consistently higher in west Germany, intermediate in east Germany and lowest in Poland. Although improving in all three regions between the early 1980s and the late 1990s, the pace of change differed between countries, resulting in a temporary widening of an initial east-west gap by the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the 1980s, in east Germany, 50-60% of the improvement was attributable to declining mortality from conditions responsive to medical care (west Germany: 30-40%). A net positive effect was also observed in Poland, although counterbalanced by deterioration in ischaemic heart disease mortality.In the former communist countries, improvements attributable to medical care in the 1980s were due, largely, to declining infant mortality. In the 1990s, they benefited also adults, specifically those aged 35+ in Poland and 55+ in Germany. A persisting east-west gap in temporary life expectancy in Germany was due, largely, to higher mortality from avoidable conditions in the east, with causes responsive to health policy contributing about half, and medical care 16% (men) to 24% (women) to the differential in 1997. The findings indicate that changes in the health care system related to the political transition were associated with improvements in life expectancy in east Germany and, to a lesser extent, in Poland. Also, differences in the quality of medical care as assessed by the concept of "unnecessary untimely deaths" appear to contribute to a

  18. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  19. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included

  20. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  1. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  2. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  3. Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Kruemmel, Eva; Lean, David; Poulain, Alexandre; Kinnard, Christophe; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chen, JiuBin; Hintelmann, Holger

    2015-03-15

    Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  5. Electricity rates in Canada, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Numerical data only are presented for monthly electricity costs (residential and commercial) for selected Canadian cities. Total electricity supply is broken down by province. Residential, urban and rural electricity costs, including taxation, are provided for selected Canadian cities. Calculations of electricity costs for commercial and residential sectors are tabulated by province. Historical data from 1974 are supplied

  6. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  7. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... interested in students from this region. Commercial Setting Poland Poland is a prime target from which U.S... size. The dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1...

  8. Research and development program, fiscal year 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1970 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine Program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on systems of biological significance and on living organisms; (2) assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the environmental radioactivity on flora, fauna, and man; (3) development of beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; and (4) the conduct of training and educational activities in fields related to the biological and medical aspects of radiation.

  9. Population trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Saharani Abdul; Ghani, Puzziawati Ab; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-12-01

    The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia.

  10. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  11. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  12. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  13. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Annual report 1991-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted on November 15, 1983 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions. The mission of the Board is to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health, safety and the environment. The annual report of AERB for the year 1991-1992 contains a brief review of the safety aspects of Indian nuclear power plants, and other nuclear facilities, safety standards and guidelines being adopted in these installations, and the development and implementation of regulatory procedures and a comprehensive statement about the other activities of the Board. It also gives a list of training courses and seminars organised and research programmes being undertaken along with the public information campaigns. The report also contains annexures in which details about the constitution of the AERB and its various committees are given. (M.K.V.)

  15. Oman: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for the sixth consecutive year, Oman should retain its title as the biggest driller in the Middle East in 1991. An accelerated program in 1990 pushed production to an all-time record 700,000 bpd late in the year. Although not a member of Opec, Oman has cooperated with the group in restraining output as needed to support oil prices. Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), a partnership of the government (60%), Royal Dutch Shell (34%), Total (4%) and Partex (2%), remains by far the biggest producer. This year, PDO will begin work on its $500-million effort to boost production from its Lekhwair field from a current 24,000 bpd to 110,000 bpd by 1994. Last year, PDO also drilled 15 horizontal wells, most of which were successful in increasing per well production compared to conventional vertical holes. The horizontal program has been continued this year with two rings

  16. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is evaluation of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2012. Assessment of epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was based on results from analysis of the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012", "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012", reports from individual cases and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks linked to hepatitis A, sent by Epidemiological Departments in Sanitary Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-NIH. In Poland, 71 cases of hepatitis A were registered in 2012. The incidence of 0.17/ per 100 000 inhabitants was slightly higher than previous year. The incidence of hepatitis A ranged from 0.08/100 000 in Łódzkie and Podlaskie to 0.35/100 000 in Śląskie. The incidence of hepatitis A in men and women was at an approximate level and amounted to 0.19 and 0.18/100 000 respectively. The peak of incidence was recorded during the summer and autumn-winter months. In 2012 imported cases constituted 52.1% of all cases of hepatitis A. There were five outbreaks involving of 11 registered cases in 2012. In 2012, there was a slight increase in the incidence of hepatitis A in compared with the previous year. However, apart from that there were no significant changes in the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A. In Poland there is still very low endemicity for hepatitis A. Decreased incidence and the small number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A facilitates the accumulation of a fairly numerous population of persons susceptible to infection which is connected with the possibility to increase the number of cases of hepatitis A. Despite the fact that the current epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland is good, the disease still requires monitoring and analysis within the framework of epidemiological surveillance system.

  17. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of the results of the analysis of data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013", the information from individual diseases forms and epidemiological investigations forms for hepatitis A outbreaks, sent by sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology of NIZP-PZH. In 2013, 48 cases of hepatitis A were registered in Poland. The incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 0.12, and in particular provinces it ranged from 0.05 in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province to 0.26 in the Wielkopolska province. The incidence of hepatitis A for men and women was at a similar level and amounted to 0.13 and 0.12/100,000. In 2013 imported cases accounted for 45.8% of the total number of hepatitis A cases. There were three outbreaks, where the total of 13 people fell ill. 2013 saw a slight decrease in the number of cases compared to the previous year. Besides, there were no significant changes in the hepatitis A epidemiological situation. In Poland, there is still very low endemicity. Since several years, there has been a decline in the number of people vaccinated against hepatitis A. All of this affects the accumulation of a fairly large population of people susceptible to the infection, which may increase incidence. Although the current hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Poland is good, it still requires monitoring, analysis and constant observation within the structured epidemiological surveillance.

  18. Art as an investment in Poland - the first 20 years after the collapse of the central planning economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Potocki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at answering the following research question: is the Polish art market mature enough to look at art investment as an important element of portfolio diversification? To provide an answer, the Authors analyzed auctions in Poland from the period 1991-2010, which were published by Art&Business magazine. The number of the analyzed records amounted to 28951. The conclusions may be valuable for researchers specializing in art economics, investors dealing with wealth transfer, financial advisors offering financial products as well as for policy makers responsible for providing institutional infrastructure essential for development of the Polish art market.

  19. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  20. Tricholoma ustaloides (Agaricales, Basidiomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. in Poland is presented, based on literature data and the results of mycological investigations in oak-hornbeam forest associations in the Kotlina Raciborska basin. The paper reports the morphology of the discovered basidiomata, the habitat where they were found, and ITS sequence data for the specimens, and briefly discusses similar species and the ecology of the presented fungus. The location given in the paper is currently the only known station of T. ustaloides in Poland. The importance of secondary habitats for survival of this taxon is stressed.

  1. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  2. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  3. Straight into the Eyes - Jacek Łumiński and the Silesian Dance Theatre (1991-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Iwańska

    2012-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century was the turning-point for the development of Polish contemporary dance. In 1991 Jacek Łumiński established the Silesian Dance Theatre in Bytom. The theatre is said to be in the avant-garde of all activities related to contemporary dance development in Poland. It was J. Łumiński and his theatre who pioneered new trends in contemporary dance at the beginning of the nineties of the 20th century, at the same time they have conducted educational activity over t...

  4. Supply chain and innovation activity in transport related enterprises in Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background: One of the development strategies uses R&D activity as the main source of innovation, which is often carried out in cooperation with other units, but in particular in the supply chain, and therefore applies to cooperation between enterprises and their customers and suppliers. The aim of the study was to identify the variable determinants of the impact of the character of relationships among enterprises and their suppliers and customers on their innovative performance, within regional industrial systems and to define the constraints for a model regional structure of innovation network tailored to the needs of Poland and its regions. Methods: 167 enterprises belonging to the transport sector and operating in the area of Eastern Poland took part. In order to determine the impact of relationships with suppliers and customers on innovation activity, models based on probability analysis - probit models - were used. Results: It can be clearly stated that the cooperation of industrial enterprises in the transport sector with customers and suppliers activates innovation activity and its specified attributes. However, the probability varies depending on the test variable adopted. Conclusions: The cooperation with suppliers and customers is the cognitive aspect in the development of innovation activity in industrial enterprises representing the transport-related sector. Such cooperation has a stimulating effect on expenditures on innovation activity and on the implementation of innovative solutions in the field of technological innovation (products and processes.  

  5. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. I. The genus Parmotrema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jabłońska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on four Parmotrema species in Poland, P. arnoldii, P. crinitum, P. perlatum and P. stuppeum. They are mainly known from southern part of the country, mostly in the Carpathians. P. perlatum is reported also from Northern Poland and Central Poland. For P. stuppeum, so far known from single locality only, three new sites are reported. All the species seem to be rare and endangered in Poland. This work is the first part of a larger series which will present data on selected genera of the lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland.

  6. Purex process operation and performance, 1970 Thoria Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.R.; Walser, R.L. (eds.)

    1977-03-01

    The Hanford Purex Plant fulfilled a 1970 commitment to the Atomic Energy Commission to produce 360 kilograms of high purity /sup 233/U as uranyl nitrate solution. Overall plant performance during both 1970 and 1966 confirmed the suitability of Purex for processing thorium on a campaign basis. The 1970 processing campaign, including flushing operations, is discussed with particular emphasis on problem areas. Background information on the process and equipment used is also presented. The organizations and their designations described are those existing in 1970.

  7. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  8. Renewable energies in France 1970-2002; Energies renouvelables en France 1970-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030; Sobre a situacao energetica brasileira: de 1970 a 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de; Flores, Tarcisio Santos; Cruz, Nathalia Gracielle da Silva; Diamantino, Hugo Duarte; Barroso, Livia Alves; Rocha, Bruna Almeida; Souza, Romulo Luiz Mendes; Ramos, Pedro Camilo; Macedo, Marcio Henrique Marques [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  10. Reshaping of Elites and the Privatization of Security: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Los

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the example of Poland, this article examines the central role of secret services in the regime transformation and new elites’ formation. It traces strategic processes of dispersal and privatization of the communist security apparatus and analyzes the strategic value of the new private security sector. Its multifaceted linkages as well as its involvement in crime, marketing of fear, tying surveillance with prestige and amassing potentially useful information are examined. This sector’s vital role in shaping new definitions of (disorder and providing new risk management strategies is discussed within a changing, global context.

  11. Model of the electric energy market in Poland. Assumptions, structure and operation principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    Present state of works on model of electric energy market in Poland with special consideration of bulk energy market is presented. The designed model based on progressive, evolutionary changes is so elastic, that when keeping general structure and fundamentals the particular solutions can be verified or corrected. The changes in the electric energy market are considered as an integral part of existing restructuring process of Polish electric energy sector. The rate of those changes and the mode of their introduction influence on introduction speed of the new solutions. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  12. [The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, W

    2011-12-01

    The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Parents' Perceptions of Integrated Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragiel, Józefa

    2016-01-01

    Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…

  14. Misuse of OTC drugs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Koligat, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Wieczorek, Marta; Józiak, Malwina; Ratajczak, Monika; Szydłowska, Kinga; Miazek, Joanna; Kus, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-08-01

    The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region. Questionnaire consisting of 11 closed questions was distributed by direct contact and via the Internet. From over 2500 distributed questionnaires, we received 761 sheets and 680 were included. The misuse of OTC drugs is increasing in Poland from pharmacists point of view. The most popular substance was PSD followed by COD and DXM. The main reason of misuse of these drugs could be related to the use of Internet and free access to these medications. In respondents (58.2%) opinion OTC drugs containing analyzed substances should be moved into the prescription status. The misuse of OTC drugs should be considered as a very dangerous phenomenon. Although the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in Poland in 2015, there are some facets requiring improvement. Social education may play a key role in the limitation of misuse of OTC drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign…

  16. Poland's syndrome associated with chronic granulocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R; Afonso, E; Benedito, M; Maricato, L

    1991-10-01

    Poland's syndrome has been sporadically associated with haematological neoplasms, namely acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The authors present the case of a child in whom this syndrome coexists with a Philadelphia negative, chronic granulocytic leukaemia, which has only required one course of treatment with busulphan in two and a half years of follow-up.

  17. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  18. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  19. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  20. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  1. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  2. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  3. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the

  4. Popular Toys in Poland: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Teresa

    1984-01-01

    Describes the toys made by rural craftsmen in Poland. These toys, some of the liveliest manifestations of folk art, are appreciated by rural society. Efforts are now being made to familiarize urban children with this type of toy, both through a museum and through folk toy corners in nursery schools. (Author/CB)

  5. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  6. SEED INDUSTRY IN POLAND AND ITS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the seed industry in Poland and assessment of changes in supply, demand and prices on the market of classified seed of cereals in Poland. The discussion relates to the main groups of participants making up the breeding and seed industry, i.e. the breeding, seed, as well as breeding and seed entities. The characteristics of entities from the breeding and seed industry’s environment has also been presented. The article presents the analyses of the cereal seed market in Poland between the years 2008-2012, including the changes in supply, demand and market prices. The analyses indicated an increase in sales of the certified seeds in Poland by 25.3%. Winter wheat was the dominant seed in terms of trade structure throughout the entire period. The increase in sales of classified seeds in the cereal segment took place in conditions of significant seed prices’ increase in the studied period.

  7. Hepatitis C in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parda, Natalia; Henszel, Lukasz; Stępień, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, an estimated 2 000 HCV infections are reported annually, of which chronic stage of infections predominates (>95%). It is estimated that seroprevalence of anti-HCV and prevalence of active infections in the general population amount to ca 0.95% (more than 320 000 persons) and 0.6% (230 000 persons), respectively. The alarming finding is that approximately 90% of persons diagnosed with HCV infection are unaware of the condition and consequently hepatitis C virus may be transmitted to their contacts. The objective of the present article is to determine the epidemiology of HCV infections in Poland in 2012 comparing to the preceding years. The assessment of epidemiological situation of HCV infections in Poland was based on the analysis of aggregated data from the State Sanitary Inspection, published in "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). The data on mortality due to hepatitis C, which was obtained from the Demographic Surveys and Labour Market Department of Central Statistical Office, were also employed. In 2012, Poland reported 2 292 HCV infections, meeting 2005 definition (incidence 5.95), of which 1.4% were co-infections with HCV and HBV (33 cases). Compared to the data of 2011, the incidence was slightly lower (2 338; 6.07). Given 2009 definition, a total of 2 265 cases were reported (5.88), which constituted an increase of 3.5% compared to the data from the previous year (2 241; 5.82). Overall, 217 fatal cases due to hepatitis C were reported in 2012, of whom only 9 (4%) were due to acute stage of infection. Compared to the data from 2011, the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C in Poland has not changed significantly. The alarming fact is the increasing number of deaths due to hepatitis C. Probably, it suggests delayed diagnosis of HCV infections. Thus, it is a necessity to promote early diagnosis of HCV infections which can

  8. Estudio comparado: descripción y análisis de los principales acuerdos comerciales de Colombia y México frente a su política comercial agrícola para incrementar y diversificar las exportaciones del sector entre los años 1991 y 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Morales, Daisy Alexandra; Vargas, William

    2016-01-01

    La dinámica del comercio internacional, permite que los países adopten políticas comerciales agrícolas y busquen lograr preferencias arancelarias para su oferta exportable e ingresar a los mercados internacionales con la menor cantidad de barreras posibles. Para el caso del sector agrícola las negociaciones comerciales son un instrumento necesario que permite que los países firmen acuerdos y disminuyan los obstáculos comerciales que impiden el acceso a los mercados de manera equitativa en un ...

  9. Contraceptive practice in China: 1970-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuntong

    2015-03-01

    Using large-scale data from the national conventional statistics and nationally representative sample surveys, the current study aims to assess the level, mode, and determinants of modern contraceptive use from 1970 to 2004 among married couples aged 20 to 49 years in China. A relatively stable Chinese mode of contraception has been established and maintained since the 1980s, characterized by prominent, long-acting contraceptive use and the highest overall prevalence in the world during the past 3 decades. In recent years, the composition of contraceptive use has changed, characterized by the increasing use of the intrauterine device and short-acting methods and a drastic decrease in male and female sterilization. However, the dominance of the long-acting methods has not undergone substantial change. The results from a multinomial logit model employed in this study indicate that family planning policy and socioeconomic and demographic factors jointly influence contraceptive choice. In particular, contraceptive choice is closely associated with the strength of family planning policy in China. © 2011 APJPH.

  10. Disparidades regionales en el sector manufacturero mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Berenice Trejo Nieto

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo examina los cambios a nivel espacial del sector manufacturero mexicano. Las transformaciones ocurridas después de la liberalización comercial y el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (tlcan) son particularmente considerados. Empleamos información del Producto Interno Bruto (pib) manufacturero (1970-2004) en el ámbito estatal en una revisión de participaciones y densidades estatales. Los datos revelan la existencia de un proceso de dispersión del pib manufacturero tota...

  11. Peru: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on strong measures that are being taken to resuscitate Peru's hydrocarbon sector. The first step last August was the cutting of fuel subsidies in half. Then the administration issued tax vouchers to state utilities for the money they still owed national oil company Petroperu. A precursor to what are expected to be widespread changes to the existing petroleum legislation occurred last fall. As part of a package of fiscal reforms, the official base rate that the government paid Occidental Petroleum to produce crude for Petroperu was dropped. A new, free market rate was adopted, which was six times the old base rate

  12. NASA SBIR product catalog, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog is a partial list of products of NASA SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) projects that have advanced to some degree into Phase 3. While most of the products evolved from work conducted during SBIR Phase 1 and 2, a few advanced to commercial status solely from Phase 1 activities. The catalog presents information provided to NASA by SBIR contractors who wished to have their products exhibited at Technology 2001, a NASA-sponsored technology transfer conference held in San Jose, California, on December 4, 5, and 6, 1991. The catalog presents the product information in the following technology areas: computer and communication systems; information processing and AI; robotics and automation; signal and image processing; microelectronics; electronic devices and equipment; microwave electronic devices; optical devices and lasers; advanced materials; materials processing; materials testing and NDE; materials instrumentation; aerodynamics and aircraft; fluid mechanics and measurement; heat transfer devices; refrigeration and cryogenics; energy conversion devices; oceanographic instruments; atmosphere monitoring devices; water management; life science instruments; and spacecraft electromechanical systems.

  13. Annual report, 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990/91 fiscal year the government of Canada announced that it would maintain the CANDU nuclear option, increase R and D funding for AECL Research, and authorize the start of negotiations to build a prototype CANDU 3 reactor. Later in the year AECL signed contracts with the Korea Electric Power Corporation to supply a second CANDU reactor for the Wolsung site. Consolidated net income was $7.8 million, after a $10.2 million loss in 1990. Revenue from nuclear power operations increased 11 percent to $187 million, with a 23 percent increase in the contribution from nuclear supply and services. Research and development expenditures rose to $293 million in 1991 from $259 million in 1990. The increase was mainly in cost-shared work on waste management, safety, health and environmental programs. Cost recovery revenue, principally from Ontario Hydro, increased to $87 million, reducing the federal government's share to 53 percent compared to 87 percent in 1985. Federal funding of R and D has been maintained at the 1990 level. The net expense of R and D operations was reduced to $11.0 million compared to $22.6 million in the previous year. Cash flow from all sources amounted to $47.9 million, leaving AECL with adequate working capital for the next year. In the future higher capital investment than previously anticipated will be required for waste management facilities associated with commercial isotope production. All figures are given in Canadian dollars

  14. Annual report 1991. Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre - Ispra Site - of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1991 - i.e. the last of the four year (1988-91) Specific Research Programme of the Joint Research Centre - in the projects tackled by the Institute. The activities were mainly focused on the areas of environmental chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and food and drug analysis, included in the programme Environmental Protection, and of safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation as a part of the Radioactive Waste Management programme. The scientific support provided to different Commission Services is also described, proper emphasis being given to that provided to the Directorate General Xl (Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection) in the field of chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM). The above activities are aimed at the implementation of EC directives in the related fields. The work for third parties and the contribution of the Institute to various EUREKA and COST projects are also shortly described. Lastly the report provides essential data concerning the Institute structure and the human and financial resources

  15. Annual Report 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report outlines the Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS) activities for the period 1 July 1990 to 30 June 1991. Relations between the OSS, the Northern Territory authorities and the mining company have improved over the past year though there has been non-agreement over some technical issues such as the need for, and the effectiveness of, a seepage surveillance system, and the requirement for collection of seepage from the Ranger tailings dam. OSS still has misgivings about the lack of precision in wording in places in the Ranger Authorization and in approvals issued to the companies. Issues connected with the protection of people and the environment from uranium mining in the Region can be complex, and their proper examination can require access to extensive data and detailed information. It is reported that the mining companies have built up, over the years, strong environment programs and a large body of data. Regulatory action has ensured that the both Nabarlek and Ranger, water Management and control systems have been operated to restrict the quantities of contaminants dispersed to the environment. To date, the contaminants released have been at levels which could be assimilated without causing undesirable effects to the wider environment. The future environmental challenges will be to restore the Nabarlek mine site to an acceptable condition and to ensure that contaminant dispersal does not continue to increase at Ranger. 15 tabs., 21 figs

  16. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  17. Comparative studies of energy supply options in Poland for 1997-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    Poland depends heavily on coal to satisfy national demands for electricity. Currently, over 90% of electricity generation is produced by coal fired power plants. Because of the large dependence on coal and environmental impacts of large-scale coal combustion the country looks for a more diversified energy mix. As ways of diversification, Poland is considering the expanded role of natural gas and, potentially, nuclear power in the future energy mix. This publication describes the analysis of several diversification options for the Polish energy sector conducted by a national team in the framework of an IAEA Technical Cooperation project implemented in 1999-2000. The project provided a set of proven IAEA methodologies and tools that was utilized for a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the options including their economic competitiveness and environmental impacts. The publication is intended primarily for senior experts and technical staff in governmental organizations, research institutes, industries and utilities, who are in charge of technical analysis or decision making related to long term energy and power supply options. The report was prepared in 2001 by the staff of the Energy Market Agency (EMA, Warsaw, Poland) that was the leading Polish organization in carrying out the study

  18. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  19. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  20. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  1. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 562, June 1991. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for May, April 1991, and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1991-06-01

    The contents include: Detailed index for 1990-1991; Data for May 1991--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (advance and worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for April 1991--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Solar radio emission March-April 1991, Geomagnetic indices February-March 1991, Solar active regions errata March 1991

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of the Financial and Operating Performance of Fertilizers and Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sectors of Indian Public Sector Enterprises After Disinvestment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. GAGAN SINGH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1991 the Government of India is following a policy of economic liberalisation and concept of disinvestment has been more or less accepted by at least all the parties whenever they are Government Disinvestment involves the sale of equity and bond capital invested by the government in PSUs. The failure of the public sector to fulfill the role assigned to it resulted in the protest become louder and more articulate. The main focus of the present paper is to examine the impact of disinvestment on the financial and operating performance of fertilizers and chemical & pharmaceutical sectors of Indian Public sector enterprises. April 2009 onwards, there are fourteen enterprises in which government has undertaken disinvestment recently. After partial disinvestment of both fertilizers and chemical & pharmaceutical sectors of Indian Public sector enterprises, their dependence on the outsiders’ funds has been increased+

  4. Proceedings of the 1991 Oil Heat Technology Conference and Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This Conference, which was the sixth held since 1984, is a key technology-transfer activity supported by the ongoing Combustion Equipment Technology program at BNL, and is aimed at providing a forum for the exchange of information among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The objectives of the Conference were to: Identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art and recommend; new initiatives to satisfy consumer needs cost-effectively, reliably, and safely; Foster cooperation among federal and industrial representatives with the common goal of national security via energy conservation. The 1991 Oil Technology Conference comprised: (a) two plenary sessions devoted to presentations and summations by public and private sector representatives from the United States, Europe, and Canada; and, (b) four workshops which focused on mainstream issues in oil-heating technology. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  6. Evaluation of the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Mariusz; Tyrała, Kinga; Kolarczyk-Haczyk, Aleksandra; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious illness affecting health, family and professional life of many people of all sectors of society. It also concerns students, regardless of their geographical location. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a proper tool to brief check of the level of depression because it has high correlation with depression. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany. Students from different countries were asked to fill in an electronic form containing the BDI. The form was created separately for each country, using official translation of the BDI, approved by the competent psychiatric association. Google Drive software was used for the electronic form, and Stat soft Statistica v10 software for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in terms of average score of the BDI and of the proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical and technology students among kinds of studies and countries. The average score of the BDI of medical students: Poland: 13.76±9.99 points; Germany: 8.49±7.64 points; Portugal: 7.37±7.67 points. The average score of the BDI of technology students: Poland: 12.42±9.66 points; Germany: 10.51±8.49 points; Portugal: 9.25±8.97 points. The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical students: Poland 56.32% (285/506) Germany 34.92% (154/441) Portugal 26.03% (82/315). The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of technology students: Poland 55.01% (368/669) Germany 43.82% (156/356) Portugal 37.57% (136/362). The highest depression score among medical and technology students according the BDI was found in Poland. A proper monitoring of depression is required, as well as rapid and appropriate help for those who suffer from it.

  7. filosofia e psicologia entre 1970 e 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Morais Shimizu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un estudio bibliográfico referente al tema “ética y prejuicio” en el ambiente de la educación escolar en periódicos nacionales de las áreas de Educación, Psicología y Filosofía a partir de la década de 1970 hasta el año 2003. En total fueron catalogados y analizados 570 textos. Constatamos que, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, hubo una preocupación, por parte de los pesquisadores, con cuestiones éticas y la problemática de la diversidad y sus relaciones con la educación escolar. Notamos también, que algunas revistas científicas se destacaron por presentar un mayor número de producciones científicas, publicadas con el tema y en el período que comprende este estudio. Además de esto, la mayoría de los trabajos realizaron estudios teóricos y pesquisas bibliográficas en detrimento a las pesquisas empíricas. Fue elaborado un índice de los textos pesquisados que, junto con el material colectado, funcionará como banco de datos para pesquisadores, unidos a diversas áreas del conocimiento, que posean interés en estudiar el tema “ética y prejuicio” y sus diversos subtemas.

  8. Canadian heavy water production - 1970 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    In the last decade, heavy water production in Canada has progressed from the commissioning of a single unit plant in Nova Scotia to a major production industry employing 2200 persons and operating three plants with an aggregate annual production capability in excess of 1800 Mg. The decade opened with an impending crisis in the supply of heavy water due to failure of the first Glace Bay Heavy Water Plant and difficulty in commissioning the second Canadian plant at Port Hawkesbury. Lessons learned at this latter plant were applied to the Bruce plant where the first two units were under construction. When the Bruce units were commissioned in 1973 the rate of approach to design production rates was much improved, renewing confidence in Canada's ability to succeed in large scale heavy water production. In the early 1970's a decision was made to rehabilitate the Glace Bay plant using a novel flowsheet and this rebuilt plant commenced production in 1976. The middle of the decade was marked by two main events: changes in ownership of the operating plants and initiation of a massive construction program to support the forecast of a rapidly expanding CANDU power station construction program. New production units embodying the best features of their predecessors were committed at Bruce by Ontario Hydro and at La Prade, Quebec, by AECL. The high growth rate in electrical demand did not continue and some new plant construction was curtailed. The present installed production capacity will now probably be adequate to meet anticipated demand for the next decade. Canadian plants have now produced more than 7800 Mg of heavy water at a commercially acceptable cost and with a high degree of safety and compliance with appropriate environmental regulations

  9. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  10. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  11. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  12. Technological Progress, Structural Change and Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Sector of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Lakhwinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of technology, structural change on the aggregate productivity growth in manufacturing sector of South Korea, using the eight firm size classes over the period 1970-2000. The conventional shift-share analysis is used to measure the impact of shift of both labor and capital inputs. The results show that structural change on average has been conducive to productivity growth during the 1970s and this pattern reversed afterwards. Small and medium industries were m...

  13. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  14. Territorial variation in mortality from causes amenable to medical care in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Wiktoria

    2017-09-21

    This study examines the geographical variation of amenable mortality in Poland, focusing primarily on the role of health care resources at the level of administrative districts and regions, and selected area socioeconomic characteristics as explanatory factors. The concept was used of amenable mortality, based on the assumption that deaths from certain causes should not occur in the presence of timely and effective health care. Standardized death rates (SDR) from causes considered amenable to health care and, separately, for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), were calculated for each of 379 districts (NUTS 4 level) in Poland in 1991-1995 and 2006-2010, using unit mortality data from the National Causes of Death Register. The analytical procedure involved spatial analysis of the distribution of amenable mortality rates, selection of explanatory variables and fitting multilevel regression models using area-level and regional-level characteristics. The results indicate that mortality from conditions which have become amenable to medical intervention has generally decreased in all districts of Poland in the past two decades. Considerable territorial variation in mortality can be observed. Since the 1990s, these differences have been reduced for IHD-related mortality and have increased for amenable mortality. The presented analysis only partly confirms the correlation between variables reflecting the infrastructure of health care resources and the territorial variation in mortality from these two categories of causes of death. Significant correlations with variation in mortality are revealed for the number of primary care physicians (at district level) and the number of specialist practitioners (at regional level). However, after controlling for socioeconomic variables, such as education and low income, the effect of the health care infrastructure-related variables was considerably reduced. The multi-level models also revealed a substantial variation at the regional level

  15. Ecuador: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there has been considerable turbulence in Ecuador's E and P sector over the last year. For instance, Energy Minister Diego Tramariz was replaced by the country's Congress after he raised subsidized fuel prices. Ecuadoran and U.S. environmentalists, meanwhile, raised a firestorm of controversy over the on-again, off- again development of Conoco's Block 16 in Yasuni National Park. Finally, Unocal and PetroCanada this spring terminated their respective drilling operations after fruitless multiwell efforts. New Energy Minister Donald Castillo certainly has his work cut out in attempting to maintain stability in upstream activity. To that end, Castillo has stated that one of his top priorities will be to maintain a good working relationship with foreign operators. He also expected a seventh round of exploratory blocks to be offered before summer's end to shore up activity. Castillo reiterated in public statements that he stands by the administration's existing energy policies, including development of Block 16

  16. OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar

  17. Syncrude Canada Ltd. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. is the world's largest producer of synthetic crude oil from oil sands. It supplies 11% of Canada's crude oil requirements. Production in 1991 reached 9.6 million m 3 of synthetic crude oil shipped at unit operating costs of $16.48/bbl. Operating cash flow before capital expenditures, financing costs, and taxes was $393 million. Capital expenditures in 1991 were $157 million, mainly for completion of the southwest sand storage project, enhancement of the auxiliary production system in Syncrude's open pit mine, and installation of a new computerized process control system for bitumen extraction. Occupational safety performance improved over 1990. Emissions controls were improved during 1991 by improving seals on CO boiler diverter stacks and reliability efforts which improved service factors in the processing plant. A total of 143 hectares of land were reclaimed in 1991, compared to 40 hectares in 1990. Productivity in 1991 reached 13,600 bbl per employee. Total mine production reached 124.4 million tonnes and bitumen recovery in the extraction plant was 91%. Research projects conducted in 1991 included investigation of options for replacement of the east and west mining areas, a review of steam assisted gravity drainage for possible application at Syncrude, and the viability of hydrotransport of mined oil sand. 15 figs., 10 tabs

  18. VIOLÊNCIA NA INFÂNCIA: Londrina (1930 - 1970VIOLENCE IN CHILDHOOD: Londrina (1930 - 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Oliveira Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo intenciona, a partir de processos criminais  relacionados à violência sexual, verificar as concepções de inocência e  infância presentes nos autos que envolviam violência com crianças entre as  décadas de 1930 e 1970. Busca, também, analisar a influência das concepções  morais locais junto ao Poder Judiciário na época de formação e consolidação da  cidade de Londrina. Palavras–Chave: Londrina. Infância.  Violência. Justiça.       Abstract:   Based on  criminal processes regarding child sexual abuse from the early 1940s to the  late 1970s,  this article intents to  analyze both the conception of innocence and childhood held at that time, and  the influence of such on the local judiciary. Keywords: Londrina. Childwood. Violence. Justice.

  19. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  20. Europeanisation and Implementation in Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johannsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with the implementation capacity of public administration in four Central European countries: Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. The author’s point of departure is that implementation diffi culties vary between sectors, i.e., that the process of transition and Europeanization on the one hand has a homogenizing eff ect between the countries, while on the other it generates a high level of variance across sectors, refl ecting the tasks assigned to each type of administration. An empirical test of this hypothesis is attempted: implementation diffi culties are treated as the dependent variable and distinction is made between the administrations that have production functions and the ones that have regulatory tasks. The discussion is supplemented with an analysis of the general patterns of experienced implementation diffi culties.

  1. Problems persist for French refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively

  2. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  3. Development of laser technology in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents chosen development threads of laser technology and associated branches of optoelectronics in this country. An occasion to summarize the work and show their current status is the 50 th anniversary of construction of the first laser. The first laser in Poland was launched successfully in 1969, almost simultaneously at WAT and PW. Domestic achievements in this area are summarized every three years by Symposium on Laser Technology held traditionally in Swinoujscie. The work carried on in Poland concerns technology of laser materials, construction of new lasers and associated equipment as well as laser applications. Many technical teams participate in laser oriented European structural and framework projects. Ths is an invited paper to present participation of Polish teams in such European projects as EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research, FLASH - Free ELctron Laser in DESY Hamburg, E-XFEL - European X-Ray FEL, ELI - Extreme Light Infrastructure, and HIPER.

  4. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  5. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  6. The condition of the poultry industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozioł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Poland is characterized by high dynamics of development and in this regard was placed at the forefront of European Union countries. The main reason for the acceleration and modernization of the industry was the Polish accession to the European Union. Sanitary and veterinary requirements, and rules on the placing of poultry products in the trade, which our country was obliged to fulfill, led to the sector producing products with a high level of security. Rapidly growing domestic demand and foreign markets for Polish products affectes the growth of poultry production. Consumers are attracted primarily by the high quality products and reasonable price, as well as the relatively low cost of production. The industry has become an example of what can grow even in a crisis. As a result of changes occurring in the Polish market, meat and aspecially poultry meat is becoming increasingly important, becoming an essential part of the economy. Forecasts for the poultry industry in 2014 are positive, sae to an anticipated decline in grain prices and a limited supply of pork and beef. This will increase the global and the European Union demand for white meat, due to its nutritional properties and competitive prices.

  7. Diversity of agrocoenoses in the Lublin region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Staniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lublin region, one of the main agricultural regions in Poland, has very favorable conditions for agricultural production but the development of the agricultural sector has been very slow there. This is due, among other factors, to the extensive farming used on large areas and the fragmentation of fields with numerous fragments of natural ecosystems. In Lublin Province, cereals comprise the highest proportion of the crop structure, especially wheat, but farmers also often cultivate maize, oilseed rape, sugar beet, and legumes for consumption. The biological diversity of agricultural areas is enhanced by growing traditional plant species and varieties. Crop species are accompanied by segetal weeds, sometimes very expansive, sometimes rare and endangered by extinction. In recent years, the following have been the dominant weed species in the region’s crop fields: Galium aparine, Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, and Veronica persica. However, there are several locations of occurrence of Muscari comosum (a strictly protected species and the following unique species: Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Caucalis platycarpos, Galium tricornutum, and Thymelaea passerina. In Lublin Province, there are many organic farms which contribute to the significant diversity of agricultural plant communities. In this review, we also indicate the biocoenotic role of weeds and their importance in the proper maintenance of agroecosystems and ecosystem services.

  8. Importance of hard coal in electricity generation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Franciszek; Strozik, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Polish energy sector is facing a number of challenges, in particular as regards the reconstruction of production potential, diversification of energy sources, environmental issues, adequate fuels supplies and other. Mandatory implementation of Europe 2020 strategy in terms of “3x20” targets (20% reduction of greenhouse gases, 20% of energy from renewable sources, and 20% increase of efficiency in energy production) requires fast decision, which have to be coordinated with energetic safety issues, increasing demands for electric energy, and other factors. In Poland almost 80% of power is installed in coal fired power plants and energy from hard coals is relatively less expensive than from other sources, especially renewable. The most of renewable energy sources power plants are unable to generate power in amounts which can be competitive with coal fires power stations and are highly expensive, what leads o high prices of electric energy. Alternatively, new generation of coal fired coal power plants is able to significantly increase efficiency, reduce carbon dioxide emission, and generate less expensive electric power in amounts adequate to the demands of a country.

  9. Selected legal developments in reproductive health in 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, R

    1992-01-01

    Because of American preoccupation with abortion, worldwide reproductive health issues in 1991 received scant attention, despite many important changes. With the fall of Communism, Eastern European governments struggle in the legislatures and the courts to regulate abortion, particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the newly unified Federal Republic of Germany. Two international tribunals ruled narrowly on the restrictive Irish abortion law and international treaties ratified by Ireland protecting freedom of speech, leaving the Irish law intact. Spain's Supreme Court relaxed restrictions on abortion and for the 1st time allowed abortions for social reasons. Frances' highest administrative court ruled that the French government exceeded its authority in ordering the distribution of RU 497 (mifepristone), but ruled that French abortion law, allowing abortions in the 1st 10 weeks in "situations of distress," did not violate international treaties guaranteeing the "right to life." England approved use of RU 486 under English abortion law, with medical restrictions. The Canadian Supreme Court agreed to review a province's legislation that had the effect of limiting access to abortions via medical and hospital regulations. The Islamic, developing countries of Pakistan and the Sudan replaced colonial laws with more liberal abortion rules tailored to Islamic law. Pakistan decriminalized early abortions when given to provide (undefined) "necessary treatment" the Sudan allows abortions during the 1st 90 days. Peru reduced the penalties for some abortions. In Latin America, only Cuba allows abortions on request in early pregnancy. Iran, China, and the former USSR tightened and encouraged compliance with their family planning regulations. Fear of AIDS prompted several countries to tighten condom regulations. Artificial insemination, embryo research and surrogate motherhood also received attention.

  10. Scarlet fever in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewska-Jakubik, Ewa; Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians. In 2014, annual, incidence rate of scarlet fever in Poland was about 9% lower in comparison to previous year. There were 22 855 cases all over the country and the incidence was 59.5 per 100,000 population; depending on the voivodeship ranged from 19.5 in podkarpackie to 93.2 in pomorskie. The highest incidence was noted among 4-year-old children (981.4) and 5-year-old children (971.0). However the incidence among children and young people up to 15 years accounted for 95.7% of all cases. The incidence among men (67.2) was higher by 28.5% than incidence among women (52.3). Incidence rate in urban areas, in any size town, was higher than in rural areas. Overall incidence in urban areas was 66.4; in rural areas - 49.0. 1,11% of patients were hospitalized. There were no reported deaths related to scarlet fever. In the surveillance of scarlet fever it is necessary to ensure that the collected data will be valid and reliable. Very low specificity of this surveillance may not only impinge on the assessment of epidemiological situation of this disease in Poland but also overshadow the situation of other diseases, including diseases under elimination program (rubella, measles). This is one of the greatest challenges facing sanitary inspection in the coming years.

  11. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  12. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  13. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Micha? R.; Stanowski, Edward; Pa?nik, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods ...

  14. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  15. The current state of bioeconomy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewa; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of scientific achievements to market a product is a key issue and the best description of significance of science for society. In the case of experts in the natural sciences in Poland, we observe a high intellectual potential of researchers and several scientific discoveries. However, Polish inventions are very rarely available on the market and the number of national and international patent applications done by Polish scientists is very limited. For the development of bioeconomy, the progress in biotechnology is critical.

  16. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  17. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  18. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  19. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bieniasz; Zbigniew Gołaś

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the ...

  20. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  1. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  2. Central European attitudes towards Chinese energy investments: The cases of Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcsanyi, Richard Q.

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on Europe-wide knowledge of EU-China energy investment relations and discusses the cases of three Central European countries’ attitudes towards Chinese energy investments. It focuses on how Chinese investments are perceived compared to investments from other countries, and how the energy sector is perceived compared to other sectors. Media analysis, interviews with experts, and semi-structured questionnaires were used as data sources. It was discovered that these three countries dislike foreign control over strategic assets and Chinese energy investments are seen as falling into this category. The discourse frames on the general level fluctuate between beneficial and threatening at both the political and economic levels, yet the benefits are seen as greater than any potential threats in all three countries. Energy security frames are only just beginning to be discussed within national discourses about Chinese energy investments. In Poland, the Chinese presence in the energy sector is framed as an issue of availability, affordability, and efficiency, and is related to Polish plans for maximizing efficient use of local coal resources. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, China is often perceived ideologically and only the energy frame of environmental stewardship is present in a minor way. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in energy are perceived more negatively than investments in other sectors due to their strategic nature. • Availability, affordability, and efficiency appear in Poland as a result of the special position of coal. • Environmental stewardship appears as an issue in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. • The Polish discourse is most similar to Europe-wide discourse.

  3. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wilczyńska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the paper was to present basic statistical data on occupational diseases diagnosed in 2012. Material and Methods: The work was based on the data from "Occupational Disease Reporting Forms" received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2012. The data comprised information on nosologic units, gender and age of patients, duration of occupational exposure, sections of the national economy and voivodeships. The incidence was specified in terms of the number of cases in relation to paid employees or to employed people. Results: The number of occupational diseases accounted for 2402 cases. The incidence rate was 23 cases per 100 000 paid employees. In spite of the general decline in the number of cases, the incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases increased by 8.6%. The highest incidence was noted for infectious and parasitic diseases (6.8/100 000, pneumoconioses (5.5/100 000, hearing loss (2.1/100 000, diseases of: the peripheral nervous system (2/100 000, voice disorders (1.9/100 000 and the musculo-skeletal system pathologies (1.1/100 000. The pathologies specified above accounted in total for 84% of all occupational diseases. The industrial sectors of the national economy characterized by the highest incidence included mining and quarrying (288.3/100 000 and manufacturing (27.8/100 000. The highest incidence was recorded in the Silesian (46.2/100 000 and the lowest in the Opolskie (4.2/100 000 voivodeships. Conclusions: The downward trend in the incidence of occupational diseases continues. Different incidence of voice disorders among teachers in individual provinces suggests that uniform preventive, diagnostic and certification standards are missing. Med Pr 2013;64(3:317–326

  4. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  6. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  7. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  8. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor stared in 1986, were continued in 1991. A number of interventions on the reactor components were finished that are supposed to enable continuous and reliable operation. The last, and at the same time largest action, related to exchange of complete reactor instrumentation is underway, but it is behind the schedule in 1991 because the delivery of components from USSR is late. Production of this instruments is financed by the IAEA according to the contract signed in December 1988 with Russian Atomenergoexport. According to this contract, it has been planned that the RA reactor instrumentation should be delivered to the Vinca Institute by the end of 1990. Only 56% of the instrumentation was delivered until September 1991. Since then any delivery of components to Yugoslavia was stopped because of the temporary embargo imposed by the IAEA. In 1991 most of the existing RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled, only the part needed for basic measurements when reactor is not operated, was maintained. Construction of some support elements is almost finished by the local staff. The Institute has undertaken this activity in order to speed up the ending of the project. If all the planned instrumentation would not arrive until the end of March 1992, it would not be possible to start the RA reactor testing operation in the first part of 1993, as previously planned. In 1991, 53 staff members took part in the activities during 1991, which is considered sufficient for maintenance and repair conditions. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1991 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection [sr

  9. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  10. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  11. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  12. Third corporate plan September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) published its first Corporate Plan in 1985 and its second in 1989. This third plan comes at a time of considerable change for the Council. Funding is tightly constrained, with the costs of research rising. Changes in funding patterns have made the pursuit of research in the higher-education sector - where the SERC deploys much of its resource -much harder, yet major new challenges and opportunities are opening up. The refocusing of a large organisation like the SERC is not accomplished overnight and needs careful preparation. This plan is therefore an interim document describing some important decisions recently taken and the reviews now being carried out to set future priorities. A fourth plan, to be published early in 1993, will describe the outcome of this reappraisal and set a definitive path towards the end of the century. The aims for the following programmes are stated and the funding objectives stated: the science board materials commission, engineering board, astronomy and planetary science board, nuclear physics board, fellowships, central computing, repayment work administration. Corporate plan actions for the neutron facilities, nuclear structure research, particle physics, information technology, engineering and international cooperation are presented. The impact of the reused plan on the manpower requirements is discussed. (author)

  13. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included

  14. Socialt arbejde gennem 40 år 1970 - 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bog indeholdende artikler skrevet af Therese Halskov 1984-2008, samt artikler skrevet af personer, der har samarbejdet med Therese i socialt arbejdes praksis, undervisning omkring socialt arbejde og/eller forskning i perioden 1970-2010...

  15. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  16. Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae, Quasipaa fasciculispina (Inger, 1970): distribution extension

    OpenAIRE

    Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Duengkae, Prateep; Sribandit, Pongpitak; Bunchornratana, Komsan; Chuaynkern, Chantip; Khewwan, Nont; Tipayanukul, Sawang

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents a new locality for Quasipaa fasciculispina (Inger, 1970) documenting the first provincial record based on voucher specimens for Trat Province (eastern Thailand). Its geographical distribution is reviewed and a recent distribution map in Thailand is presented.

  17. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 51, 1970-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2016. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  18. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  19. Impact of Unbalanced Development of Economy on Financial Sector Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of c connection between the stability of development of the financial sector and its share in the aggregate volume of production. The article conducts a comparative study of the countries that suffered the large-scale financial and economic crisis in 2007 (USA and Great Britain and countries economies of which turned out to be more stable (Czech Republic, Poland and Finland. In the course of the study the article marks out indicators that allow characterisation of the degree of balancing of economic development. The developed approach is applied for analysis of the Ukrainian economy in the pre-crisis period. Results of the study allow assertion that excessive growth of the financial sector increases the risk of realisation of financial and economic crises independent on the level of economic development of a country. The article develops an approach to assessment of the role of the financial sector in economy. It underlines important aspects of its application for analysing economies of developing countries. The article leaves a vast expanse for further studies and focuses on importance of monitoring of the state and development of the financial sector with consideration of the direction and rates of development of other sectors of economy. The obtained results justify the necessity of use of indicators that characterise structure of the national economy by financial sector control bodies.

  20. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  1. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  2. Vukovar 1991 Battle and Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cvikić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that Vukovar 1991 Battle traumatic memory wearing away process is a social issue and cannot be simply amputated by modernist narratives from accumulated traces of the past. Instead, those traumatic memories are constantly reconstructed, repressed, or transformed in some way or another under the pressure of manipulative power politics and competing ideologies in contemporary Croatian society.  Therefore, the question this paper asks is whether war crimes and atrocities committed in Vukovar 1991 have its meaningful place in the Croatian cultural memory and whether  social research techniques into contemporary cultural memory in Croatia can afford to avoid testimonial narrations of the Vukovar 1991 Battle and war experiences since they are an integral part of the collective memory?

  3. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  6. Nuclear Physics Division: annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betigeri, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development activities carried out by the Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period January 1991 to December 1991 is presented. These R and D activities are reported under the headings : 1) Accelerator Facilities, 2) Research Activities, and 3) Instrumentation. At the end, a list of publications by the staff scientists of the Division is given. The list includes papers published in journals, papers presented at conferences, symposia etc., and technical reports. (author). figs., tabs

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  8. Banking Sector Reforms and Economic Growth: Recent Evidence from a Reform-Bound Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard O Ishioro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the banking sector reforms and economic growth using time series data from 1970 to 2013 for the Nigerian economy. Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL Bounds test was applied for the specific determination of the long and short-run relationships between banking sector reforms and economic growth. The research finds that the interest rate margin is more significant than other variables in the model in explaining the banking sector reforms and economic growth. Banking sector credit to the private sector was negative and statistically insignificant in economic growth in Nigeria. This means that the size of the banking sector does not enhance economic growth. Meanwhile, inflation is negatively and statistically significant in economic growth. The duration of banking sector reforms should be defined and strictly adhered to irrespective changes in the political administration of the country.

  9. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  10. Inflation stabilization, fiscal defecits and public debtmanagement in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    1999-01-01

    Poland edged towards hyperinflation towards the latter half of 1989,but inflation fell dramatically after drastic reformswere enacted in January of 1990. We analyse the consistency betweenfiscal deficits and inflation targets and assessPoland's domestic and foreign debt management policies and the

  11. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  12. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  13. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in great lakes trout and walleye from 1970 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J P; Batterman, S A; Chernyak, S M

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  14. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  15. Introduction of Risk Management into Municipal Offices Across Poland as an Example of Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pikos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine the factors that influence the process of implementation of risk management process into municipal offices across Poland. Methodology: The Polish Public Finance Act requires public sector entities to put in place a risk management system within the framework of management control. The author conducted in-depth interviews with key personnel responsible for risk management in public administration units. Findings: The results of the research show that public sector organizations face certain problems in the process of implementing a risk management system. Employees seem to resist change. As a result of the project, four factors that influence the process of introducing risk management have been identified. Implication: Public sector organizations are mostly large, bureaucratic organizations, governed by numerous regulations, which all in all tends to hinder efficient management. The results of the discussed research are to support public entities in the process of implementing change. Value: The paper explores the importance of overcoming barriers to the process of implementing risk management in the public sector.

  16. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  17. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  18. Present status of bariatric surgery in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał R. Janik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The first survey of bariatric surgery in Poland was published in 2007. New trends are observed worldwide, and there is a current need to investigate the status of bariatric surgery in Polish institutions. This survey was initiated to gain an overview of Polish bariatric surgery during 2007–2014. Aim : To analyze the number and types of bariatric procedures performed in Polish institutions in 2014 and to perform a trend analysis from 2007 to 2014. Material and methods : A questionnaire regarding the numbers and types of bariatric procedures performed between 2007 and 2014 was e-mailed to all members of the Bariatric Society (a branch of the Association of Polish Surgeons and to 28 surgical departments. Trend analyses from 2007 to 2014 were performed. Results: Among the surgical departments, 16 (57% responded. The results showed that 1499 bariatric procedures were performed in Poland in 2014, with 96.4% done laparoscopically. The highest number was from Masovian Voivodeship. The most commonly reported procedures were laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG (60.7%, followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (19.2%, mini gastric bypass (11.1%, and adjustable gastric banding (7.6%. Most significant was the rise in prevalence of LSG from 8.0% to 60.4% of the total bariatric procedures from 2007 to 2014. Conclusions : Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently the most frequently performed bariatric procedure in Poland. The accuracy of the national survey of procedures would be enhanced if we could create a national registry.

  19. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  20. Possible North Atlantic origin for changes in ENSO properties during the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Mihai; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rimbu, Norel

    2015-02-01

    The most intense El Niño episodes in more than a century occurred after the 1970s climate shift. Previous studies show that the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon changed synchronously with the shift, but the associated causes are not fully understood. An analysis of the observed tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies shows that their increase in the eastern part of the basin after the 1970s is not related to the canonical ENSO pattern, but to the tropical Pacific meridional mode (TPMM). We present observational evidence which supports the hypothesis that the change in the TPMM was triggered by the great salinity anomaly (GSA), which manifested in the North Atlantic during the late 1960s. The GSA induced a weak Labrador convection and a SST dipole south of Greenland. The associated atmospheric structure includes a North Pacific Oscillation sea level pressure dipole in the Pacific sector. This excites the TPMM which contributes to the intense El Niño events and to the enhanced ENSO's asymmetry, observed after the shift. Our results imply that, if the GSA has not an anthropic origin, as was suggested, then the tropical Pacific climate shift has a natural origin. This is supported by the end of the North Atlantic regime in the 1990s and by the rebound of the tropical Pacific after 1998.

  1. De las urnas a la movilización popular. Elecciones presidenciales de 1970 en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yanet Acuña Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El texto resalta cómo el inconformismo de los sectores populares con el tradicionalismo político, liberal-conservador en Colombia y con las irregularidades en el conteo y reconteo de los votos en las elecciones presidenciales de 1970, pusieron en crisis al régimen político “frentenacionalista”, y a su candidato Misael Pastrana Borrero. Desde la historia política y social se analiza el papel de las masas y las posiciones y acciones de las elites para legitimar el poder; así, el evidente fraude electoral en las elecciones del 19 de abril de 1970 fue asumido por las masas como una burla al sistema democrático y a su expresión como ciudadanos, lo que motivó movilizaciones en diversas regiones del país. A partir de este hecho los actores sociales reivindicaron su papel como ciudadanos y reclamaron sus derechos, acudiendo a la denuncia en las diversas instituciones, a la movilización y a la protesta y, tres años después, a la movilización armada que se denominó M-19.

  2. Campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bożena

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of campylobacteriosis in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison with the situation in the previous years. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the data contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” for the years 2012- 2014, extended by the information from the individual questionnaires of diseases and forms of the epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology and also on data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. In 2013 in Poland it was registered 552 cases of campylobacteriosis, while in 2014 the number of registered cases was 652. It is respectively by almost 30% and 50% more than in 2012. The overall incidence for 2013 was 1.43 and for 2014 it was 1.69 per 100 000. In 2013 all reported cases were classified as confirmed, whereas in 2014 – number of confirmed cases was 650, and two as probable. Both in 2013 and in 2014 incidence much higher than the total for the in three provinces: Śląskie (respectively 3.89 and 4.7/ 100 000), Warmińsko- Mazurskie (4.42 and 3.53/ 100 000) and Lubuskie (3.03 and 4.51/100000) incidence was both in 2013 and 2014 Markedly higher then for the country as a whole. The percentage of hospitalization was higher than in previous years and amounted in 2013 to 71.4% and in 2014 to 74.4%. In 2013 Campylobacter species was identified in more than 83% of patients and in almost 87% in 2014. In 2013 over 77% and in 2014 as much as 82% of cases were caused by C. jejuni, and correspondingly more than 6% and almos 5% by C.coli. As in previous years, the majority of cases, in 2013 - 435 (79%) and in 2014 - 491 (75%) occurred in the age group 0-4. In 2013 therte were recorded two, and 2014 - 7 outbreaks caused by Campylobacter jejuni. In Poland, despite the gradual

  3. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  4. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  5. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  6. Social Activation of the Elderly in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Artykuł wpłynął do redakcji 21.08.2015; po recenzjach zaakceptowany 21.04.2016. The issue concerning activation of the elderly is mainly presented in raports or special programmes aimed at preventing the seperation of senior citizens from the society. The examination of social activity among the old is frequently conducted in scientific literature.The first part of this research paper focuses on the selected ways and forms of social activation of older people in Poland, including Senior in...

  7. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  8. Shrinking Cities in Poland: Demographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał-Malago Monika

    2017-01-01

    This paper purports to present the issue of “shrinking” cities in Poland. The author has included a general characteristics of the process, considering only the aspect of changes in the population. A typology of population movements was introduced on the basis of a relation between the actual birth rate and the migration balance, whereas the typology was based on Webb’s procedure. The author has also made an attempt to classify the shrinking cities based on the definition adopted by the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN. A detailed analysis was conducted on large cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants and covered the period from 2000 to 2016.

  9. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  10. Ongevallen van oudere fietsers in 1991.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses 479 accidents of older cyclists in the Netherlands in 1991. These accidents were selected on: (1) age, divided into the following groups: 50-64 year-olds, 65-74 year-olds, and persons aged 75 and over; (2) sex; and (3) magnitude of the municipality, divided into less or greater

  11. Market bulletin and own load - May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in May 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  12. Market bulletin and own load - October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in October 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  13. 1991 OCRWM bulletin compilation and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The document is a compilation of issues from the 1991 calendar year. A table of contents and an index have been provided to reference information contained in this year's Bulletins

  14. Annual report 1991. Institute for Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Institute executed in 1991 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the Joint Research Centre and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  15. Aldrich 1991, Clarke 1986, Nesis 1987, Roelev

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    stomach contents of sperm whales, and many are based on incomplete specimens or on parts only (Roeleveld and Lipinski 1991). For the South-West Atlantic, ... freezing: total length, dorsal mantle length, total mass, maximum mantle width, and lengths of right and left arms I, II, III and IV. Other general measurements were.

  16. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  17. Waste minimization activity report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This is a waste reduction report for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1991. The report covers the Main Site at Livermore and Site 300. Each research program at LLNL is described by its operation, administrative procedures, and waste minimization. Examples of the programs at LLNL are biomedical and environmental research, chemistry and materials science, and energy program and earth sciences. (MB)

  18. The Secretary's annual report to Congress, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is the 12th Secretary's Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy, and it covers the year 1991. Activities of all elements of the Department are described herein except those of the independent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which issues its own report

  19. GKSS scientific and technical reports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The following review contains - arranged by the main field of research - authors and titles of external GKSS reports published in 1991. Abstracts and bibliographical data are presented with the exception and reprints from journal articles, proceeding papers, and from contributions to monographs. (orig.) [de

  20. SN 1991T: Reflections of past glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Wells, Lisa A.; Porter, Alain C.; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Challis, Peter; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained photometry and spectra of SN 1991T which extend more than 1000 days past maximum light, by far the longest of SN Ia has been followed. Although SN 1991T exhibited nearly photometric behavior in the first 400 days following maximum, by 600 days its decline had slowed, and by 950 days the supernova brightness was consistent with a constant apparent magnitude of m(sub B) = 21.30. Spectra near maximum showed minor variations on the SN Ia theme which grew less conspicuous during the exponential decline. At 270 days the nebular spectrum was composed of Fe and Co lines common to SN Ia. However, by 750 days past maximum light, these lines had shifted in wavelength, and were superposed on a strong blue continuum. The luminosity of SN 1991T at 950 days is more than (9.0 x 10(exp 38)(D/13 Mpc)(2) ergs/s with a rate of decline of less than 0.04 mag per 100 days. We show that this emission is likely to be light that was emitted by SN 1991T near maximum light which has reflected from foreground dust, much like the light echos observed around SN 1987A.

  1. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1991 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  2. Neutron scattering (progress report) January - December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Fischer, P.; Furrer, A.

    1992-02-01

    Progress made by the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology during the year 1991 in the fields of high-T c superconductors, materials science, magnetism, structural research, lattice dynamics, phase transitions, instrumental and support activities is reported. figs., tabs., refs

  3. List of publications 1991 January-December

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    AECL Research is engaged in research and development related to the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. Specifically, the company's mission is to perform the research, development, demonstration and marketing required to apply nuclear sciences and their related technologies for the maximum benefit of Canada. Among our most important products are scientific reports, publications and conference presentations. This document lists our publications for 1991

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period (April 1991) from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards (ALAB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM)

  5. Chronologie du Yémen contemporain (1904-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Samouiller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De l'avènement de l'imam Yahyâ en 1904 à la fin de la guerre civile au Nord et la naissance de la RPDSY en 1969-1970, le Yémen n'a pas échappé aux secousses du XXe siècle : guerres mondiales, colonisation et décolonisation, nationalisme et revendications sociales. Le tableau chronologique qui enregistre une partie des événements entre ces deux dates pour le Yémen du Nord et du Sud, est avant tout conçu comme un outil de travail appelé à s'enrichir et à servir de support à la lecture des dynamiques politiques, particulièrement pour la décennie charnière 1960-1970.Chronology of Contemporary Yemen (1900-1970From the rise of Imam Yahyâ to the end of the civil war in the North and the birth of the PDRY in 1969-1970, Yemen did not escape the tribulations of the 20th century : World Wars, colonization and then decolonization, nationalism and social demands. This chronology relates part of the events that occurred in North and South Yemen during this seventy-year period. It is to be considered mainly as a working tool and is therefore meant to be  continuously updated and used as medium for the understanding of political change, particularly during the 1960-1970 decade.

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE POLISH INSURANCE SECTOR ON MACRO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Treder, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The insurance sector in Poland has been developing in certain conditions of macro-economic environment. The process in which the phenomena in the insurance market takes place is determined by the speed of development of the whole economy. The dynamics of the development may be seen in the size of GDP, in the size of foreign trade and in the level of foreign investments. The macroeconomic indicators confirm the continuing economic growth. This affects the development of the market in a favoura...

  7. Report on the structure of ownership in the financial sector across the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Jurek

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyse the structure of ownership in the financial sector in the selected old (France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom) and new (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) EU Member States. This subject is particularly important to the proper understanding of the scale and scope of the process of financialisation in the EU countries. General objective of the report is the investigation and evaluation of the evolution of the structure of ownership...

  8. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  9. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  10. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read in...

  11. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  12. The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the historical evolution of South Korea's solar PV policies from the 1970's until today. An in-depth analysis of different policy instruments has been conducted to understand the PV policy context and the consequences of public policies in the PV sector in terms of patents, manufacturing capacity, PV installations, and impacts on the national economy and energy transition. Also, the key success factors and barriers in South Korea's past PV policies have been identified to make recommendations for future development

  13. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, John

    1994-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 and is owned by the western industrialized countries, including Canada, and the former communist countries of Europe and Central Asia. Its purpose is to assist the latter to make the transition from command to market economies in a democratic framework. In the energy sector, most of the EBRD's lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia, but it is open for business in other sectors and in all countries of operation. Unlike other development banks, the EBRD is prepared to finance nuclear power projects. The bank is also prepared to finance conventional power plants where these would permit the closure of obsolete or unsafe nuclear plants. In the oil and gas sector, most of the EBRD's lending has related to private sector, joint venture projects aimed at oil field rehabilitation and development. The private sector ventures supported by the Bank normally involve joint stock companies owned 50 per cent by western partners and 50 per cent by Russian state oil companies, which are being privatized or are operating according to private sector principles. (author)

  14. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  15. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  16. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  17. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  18. Carboxyhemoglobin trend in Chicago blood donors, 1970-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R D; Hake, C L; Wu, A; Stewart, T A; Kalbfleisch, J H

    1976-01-01

    An 18% reduction in the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) saturation in nonsmoking Chicago blood donors occurred between 1970 and 1974, indicating that current donors are being exposed to a lower average carbon monoxide (CO) concentration than had been experienced by 1970 donors. In contrast to the situation in 1970, when it was discovered that 74% of the nonsmokers in Chicago were being exposed to CO in excess of the amount permitted by the federal air quality standards, in 1974 only 41% of the nonsmokers were being overexposed. The observed reduction in HbCO correlates well with both the ambient CO levels recorded at the air monitoring stations and the reduction in CO emission from automobiles. If the current trend continues, Chicago should reach compliance with air quality standards for CO by 1985. The measurement of HbCO in a representative urban population is an accurate index of actual CO exposure and supplements the air pollution data provided by air monitoring stations.

  19. Purex process operation and performance: 1970 thoria campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, R.L.

    1978-02-01

    The Hanford Purex Plant has demonstrated suitability for reprocessing irradiated thoria (ThO 2 ) target elements on a campaign basis. A 1965 process test and major production campaigns conducted in 1966 and 1970 recovered nitrate solution form products totaling approximately 565 tons of thorium and 820 kilograms of 233 U. The overall recoveries for the 1970 campaign based on reactor input data were 94.9 percent for thorium and 95.2 percent for uranium. The primary function of the Hanford Purex Plant is reprocessing of irradiated uranium fuel elements to separate and purify uranium, plutonium and neptunium. Converting the plant to thoria reprocessing required major process development work and equipment modifications. The operation and performance of the Plant during the 1970 thoria reprocessing campaign is discussed in this report. The discussion includes background information on the process and equipment, problems encountered, and changes recommended for future campaigns

  20. Safety Management Information Statistics (SAMIS) - 1991 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The Safety Management Information Statistics 1991 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit accident and casualty statistics reported by transit systems in the United States during 1991, under FTA's Section 15 reporting system.

  1. Participatory Budgeting: A Comparative Study of Croatia, Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džinić Jasmina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Public Management movement regards citizens as customers and, accordingly, focuses on the quality of services provided by public-sector organizations. Since this approach negatively affected democratic values, there has been a shift of the focus from consumer satisfaction and quality of services to quality of governance. The latter implies the improvement of the relationship between government and citizens as active members of the community. Over the last twenty years, participatory budgeting (PB has become a popular form of co-production intended to improve the quality of local governance. The aim of the article is to provide a comparative analysis of the use and role of PB in Croatia, Poland and Slovakia and to identify the models of PB used in selected countries. In order to compare the case studies of municipalities in selected countries, a qualitative analysis has been used and the classification of PB models applied. Most analyzed local units use the “Porto Alegre adapted for Europe” model, but the “Consultation on public finances”, “Representation of Organized Interest” and “Proximity participation” models are also represented. The main findings are that PB indeed enables better allocation of public sources according to citizens’ needs (various public services were delivered following the trend of social innovation and co-creation, but the problem lies in the low amount assigned for PB from public budgets and the relatively low interest of citizens to participate in the PB processes. PB might also bring certain risks linked with its implementation, e.g. misuse of the idea for political reasons or additional costs of projects delivered in the PB process.

  2. Source contributions to United States ozone and particulate matter over five decades from 1970 to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Alvarez, Yesica; Jung, Jaegun; Grant, John; Kumar, Naresh; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-10-01

    Evaluating long-term air quality trends can demonstrate effectiveness of control strategies and guide future air quality management planning. Observations have shown that ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the US have declined since as early as 1980 in some areas. But observation trends alone cannot separate effects of changes in local and global emissions to US air quality which are important to air quality planners. This study uses a regional model (CAMx) nested within a global model (GEOS-Chem) to characterize regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 due to the intercontinental transport and local/regional emissions representing six modeling years within five decades (1970-2020). We use the CAMx Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT) to estimate contributions from 6 source sectors in 7 source regions plus 6 other groups for a total of 48 tagged contributions. On-road mobile sources consistently make the largest U.S. anthropogenic emissions contribution to O3 in all cities examined even though they decline substantially from 1970 to 2005 and also from 2005 to 2020. Off-road mobile source contributions increase from 1970 to 2005 and then decrease after 2005 in all of the cities. The boundary conditions, mostly from intercontinental transport, contribute more than 20 ppb to high maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) O3 for all six years. We found that lowering NOx emissions raises O3 formation efficiency (OFE) across all emission categories which will limit potential O3 benefits of local NOx strategies in the near future. PM2.5 benefited from adoption of control devices between 1970 and 1980 and has continued to decline through 2005 and expected to decline further by 2020. Area sources such as residential, commercial and fugitive dust emissions stand out as making large contributions to PM2.5 that are not declining. Inter-regional transport is less important in 2020 than 1990 for both pollutants.

  3. Oceanographic survey in support of fishing off the coast of Portugal from 12 October 1970 to 15 November 1970 (NODC Accession 7600738)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from S. JORGE in the North Atlantic Ocean from 12 October 1970 to 15 November 1970. Data were...

  4. A summary of seawater chemistry analysis of stations in North Atlantic Ocean from 20 June 1970 to 03 July 1970 (NODC Accession 7000981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seawater chemistry data were collected using bottle from the USNS KANE in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 20 July 1970 to 03 July 1970. The...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MICMAC R/V from the 1970-01-28 to 1970-04-21 (NODC Accession 7100666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MICMAC Stanford R/V from 28 January 1970 to 21 April 1970. Data were submitted by the...

  6. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  7. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joseph E.; Amaral, Ernesto F. L.; Woodberry, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level. Our results show a strong association between the proportion of Protestants in a region, and the earnings of men in one educational group: those with less than five years of education. Upon introducing race into our models, we found that the association between religion and the earnings of less educated men is concentrated in regions in which there is a substantial non-white population. The relationships we have uncovered contribute to the literature on racial inequality and discrimination in Brazil, which to date has given little space to the role of religion in moderating the pernicious effect of race on economic outcomes in Brazil. The substantial association we found between religion and earnings contrasts with much of the research that has been carried out on the influence of religion on earnings in the United States. PMID:26146415

  8. The Growth of Protestantism in Brazil and Its Impact on Male Earnings, 1970-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joseph E; Amaral, Ernesto F L; Woodberry, Robert D

    Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level. Our results show a strong association between the proportion of Protestants in a region, and the earnings of men in one educational group: those with less than five years of education. Upon introducing race into our models, we found that the association between religion and the earnings of less educated men is concentrated in regions in which there is a substantial non-white population. The relationships we have uncovered contribute to the literature on racial inequality and discrimination in Brazil, which to date has given little space to the role of religion in moderating the pernicious effect of race on economic outcomes in Brazil. The substantial association we found between religion and earnings contrasts with much of the research that has been carried out on the influence of religion on earnings in the United States.

  9. Crédito y crecimiento industrial. Un análisis de causalidad en México, Brasil y Corea del Sur, 1970-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Plinio Hernández Barriga; Esteban Bollain Parra

    2015-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio es investigar la causalidad entre el crecimiento industrial y la expansión del crédito hacia el sector privado no financiero en tres economías emergentes: México, Brasil y Corea del Sur, en el periodo 1970-2013. Mediante la aplicación del análisis de causalidad de Granger (1969), se encontró una relación de causalidad unidireccional que va desde el crecimiento industrial a la expansión del crédito al sector privado no financiero en las tres economías, conclus...

  10. Returns to Publicly Owned Transport Infrastructure Investment . A Cost Function/Cost Share Approach for Norway, 1971-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Torstein Bye; Alexandra Katz

    1995-01-01

    An issue of major concern to politicians and policy-makers around the world today is whether transport infrastructure investments, such as those in roads and airports, generate enough economic benefits to justify their very large price tag. Beginning in the mid 1970s, nearly all OECD countries experienced a sustained decline both in public investment and in private sector output. Since infrastructure comprises the vast majority of public capital in these countries, this led many economists to...

  11. Regional Determinants of Efficiency Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Łuczka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs sector plays a vital role in modern economies. Therefore, the interest in its functioning among economists is in fact quite natural. This article is a part of a current research on regional factors contributing to the development of enterprises in this category. The first section examines earlier studies in this field conducted globally and in Poland. According to them, many elements enable the SME’s development. It is not surprisingly that the specified set of pro-growth factors does not exists. Next section describes the results of the author’s own studies in the fields. These studies relate to regional factors contributing to the efficiency growth of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Data used in the study was collected from GUS[1] and EUROSTAT and encompassed 16 provinces for the years 2003-2008. The model prepared included 11 independent variables on labor force, social mobility, living standard and R&D policy. The authors would have gladly considered more than 11 explanatory variable, but the inaccessibility of such data made it impossible. In the next step, using GRETL software, equations of regression were defined. On this basis it was concluded that the most important factors contributing to efficiency growth of SMEs are the amount of spending on R&D and the level of wages.

  12. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  13. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  14. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  15. Challenging a sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    Academia is expanding beyond its traditional, institutional boundaries, as the perceived use value of research and knowledge production has highlighted the political incentive to look at how the higher education sector is organized. In Denmark, as well as in many countries, these challenges...... and pressures has led to the reorganization of knowledge production, e.g. by integrating new institutions into the research sector. The present paper reports initial findings from a study how the new “cousins” navigate demands from an institutionalized sector, and from the external environment. Focus is on how...... policy changes are translated and affects narratives of organizational identities....

  16. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  17. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  18. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Neonatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnest, G; de la Fuente Fonnest, I; Weber, Tom

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent neonatal herpes, women in labor with genital herpes infection are still delivered by Cesarean section. This policy is currently being debated. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal herpes in Denmark and to evaluate the prevention practice. METHODS......: All newborns with perinatal herpes in Denmark 1977-1991 were identified from hospital-records. RESULTS: Of 862,298 deliveries 136 possible cases were found but only 30 (22%) fulfilled the criteria for neonatal herpes. The incidence increased from 2.36 to 4.56 per 100,000 live births during 1977......-1984 through 1984-1991. Three mothers (10%) had recurrent herpes at delivery, three (10%) had primary herpes, and five (17%) had oral herpes. Seven infants (23%) were delivered by Cesarean section. Nine (30%) only had cutaneous herpes, four (13%) had CNS herpes, nine (30%) had disseminated disease. Six (20...

  20. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, ''Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs