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Sample records for pokeweed dianthus barbatus

  1. Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana): possible source of a molluscicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; P.W. LeQuesne; P.W. LeQuesne

    1970-01-01

    Pokeweed, a plant abundant in Appalachia, exhibits some chemical similarities to a related species that has shown molluscicidal properties. Because this suggests that pokeweed, Phytolacca americana L. (P. decandra L.), has potential for controlling fresh-water snails, we have compiled this report of its chenlical composition, uses, propagation methods, and other...

  2. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

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    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  3. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  4. Abitane diterpenoids isolation from Plectranthus barbatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Roberto L. de; Kentopff, Marta R.; Machado, Maria Iracema L.; Silva, Maria Goretti V.; Matos, Francisco Jose de A.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is largely used in the Northeast region of Brazil by the local population for treatment of digestive problems as substitute of boldo (Pneumus boldus). Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Labiatae) cultivated in this region yielded two abietane diterpenoids, cyclobubatusin (1) and barbatusin (2) and a new one named 7beta-acetyl-12-deacetoxycyclobutatusin (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, using mainly mass spectra and 1 H and 13 CNMR (1D and 2D). These procedures permitted the assignment of all chemical shifts in the diterpenoids. (author)

  5. Diterpenos tipo abietano isolados de Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Abitane diterpenoids isolation from Plectranthus barbatus

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    Roberto L. de Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus is largely used in the Northeast region of Brazil by the local population for treatment of digestive problems as substitute of boldo (Pneumus boldus. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Labiatae cultivated in this region yielded two abietane diterpenoids, cyclobubatusin (1 and barbatusin (2 and a new one named 7beta-acetyl-12-deacetoxycyclobutatusin (3. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, using mainly mass spectra and ¹H and 13CNMR (1D and 2D. These procedures permitted the assignment of all chemical shifts in the diterpenoids.

  6. Abitane diterpenoids isolation from Plectranthus barbatus; Diterpenos tipo abietano isolados de Plectranthus barbatus Andrews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Roberto L. de; Kentopff, Marta R.; Machado, Maria Iracema L.; Silva, Maria Goretti V.; Matos, Francisco Jose de A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Morais, Selene M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: braz@uenf.br

    2007-07-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is largely used in the Northeast region of Brazil by the local population for treatment of digestive problems as substitute of boldo (Pneumus boldus). Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Labiatae) cultivated in this region yielded two abietane diterpenoids, cyclobubatusin (1) and barbatusin (2) and a new one named 7beta-acetyl-12-deacetoxycyclobutatusin (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectral analysis, using mainly mass spectra and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}CNMR (1D and 2D). These procedures permitted the assignment of all chemical shifts in the diterpenoids. (author)

  7. Radiobiological researches on Dianthus caryophyllus L. carnation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereau-Leroy, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    This research thesis reports a radiobiological study of Dianthus periclinal chimeras performed by submitting plants and plant cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt-60 gamma irradiation under different dose conditions and rates. The effects of these treatments are studied while growing the so-processed plants and by microscopic examination of sections of irradiated meristems [fr

  8. Antioxidant, Antigenotoxic, Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Dianthus carmelitarum

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    Rezzan Aliyazicioglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic properties of the aqueous extract of Dianthus carmelitarum for the first time. The phenolic and volatile compounds, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities of the extract were determined by HPLC and SPME-GC-FID/MS, spectrophotometric, agar well diffusion methods and comet assay, respectively. The polyphenolic content and ferric reducing power values of the extract were found 12.6 ± 0.27 mg gallic acid and 238 ± 2.89 μM trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Syringaldehyde and chlorogenic acid were detected as major phenolic compounds, while terpenes were determined as major volatile compound. Dianthus carmelitarum extract especially exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Extract reduced H 2O 2-induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in fibroblast cells compared to positive control (only 20 μM H 2O 2 treatment. Dianthus carmelitarum can be considered in the food, cosmetic, and drug industries due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic activities.

  9. The pokeweed leaf mRNA transcriptome and its regulation by jasmonic acid.

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    Kira C.M. Neller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, is recognized for synthesizing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP, a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP that inhibits the replication of several plant and animal viruses. The plant is also a heavy metal accumulator with applications in soil remediation. However, little is known about pokeweed stress responses, as large-scale sequencing projects have not been performed for this species. Here, we sequenced the mRNA transcriptome of pokeweed in the presence and absence of jasmonic acid (JA, a hormone mediating plant defense. Trinity-based de novo assembly of mRNA from leaf tissue and BLASTx homology searches against public sequence databases resulted in the annotation of 59 096 transcripts. Differential expression analysis identified JA-responsive genes that may be involved in defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. We confirmed the existence of several PAP isoforms and cloned a potentially novel isoform of PAP. Expression analysis indicated that PAP isoforms are differentially responsive to JA, perhaps indicating specialized roles within the plant. Finally, we identified 52 305 natural antisense transcript pairs, four of which comprised PAP isoforms, suggesting a novel form of RIP gene regulation. This transcriptome-wide study of a Phytolaccaceae family member provides a source of new genes that may be involved in stress tolerance in this plant. The sequences generated in our study have been deposited in the SRA database under project # SRP069141.

  10. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Fernandes, Luciana Cristina; Campos Câmara, Carlos; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action.

  11. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

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    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s and their mechanism(s of action.

  12. Anticonvulsant Activity of Extracts of Plectranthus barbatus Leaves in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Fernandes, Luciana Cristina; Campos Câmara, Carlos; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus is a medicinal plant used to treat a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth. We therefore sought to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. barbatus leaves on seizures induced by strychnine sulphate (2.0 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (600 mg/kg) in mice. The extract was administered orally at 1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg. We report that the P. barbatus extract had marked anticonvulsant activity against strychnine-induced convulsions, but was quite ineffective against pilocarpine-induced convulsions. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules(s) and their mechanism(s) of action. PMID:21716675

  13. Function of Plectranthus barbatus herbal tea as neuronal acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falé, Pedro L V; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Florêncio, M Helena; Ascensão, Lia; Serralheiro, Maria Luísa M

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the function of Plectranthus barbatus (Lamiaceae) herbal tea as inhibitor of the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. To accomplish this objective the herbal tea as well as its main component, rosmarinic acid were administered to laboratory animals (rats) and the effect on the brain AChE activity was evaluated. The study of the herbal tea metabolites in the plasma and also in the brain was undertaken. The herbal water extract was administered intragastrically and also intraperitoneally. When the plant extract was intragastrically administered, vestigial amounts of metabolites from P. barbatus extract compounds were present in rat plasma, but none were found in brain, although inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity was detected. However, when P. barbatus extract was administered intraperitoneally, all its compounds were found in plasma, and rosmarinic acid was found in brain. The highest concentrations of compounds/metabolites were found 30 min after administration. An inhibition of 29.0 ± 2.3% and 24.9 ± 3.7% in brain acetylcholinesterase activity was observed 30 and 60 min after intraperitoneal administration, respectively. These values were higher than those expected, taking into account the quantity of rosmarinic acid detected in the brain, which suggests that other active extract compounds or metabolites may be present in non-detectable amounts. These results prove that the administration of P. barbatus aqueous extract can reach the brain and act as AChE inhibitor.

  14. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol was developed for Plectranthus barbatus for high frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf derived callus of aseptically grown plantlets derived from mature plant explants of high yielding clones (yield of forskolin 1.5 to 1.9%) on Gamborg medium (B5) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4- dichloro phenoxy ...

  15. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMA

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... A protocol was developed for Plectranthus barbatus for high frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf derived callus of aseptically grown plantlets derived from mature plant explants of high yielding clones. (yield of forskolin 1.5 to 1.9%) on Gamborg medium (B5) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4- ...

  16. Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794 in the scleractinian phylogeny and its intraspecific diversity.

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    Anna M Addamo

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan solitary deep-water scleractinian coral Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794 was selected as a representative model species of the polyphyletic Caryophylliidae family to (1 examine phylogenetic relationships with respect to the principal Scleractinia taxa, (2 check population structure, (3 test the widespread connectivity hypothesis and (4 assess the utility of different nuclear and mitochondrial markers currently in use. To carry out these goals, DNA sequence data from nuclear (ITS and 28S and mitochondrial (16S and COI markers were analyzed for several coral species and for Mediterranean populations of D. dianthus. Three phylogenetic methodologies (ML, MP and BI, based on data from the four molecular markers, all supported D. dianthus as clearly belonging to the "robust" clade, in which the species Lophelia pertusa and D. dianthus not only grouped together, but also shared haplotypes for some DNA markers. Molecular results also showed shared haplotypes among D. dianthus populations distributed in regions separated by several thousands of kilometers and by clear geographic barriers. These results could reflect limited molecular and morphological taxonomic resolution rather than real widespread connectivity. Additional studies are needed in order to find molecular markers and morphological features able to disentangle the complex phylogenetic relationship in the Order Scleractinia and to differentiate isolated populations, thus avoiding the homoplasy found in some morphological characters that are still considered in the literature.

  17. Antiviral activity of Dianthus superbusn L. against hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis is a viral infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Limitations of drug used in the management of it opens the interest related to alternative medicine. The given study deals with the antiviral activity of Dianthus superbusn L. (DSL) against HBV in vitro & in vivo. Material and Methods: In vitro study liver cell line ...

  18. The relationship between lymphocytes activated by pokeweed mitogen and by lipopolysaccharides and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Liaoyuan; Liu Fenju; Liu Keliang; Xu Changshao; Xu Yingdong; Geng Yongzhi

    1992-07-01

    Human whole blood was incubated in vitro. Lymphocytes were activated by poke-weed mitogen (PWM) and by Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The relationship between the two kinds of lymphocytes was investigated using radioactive compound incorporation. The study showed that PWM-activated lymphocytes were able to promote the stimulating effect of LPS on B lymphocytes. The stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes was obviously decreased after they were irradiated with 10 Gy gamma rays. When PWM-activated lymphocytes and LPS-activated lymphocytes were incubated together after one of the cell populations had been exposed 10 Gy 60 Co gamma rays, the incorporation of [ 3 H] TdR was much decreased and the synergistic function disappeared, especially when the PWM-activated lymphocytes were irradiated. In cells from patients treated with 60 Co gamma rays for carcinoma of nasopharynx, the incorporation in LPS-activated lymphocytes approached normal levels while that in PWM-activated lymphocytes was reduced significantly and the stimulating effect of PWM-activated lymphocytes on LPS-activated lymphocytes was also markedly reduced. These demonstrate that PWM-activated lymphocytes have a similar function to T-helper cells and seem to be more radiosensitive than LPS-activated lymphocytes

  19. In vitro skin diffusion study of pure forskolin versus a forskolin-containing Plectranthus barbatus root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hammell, Dana C; Spry, Malinda; D'Orazio, John A; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2009-04-01

    An in vitro skin diffusion study of pure forskolin (1) versus a 1-containing Plectranthus barbatus root extract (P. barbatus extract) in hairless guinea pig skin and human skin in a flow-through diffusion cell system was conducted and is being reported for the first time. Both topical agents were formulated in a solution of 70% ethanol and 30% propylene glycol (v/v). The results showed that forskolin can be delivered through the stratum corneum and that the flux of this compound was enhanced when 1 was delivered as a constituent of the P. barbatus extract as compared to an equivalent amount in pure form. These results suggest that the P. barbatus extract used contains permeation enhancement activity from other compound(s) contained in the crude root extract. It is possible that P. barbatus root extract may be used as an economical source of 1 to perform topical chemical manipulation of pigmentation in high-risk populations.

  20. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...... the transformation responses to pokeweed mitogen and cytomegalovirus and the absolute count of CD4 positive lymphocytes were the most common abnormal values. In particular, a low relative response to pokeweed mitogen on initial investigation correlated with a worsened clinical condition on reinvestigation. The risk...

  1. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

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    Gurusamy Raman

    Full Text Available Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC region (82,805 bp, with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19 was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23 genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  2. Suppression of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Engleman, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, 200 rad). The authors previously reported long-lasting clinical improvement in this group associated with a persistent decrease in circulating Leu-3 (helper subset) T cells and marked impairment of in vitro lymphocyte function. In the present experiments, they studied the mechanisms underlying the decrease in pokeweed mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion observed after TLI. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBL) from TLI-treated patients produced 10-fold less Ig (both IgM and IgG) in response to pokeweed mitogen than before radiotherapy. This decrease in Ig production was associated with the presence of suppressor cells in co-culture studies. By using responder cells obtained from normal individuals (allogeneic system), PBL from eight of 12 patients after TLI suppressed Ig synthesis by more than 50%. In contrast, PBL from the same patients before TLI failed to suppress Ig synthesis. PBL with suppressive activity contained suppressor T cells, and the latter cells bore the Leu-2 surface antigen. In 50% of the patients studied suppressor cells were also found in the non-T fraction and were adherent to plastic. Interestingly, the Leu-2 + cells from TLI-treated patients were no more potent on a cell per cell basis than purified Leu-2 + cells obtained before TLI. Additional experiments suggested that the suppression mediated by T cells after TLI is related to the increased ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 cells observed after radiotherapy

  3. Plectranthus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasbahi, Rawiya H; Melzig, Matthias F

    2010-05-01

    Plectranthus barbatus Andr. is one of the most important species of the genus Plectranthus L' Herit. (Lamiaceae), with a wide variety of traditional medicinal uses in Hindu and Ayurvedic traditional medicine as well as in the folk medicine of Brazil, tropical Africa and China. The plant has therefore been an attractive target for intensive chemical and pharmacological studies up to now. This review presents data about the phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology of Plectranthus barbatus as well as the pharmacology of its constituents. In addition to essential oil, abietane diterpenoids and 8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one diterpenoids are the main constituents found in Plectranthus barbatus. The major ethnobotanical uses are for intestinal disturbance and liver fatigue, respiratory disorders, heart diseases and certain nervous system disorders. Forskolin as one of the major constituents with its unique adenylyl cyclase activation that underlies the wide range of pharmacological properties could explain the different traditional uses of Plectranthus barbatus. Forskolin is involved in a number of patented pharmaceutical preparations used as over-the-counter drugs for the treatment of several ailments. However, the water-insoluble nature of forskolin limits its clinical usefulness. Forskolin thus served as a prototype for the development of 6-(3-dimethylaminopropionyl)forskolin hydrochloride (NKH477) as a potent water-soluble forskolin derivative that finds use in the therapy for a number of diseases especially of the cardiovascular system. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  4. Plectranthus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasbahi, Rawiya H; Melzig, Matthias F

    2010-05-01

    Plectranthus barbatus andr. is one of the most important species of the genus Plectranthus L' Herit. (Lamiaceae), with a wide variety of traditional medicinal uses in Hindu and Ayurvedic traditional medicine as well as in the folk medicine of Brazil, tropical Africa and China. The plant has therefore been an attractive target for intensive chemical and pharmacological studies up to now. This review presents data about the phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacology of Plectranthus barbatus as well as the pharmacology of its constituents. In addition to essential oil, abietane diterpenoids and 8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one diterpenoids are the main constituents found in Plectranthus barbatus. The major ethnobotanical uses are for intestinal disturbance and liver fatigue, respiratory disorders, heart diseases and certain nervous system disorders. Forskolin as one of the major constituents with its unique adenylyl cyclase activation that underlies the wide range of pharmacological properties could explain the different traditional uses of Plectranthus barbatus. Forskolin is involved in a number of patented pharmaceutical preparations used as over-the-counter drugs for the treatment of several ailments. However, the water-insoluble nature of forskolin limits its clinical usefulness. Forskolin thus served as a prototype for the development of 6-(3-dimethylaminopropionyl)forskolin hydrochloride (NKH477) as a potent water-soluble forskolin derivative that finds use in the therapy for a number of diseases especially of the cardiovascular system. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  5. Food choice and diet of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-04-17

    Apr 17, 1990 ... When offered a selection of food items, bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus in southem Africa chose bones in preference to meat or to feeding from ... Their overall diet was estimated as 70% bone with marrow,. 25% meat and 5% skin. ...... The breeding biology of Aquila verreauxi. Lesson. Ibis 89: 387-410, ...

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 enzymes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plectranthus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapewangolo, Petrina; Hussein, Ahmed A; Meyer, Debra

    2013-08-26

    Plectranthus barbatus is widely used in African countries as an herbal remedy to manage HIV/AIDS and related conditions. To investigate the HIV-1 inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of P. barbatus and thereby provide empirical evidence for the apparent anecdotal success of the extracts. Ethanolic extract of P. barbatus's leaves was screened against two HIV-1 enzymes: protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT). Cytotoxicity of the extract was determined through measuring tetrazolium dye uptake of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the TZM-bl cell line. Confirmatory assays for cytotoxicity were performed using flow cytometry and real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl while the anti-inflammatory properties of the plant extract were investigated using a Th1/Th2/Th17 cytometric bead array technique. P. barbatus extract inhibited HIV-1PR and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 62.0 µg/ml. The extract demonstrated poor inhibition of HIV-1 RT. Cytotoxicity testing presented CC50 values of 83.7 and 50.4 µg/ml in PBMCs and TZM-bl respectively. In addition, the extract stimulated proliferation in HIV negative and positive PBMCs treated. RT-CES also registered substantial TZM-bl proliferation after extract treatment. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 16 µg/ml and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicating anti-inflammatory potential. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro anti HIV-1 potential of P. barbatus including direct activity as well as through the stimulation of protective immune and inflammation responses. The low cytotoxicity of the extract is also in agreement with the vast anecdotal use of this plant in treating various ailments with no reported side-effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EFEITO GASTROPROTETOR DE FITOTERÁPICOS À BASE DE Plectranthus barbatus (MALVA-SANTA

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    Adriana Rolim Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus, (malva-santa, é utilizado pela população para o tratamento de distúrbios gástricos e está incluído no Programa Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação gastroprotetora de dois fitoterápicos à base de Plectranthus barbatus disponibilizado à população por farmácias vivas do estado do Ceará. Diferentes grupos de camundongos Swiss  (n=8 receberam doses orais das tinturas de malva-santa a 20% (0,2ml/animal, extratos secos da tintura (5 – 20 mg/0,1ml/animal ou cimetidina (40 mg/kg. A lesão gástrica foi induzida pela administração de etanol absoluto (0,2ml/animal/v.o. As áreas, total e lesionada, do estômago foram determinadas por planimetria e expressa em termos de porcentagem. Plectranthus barbatus mostrou ação gastroprotetora em todas as concentrações analisadas, reduzindo significativamente a área lesionada pela administração do etanol absoluto. As tinturas analisadas revelaram semelhança fitoquímica qualitativa no perfil cromatográfico. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo demonstrou a eficácia do fitoterápico à base de Plectranthus barbatus. Este trabalho é o primeiro a demonstrar a ação gastroprotetora do Plectranthus barbatus (malva-santa na forma de fitoterápico que agora é reconhecido pelo Serviço Único de Saúde e faz parte da assistência farmacêutica no Brasil.

  8. First discovery of the charophycean green alga Lychnothamnus barbatus (Charophyceae) extant in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Kenneth G; Skawinski, Paul M; McCourt, Richard M; Nault, Michelle E; Evans, Reesa; Barton, Martha E; Berg, Matthew S; Perleberg, Donna J; Hall, John D

    2017-07-27

    Although some species of Characeae, known as stoneworts, can be found on every continent except Antarctica, many species and some genera have limited geographic distributions. The genus Lychnothamnus , represented by a single extant species L. barbatus , was known only from scattered localities in Europe and Australasia until it was recently discovered in North America. Morphological identifications were made from specimens collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. DNA sequences were obtained for three plastid-encoded genes ( atpB , psbC , rbcL ) from seven putative Lychnothamnus samples from two states in the USA Distribution and abundance were estimated in each lake using point intercept surveys where surveyors sampled aquatic vegetation. Fourteen lakes in Wisconsin and two lakes in Minnesota, USA, were found to harbor Lychnothamnus barbatus . These represent the first report of this rare charophycean extant in the New World. The North American specimens matched the morphological description for L. barbatus and were compared directly with the neotype. Phylogenetic results using three plastid-encoded genes confirmed the identification placing New World samples with those from Europe and Australasia. Our phylogenetic analyses also confirmed the sister relationship between L. barbatus and Nitellopsis obtusa . Because this taxon is not known for aggressive invasiveness in its native range, it may have existed in heretofore-undiscovered native populations, although the possibility that it is a recent introduction cannot be eliminated. The potential for discovery of novel lineages of green algae in even well-studied regions is apparently far from exhausted. © 2017 Karol et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  9. Interaction between Plectranthus barbatus herbal tea components and acetylcholinesterase: binding and activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falé, Pedro L V; Ascensão, Lia; Serralheiro, M Luisa; Haris, Parvez I

    2012-11-01

    Plectranthus barbatus water extracts, have been used as herbal teas, for the treatment of various diseases. In a previous study it was demonstrated that antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase active extract constituents and their metabolites were found in the plasma of rats after P. barbatus tea intraperitoneal administration. Consequently, a decrease in brain acetylcholinesterase activity occurred. The aim of the present research is to elucidate how P. barbatus extract components interact with acetylcholinesterase. The estimated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the main intermolecular interaction is hydrophobic association, although hydrogen bonds between flavonoids and the active gorge of the acetylcholinesterase molecule seem to occur and have a great impact on acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The hydroxyl positions in flavonoids seem to be of utmost importance for enzyme inhibition, as they interact with specific amino acid residues in the active gorge. FTIR analysis showed that the plant extract components do not interfere with the secondary structure of the enzyme, but decreases the rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange, possibly by decreasing solvent accessibility in the acetylcholinesterase active gorge. The spectroscopic data complements docking studies of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by plant phenolic compounds, clarifying the dominant interactions between enzyme and inhibitor and the most important structural features of the inhibitor molecules.

  10. Ectoparasites of the black-chinned siskin Spinus barbatus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Fuentes-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite being a bird with a broad and extensive distribution in Chile, the black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782 is not well studied in relation to its parasites. This paper aims to describe the ectoparasite fauna of S. barbatus in central and southern Chile. A total of 125 individuals caught with mist nets were examined alive; a total of 22 parasites were found dead and were exposed to parasit autopsy. The extracted parasites were preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Ectoparasites were found in 56 black-chinned siskins (38%; 48 of them (33% had 870 mites – 680 feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea were identified as Proctophyllodes spini, 167 as Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 as Strelkoviacarus critesi, and one as Analges passerinus. Moreover, three mites were chiggers belonging to the tribe Schoengastiini (Prostigmata: Trombiculidae. In 21 birds (14%, 54 lice were found, 21 of which were identified as Philopterus roehreri, 18 as Myrsidea serini, and 15 as Ricinus carolynae. Endoparasites were not found in the necropsied individuals. All of the parasites that were found represent new records for Chile, and they also serve as new records of host–parasite associations for S. barbatus.

  11. CNS activity of Pokeweed Anti-viral Protein (PAP in mice infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbles Heather E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Others and we have previously described the potent in vivo and in vitro activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent PAP (Pokeweed antiviral protein against a wide range of viruses. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the anti-viral spectrum of PAP by examining its effects on the survival of mice challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Methods We examined the therapeutic effect of PAP in CBA mice inoculated with intracerebral injections of the WE54 strain of LCMV at a 1000 PFU dose level that is lethal to 100% of mice within 7–9 days. Mice were treated either with vehicle or PAP administered intraperitoneally 24 hours prior to, 1 hour prior to and 24 hours, 48 hours 72 hours and 96 hours after virus inoculation. Results PAP exhibits significant in vivo anti- LCMV activity in mice challenged intracerebrally with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of LCMV. At non-toxic dose levels, PAP significantly prolonged survival in the absence of the majority of disease-associated symptoms. The median survival time of PAP-treated mice was >21 days as opposed to 7 days median survival for the control (p = 0.0069. Conclusion Our results presented herein provide unprecedented experimental evidence that PAP exhibits antiviral activity in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice.

  12. Contributions to cytogenetics of Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Lamiaceae: a medicinal plant

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    Aryane Campos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accessions of Plectranthus barbatus (Lamiaceae, a medicinal plant, were investigated using a cytogenetic approach and flow cytometry (FCM. Here, we describe for the first time details of the karyotype including chromosome morphology, physical mapping of GC rich bands (CMA3 banding, as well as the mapping of 45S and 5S rDNA sites. All accessions studied showed karyotypes with 2n = 30 small metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. The CMA3 banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques revealed coincidence between CMA3 bands and 45S rDNA sites (6 terminal marks while for the 5S rDNA were observed 4 subterminal marks no coincident with CMA3 marks. For nuclear genome size measurement, the FCM procedure provided histograms with G0/G1 peaks exhibiting CV between 2.0–4.9 and the mean values obtained for the species was 2C = 2.78 pg, with AT% = 61.08 and GC% = 38.92. The cytogenetic data obtained here present new and important information which enables the characterization of P. barbatus.

  13. Contributions to cytogenetics of Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Lamiaceae): a medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Aryane Campos; Viccini, Lyderson Facio; de Sousa, Saulo Marçal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accessions of Plectranthus barbatus (Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant, were investigated using a cytogenetic approach and flow cytometry (FCM). Here, we describe for the first time details of the karyotype including chromosome morphology, physical mapping of GC rich bands (CMA3 banding), as well as the mapping of 45S and 5S rDNA sites. All accessions studied showed karyotypes with 2n = 30 small metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. The CMA3 banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques revealed coincidence between CMA3 bands and 45S rDNA sites (6 terminal marks) while for the 5S rDNA were observed 4 subterminal marks no coincident with CMA3 marks. For nuclear genome size measurement, the FCM procedure provided histograms with G0/G1 peaks exhibiting CV between 2.0–4.9 and the mean values obtained for the species was 2C = 2.78 pg, with AT% = 61.08 and GC% = 38.92. The cytogenetic data obtained here present new and important information which enables the characterization of Plectranthus barbatus. PMID:26312133

  14. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H., E-mail: amandaramos@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R., E-mail: iferreira@ipb.pt [Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO) - ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (Portugal)

    2017-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  15. Antioxidant activity of Dianthus chinensis L. flowers processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly used in culinary preparations, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. Irradiation treatment is safe and an effective alternative for food conservation, guaranteeing food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation. This technology offers a versatile way to get good quality food while reducing post-harvest losses. Dianthus chinensis L. flowers, popularly known as Chinese pink, are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their bioactive components and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of D. chinensis flowers submitted to electron beam and gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was higher for irradiated samples, especially those treated with 0.5 and 0.8 kGy, independently of the radiation source, which showed the highest capacity to inhibit β-carotene bleaching inhibition. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent feasible technology to preserve the quality of edible flower petals, being able to improve the antioxidant activity. (author)

  16. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  17. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  18. Vertical and horizontal distribution of Desmophyllum dianthus in Comau Fjord, Chile: a cold-water coral thriving at low pH

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    Laura Fillinger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals provide an important habitat for a rich fauna along the continental margins and slopes. Although these azooxanthellate corals are considered particularly sensitive to ocean acidification, their responses to natural variations in pH and aragonite saturation are largely unknown due to the difficulty of studying their ecology in deep waters. Previous SCUBA investigations have shown an exceptionally shallow population of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus in near-surface waters of Comau Fjord, a stratified 480 m deep basin in northern Chilean Patagonia with suboxic deep waters. Here, we use a remotely operated vehicle to quantitatively investigate the distribution of D. dianthus and its physico-chemical drivers in so far uncharted naturally acidified waters. Remarkably, D. dianthus was ubiquitous throughout the fjord, but particularly abundant between 20 and 280 m depth in a pH range of 8.4 to 7.4. The persistence of individuals in aragonite-undersaturated waters suggests that present-day D. dianthus in Comau Fjord may show pre-acclimation or pre-adaptation to conditions of ocean acidification predicted to reach over 70% of the known deep-sea coral locations by the end of the century.

  19. Rare occurrence of reciprocal hybridization in a sympatric population of the Czech stenoendemic Dianthus arenarius subsp. bohemicus and widespread D. carthusianorum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Jana; Vít, Petr; Suda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 3 (2015), s. 329-345 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conservation * Dianthus * interspecific hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2015

  20. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

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    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  1. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

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    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  2. Gypaetus barbatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-27

    ) is the largest natural population in. Europe. In this study, its current genetic variability was assessed using 110 animals of the recent population in order to know what the present situation. Sex identification by DNA ...

  3. Gypaetus barbatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-27

    Jul 27, 2012 ... egg shells. When possible, the use of FTA® cards was preferred because only 2 or 3 drops of blood are required. This collection method minimizes the .... The evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite. Likelihood method. Microsatellite data were analysed in Genetix (Belkhir.

  4. Organization and variation of the mitochondrial control region in two vulture species, Gypaetus barbatus and Neophron percnopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, S; Godoy, J A; Negro, J J; Hiraldo, F

    2004-01-01

    We report the first entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences in two endangered vulture species, the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) and the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Results showed that the general organization of vulture control regions was very similar to other birds, with three distinct domains: a left variable domain (DI), a central conserved one (DII) including the F, E, D, and C boxes, and a right domain (DIII) containing the CSB1 sequence. However, due to the presence of long tandem repeats, vulture control regions differed from other avian control regions both in size and nucleotide composition. The Egyptian vulture control region was found to be the largest sequenced so far (2031 bp), due to the simultaneous presence of repeats in both DI (80 bp) and DIII (77 bp). Low variation was found in vulture control regions, particularly in G. barbatus, as the probable result of populations declines in the last few centuries.

  5. CYP1A and metallothionein expression in the hepatopancreas of Merluccius merluccius and Mullus barbatus from the Adriatic Sea

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    MIRJANA MIHAILOVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme CYP1A is an established biomarker of fish exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The metallothioneins (MT, a family of Cys-rich proteins, bind a wide range of metals and participate in their metabolism. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between CYP1A and MT expression in commercially important fish species Mullus barbatus and Merluccius merluccius and contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, toxic metals in seawater and sediment from three localities with different level of contamination in the Adriatic Sea in winter, i.e., Platamuni, Valdanos and the port of Bar. The relative concentration of CYP1A was the highest in both fish species from Bar. Increased concentrations of PCBs in the seawater were observed only in Bar. A species-specific higher increase in the protein concentration of CYP1A was observed in Mullus barbatus compared to Merluccius merluccius. The levels of MT were the highest in Merluccius merluccius from Bar and in Mullus barbatus from Valdanos. The induction of MT correlated with the elevated concentrations of Cu and Pb determined by chemical analysis of the seawater from Bar and Valdanos, respectively. According to the chemical analysis of the seawater and the biological response of the fish, the Platamuni locality exhibited the lowest level of contamination.

  6. Population Genetic Structure of red mullet (Mullus barbatus L. in Turkish Sea Based on Mitochondrial DNA

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    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mullus barbatus (red mullet is a commercial fish species naturally distributed from Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Dakar, Senegal, Canary Islands, Mediterranean and Black Sea. There is no study in our knowledge aimed to determine population genetic structuring and genetic stocks of M. barbatus species in territorial waters of Turkey. Only a few studies have been carried out on their genetics in Turkey which are limited to determination of phylogenetic relationships between species in familia of Mullidae. In this study population genetic structure and genetic diversity of red mullet (Mullus barbatus L. in Turkish Seas was determined using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA control region. Material and Methods: Red mullet sample were collected from the Mediterranean Sea (Mersin, Antalya, the Aegean Sea (Ayvalık, Marmara Sea (Bandırma, the Black Sea (Zonguldak, Trabzon, Fatsa and Hopa. mtDNA control region of 410 bp in length were amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences were aligned in Bioedit ver 7.1.3.0 (Hall, 1999. Genetic distance between populations (γst (Nei, 1982, haplotype diversities (h, nucleotide diversities(π were detected by DNAsp ver. 5.10 (Rozas et al., 2003. Based on pairwise distance matrix data a UPGMA dendogram was constructed by MEGA 5.05 (Kumar et al., 2004. To explain genetic structuring of samples we performed analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA using Arlequin ver. 3.5 (Excoffier et al., 2010. Results: In total 190 individuals were studied and alignment of partial control region of mtDNA revealed 98 mtDNA haplotypes with 75 polymorphic sites. The average of nucleotide diversities and haplotype diversities were calculated 0,015 and 0,963 respectively. Haplotype and nucleotide (π diversities among the populations ranged from 0,907 (Zonguldak to 0,972 (Trabzon and from 0.0155 (Trabzon to 0,0114 (Bandırma, respectively. Distance tree based on gammast pairwise comparisons revealed two main clades, the

  7. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

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    Karen J Miller

    Full Text Available Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS, the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S and mitochondrial control region (MtC to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  8. Out of their depth? Isolated deep populations of the cosmopolitan coral Desmophyllum dianthus may be highly vulnerable to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen J; Rowden, Ashley A; Williams, Alan; Häussermann, Vreni

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea scleractinian corals will be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing loss of up to 70% of their habitat as the Aragonite Saturation Horizon (below which corals are unable to form calcium carbonate skeletons) rises. Persistence of deep sea scleractinian corals will therefore rely on the ability of larvae to disperse to, and colonise, suitable shallow-water habitat. We used DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the mitochondrial ribosomal subunit (16S) and mitochondrial control region (MtC) to determine levels of gene flow both within and among populations of the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus in SE Australia, New Zealand and Chile to assess the ability of corals to disperse into different regions and habitats. We found significant genetic subdivision among the three widely separated geographic regions consistent with isolation and limited contemporary gene flow. Furthermore, corals from different depth strata (shallow 1500 m) even on the same or nearby seamounts were strongly differentiated, indicating limited vertical larval dispersal. Genetic differentiation with depth is consistent with the stratification of the Subantarctic Mode Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Circumpolar Deep and North Pacific Deep Waters in the Southern Ocean, and we propose that coral larvae will be retained within, and rarely migrate among, these water masses. The apparent absence of vertical larval dispersal suggests deep populations of D. dianthus are unlikely to colonise shallow water as the aragonite saturation horizon rises and deep waters become uninhabitable. Similarly, assumptions that deep populations will act as refuges for shallow populations that are impacted by activities such as fishing or mining are also unlikely to hold true. Clearly future environmental management strategies must consider both regional and depth-related isolation of deep-sea coral populations.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of water soluble extract of Coleus barbatus on cholestasis on young rats Efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Coleus barbatus na colestase em ratos jovens

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    Ana Paula Ronquesel Battochio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the effects of water extract of Coleus barbatus (WEB on liver damage in biliary obstruction in young rats. METHODS: Forty 21 day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten 21 day old (P21 submitted to sham or actual operation (S or L combined with WEB or Water (B or A. At P48 pentobarbital sleeping time (ST was measured. At P49 they were submitted to euthanasia to determine of serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, liver wet weight (PFF and, on hepatic histological slides, the frequency of mitoses (FM, the number of necrotic areas (NN, intensity of fibrosis (IF and intensity of ductal proliferation (IPD. Two Way ANOVA, the S.N.K. test and the Wilcoxon test for paired multiple comparisons were employed to study the effects of cholestasis and those of EAB and their interactions. The Pearson's coefficient of linear correlation of between paired histological variables separately for the groups LA and LD was determined. The test results were considered statistically significant when the p of alpha error OBJETIVO: Testar os efeitos do extrato aquoso de Coleus barbatus (EAB na cirrose biliar secundária por obstrução das vias biliares extra-hepáticas em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar machos com 21 dias de vida (P21, foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, submetidos a operação simulada ou dupla ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar (S ou L combinados EAB e a Água (B ou A. No P48, foi medido o tempo de sono com o pentobarbital (TS. No P49, foram submetidos a eutanásia para a determinação das atividades séricas do aspartato aminotransferase (AST e da alanina aminotransferases (ALT; após a eutanásia foram avaliados o peso fresco do fígado (PFF e, em cortes histológicos do fígado, a freqüência de mitoses (FM, o número de áreas de necrose (NN, a intensidade da fibrose (IF e da proliferação ductal (IPD. Os efeitos da colestase, os

  10. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of abietane diterpenoids isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Massarani, Shaza M; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Abdulkader, Majed; Maes, Louis

    2014-05-12

    Chromatographic separation of the n-hexane extract of the aerial part of Plectranthus barbatus led to the isolation of five abietane-type diterpenes: dehydroabietane (1); 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone (2); taxodione (3); 20-deoxocarnosol (4) and 6α,11,12,-trihydroxy-7β,20-epoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5). The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR methods. Compounds (1)-(3) and (5) are isolated here for the first time from the genus Plectranthus. The isolated abietane-type diterpenes tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxicity was determined against fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Compound (2) 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone showed remarkable activity with acceptable selectivity against P. falciparum (IC50 9.2 µM, SI 10.4) and T. brucei (IC50 1.9 µM, SI 50.5). Compounds (3)-(5) exhibited non-specific antiprotozoal activity due to high cytotoxicity. Compound (1) dehydroabietane showed no antiprotozoal potential.

  11. In Vitro Antiprotozoal Activity of Abietane Diterpenoids Isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the n-hexane extract of the aerial part of Plectranthus barbatus led to the isolation of five abietane-type diterpenes: dehydroabietane (1; 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone (2; taxodione (3; 20-deoxocarnosol (4 and 6α,11,12,-trihydroxy-7β,20-epoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR methods. Compounds (1–(3 and (5 are isolated here for the first time from the genus Plectranthus. The isolated abietane-type diterpenes tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxicity was determined against fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Compound (2 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone showed remarkable activity with acceptable selectivity against P. falciparum (IC50 9.2 µM, SI 10.4 and T. brucei (IC50 1.9 µM, SI 50.5. Compounds (3–(5 exhibited non-specific antiprotozoal activity due to high cytotoxicity. Compound (1 dehydroabietane showed no antiprotozoal potential.

  12. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  13. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Minier, Christophe; Porte, Cinta

    2006-01-01

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period

  14. Spatial and temporal movements in Pyrenean bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus): Integrating movement ecology into conservation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Afonso, Ivan; Moreno-Opo, Rubén

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. Here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus tracked with GPS technology. Our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. Territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km 2 , while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km 2 (with no seasonal differences). Mean daily movements differed between territorial (23.8 km) and non-territorial birds (46.1 km), and differences were also found between sexes in non-territorial birds. Daily maximum distances travelled per day also differed between territorial (8.2 km) and non-territorial individuals (26.5 km). Territorial females moved greater distances (12 km) than males (6.6 km). Taking into account high-use core areas (K20), Supplementary Feeding Sites (SFS) do not seem to play an important role in the use of space by bearded vultures. For non-territorial and territorial individuals, 54% and 46% of their home ranges (K90), respectively, were outside protected areas. Our findings will help develop guidelines for establishing priority areas based on spatial use, and also optimize management and conservation actions for this threatened species.

  15. In Vitro Antiprotozoal Activity of Abietane Diterpenoids Isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Said, Mansour S.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; El Gamal, Ali A.; Al-Massarani, Shaza M.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Abdulkader, Majed; Maes, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic separation of the n-hexane extract of the aerial part of Plectranthus barbatus led to the isolation of five abietane-type diterpenes: dehydroabietane (1); 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone (2); taxodione (3); 20-deoxocarnosol (4) and 6α,11,12,-trihydroxy-7β,20-epoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5). The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR methods. Compounds (1)–(3) and (5) are isolated here for the first time from the genus Plectranthus. The isolated abietane-type diterpenes tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxicity was determined against fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Compound (2) 5,6-didehydro-7-hydroxy-taxodone showed remarkable activity with acceptable selectivity against P. falciparum (IC50 9.2 μM, SI 10.4) and T. brucei (IC50 1.9 μM, SI 50.5). Compounds (3)–(5) exhibited non-specific antiprotozoal activity due to high cytotoxicity. Compound (1) dehydroabietane showed no antiprotozoal potential. PMID:24823881

  16. Exploitation de la variabilité somaclonale pour la recherche d'oeillet (Dianthus caryophyllus L. tolérant à la salinité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haouala, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of Somaclonal Variability for Research of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Tolerant to Salinity. Callogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Légion d'Honneur' is possible from internodes in a medium containing 0.1 mg.l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg.l-1 TDZ. Regeneration from callus needs 2 mg.l-1 BA. Shoots rooting is obtained on a medium containing 0.5 mg.l-1 IBA. Callus growth is reduced and regeneration rate is very affected in presence of NaCl 100 mM. Shoot rooting is better without NaCl. Regenerated plants present somaclonal variation and those obtained under salt stress have a better relative tolerance to salinity than plants regenerated without salt.

  17. Proteção do dano oxidativo hepático induzido por ferro pelo extrato aquoso da planta Plectranthus barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    PERANDIN,D.; MAIOLI,M.A.; SANTOS,P.R.S.; PEREIRA,F.T.V.; MINGATTO,F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) é uma planta muita utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de doenças gastrointestinais e hepáticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de P. barbatus (EAPB) sobre os danos hepáticos causados pela sobrecarga de ferro provocada pelo ferro-dextran em ratos. O tratamento com ferro-dextran induziu uma redução significativa na concentração de glutationa reduzida no...

  18. Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Tsendayush, Damba; Thalhammer, Theresia; Zehl, Martin; Vo, Thanh Phuong Nha; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2010-10-05

    Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium pumilum were investigated for their influence on the bile flow. The aqueous extracts of both plants were tested in absence and presence of 10 μM taurocholic acid at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The aqueous extract of Dianthus versicolor was further purified in order to locate the active principles. Two resulting fractions, one enriched in flavonoids and the other in sugars, were investigated for their influence on the bile flow in absence of taurocholic acid at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L. The aqueous extracts of both plants were analysed qualitatively by LC-MS(n) and quantitatively by UV-spectrophotometry. The bile flow experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat liver. The compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS(n) and TLC using references. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis was based on the monograph "Passiflorae herba" of the European Pharmacopoeia, and the total flavonoid contents were calculated and expressed as vitexin. AE and ME of both plants increased the bile flow dose-dependently (between 9% and 30%), and no hepatotoxic effect was seen even during longer perfusions. Stimulation of bile secretion was comparable in the presence and in the absence of taurocholic acid. The flavonoid fraction of Dianthus versicolor increased the bile flow by 18% (pLilium pumilum (total flavonoid content 1.04%) the flavonoids rutoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were detected. The results show that choleresis under extract application is due to a stimulation of the bile-salt-independent bile flow which might be caused by the osmotic power of the extracts (hydrocholeresis). The flavonoids seem to contribute to the bile-flow-stimulating effect of

  19. Inhibition of the gastric H+,K+ -ATPase by plectrinone A, a diterpenoid isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Carla; Bossolani, Myllene P; Torres, Luce M B; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Lapa, Antonio J; Souccar, Caden

    2007-04-20

    This work assessed the mechanism underlying the antisecretory gastric acid effect of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and active constituents. Popularly known as "false-boldo", this plant is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and hepatic ailments. The plant aqueous extract (AE) and isolated compounds were assayed in vivo in pylorus-ligated mice, and in vitro on acid secretion measured as [(14)C]-aminopyrine ([(14)C]-AP) accumulation in rabbit gastric glands and gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase preparations. Injected into the duodenal lumen, the AE of the plant leaves (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the volume (62 and 76%) and total acidity (23 and 50%) of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated mice. Bioguided purification of the AE yielded an active fraction (IC(50)=24 microg/ml) that inhibited acid secretion in rabbit gastric glands with a potency 10 to 18 times greater than that of the originating extract, on both the basal and stimulated acid secretion by histamine (His) (1 microM) or bethanechol (100 microM). At the same concentrations the gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was also inhibited. The active constituent was chemically identified as the abietanoid dienedione plectrinone A which reduced the H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity with IC(50)=171 microM. The results indicate that inhibition of the gastric proton pump by this diterpenoid may account for the antisecretory acid effect and reputed anti ulcer activity of Plectranthus barbatus.

  20. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-05-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  2. Age determination and validation on otoliths for two sympatric species, Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Mullus surmuletus (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In last few years, there is a strong need to establish a reliable method for age determination and validation on otoliths for Mullidae species in the Mediterranean Sea. In total, 387 specimens of Mullus surmuletus (TL 6.8 to 32.9 cm and 620 specimens of M. barbatus (TL 8.1-22.0 were analyzed. The annual periodicity of annulus deposition was supported by the otolith marginal increment analysis. The annual growth was verified using edge-type analysis. The proportion of otoliths with opaque margins was the highest (>80% in the winter period (December-March. The monthly mean marginal increment showed a single minimum in May and June for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Age validation was done by daily ring counting. A distance measurements analysis revealed that first regular ring appears at distance of 0.78 mm (± 0.104 SD from otolith nucleus and fish age of about 0.83 years for M. surmulets. For M. barbatus first ring appear at 0.70 mm ((± 0.100 SD at age of 0.92 years. The age analysis revealed 4 and 6 age classes for M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, respectively. Predominance of younger age classes (1+ and 2+ was observed for both species. All measured otolith morphometric parameters were linear with fish age. The most precise age estimations were obtained from the otolith width, followed by the otolith length and mass. The growth parameters were estimated by the fit of the Von Bertalanffy growth function. Although, the growth of both species was rapid up to 2 years of age and then slowed, M.barbatus exhibited faster growth. Considering the identified biological differences and their implications, existing management should be complemented by a more holistic, ecosystem approach to regulations, considered separately for each species in order to assure effective conservation measures for this economically and ecologically important fish species.

  3. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-V...

  4. Evaluation of boron isotope ratio as a pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus: Evidence of physiological pH adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, E.; Huang, K.-F.; You, C.-F.; Sikes, E. L.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    The boron isotope ratio (δ11B) of foraminifers and tropical corals has been proposed to record seawater pH. To test the veracity and practicality of this potential paleo-pH proxy in deep sea corals, samples of skeletal material from twelve archived modern Desmophyllum dianthus (D. dianthus) corals from a depth range of 274-1470 m in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans, ambient pH range 7.57-8.05, were analyzed for δ11B. The δ11B values for these corals, spanning a range from 23.56 to 27.88, are found to be related to seawater borate δ11B by the linear regression: δ11Bcoral=(0.76±0.28) δ11Bborate+(14.67±4.19) (1 standard error (SE)). The D. dianthus δ11B values are greater than those measured in tropical corals, and suggest substantial physiological modification of pH in the calcifying space by a value that is an inverse function of seawater pH. This mechanism partially compensates for the range of ocean pH and aragonite saturation at which this species grows, enhancing aragonite precipitation and suggesting an adaptation mechanism to low pH environments in intermediate and deep waters. Consistent with the findings of Trotter et al. (2011) for tropical surface corals, the data suggest an inverse correlation between the magnitude of a biologically driven pH offset recorded in the coral skeleton, and the seawater pH, described by the equation: ΔpH=pH recorded by coral-seawater pH=-(0.75±0.12) pHw+(6.88±0.93) (1 SE). Error analysis based on 95% confidence interval(CI) and the standard deviation of the regression residuals suggests that the uncertainty of seawater pH reconstructed from δ11Bcoral is ±0.07 to 0.12 pH units. This study demonstrates the applicability of δ11B in D. dianthus to record ambient seawater pH and holds promise for reconstructing oceanic pH distribution and history using fossil corals.

  5. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the physiological characteristics of Indocalamus barbatus McClure seedlings under acid rain stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.W.W.; Xie, Y.; Dai, L.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of four concentrations (100, 400, 700, and 1000 mg/L) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, adonor of NO) on physiological characteristics were investigated in the leaves of bamboo (Indocalamus barbatus McClure) seedlings exposed to simulated acid rain (SAR; pH3.0) stress.The results showed that a foliar application of 100 - 400 mg/L SNP pretreatment mitigates the SAR-inflicted decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll (SPAD) content, soluble protein (SP) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the increase in peroxidase (POD) activity as well as in preventing an increase in membrane permeability (MP) and superoxide anion radical generation rate (O2.). This promoting effect was most pronounced at 400 mg/L SNP treatment, which also exhibited a time-dependent effect. However, seedlings subjected to higher concentrations of SNP such as 700 or 1000 mg/L showed little recovery from damage, and even showed signs of toxic damage, demonstrating the concentration-dependent effect of NO against acid rain. Further analysis showed that acid rain exposure caused oxidative stress by elevating MP and O2. in I. barbatus seedlings. Treatment with 400 mg/L SNP partly alleviated the acid rain toxicity by reducing O2. and stimulating SOD and POD activities. The recovery of Pn, SPAD, and SP was also significantly correlated with oxidative status in the seedlings. Moreover, the changes in the physiological indicators mentioned above, were consistent with the morphological observations. Based on these results, it can be concluded that SNP exerted an advantageous effect on alleviating the inhibitory effect of acid rain by regulating the balance of ROS metabolism and reducing the accumulation of ROS. (author)

  6. Deciphering the ecophysiological traits involved during water stress acclimation and recovery of the threatened wild carnation, Dianthus inoxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jurado, Javier; Balao, Francisco; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Dianthus inoxianus is an endangered species endemic from a small littoral area in the SW Spain, with an unusual flowering season under the adverse conditions of dry Mediterranean summer. A greenhouse experiment was designed to assess the physiological traits involved in drought acclimation and recovery of 3-month-old plants. The evolution of plant water status, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments concentrations and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations were followed during water stress and re-watering. Our results indicated that the plant water status, Ψ w and RWC, only decreased at the end of the drought period (18th day), together with the net photosynthetic rate, A N . Photosynthetic impair was mainly caused by diffusional limitations (SL and MCL) of CO 2 , as indicated the joint and marked decrease of g s , g m and C i during drought period, while V c,max did not vary. After rewatering, leaf water status recovered faster than photosynthetic one, reaching control values on day 1 after recovery, while A N , g m and C i took 7 days. Additionally, g s showed the slowest recovery taking 15 days, but g s decrease was enough to keep Ψ w and RWC at constant values throughout the experiment. Results suggest a high tolerance and recovery of D. inoxianus from severe drought periods. This drought tolerance was also reflected in the stability of its photochemical apparatus and pigments concentrations, as indicated the constant values of F v /F m , Ф PSII and pigments concentrations through experimental period. However, prolonged drought events due to global climate change could negatively affect the physiological mechanisms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-04

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKC c , two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE ( SVP )), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 ( AGL6 ), one SEEDSTICK ( STK ), one B sister , one SVP , and one Mα ). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  8. Biomass response to environmental factors in two congeneric species of Mullus, M. barbatus and M. surmuletus, off Catalano–Levantine Mediterranean coast of Spain: a preliminary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García–Rodríguez, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the influence of some abiotic variables in the biomass distribution of these species using survey data collected over four years (2006-2009 in the Catalano-Levantine coast of Spain. The preliminary results show that variables such as time (year and latitude feebly affect the biomass distribution of these species. Depth, by itself, is not as significant as believed, masking the influence of other variables. M. barbatus biomass distribution seems to be especially influenced by salinity and, to a lesser extent, by temperature, while only temperature seems to have a significant effect on the M. surmuletus biomass distribution. These results are consistent with the bathymetric distribution of both species, with M. barbatus showing affinity for low salinity waters and M. surmuletus for warmer waters, which may contribute to the segregation of the species.

  9. Parasite communities in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L., respond to small-scale variation in the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Montero, F. E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2012), s. 1853-1860 ISSN 0025-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mullus barbatus * Parasite communities * Abundance * Similarity * Western Mediterranean * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1200269X#

  10. Differences between Whole Otolith and Broken-Burnt Otolith Ages of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) Sampled from the Black Sea (Samsun, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Nazmi; BOSTANCI, Derya; YILMAZ, Savaş

    2005-01-01

    Different bony structures as scales, vertebrae, otoliths, opercles and subopercles of 156 red mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) sampled from the Black Sea were removed for age determination. Otoliths were read once by two experienced readers. However, due to the difficulty of interpretation of annuli on the otolith edge, the broken-burnt method was applied to the 61 otoliths. Broken-burnt otoliths were also read once by the same two experienced readers. When whole otolith and br...

  11. Review of Papillostrongylus Johnston & Mawson, 1939 (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from wallabies and kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) using morphological and molecular techniques, with the description of P. barbatus n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, N B; Huby-Chilton, F; Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I

    2002-02-01

    The strongyloid nematode genus Papillostrongylus Johnston & Mawson, 1939, from kangaroos and wallabies, is reviewed using morphological and molecular methods. P. labiatus Johnston & Mawson, 1939 is re-described from material from the type-host, the black-striped wallaby Macropus dorsalis, from eastern Queensland, Australia, in which it is a relatively common parasite. Additional records from M. parryi and Thylogale thetis are confirmed and considered to represent examples of host-switching. A geographically disjunct population of the nematode species occurs in M. bernardus and Petrogale brachyotis in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, but assessment of its status requires additional material. Nematodes from M. rufus, M. giganteus, M. fuliginosus and M. robustus from inland regions of Australia, formerly attributed to P. labiatus, are here assigned to a new species, P. barbatus, distinguished by the presence of an external leaf-crown, larger size, by greater spicule length in the male and by a sinuous vagina in the female. Additional hosts of P. barbatus n. sp. are Petrogale assimilis and Pet. lateralis purpureicollis. Sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-2) also showed that P. barbatus n. sp. differed at 40 (16.7%) of the 240 alignment positions when compared with P. labiatus. Most of these interspecific sequence differences occurred in loops or bulges of the predicted precursor rRNA secondary structure, or represented partial or total compenstory base pair changes in stems.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tridentiger bifasciatus and Tridentiger barbatus (Perciformes, Gobiidae): a mitogenomic perspective on the phylogenetic relationships of Gobiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Rixin; Wei, Tao; Tang, Da; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-01-01

    The fishes of suborder Gobioidei is the largest group of those in present living Perciformes, which contains about 2,200 species belonging to 270 genera of 9 families in the world. The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of gobies have been controversial and disputable for a long time. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the shimofuri goby Tridentiger bifasciatus (T. bifasciatus) and shokihaze goby Tridentiger barbatus (T. barbatus) were firstly determined. The two mitochondrial genomes were both consisted of 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one major control region (CR). They shared similar features with those of other gobies in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. The CR was absence of typical conserved blocks (CSB-E, and CSB-F) respectively for the T. bifasciatus and T. barbatus. Phylogenomic analyses, which based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes and complete mitochondrial genome sequences, revealed that there were two groups within the Gobiidae. A large group consisted of the Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae, Oxudercinae and Sicydiinae, and Amblyopinae was nested in Oxudercinae and they were both paraphyletic to Sicydiinae. The other group was the Gobiinae. As a whole, our phylogenetic data was different from the traditionally classification of Gobiidae, but supported the new phylogenetic taxonomy view of Thacker (Copeia 2009:93-104, 2009).

  13. The importance of the nutritive value of old bones in the diet of Bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Villalba, Daniel

    2017-08-14

    Vultures are central-place foragers and need to optimize their foraging behaviour to offset travel costs by increasing their energy gain. This process is more obvious in certain vulture species that do not feed their young by regurgitation and so must carry food items back to the nest. The Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus is the only species with a bone-diet based. We analysed the chemical composition of bones and the age-related changes in their nutritive value to assess the differences in energy content between bones of differing age, body part and species. We found differences between specific anatomical parts, species and the age of the bones. Fresh bones contain 108% as much energy as fresh meat and, interestingly, dry bones retain 90% of the protein found in fresh bones. Dry femurs weighing 140 g retain enough protein to be comparable to 111 g of fresh meat, in energy terms. Compared to meat-eating species, the specialized osteophagous diet of the Bearded Vulture seems to have certain advantages. A better understanding of nutrient levels in food remains could help to improve theoretical foraging models, assist in conservation management, and even improve our understanding of the use of bones by early hominids.

  14. Effect of the extract of the Plectranthus barbatus (Andr. Benth in the reproductive performance of Rattus novergicus (Berkenhout, 1769

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    Gisélida Maria Baquini da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The supposed use of the extract from Plectranthus barbatus for abortive purposes motivated this investigation about the possible toxic effects of ‘False-boldo’ on the embryos and on the offspring of female Wistar rats. Twenty-seven females and nine males, divided into three groups, were used in the experiment. The teas were prepared following the method of infusion, using the leaves of plants fully grown, gathered in residencial areas. After the first day of mating, the animals were submitted to different treatments: (T1 received water, (T2 received the dose of tea considered to be colloquial, and (T3 received a 200% higher dose. To evaluate the quality and to verify the stage of embryonic development, on the fourth day of mating, six females from each group were laparotomized (median abdominal laparotomy in order to perform a uterine lavage, and the collected material was submitted to laboratorial analysis. The offspring resulting from the female rats that did not go through surgery were analyzed five days after their birth. The results did not show any interference with the embryonic development of any group. The offspring of the animals submitted to different treatments presented a normal pattern when compared to the control group. Congenital abnormalities were not observed.

  15. Distribution of Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus (Osteichthyes: Perciformes in the Mediterranean continental shelf: implications for management

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    George Tserpes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work attempts to study the spatio-temporal distribution of Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus in the Mediterranean Sea by using a time series of data from an international bottom trawl survey that covered a wide area of the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental surveys were accomplished annually from 1994 to 2000 on approximately 1000 pre-defined sampling stations distributed in 15 major areas. Selection of stations was based on a depth-stratified random sampling scheme that included five depth strata: 10-50, 50-100, 100-200, 200-500 and 500-800 m. The examined species were found throughout the studied region, mostly in depths down to 200 m. Abundance differences among major areas were found to be statistically significant and were attributed to the different exploitation patterns, as well as the different abiotic and biotic conditions prevailing in each area. Although both species undergo high fishing pressure, results did not demonstrate any decreasing trends in their abundance indices suggesting the existence of a good stock-recruitment relationship over the studied period. However, the dominance of young fish that has been found, makes the stocks highly vulnerable to recruitment changes; hence protection of spawning and nursery areas seems to be essential for their conservation.

  16. Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12%), α-pinene (19.38%) and β-caryophyllene (18.42%). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

  17. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  18. Repartición del recurso trófico entre Mullus barbatus y M. surmuletus en el Mar Catalán (Mediterráneo Noroccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó la composición trófica de Mullus barbatus y M. surmuletus con el fin de evaluar la repartición del recurso entre estas dos especies simpátricas. Para cada especie, los peces se agruparon en intervalos de clase de 1 cm (longitud total = LT. Se realizó el análisis de agrupamiento utilizando el índice de similitud de Bray-Curtis y el método de agrupación de UPGMA. Previamente, para cada intervalo de clase se estandarizó y transformó a doble raíz cuadrada la abundancia de las presas. Con base en la similitud trófica, se definieron seis nuevos grupos: (I adultos mayores de M. surmuletus (21–31 cm LT, (II organismos recién asentados de ambas especies (6–8 cm LT, (III adultos mayores de M. barbatus (19–21 cm LT, (IV adultos de M. barbatus (12–18 cm LT, (V juveniles de ambas especies y (VI adultos de M. surmuletus (12–20, 22 cm LT. El análisis de similitud (ANOSIM muestra que existen diferencias significativas entre la composición trófica de los grupos sucesivos (P ≤ 0.05. Si bien estas especies simpátricas consumen una amplia gama de presas en común, la proporción relativa de sus componentes muestra diferencias claras entre especies e incluso dentro de cada especie a lo largo de su desarrollo; estas diferencias se tornan más evidentes en los organismos mayores. Los resultados del presente trabajo resaltan la importancia de la repartición trófica como un mecanismo que facilita la coexistencia intra e inter específica de estas dos especies simpátricas.

  19. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara O. dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41% as well as (−-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16% as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z-caryophyllene (17.98%, germacrene D (17.35%, and viridiflorol (14.13%; whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%, γ-terpinene (14.74%, carvacrol (37.70%, and (Z-caryophyllene (14.07%. The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  20. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Ortholinea mullusi sp. nov. (Myxozoa) in Mullus barbatus from the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkanlı, C T; Okkay, S; Çiftçi, Y; Yurakhno, V; Özer, A

    2018-01-31

    Myxosporeans of the genus Ortholinea have a worldwide distribution and infect organs and tissues of exclusively marine fishes. Here we describe the morphological and molecular characteristics of Ortholinea mullusi sp. nov. parasitizing the urinary bladder and kidney tubules of red mullet Mullus barbatus collected from the coastal zone of Sinop in the Black Sea, Turkey. Polysporic plasmodia with immature spores were either elongate, 37.0 ± 4.5 SD (30-50) µm long and 45.0 ± 3.8 (40-55) µm wide, or were round, up to 100.0 µm in diameter. Mature, free spores were spherical in the frontal view and measured 9.3 ± 0.2 (9.0-9.7) µm in length, 8.7 ± 0.3 (8.2-9.3) µm in width and 7.7 ± 0.1 (7.5-7.9) µm in thickness. We observed 2 polar capsules of equal size, which measured 3.1 ± 0.1 (3.0-3.2) µm long by 2.5 ± 0.1 (2.4-2.6) µm wide, and the tips of the polar capsules were open towards the sutural line. The prevalence of infection by O. mullusi sp. nov. was 24.5%. Phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) clearly suggested O. mullusi to be a new species, clustered within a lineage comprising O. labracis and O auratae. Pairwise nucleotide similarities and DNA distance values between O. mullusi sp. nov. and sister Ortholinea species also supported this suggestion.

  1. Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraithe, Micheni N; Nguta, Joseph M; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2016-02-03

    Crude extracts from the leaves of Ocimum suave Willd (Lamiaceae) and the root barks of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) were studied to ascertain the ethnopharmacological standing of their antimalarial usage in Kenyan folk medicine. Aqueous and Chloroform: Methanol (1:1) extracts of the plants were used in this study. Toxicity of the extracts was investigated by using brine shrimp lethality test and acute oral toxicity in mice. The antimalarial activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg was screened in Swiss albino mice against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (D6) using Peters 4-day suppressive test. Chloroquine, at a dosage rate of 20 mg/kg was used as a reference drug. The extracts showed some signs of acute toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test. However, no signs of toxicity were observed in the mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg of the crude extracts. The results revealed that all the tested crude extracts were safe. Z. chalybeum aqueous extract and P. barbatus organic extract showed chemosuppressive activities of 81.45% and 78.69%, respectively. This antimalarial activity was not significantly different from that of chloroquine (P<0.05). The findings suggest that the Kenyan folkloric medicinal application of these plants has a pharmacological basis. Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of bioactive molecules from the two species could lead to new hits against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. - Highlights: • PCBs, DDTs, APs and BPA were detected in liver tissues of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada). • Highly induced EROD activity were measured in fish samples from Mersin Bay in comparison to reference fish. • Liver and gonad impairments were observed in samples from contaminated area of Mersin Bay. - Histopathological alterations and induced EROD activities were observed in parallel with elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants in red mullet and thinlip grey mullet.

  3. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

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    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  4. Integrated chemical and biological analysis to explain estrogenic potency in bile extracts of red mullet (Mullus barbatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción, E-mail: concepcion.martinez@mu.ieo.es [Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Oceanografic Centre of Murcia, Varadero 1, San Pedro del Pinatar, 30740 Murcia (Spain); Lamoree, M.; Hamers, T.; Velzen, M. van; Kamstra, J.H. [VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fernández, B.; Benedicto, J.; León, V.M. [Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Oceanografic Centre of Murcia, Varadero 1, San Pedro del Pinatar, 30740 Murcia (Spain); Vethaak, A.D. [VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deltares, Marine and Coastal Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •In vitro estrogenic activity was quantified in male bile extracts of feral red mullet. •Major PAH metabolites and alkylphenols were quantified in the same fish bile extracts. •Contribution of these compounds to the estrogenicity measured was found negligible. •PAH and alkylphenol fish exposure was low in most of the studied Mediterranean sites. •High estrogenicity in male fish from Mar Menor lagoon warrants further studies. -- Abstract: A biological screening was performed to establish the total exposure to estrogenic compounds of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) collected at several sites along the Spanish Mediterranean coast by testing male fish bile extracts using the in vitro ER-LUC reporter gene assay. In addition, major metabolites were identified and measurements of OH-PAHs (1-naphthol, 9-phenantrol, 9-fluorenol, 1-pyrenol, 1OH-BaP and 3OH-BaP) and alkylphenols (4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and 4-tertoctylphenol (4-tert-OP)) in the same fish bile extracts were taken by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in electron ionization mode (GC–EI-MS). Relative in vitro estrogenic potencies of the chemically quantified compounds were also tested. The highest biliary concentrations of 1-pyrenol, 9-fluorenol and 4-n-NP were found in fish from Barcelona and from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. However, these concentrations can be considered relatively low compared to values reported in red mullet from other polluted waters in the Mediterranean Sea. The contribution of 1-pyrenol, 4-n-NP and 4-tert-OP to the total estrogenic potency measured in male fish bile was found to be negligible, indicating the presence of other estrogenic compounds in red mullet bile. Estrogenic potency in bile from male fish was markedly elevated in Mar Menor lagoon (234.8 ± 5.7 pg E2EQ/μl), and further research will be necessary to explain whether the presence of natural and synthetic-hormones in the lagoon contributed to this finding. Values of approximately 15–16 E2EQ pg

  5. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

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    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  6. A Novel Sugar Transporter from Dianthus spiculifolius, DsSWEET12, Affects Sugar Metabolism and Confers Osmotic and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Aimin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant SWEETs (sugars will eventually be exported transporters play a role in plant growth and plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, DsSWEET12 from Dianthus spiculifolius was identified and characterized. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that DsSWEET12 expression was induced by sucrose starvation, mannitol, and hydrogen peroxide. Colocalization experiment showed that the DsSWEET12-GFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, which was labeled with FM4-64 dye, in Arabidopsis and suspension cells of D. spiculifolius. Compared to wild type plants, transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing DsSWEET12 have longer roots and have a greater fresh weight, which depends on sucrose content. Furthermore, a relative root length analysis showed that transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Finally, a sugar content analysis showed that the sucrose content in transgenic Arabidopsis was less than that in the wild type, while fructose and glucose contents were higher than those in the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that DsSWEET12 plays an important role in seedling growth and plant response to osmotic and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis by influencing sugar metabolism.

  7. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.-Y.; Chen, Z.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil (p -1 soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg -1 soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments

  8. Anti-trypanosomal activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β -D-glucose isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae

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    Roberta T. dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MeOH extract from the leaves of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae, showed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a gallic acid derivative, identified as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG, after thorough NMR and MS spectral analysis. Finally, this compound was tested against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and displayed an EC50 value of 67 µM, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole. This is the first occurrence of PGG in the Plectranthus genus and the first anti-parasitic activity described for PGG in the literature.

  9. Anti-trypanosomal activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-? -D-glucose isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberta T. dos; Hiramoto, Liliane L.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    MeOH extract from the leaves of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae), showed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a gallic acid derivative, identified as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG), after thorough NMR and MS spectral analysis. Finally, this compound was tested against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and displayed an EC 50 value of 67 μM, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole. This is the first occurrence of PGG in the Plectranthus genus and the first anti-parasitic activity described for PGG in the literature (author)

  10. Anti-trypanosomal activity of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-? -D-glucose isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberta T. dos; Hiramoto, Liliane L.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Sartorelli, Patricia [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Tempone, Andre G.; Pinto, Erika G. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Lorenzi, Harri, E-mail: psartorelli@unifesp.br [Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    MeOH extract from the leaves of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae), showed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a gallic acid derivative, identified as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-{beta}-D-glucose (PGG), after thorough NMR and MS spectral analysis. Finally, this compound was tested against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and displayed an EC{sub 50} value of 67 {mu}M, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole. This is the first occurrence of PGG in the Plectranthus genus and the first anti-parasitic activity described for PGG in the literature (author)

  11. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteção do dano oxidativo hepático induzido por ferro pelo extrato aquoso da planta Plectranthus barbatus

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    D. PERANDIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae é uma planta muita utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de doenças gastrointestinais e hepáticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de P. barbatus (EAPB sobre os danos hepáticos causados pela sobrecarga de ferro provocada pelo ferro-dextran em ratos. O tratamento com ferro-dextran induziu uma redução significativa na concentração de glutationa reduzida nos animais tratados em relação ao grupo controle e o tratamento prévio dos animais com o EAPB protegeu o fígado do efeito provocado pelo ferro neste parâmetro. Com relação à lipoperoxidação, houve aumento significativo na concentração de malondialdeído (MDA nos animais tratados em relação ao controle, entretanto, quando os animais receberam o tratamento prévio com o EAPB, houve redução significativa na concentração do MDA. A análise histopatológica mostrou que o grupo tratado com ferro-dextran apresentou grânulos de ferro no citoplasma das células de Kupffer com alargamento das mesmas e algumas com os núcleos hipertróficos. O tratamento prévio com EAPB resultou no desaparecimento dos sinais de danos às células de Kupffer sem nenhum núcleo hipertrófico, mas com a presença de grânulos de ferro totalmente fagocitados, o que demonstra uma aparência morfológica normal. Portanto, o EAPB pode ser útil na prevenção de danos hepáticos induzidos por sobrecarga de ferro.

  13. Volatile-oils composition, and bioactivity of the essential oils of Plectranthus barbatus, P. neochilus, and P. ornatus grown in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Luísa; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luís G; Barroso, José G; Miguel, M Graça; Faleiro, M Leonor; Ascensão, Lia

    2014-05-01

    Volatile-oils chemical composition and bioactivity of the essentail oils from Plectranthus barbatus, P. neochilus, and P. ornatus (Lamiaceae) were assessed. Aerial parts from these three related Plectranthus species were collected from cultivated plants grown in Portugal, during vegetative and flowering phases. Volatiles, isolated by distillation-extraction, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (12-74%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4-45%) constituted the main fractions in all volatiles. α-Pinene (3; 12-67%), oct-1-en-3-ol (6; traces-28%), β-pinene (7; 0.1-22%), and β-caryophyllene (50; 7-12%) dominated P. barbatus volatiles. P. neochilus major volatile components were α-terpenyl acetate (41; traces-48%), α-thujone (2; 2-28%), β-caryophyllene (50; 2-28%), β-pinene (7; 1-25%), and α-pinene (3; 1-19%). Oct-1-en-3-ol (6; 13-31%), β-pinene (7; 11-24%), α-pinene (3; 11-19%), and β-caryophyllene (50; traces-11%) were the main constituents from P. ornatus volatiles. These chemical compositions were rather different from those previously found for specimens harvested in Africa and Brazil. Moreover, the volatiles from the flowers are herewith reported for the first time. Essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation from leaves and stems, showed a yellowish color and unpleasant odor, with yields ranging from 0.08% to 0.84% (v/dry weight). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated by DPPH· and TBARS assays, and agar disc-diffusion method, respectively. Results showed low or moderate antioxidant capacity and significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents.

  15. Exogenous Supplementation of Silicon Improved the Recovery of Hyperhydric Shoots in Dianthus caryophyllus L. by Stabilizing the Physiology and Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Cho, Yoon S.; Jeong, Byoung R.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. ‘Green Beauty’. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1.8 mM, or 3.6 mM of potassium silicate (K2SiO3). After 2 weeks of culture, we observed only 20% of hyperhydric shoots were recovered in control. On the other hand hyperhydricity, shoot recovery percentage in 1.8 mM and 3.6 mM of Si were 44% and 36%, respectively. Shoots in control possessed higher lipid peroxidation rate compared to the Si treatments. Similarly, damaged stomata were detected in the control, while Si treatments restored the normal stomatal development. Expressions of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase varied between the control and Si treatments. Furthermore, a proteomic analysis showed that as compared with the control Si up-regulated 17 and 10 protein spots in abundance at 1.8 and 3.6 mM of Si, respectively. In comparison to the 3.6 mM, 1.8 mM of Si treatment up-regulated 19 proteins and down-regulated 7 proteins. Identified proteins were categorized into six groups according to their biological roles such as ribosomal binding, oxido-reduction, hormone/cell signaling, metal/ion binding, defense, and photosynthesis. The proteomic results revealed that Si actively involved in the various metabolisms to accelerate the recovery of the shoots from hyperhydricity. Thus, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for addressing the molecular insight of hyperhydricity and its recovery mechanism by the supplementation of Si. Therefore, we conclude that active involvement of Si in the regulation and signaling process

  16. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-01-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO 2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 ) under two levels of CO 2 (360 and 860 μL L −1 , respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO 2 than under ambient CO 2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 , the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO 2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient CO 2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO 2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  17. GC-MS characterisation and biological activity of essential oils from different vegetative organs of Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus caninus cultivated in north Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, F; Squillace, P; Testa, C; Sparacino, A C; Angioletti, S; Beretta, G

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from the roots, stems and leaves of Plectranthus barbatus (A) and Plectranthus caninus (B), cultivated in north Italy, were obtained by steam distillation and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest yields were obtained from roots (268.15 and 673.60 mg/kg from A and B), followed by leaves (64.34 and 26.65 mg/kg) and stems (19.76 and 18.63 mg/kg). A total of 128 structures were identified in A and 121 in B. Fe(++) chelating and antiradical activities (DPPH and ABTS) were evaluated: root and stem EOs showed the strongest activities, while EOs from leaves did not show relevant activities. All EOs were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity, showing optimal growth-inhibition in antibiogram (∅>35 mm) and MIC tests (32-64 μg/mL) against Candida albicans, while EOs from leaves of both species showed a good activity (25 < ∅ < 34 mm, MIC 64-128 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli.

  18. Parasites and hystopathology of Mullus barbatus and Citharus linguatula (Pisces from two sites in the NW Mediterranean with different degrees of pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carreras-Aubets

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of fish parasite communities as bioindicators of environmental stress was tested on two benthic fish species, the red mullet (Mullus barbatus and the spotted flounder (Citharus linguatula, during the spring of 2006 at two sites of the Catalan coast (northwestern Mediterranean: an anthropogenic-impacted area located close to the city of Barcelona, and a less polluted area close to Blanes (Girona. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices and condition factor were determined for the fishes caught. Prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance and species richness of the parasites found in the survey were calculated for both species and locations, and the main histological alterations were recorded. Cysts of unknown aetiology and intestinal coccidians were reported only in red mullets from the area close to Barcelona, which were highly parasitized by the digenean Opecoeloides furcatus and the nematode Capillaria sp. However, a higher prevalence of Ichthyophonus sp. was reported in the spotted flounder from Blanes. Cysts of unknown aetiology, some nematodes and Ichthyophonus sp. may be associated with pollution.

  19. The establishment of an in vitro gene bank in Dianthus spiculifolius Schur and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus (Schott Nym. et Kotschy Tutin: I. The initiation of a tissue collection and the characterization of the cultures in minimal growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Holobiuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the plants have to cope with the warming of the climate. As a consequence of this process more than half of the plant species could become vulnerable or threatened until 2080. Romania has a high plant diversity, with endemic and endangered plant species, the measures of biodiversity conservation being necessary. The integrated approach of biodiversity conservation involves both in situ and ex situ strategies. Among ex situ methods of conservation, besides the traditional ones (including field and botanic collection and seed banks, in vitro tissues techniques offer a viable alternative. The germplasm collections can efficiently preserve the species (of economic, scientific and conservative importance, in the same time being a source of plant material for international exchanges and for reintroduction in the native habitats.The "in vitro gene banking" term refers to in vitro tissues cultures from many accessions of a target species and involves the collection of plant material from field or from native habitats, the elaboration of sterilization, micropropagation and maintaining protocols. These collections have to be maintained in optimal conditions, morphologically and genetically characterized. The aim of our work was to characterize the response of the plant material to the minimal in vitro growth protocol for medium-term cultures achievement as a prerequisite condition for an active gene bank establishment in two rare Caryophyllaceae taxa: Dianthus spiculifolius and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus. Among different factors previously tested for medium-term preservation in Dianthus genus, mannitol proved to be more efficient for minimal cultures achievement. In vitro, the cultures were evaluated concerning their growth, regenerability and enzyme activity (POX, SOD, CAT as a response to the preservation conditions in the incipient phase of the initiation of the in vitro collection. The two species considered in this study showed a

  20. Evaluación de la distribución poblacional del Acaro Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

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    Luna Segura Diego Marino

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important ecological topics about Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval. (Acari: Tetranychidae pest management was studied in a comercial crop of carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L. in greenhouse in Suba - Cundinamarca. Population of mites was evaluated on 3 thirds and 9 ages of plants during rainy and dry season. 34.8334.61% were found on the up third and 27.84% were found on the lower third of plants. Mite population reached equilibrium state, de life cycle was 37.19C% for egg;
    20.50% for larva; 24.37% ninfal stages and 17.54% for adults. Trifolium repens L.; Stellaris media (L. Cyrill; Pos annua L.; Veronica persica Poir; Holcus lanatus L. and
    Oxslis corniculata L. were found as secondary hosts for T. cinneberinus during this studv, In laboratory conditions, 300C and 85 ± 5% R.H., the life cycle of Tetrsnychuscinnabarinus
    (Boisduval. on Triototium repens L. Was shorter than the life cycle on carnation (Disnthus csryopbvtlu. L..El trabajo se desarrolló bajo condiciones de cultivo comercial (Municipio de Suba, Cundinamarca, abordó interrogantes
    de interés específico para el manejo de ácaros en clavel, como son principalmente: dinámica de población y efecto
    del ciclo de vida. Bajo invernadero, se evaluó la distribución vertical de poblaciones teniendo en cuenta: tres estratos, nueve edades de planta y dos épocas (lluviosa y seca; además se buscaron hospedantes secundarios del ácaro. Las mayores poblaciones de arañita se presentaron en plantas de 19, 20 y 21 meses de edad, con un 34.83% del total. Al tener en cuenta distribución vertical se observó que el estrato medio contiene la mayor población, el 37.55% y la menor, el
    estrato inferior con el 27.84%. Al comparar los diferentes estados del ciclo de vida del ácaro se pudo ver la condición de equilibrio estable de su poblaci

  1. Stock boundaries of Mullus barbatus (Mullidae and Parapenaeus longirostris (Penaeidae populations in the Italian seas: development of genomic 2b-RAD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ferrari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over-fishing is one of the most complex and argued issue among the human impacts affecting the marine environment. The development of integrated policies for fish stock conservation and its responsible use are essential. Nowadays, genomics is considered an ultimate tool to define stock boundaries and population structure as it expands the focus on the entire organism’s genetic makeup and its interaction with the environment. An example of effort and capitalization on genomics is shown by the Italian RITMARE Flagship Project, which aims to create a genomic mapping for stocks of two commercially important species, the red mullet (Mullus barbatus L. and the deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1847, through the use of 2b-RAD technology, based on sequencing the uniform fragments produced by type IIB restriction endonucleases. A sampling design covering 8 Geographical Sub-Areas was defined on the basis of nursery areas, abundance and importance in local fishery and it was completed during the MEDITS 2013 survey. After the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from 7 individuals for each species, the 2b-RAD protocol was tested for the first time. Thereafter, a high-throughput sequencing of libraries was accomplished through Illumina® platform and the software STACKS was used to analyze the sequences. Several millions of high quality reads per individual were obtained and approximately from 1.0 to 2.0x10e3 candidate SNP markers were identified. These preliminary results confirm the successful application of 2b-RAD technology on both non model species and, above all, its effective extendibility to larger number of individuals and population samples, necessary to assess stock boundaries and stock units in the Italian seas.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Mwitari

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg and fluconazole (25 µg were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50200 µg/ml. Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwitari, Peter G.; Ayeka, Peter A.; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N.; Bii, Christine C.

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78–100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

  4. Citogenética de Calochortus barbatus (Liliaceae: Calochortoideae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, en México, Distrito Federal Cytogenetics of Calochortus barbatus (Liliaceae: Calochortoideae of the Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio citogenético en células de meristemos radiculares de individuos de Calochortus barbatus de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, en México, D.F. Luego de aplicar una metodología de extendido y secado al aire se confirma un número cromosómico 2n = 4x = 36 (x = 9 y se propone por vez primera una fórmula cariotípica para la especie (14m + 22st. El cariotipo asimétrico (T.F. % = 23.13, que incluye 4 cromosomas subtelocéntricos pequeños portadores de constricciones secundarias y satélites, permite descartar la presencia de fragmentos. La longitud cromosómica total haploide (53.48 μm y el intervalo cromosómico (1.85-4.27 μm añaden datos novedosos sobre la arquitectura cromosómica. Se discute el papel de la hibridación intraespecífica y autoploidía en la conformación del cariotipo de esta especie y la necesidad de realizar estudios similares en especies estrechamente relacionadas.Meristematic root cells from seeds of individuals of Calochortus barbatus from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico were analyzed cytogenetically using a surface spreading and air-drying method. The chromosomal number, 2n = 4x = 36 (x = 9 was corroborated. The mitotic karyotype was established for the first time for this species as 14m + 22st. The asymmetric karyotype, which includes 4 small subtelocentric chromosomes bearing a secondary constriction with its corresponding satellites, allows to discard previous reports of chromosomal fragments. Total haploid chromosomal length (53.48 μm, chromosomal length range (1.85 - 4.27 μm and the asymmetry index (T.F. % = 23.13 add new information on chromosome architecture. The role of intraspecific hybridization and autoploidy in shaping the karyotype of this species and the need of performing similar analyses in related species are discussed.

  5. Parâmetros de qualidade físico-químicos e avaliação da atividade antioxidante de folhas de Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Lamiaceae submetidas a diferentes processos de secagem

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    C.F.G SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho descreve a composição físico-química, a avaliação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de sequestro de radicais livres DPPH, determinação de flavonoides e de fenóis totais dos extratos etanol, acetona e aquoso de Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Lamiaceae, desidratadas em secador solar e em estufa de circulação de ar a 60 oC. Os valores de atividade de água encontrados para as duas secagens foram inferiores ao mínimo necessário para o crescimento e produção de toxina de patógenos de importância alimentar. Os resultados das análises físico-químicas demonstraram que ambos os processos mostraram-se eficientes na desidratação de P. barbatus. Os resultados demonstraram que os extratos acetona (estufa e etanol (estufa e secador solar foram os que apresentaram maior conteúdo de fenóis totais. O extrato etanólico (estufa apresentou maior quantidade de flavonoides e melhor potencial antioxidante (IC50 = 75,71 ± 10,57 µg mL-1.

  6. The distribution and timing of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) vocalizations reflect changing environmental conditions in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Kalyn Quintin

    The Arctic is experiencing dramatic shifts in climate that have led to changes in sea ice distribution, extent, and timing that pose adaptability challenges for Arctic species. Ice obligate species, such as the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, are inherently vulnerable to Arctic warming due to their reliance on seasonal sea ice as a platform for pupping and molting. Bearded seals are a highly vocal pan-Arctic species, in which males produce underwater vocal displays as part of courtship behavior during mating season. Bearded seal vocalizations were once believed to be a spring phenomenon, but results of this study have revealed year-round acoustic activity by bearded seals in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas (BCB). This new insight suggests that passive acoustic monitoring can be employed as an effective method to examine bearded seal distribution, migration patterns, and population structure year-round. This study provides a more complete understanding of bearded seal behavior and ecology through the analysis of year-round passive acoustic data collected in the BCB between 2008 and 2011. The BCB comprises three ecologically distinct bodies of water connected by the currents that flow northward from the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and into the Arctic. The fine- and broad-scale oceanographic and physiographic variability that exists among the BCB may directly or indirectly (through sea ice conditions) affect bearded seal distributions. Analysis of seal vocal presence relative to sea ice distribution helped to clarify the relationships between bearded seal vocal behavior, habitat preferences and sea ice conditions. Regional and recording-site variability in call activity was largely related to sea ice conditions and geography, however oceanographic variability may contribute to the fine-scale variability in call activity that was present between closely located sites. This research provides a contemporary baseline of bearded seal distributions

  7. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds

  8. Métodos de secagem e rendimento dos extratos de folhas de Plectranthus barbatus (boldo-da-terra e P. ornatus (boldo-miúdo Methods estimated drying and percentage of extracts in leaves of Plectranthus barbatus (Brazilian bold and P. ornatus (false bold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus sp. pertence à família Lamiaceae e inclui cerca de 300 espécies. Duas delas, P. barbatus (PB e P. ornatus (PO destacam-se pelo interesse medicinal. As principais substâncias encontradas em Plectranthus sp. são os diterpenóides, óleos essenciais e compostos fenólicos. A melhor forma de utilizar as folhas de PB e PO é a fresco; porém, na comercialização há necessidade de recorrer a processos de secagem. Entretanto, isto pode interferir no princípio ativo, desta forma, estudos para determinar o melhor método gravimétrico são importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar qual o melhor método de secagem, onde haja maior perda de água possível, e calcular os rendimentos dos extratos visando avaliar se o método gravimétrico interfere na quantidade de extrato produzido. Desta forma, utilizou-se quatro métodos de secagem e após evaporação do solvente, fez-se o cálculo do rendimento dos extratos secos. O percentual de água foi superior em PB e PO (média geral de 90,12±8,22%. Dentre as secagens, em estufa de ventilação forçada (EVF foi mais eficiente em PB (88,87% e em estufa convencional (ECO foi melhor em PO (95,13%. O maior rendimento do extrato seco em PB foi na secagem em camada delgada (CD (20,96%, enquanto que em PO foi ECO (41,34%. Não houve correlação entre o método de secagem e o rendimento de extrato obtido.Plectranthus sp. belongs to the family Lamiaceae and includes about 300 species. Two of them, P. barbatus (PB and P. ornatus (PO, have medicinal interest. The main substances found in Plectranthus sp. are the diterpenoids, essential oils and phenolic compounds. The best way to use the leaves of PB and PO is cool; but for marketing there is a need of resort to drying processes. However, this may interfere on the values of active principle; thus, studies to determine the best gravimetric methods are important. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best method of drying, where there

  9. REGULACIÓN ESPACIO-TEMPORAL DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L. DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL PATÓGENO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la regulación espacio-temporalde la actividad enzimática y de los nivelestranscripcionales de la enzima fenilalaninaamonio liasa (PAL por sus siglas en inglésen clavel (Dianthus caryophyllusL. inoculado con el patógeno causal delmarchitamiento vascular. Se inocularoncon Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiesquejes de dos variedades con diferenciasen los niveles de tolerancia a la enfermedad–Kiss (tolerante y Uconn (susceptible–y se realizaron muestreos posinoculacióna diferentes horas, tanto en eltallo como en la raíz, con el fin de evaluarlos parámetros en estudio. Se determinóque durante la infección con el patógeno,la variedad tolerante presentó inducciónde la actividad PAL en la raíz a las 48 horasde la inoculación. Esto indica que eneste órgano de la planta se estimula la rutafenilpropanoide, responsable de la generaciónde metabolitos fenólicos presentesen una alta diversidad de fenómenos asociadosa resistencia vegetal. Considerandoque durante la evaluación de los nivelesde transcripción en este órgano de laplanta mediante la técnica semicuantitativade transcripción reversa y la posteriorreacción en cadena de la polimerasa(RT-PCR por su nombre en inglés no sepresentó aumento importante en los niveles de mRNApara esta enzima, se evidenciala participación de mecanismos de regulaciónpostranscripcional que determinanla generación de la enzima activa. Enel tallo no se presentaron cambios en laactividad enzimática ni en los nivelestranscripcionales, lo cual indica que la regulaciónde la respuesta de defensa de laplanta está determinada por el órgano involucradoen el proceso de infección.

  10. Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cuellar

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially important like corollas shape, color and leave shape, show environment more than genetic dependence.

  11. Radiobiological research on carnation chimerae Dianthus Caryophyllus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereau-Leroy, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    A radiobiological study of periclinal carnation chimerae is carried out by subjecting whole plants and cuttings at different physiological stages to cobalt 60 gamma radiation under different dose and dose rate conditions. The effects of these treatments are observed during cultivation of the treated plants and by microscopic examination of irradiated meristem sections. The destruction of meristem cells in proportions varying with the irradiation conditions leads to structural changes in the chimerae; the more frequent change is the formation of genetically homogeneous stalks from different genotypes existing in the irradiated plant. Treatment by ionizing radiations is thus a practical means of detecting periclinical chimerae which, as in the case of carnations, are very common in plants grown by vegetative propagation. However since more than two independent meristem cell groups are usually present it is not possible by this method alone to define the distribution of the differentent genotypes in these groups; additional genetic studies or cell labelling such as chlorophyll or genoma mutations are then necessary [fr

  12. The reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Africa. PhD Thesis. University of Natal. Pietermaritzburg. Bustamante, J. 1998. Use of simulation models to plan species reintroductions: the case of the bearded vulture in southern Spain. Animal Conservation 1: 229-238. Calderón, J. 1982. Comunicaciones breves. An. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 20: 115-116.

  13. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  14. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  15. Pengaruh Iradiasi Ultraviolet Terhadap Multiplikasi Tunas Aksiler Dan Kadar Klorofil Anyelir (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Afza, Higa; Iriawati, nFN

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) is one of the lights spectrum that causes plant cell to damage. The use of ultraviolet irradiation in combination with tissue culture techniques has not been widely used in somaclonal variation method for carnation breeding, whereas the source of ultraviolet irradiation is more easily obtained compared to other sources of irradiation such as gamma rays, x-rays and neutron rays. The purpose of this study was to determine effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the multiplication ...

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARMOVIRUS ON CARNATION (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniawati Diningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnation has a highly economic demand of cut flower in Indonesia. Field observations in West Java Indonesia was conducted in order to find the typical mottle symptoms that was a suspect caused by a virus disease. Identification of the virus was respectively conducted by performing ELISA test with four anti sera and characterizations held by bioassay, observing of virion particles, detecting of nucleic acid by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Total of 403 samples were collected from plants with or no virus-like symptoms. Among those all tested, 83% were found to be infected by Carnation mottle virus (CarMV, but negatively against Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV, Carnation laten virus (CLV, and Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV antisera. By mechanical inoculation, the virus was able to infect systemically Cenopodium quinoa and locally infect on others. However on Phalaenopsis sp and Gomprena globosa, there was symptompless found. The isometric CarMV particles size was approximately 30 nm. RT-PCR using specific primers of CP gene of CarMV successfully amplified a DNA sized 1000 bp. CarMV West Java Indonesian (Idn-WJ isolates possessed the highest nucleotide and amino acid homology with CarMV from Spain and was in the same cluster with CarMV from China, Taiwan and Israel.

  17. Procedures for expressing natural or induced variability in carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis (gamma rays) and in vitro organogenesis are used separately or both to diversify carnation varieties by revealing and creating variability. As regards to in vivo mutagenesis, an important diversification of the flower colour is obtained by applying a 60 Gray dose to two hundred rooted cuttings. The organogenesis ability has been tested among different types of explants. The petal of young floral bud shows the best caulogenesis capacities. The organogenesis region is located at the petal base. Histological studies reveal that neoformations are originated from epidermic and sub-epidermic cellular layers. The morphogenetic evolution of neoformations depends on growth factors imbalance. Isolated neoformations can grow in a vegetative way (vitrous plantlets) or in a reproductive one (petaloid structures). Modifications of the petal and neoformations culture conditions induce a normal development by preventing and suppressing vitrification. Histological studies show strong anatomic differences between vitrous and petaloid forms when compared to the normal ones. A method combining in vitro organogenesis and mutagenesis has been investigated. To avoid chimera, petals are irradiated the second day of culture (differentiated cells). A 20 or 40 Gray dose can be applied [fr

  18. Efecto de Luz Adicional en la Floración de Claveles (Dianthus caryophyllus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Henao Luz Marina

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la influencia de diferentes fotoperíodos en clavel, se llevó a cabo una investigación, en la cual fueron utilizadas tres variedades de tipo miniatura. El experimento se adelantó en el Oriente Antioqueño, en la plantación comercial "F lores del Caribe". Durante el tiempo en el cual se adelantó la investigación, las plantas fueron sometidas 8 condiciones normales de cultivo, en lo que hace relación a fertilizaciones, densidad de siembra, "pinch" o "cape", control de plagas y enfermedades y demás prácticas culturales. Solamente se hizo variar la iluminación. Para el efecto fueron usadas distintas horas de iluminación en la noche a saber: una, dos, cuatro y cero horas de interrupción de la noche. Se utilizaron bombillas de tipo incandescente, colocadas a 2 m. de distancia entre ellas y a una altura de 1 m. para una iluminación promedia de 13 a 17 pies candela. Se observaron 20 semanas las producciones de las distintas variedades. Se encontró un efecto debido a variedad en los parámetros longitud de tallos, número de entrenudos, peso fresco y producción total. Al igual pudieron observarse diferencias altamente significativas, debidas a los distintos tratamientos para el número de entrenudos y producción total. En todos los casos se observó que los picos de producción fueron anticipados con los diferentes tratamientos de interrupción de la noche. Resulta benéfico en el sentido de acelerar la cosecha, el uso de la iluminación. El floricultor deberá tener en cuenta el costo de la iluminación y el beneficio que le reporte tal práctica para que ella sea instaurada o no en las plantaciones comerciales de claveles.

  19. Habitat selection and seasonal movements of young bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael F; Frost, Kathryn J; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Breed, Greg A; Whiting, Alex V; Goodwin, John; Boveng, Peter L

    2018-01-01

    The first year of life is typically the most critical to a pinniped's survival, especially for Arctic phocids which are weaned at only a few weeks of age and left to locate and capture prey on their own. Their seasonal movements and habitat selection are therefore important factors in their survival. During a cooperative effort between scientists and subsistence hunters in October 2004, 2005, and 2006, 13 female and 13 male young (i.e., age Bering Strait and into the Bering Sea where they spent the winter and early spring. The SDRs of 17 (8 female and 9 male) seals provided frequent high-quality positions in the Bering Sea; their data were used in our analysis. To investigate habitat selection, we simulated 20 tracks per seal by randomly selecting from the pooled distributions of the absolute bearings and swim speeds of the tagged seals. For each point in the observed and simulated tracks, we obtained the depth, sea-ice concentration, and the distances to sea-ice, open water, the shelf break and coastline. Using logistic regression with a stepwise model selection procedure, we compared the simulated tracks to those of the tagged seals and obtained a model for describing habitat selection. The regression coefficients indicated that the bearded seals in our study selected locations near the ice edge. In contrast, aerial surveys of the bearded seal population, predominantly composed of adults, indicated higher abundances in areas farther north and in heavier pack ice. We hypothesize that this discrepancy is the result of behavioral differences related to age. Ice concentration was also shown to be a statistically significant variable in our model. All else being equal, areas of higher ice concentration are selected for up to about 80%. The effects of sex and bathymetry were not statistically significant. The close association of young bearded seals to the ice edge in the Bering Sea is important given the likely effects of climate warming on the extent of sea-ice and subsequent changes in ice edge habitat.

  20. Food choice and diet of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their overall diet was estimated as 70% bone with marrow, 25% meat and 5% skin. This diet is about 15% higher in energy than an equivalent mass of meat. Of 683 identified prey items from five sources of data, over 80% consisted of domestic livestock; about 60% of this was sheep and goats. Even birds nesting within ...

  1. HIV-induced immunodeficiency. Relatively preserved phytohemagglutinin as opposed to decreased pokeweed mitogen responses may be due to possibly preserved responses via CD2/phytohemagglutinin pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, K D; Odum, N

    1989-01-01

    We studied the proliferative response of PBL to the mitogens PHA and PWM and Candida albicans Ag in 301 HIV seropositive homosexual men, of whom 55 had AIDS. The responses to PHA were reduced only in the clinically ill HIV seropositive subjects. In contrast, the responses to PWM were profoundly...... and eight controls were chosen for the following studies. Expression of T3, Ti, delta receptors, and CD2 was investigated and showed an increased percentage of CD2 receptors positive cells in HIV seropositive subjects without AIDS. The proliferative responses of PBL to stimulation with PHA, PWM, antibodies...

  2. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  3. Modelo de aparición de nudos en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Delphi cultivado en sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López M. Miguel Ángel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los modelos fenológicos son herramientas diseñadas para conocer y predecir el desarrollo de las plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la temperatura base (Tb para la aparición de nudos y en función de este parámetro generar un modelo fenológico para tallos florales de clavel estándar cv. Delphi a primer pico de producción. El ensayo se estableció en un invernadero, en el SENA ubicado en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se sembraron esquejes en tres tipos de sustrato (100% cascarilla de arroz quemada; mezcla de 65% de cascarilla de arroz quemada y 35% de fibra de coco; mezcla de 35% de cascarilla de arroz quemada y 65% de fibra de coco. La Tb se estimó mediante el ajuste de un modelo exponencial entre la tasa de aparición de nudos y la temperatura acumulada. Se usó el método de Euler para la simulación de nudos y el desarrollo fenológico de la planta se determinó a través del tiempo térmico. El tipo de sustrato no influenció la tasa promedio de aparición de nudos (0,102 nudos/día. El valor estimado de la Tb fue de 0,12°C. A partir del pinch, y hasta la aparición del botón floral se acumularon 1.363,2 grados día (gdd; y el pico de cosecha se alcanzó a los 2.226,5 gdd. La aparición de nudos fue un proceso acelerado en los primeros estadios de desarrollo, que disminuyó paulatinamente luego de la aparición del botón floral. El máximo número de nudos observado fue 16,18 y el máximo estimado por el modelo fue 16,89. El modelo se ajusta de manera satisfactoria para las condiciones evaluadas y presenta un bajo índice de raíz cuadrada del cuadrado medio del error (RSME = 0,28.

  4. Phylogeography, genetic structure and diversity in the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, L) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José A; Negro, Juan J; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A

    2004-02-01

    Bearded vulture populations in the Western Palearctic have experienced a severe decline during the last two centuries that has led to the near extinction of the species in Europe. In this study we analyse the sequence variation at the mitochondrial control region throughout the species range to infer its recent evolutionary history and to evaluate the current genetic status of the species. This study became possible through the extensive use of museum specimens to study populations now extinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two divergent mitochondrial lineages, lineage A occurring mainly in Western European populations and lineage B in African, Eastern European and Central Asian populations. The relative frequencies of haplotypes belonging to each lineage in the different populations show a steep East-West clinal distribution with maximal mixture of the two lineages in the Alps and Greece populations. A genealogical signature for population growth was found for lineage B, but not for lineage A; futhermore the Clade B haplotypes in western populations and clade A haplo-types in eastern populations are recently derived, as revealed by their peripheral location in median-joining haplotype networks. This phylogeographical pattern suggests allopatric differentiation of the two lineages in separate Mediterranean and African or Asian glacial refugia, followed by range expansion from the latter leading to two secondary contact suture zones in Central Europe and North Africa. High levels of among-population differentiation were observed, although these were not correlated with geographical distance. Due to the marked genetic structure, extinction of Central European populations in the last century re-sulted in the loss of a major portion of the genetic diversity of the species. We also found direct evidence for the effect of drift altering the genetic composition of the remnant Pyrenean population after the demographic bottleneck of the last century. Our results argue for the management of the species as a single population, given the apparent ecological exchangeability of extant stocks, and support the ongoing reintroduction of mixed ancestry birds in the Alps and planned reintroductions in Southern Spain.

  5. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  6. INDUCCIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD DE LA ENZIMA FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L POR ELICITORES DEL HONGO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento a nivel del tallo de la enzima fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL, por su nombre en inglés phenylalanine ammonia liase, durante la interacción clavel-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2, se seleccionaron las condiciones para su extracción y cuantificación de la actividad. Para la extracción a partir de tallos y raíces se seleccionó un tratamiento previo del material vegetal con acetona y posterior extracción con buffer borato pH 8,8 con EDTA 2mMy -mercaptoetanol 18 mM. Para su cuantificación a nivel del tallo se debe realizar un ensayo discontinuo por 10 min, a 37 oC, pH 8,0 y a una concentración de sustrato de 35 mM. Adicionalmente se muestra mediante un ensayo in vivo el efecto que tiene, como inductor de esta enzima, la aplicación de un extracto crudo del patógeno. Los resultados observados indican que esta enzima se induce significativamente en tallos de claveles de la variedad tolerante “Kiss” durante el tratamiento por aspersión con el extracto crudo del patógeno, mientras que dicha inducción fue inexistente para la infección directamente con el patógeno. La inducción en esta variedad indica que en este extracto del patógeno se presentan elicitores potenciales para la inducción de esta enzima y por ende de la ruta fenilpropanoide.

  7. Improving the Vase life of Cut Carnation ‘Tempo’ (Dianthus carryophyllusL.) Flower by Silver Thiosulphate and Silver Nano-Particles

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hashemabadi

    2014-01-01

    Nanometer-sized silver particle can be act as an anti-microbial compound. Thus, in this research, the efficacy of silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles as antimicrobial agents in extending the vase-life of cut carnation flowers was evaluated. A factorial experiment carried out based on randomized completely blocks design with two factors: silver thiosulphate (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM) and silver nano-particles (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Mean comparison of the data showed that the combined ...

  8. Improving the Vase life of Cut Carnation ‘Tempo’ (Dianthus carryophyllusL. Flower by Silver Thiosulphate and Silver Nano-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hashemabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized silver particle can be act as an anti-microbial compound. Thus, in this research, the efficacy of silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles as antimicrobial agents in extending the vase-life of cut carnation flowers was evaluated. A factorial experiment carried out based on randomized completely blocks design with two factors: silver thiosulphate (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM and silver nano-particles (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L. Mean comparison of the data showed that the combined treatments of 0.3 mM silver thiosulphate + 15 mg/L silver nano-particles had the highest vase life, water uptake and super oxide dismutase enzyme. Thus, the mentioned above treatment was proposed to increase prolong vase life and improvement of water relations and control of stem end blockage. Based to results of this study, silver thiosulphate and silver nano-particles can be used for increasing postharvest longevity of cut carnation "Tempo".

  9. Desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón floral en clavel estándar (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var. Nelson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo Gabriel Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los mayores costos de producción del clavel estándar se asocian con la mano de obra que se utiliza en las labores del cultivo; el desbotone es una de las actividades que demanda mayor uso de mano de obra y tiempo. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón principal, sobre la producción y calidad en poscosecha del clavel estándar variedad Nelson en el primer pico de cosecha. Se evaluaron los estadios conocidos popularmente como botón ‘arveja’, ‘garbanzo’, ‘barril’, ‘estrella’, ‘bala’ y ‘punto de corte’. Las variables medidas incluyeron producción total a primera cosecha, grados de calidad y algunos criterios de clasificación en poscosecha. Se concluyó que el desbotone en los estadios evaluados no influye significativamente en la producción total del clavel en la primera cosecha. Sin embargo, en la clasificación por grados de calidad, se encontraron diferencias significativas: el desbotone en botón arveja’, ‘garbanzo’ y ‘barril’ mostró mayores promedios en el número de tallos grado ‘select’, mientras que el desbotone en botón ‘estrella’, ‘bala’ y ‘punto de corte’ reflejó mayores promedios para los grados ‘fancy’ estándar y nacional. El desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón principal afectó el número de tallos torcidos, sin aumentar significativamente el número de tallos débiles. El ensayo permitió definir que la etapa crítica para el desbotone son los estadios de desarrollo del botón principal previos al estadio ‘barril’, pues pasado este punto disminuye la calidad del producto.

  10. Rhizobium leguminosarum COMO ORGANISMO BIOCONTROLADOR DE LA INTERACCIÓN HOSPEDERO-PATÓGENO: CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus – Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Woo Lee Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de biocontrol de Rhizobium leguminosarum (R. leguminosarum cepa B, contra Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.dianthi (FOD raza 2, en la interacción Clavel - FOD. Se utilizó la raza 2 de FOD por ser la de mayor patogenicidad y distribución en las fincas de cultivo de clavel en Colombia. Para ello se establecieron las condiciones de inoculación de FOD sobre cultivos establecidos de R . leguminosarum, variando la concentración in vitro de la bacteria. Se encontró una reducción en el número de microconidias hasta un 90% y una inhibición en el crecimiento radial del patógeno de hasta un 71 %. En el ensayo de microcultivo dual se detectó fraccionamiento de las hifas después de 48 horas de incubación con R . leguminosarum En el ensayo in vivo, los esquejes de clavel Raggio di solé, variedad susceptible al patógeno, fueron inoculados con 45.0 x 10 células de R. leguminosarum por matero, mostrando una severidad inferior al 5%, una incidencia menor del 20% y una reducción del índice de la enfermedad hasta de un 92% en presencia del patógeno.

  11. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in the intestinal contents of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brent R; Parrington, Lorna J; Parenteau, Monique; Leclair, Daniel; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was determined for ringed and bearded seals harvested for food in the Nunavik region in northern Quebec, Canada. Flow cytometric results demonstrated that G. duodenalis was present in the intestinal contents of 80% of the ringed seals and 75% of the bearded seals tested, while Cryptosporidium spp. were present in 9% of the ringed seals and none of the bearded seals. Prevalence of both parasites was highest in animals less than 1 yr of age. Giardia sp. isolates from ringed seals were identified as G. duodenalis Assemblage B, which is commonly identified in human infections. The high prevalence of G. duodenalis in ringed seals, and the presence of Assemblage B in these animals, highlights the potential for zoonotic transmission to the Inuit people, who consume dried seal intestines and uncooked seal meat.

  12. Cosecha temprana, apertura forzada y vida en el vaso de flores de cuatro variedades de clavel (Dianthus cariophyllus L., en invierno y en verano Early harvest, forced flower opening and vase life of four varieties of carnation (Dianthus cariophyllus L. in winter and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de. L. Avila

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la cosecha temprana y la apertura forzada de pimpollos con sacarosa, en invierno y en verano, en flores de 4 variedades de clavel (Moresco, Mabel, Nov y Golden Odino. Las flores fueron cosechadas en cinco estados de desarrollo, desde botón cerrado hasta flor abierta (estados 0 al 4, hidratadas en frío (2 ºC con una solución de tiosulfato de plata (0,1 M durante 24 horas y luego transfe ridas a una solución de ácido cítrico (500 mg l-1 y citrato de hydroxyquinoleina (60 mg l-1; la solución de apertura contenía, además, 100 g l-1 de sacarosa. Cuando se completó la apertura de la flor se evaluó tamaño, intensidad de color y vida en el vaso. El tamaño de la flor fue similar en invierno y verano en las varie dades Moresco, Golden Odino y Nov, sin embargo, en todas las variedades la vida en el vaso fue menor en verano. El agregado de sacarosa mejoró la aper tura, el tamaño de las flores e intensificó los colores en todas las variedades y estados de corte. La mayor calidad se logró combinando el agregado de saca rosa y la cosecha en estado 0 -1 en verano y 2 -3 en invierno.Early harvest and forced flower opening with sucrose addition in the preservative solution effects were evaluated during winter and summer, in Moresco, Mabel, Nov and Golden Odino carnation varieties. The flowers were harvested at five dif ferent stages of development: from tight flower buds to open flowers (state 0 to 4. Immediately, these were hydrated during 24 h using a silver thiosulfate solution (0,1 M at 2 ºC. Then, the flowers were treated with a preservative solution containing citric acid (500 mg l-1 and hydroxyquinoline citrate (60 mg l-1, with and without sucrose (100 g l-1. Petal color, vase life and flower size were evaluated when the full open flower stage was obtained. The flower size was similar during winter and summer in Moresco, Nov and Golden Odino, but the vase life was significantly reduced in the summer. The sucrose addition allowed improving the flower size and the petal color in all the stages of development evaluated. The best flower quality was obtained by combining sucrose addition with the flowers harvested in the stages 2 and 3 in the winter and 0 and 1 in the summer.

  13. Efecto de inhibidores de etileno en la longevidad floral del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. como probables sustitutos del tiosulfato de plata (STS Effect of ethylene inhibitors in extending the vase life of camation iDianthus caryophyllus L. cut flowers as substitutes of silver thiosulfate (STS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos Eliberto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el sector de flores de corte para exportación se
    ha constituido en un renglón de gran importancia económica.
    Sin embargo, los altos costos de producción y los bajos precios han hecho que la rentabilidad de esta industria haya
    decaído en los últimos años. El tiosulfato de plata (STS es
    uno de los productos más empleados en poscosecha de flores, pero en la actualidad es visto como un posible contaminante ambiental. Con el objetivo de comparar la respuesta de productos tradicionales en poscosecha, cuyo ingrediente principal es el ion Ag", con otros de mayor degradabilidad, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con clavel estándar de la variedad 'Nelson '. Los tallos florales fueron cosechados en cultivo bajo condiciones de invernadero en una finca comercial de la Sabana de Bogotá, seleccionados y sometidos a diferentes soluciones de poscosecha para prolongar la vida en florero. Posteriormente, se les realizó la simulación de transporte durante un periodo de diez días y, en seguida, llevados al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, en donde, se monto el ensayo para realizar las respectivas mediciones. En el laboratorio, los tallos se mantuvieron hidratados en agua destilada, en condiciones de 12 h de fotoperiodo (luz artificial de 6 a.m. a 6 p.m. y con ventilación de 30 min en las horas de la mañana para evitar la acumulación del etileno. Las condiciones ambientales promedio del laboratorio fueron de 19°C y H. R. de 75%. Los productos comerciales empleados fueron Tiosulfato de Plata (STS elaborado en la finca, l-Metilciclopropano (1-MCP, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal EVB, Florissima 125, Florissima 135 y Florissant 100. Los mejores resultados en longevidad floral se obtuvieron con la combinación de 1-MCP + Florissima 135 (22 días, Florissima 125 (21, 7 días y STS finca (21 ,5 días. Se comprobó que algunos productos que no contienen el ion Ag (Florissima 135 y Chrysal EVB presentaron resultados similares a los compuestos que contenían dicho ion y, por lo tanto, pueden ser eficientes en el reemplazo del STS, que es potencialmente un contaminante ambiental.
    In Colombia the sector of cut flower exportation has great
    economic importance. However, high production costs and low
    prices have reduced the profitability off flowers in the last years. With the objective of compared the response of traditional products in postharvest, whose main ingredient is the Ag+ ion, with other products of more degradability, a research was carried out with standard carnation variety 'Nelson'. The floral stalks were harvested in a crop under greenhouse conditions in a commercial production farm ofthe Bogotá plateau. Flowers were graded and treated with different postharvest solutions in order to pro long vase life. Later on, they were kept in simulated transport conditions during a period of ten days; then, postharvest measurements were made in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of the National University of Colombia, Bogotá. In the laboratory stems were kept in distilled water, under photoperiod conditions of 12 h (artificial light from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and with ventilation of 30 min in the morning hours to avoid ethylene accumulation. Environmental conditions of the laboratory were 19°C and relative humidity of 75%. The commercial preservative products used were: Silver Thiosulfate (STS elaborated in the farm, 1- Methylcyclopropene (I-MCP, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal EVB,
    Florissima 125, Florissima 135 and Florissant 100. The best
    results in florallongevity were obtained with the combination
    of l-MCP + Florissima 135 (22 days, Florissima 125 (21,7 days and STS (21,5 days. It was proven that sorne products that not contain the Ag ' ion (Florissima 135 and Chrysal EVB
    presented similar results as compared to the compounds that
    contained the Ag+ ion. Therefore, Florissima 135 and Chrysal
    EVB can be efficient in the substitution of STS which is
    potentially an environmental pollutant.

  14. Situación actual de las poblaciones de los necrófagos Buitre leonado (Gyps fulvus, Alimoche Común (Neophron percnopterus y Qubrantahuesos (Gypaetus barbatus en Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIERBE, T., OLANO, M., VAZQUEZ, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base una publicación de 1987 sobre el estatus de los tres buitres de Gipuzkoa, en el presente trabajo se han actualizado los censos existentes, se han completado los datos de distribución y se han aportado datos de las tasas reproductoras del Buitre Leonado y del Alimoche Común. En el caso del Quebrantahuesos, se han aportado citas de la presencia de esta especie en Gipuzkoa.

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 22 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) · EMAIL FREE .... Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance profiles of Listeria monocytognes from various foods in Gaborone, Botswana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  16. African Zoology - Vol 25, No 3 (1990)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food choice and diet of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in southern Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.J. Brown, I Plug, 169-177 ...

  17. Vulture News - Vol 56 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio-satelllite telemetry of a territorial bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the Caucasus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Gavashelishvili, MJ McGrady, 4-13 ...

  18. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L’ Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nani,Thaís; Teixeira Mesquita,Amanda; de Oliveira Bustamante,Fernanda; Barbosa,Sandro; Barbosa,João Vítor; Davide,Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus , a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus , Plectranthus barbatus , Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present wo...

  19. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L' Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus.

  20. Variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content among four species of Plectranthus L’ Héritier, 1788 (Lamiaceae) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Mesquita, Amanda Teixeira; Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Sandro; Barbosa, João Vítor Calvelli; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plectranthus is a genus which includes species of ornamental and medicinal potential. It faces taxonomic problems due to aggregating species previously belonging to the genus Coleus, a fact that has contributed to the existence of various synonymies. The species Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus neochilus are included in this context. Some authors consider Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus grandis as synonyms. The present work was carried out with the aim of comparing plants of the above-mentioned species, originating from different localities in Brazil, with regards to chromosome number and karyotypic morphology, correlated to the nuclear DNA content. There was no variation in chromosome number among plants of the same species. Plectranthus amboinicus was the only species to exhibit 2n=34, whereas the others had 2n=30. No karyotypic differences were found among the plants of each species, except for Plectranthus barbatus. The plants of the Plectranthus species revealed little coincidence between chromosome pairs. The nuclear DNA content allowed grouping Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus, with the highest mean values, and Plectranthus grandis and Plectranthus barbatus with the lowest ones. Differences in DNA amount among the plants were identified only for Plectranthus barbatus. These results allow the inference that the populations of Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus neochilus present coincident karyotypes among their plants, and Plectranthus grandis is probably a synonym of Plectranthus barbatus. PMID:26753074

  1. 7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) from New Zealand; (4) Articles of Cocos nucifera (coconut); and articles (except seeds) of Dianthus spp... California, Nevada, or Oregon; (17) Solanum tuberosum true seed from New Zealand and the X Region of Chile... than seeds, bulbs, or sterile cultures of orchid plants) from any country or locality except Canada; (6...

  2. Regeneration and Agrobacterium -mediated transformation studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) were used for the transformation of gene performed by the EHA 105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vector, pGA482GG. This vector carries the marker genes, neomycin phosphotansferase II (npt II) that determine resistance to ...

  3. Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic sequences in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory illustrate important synthetic strategies, reagents, or experimental techniques, oftentimes resulting in the synthesis of commercially important compounds. A fragrance with a 'spicy, carnation, sweet, vanilla', named after carnations (Dianthus caryophllus), Methyl Diantillis is…

  4. The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Lizette Marais; Adamski, Nikolai M.; Christensen, Caspar Elo

    2016-01-01

    alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed genomic resources and mapping populations in barley defined these genes to a small region on chromosome arm 2HS. Exploiting Cer-c and -u potential functions pinpointed...

  5. Regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Leaf explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Turbo) were used for the transformation of gene performed by the EHA 105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the binary vector,. pGA482GG. This vector carries the marker genes, neomycin phosphotansferase II (npt II) that determine.

  6. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  7. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  8. Can a general shoot proliferation and rooting medium be used for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transferring to a mixture of sand, leaf-mold and vermiculite (1:1:1, v/v/v) successfully acclimatized the plantlets. It can be concluded that using a general medium for shoot proliferation of used carnation cultivars is possible, but for rooting it is impossible. Keywords: culture medium, Dianthus caryophyllus L., in vitro culture, ...

  9. A Survey of Plants with Anti-HIV Active Compounds and their Modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    jacalin-related lectin that binds to glycosylated viral envelopes blocked HIV-1 entry into cells , and. Phytolacca americana pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a 29 KDa ribosome-inactivating protein that. 46 removes adenine from rRNA was found to be a potent microbicide . Table 1: Plants with active compounds and modes ...

  10. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    the response to pokeweed mitogen. The response to concanavalin A and to various antigens was suppressed, especially the response to large particulate antigens. Oral intake of 300 mg of chloroquine base/week did not affect the lymphocyte proliferative responses. 600 mg of base/week decreased the response...

  11. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective ...

  12. Complex foraging ecology of the red harvester ant and its effect on the soil seed bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pedro; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-01-01

    Granivory is an important interaction in the arid and semi-arid zones of the world, since seeds form an abundant and nutritious resource in these areas. While species of the genus Pogonomyrmex have been studied in detail as seed predators, their impact on seed abundance in the soil has not yet been explored in sufficient depth. We studied the impact of the harvesting activities of the ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus on seed abundance in the soil of the Zapotitlán valley, Mexico. We found that P. barbatus activity significantly impacts the abundance of seeds in the soil, which is lower in the sites where P. barbatus forages than it is in sites with no recorded foraging. We also found that P. barbatus distributes intact seeds of three tree species, two of which are nurse plants, and could consequently be promoting the establishment of these species. Using tools derived from graph theory, we observed that the ant-seed interactions exhibit a nested pattern; where more depredated seed species seem to be the more spatially abundant in the environment. This study illustrates the complex foraging ecology of the harvester ant P. barbatus and elucidates its effect on the soil seed bank in a semi-arid environment.

  13. Study of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and Aminoglycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Rodrigues, Fábio Fernandes Galvao; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus is one of the most representative genera of Lamiaceae family. In this study, the essential oils from Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus ornatus, and Plectranthus barbatus were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial and modulatory activities. The major components found were carvacrol (54.4%-P. amboinicus) and eugenol (22.9%-P. ornatus e 25.1%-P. barbatus). In vitro antimicrobial activity was conducted against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus aureus (multiresistant) using microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that all strains were sensitive to the oils, except P. aeruginosa that was resistant to P. amboinicus and P. ornatus. A synergistic effect of all essential oils combined with the aminoglycosides was demonstrated. These results show that P. amboinicus, P. ornatus, and P. barbatus inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism, and besides this they present antibiotic modifying activity, providing a new perspective against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  14. Authentication of medicinal plant botanical identity by amplified fragmented length polymorphism dominant DNA marker: inferences from the Plectranthus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passinho-Soares, Helna; Felix, Durvalina; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogério

    2006-08-01

    In Brazil, Plectranthus species are known as "boldo" and have been used in popular medicine for analgesic and dyspeptic purposes. Plectranthus need to be well identified in order to be used as commercially genuine medicinal plants. Here we describe AFLP DNA patterns able to distinguish among different Pectranthus species. The genetic variability of P. grandis Cramer, P. barbatus Andr. and P. ornatus Codd was analyzed with two sets of AFLP primers allowing detection of 241 loci. A total of 22 monomorphic loci were identified in P. barbatus, 15 in P. grandis and 30 in P. ornatus. Among these, 5 loci were informative and species-specific to P. barbatus, 3 to P. grandis and 2 loci were unique to P. ornatus. The AFLP pattern analyzed by different clustering methods assembled individuals according to their species. So far, AFLP represents a genuine and strong method to certify medicinal plant materials.

  15. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880 Genetic similarity among four species of Plectranthus genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.Medicinal plants are widely used by the population, therefore they are important sources of natural chemical products. Plectranthus includes species related as “boldo” that have anti-dyspeptics, analgesic and stimulants of digestion properties. Related species or genotypes can differ widely in the amount of natural active principles, in such case the lack of genetic fitness can lead to the use of not appropriate plants to the population health. Molecular techniques can be used for DNA-fingerprinting of plants providing its correct identification. This work aimed at verifying the genetic diversity among four species of Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus Andr. [Syn.: Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq.] Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 89 (2012) - Articles Effect of medium, explants, cytokinins and node position on in vitro shoot multiplication of Caralluma lasiantha (Wight) N.E.Br., an endemic and medicinally important ...

  17. Broad-spectrum pollination of Plectranthus neochilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Stirton

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is discussed and compared with that of another garden plant,  Plectranthus barbatus Andr.. Pollinators and flower visitors of P. neochilus include members of  the Megachilidae, Anthophoridae, Syrphidae, Bombyliidae, Sphingidae, Apidae.

  18. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data : The Cartagena coastal zone as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D.; Campillo, J. Antonio; León, Víctor M.; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A. Dick

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the

  19. Blood Parasites of Semi-Domesticated and Wild Birds in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucocytozoon was dectected in Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis, Meleagris gallopavo, Francolinus bicalcaratus, Hirundo aethopia and Pychonotus barbatus. Live poultry markets prevalence were Plasmodium (47.8 %), Haemoproteus (15.8 %) and Aegyptionella (2.6 %). Leucocytozoon prevalence was 4.2 % in ...

  20. 76 FR 77465 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... population segments (DPS) of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) as threatened species under the... posed to this population by the projected habitat changes. Extension of Final Listing Determination The...

  1. Detection, Classification, and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    3940 714 42840 PALAOA Hydrurga leptonyx leopard seal Antarctic 7249 3923 235440 PALAOA Erignathus barbatus bearded seal northern Alaska 2 1000...NUWC Ziphiidae spp. various AUTEC, North Atlantic 12 17894.1 NUWC Pinnipeds ( seals , sea lions, walrus) Lobodon carcinophaga crabeater seal Antarctic...Pinnipeds ( seals ) Phoca vitulina harbor seal California coastline NMFS/NOAA Anthropogentic Sounds airguns Fram Strait NOAA/CIMRS airguns

  2. cephalopod landings increasing at a faster rate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Data were collected from at least three commercial hauls for each port, season and bathymetric stratum. (Stratum A 350 m). The depth strata selected correspond to the fishing grounds of the most important target species, namely red mullet Mullus barbatus, hake Merluccius.

  3. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  4. Understanding maize/beans intercropping yield distributions from water conservation measures in a hedged agroforestry system in semi-arid Laikipia District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteng'i, S.B.B.; Stigter, C.J.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Cropping systems in semi-arid Laikipia district are more weather sensitive than those in medium to higher potential areas of Kenya. Water, and to a certain extent, wind are major climatic constraints. Agroforestry (AF) farms surrounded by Coleus barbatus hedges as live-fences are being introduced by

  5. Fossil Phocidae in some Dutch collections (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Three cranial and seventy postcranial fossils are briefly described and identified as remains of Phocidae. Three of these are ascribed to the Bearded Seal Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777), nineteen to the Grey or Atlantic Seal Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791), and the remainder to the Common

  6. Food of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus barbatus were quantified at Kimberley, Northern Cape province and Makapansgat, Limpopo province, South Africa. As previously documented for other species, both of these swifts took a wide variety of aerial arthropods including spiders as well as ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collins, Charles T. Vol 81, No 1 (2010) - Articles Food of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus barbatus. Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  8. Vegetation and Grazing in the St. Katherine Protectorate, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants were surveyed in the St. Katherine Protectorate of South Sinai, Egypt. The most frequently recorded plant species include: Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia judaica, Fagonia arabica, Fagonia mollis, Schismus barbatus, Stachys aegyptiaca, Tanacetum sinaicum, Teucrium polium and Zilla spinosa. Dominant plant ...

  9. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  10. B and T lymphocytes in man. I. Effect of infant thymic irradiation on the circulating B and T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.M.; Goh, K.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    B and T lymphocytes were studied in a group of adults whose thymic glands were irradiated in infancy for alleged thymic enlargement. Two independent methods were used to determine the B and T lymphocytes from each peripheral blood specimen: (1) the relative proportion of cells with surface immunoglobulins (B lymphocytes) and cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (T lymphocytes); and (2) the relative mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin (T lymphocytes) and to pokeweed mitogen (B lymphocytes). All specimens were coded. The results obtained indicate: (1) a reduction of B and T lymphocytes; and (2) a decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen in this group of patients as compared with the controls. These observations suggest that (1) the effect of irradiation to the thymus gland on lymphocytes is long lasting and (2) both B and T lymphocytes are affected by irradiation to the thymus gland

  11. Selección de aislados de trichoderma spp. antagonistas a rosellinia necatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano Rosa, David; Moral, Lidia del; López Herrera, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six bulk isolates of Trichoderma spp. from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) crops located in southern Spain were evaluated for antagonism against one isolate of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. Isolates of both types of fungi were tested in dual and cellophane culture. The origin, cultural characteristics, overgrowth sporulation and staining of growth medium were rec...

  12. Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 g/ml on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 g/ml on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a phagocytic index (PI value of approximately 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. For the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the extract (500 g/ml with phytohemagglutinin exhibited maximal activation, with a stimulation index (SI value of approximately 5.8. With concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, and pokeweed mitogen, similar activation (SI 4.5 of lymphocyte proliferation was observed. However, at low concentrations (0.1 g/ml, T. bellerica extract with concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen caused suppressant activity (SI 0.7. The results suggested that the effect of extract on T-lymphocyte proliferation occurred through the same mechanism as phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and B-lymphocyte proliferation through T-cell independent and T-cell dependent mechanisms, in manners similar to lipopolysaccharide and pokeweed mitogen respectively. It might be concluded that the methanolic extract of T. bellerica affected the mouse immune system, specifically both the cellular and humoral immune response in vitro, corresponding with its folklore applications. These results can be further applied to the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  13. Genetic similarities among four species of the Plectranthus (L’Hér. genus = Similaridade genética de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Plectranthus genus comprises several species generally referred to as boldo, which are highly used in popular medicine due to their anti-dyspeptic, analgesic and digestion-stimulating properties. The amount of natural active principles can vary greatly in the related genotypes, which may lead to the inappropriate use of these plants. This work aimed to analyze the interspecific diversity among four species of the Plectranthus genus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus and P. amboinicus and the intraspecific diversity of P. barbatus collected from different places in southern Brazil, by means of the RAPD technique. A higher genetic similarity was observed between the P. neochilus and P. amboinicus species (80%, followed by P. grandis and P. barbatus (77%. P. barbatus genotypes from Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre showed a genetic similarity which was close to 100%, while the genetic similarity for P. barbatus genotypes from other locations was higher than 96%. Although a low variability among genotypes of this species was found in this study, RAPD markers allowed a clear differentiation among the analyzed genotypes, showing a 53% mean genetic similarity, with a high correlation value (r = 0.99, which proves a high agreement between the genetic similarity and clustering data.O gênero Plectranthus abrange plantas de diversas espécies, referidas como boldo, que são utilizadas na medicina popular pelas suas propriedades antidispépticas, analgésicas e estimulantes da digestão. Genótipos relacionados podem diferir amplamente na quantidade de princípios ativos naturais, resultando no uso de plantas não-apropriadas à saúde da população. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética interespecífica de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus (P. grandis, P. barbatus, P. neochilus e P. amboinicus e intraespecífica de P. barbatus, coletadas em diferentes localidades da região Sul do Brasil, por meio da técnica de RAPD

  14. Recruitment dynamics of eight fishery species in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Lloret

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment dynamics into the fishery of eight species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea was studied on the basis of a monthly length sampling on commercial landings lasting one year (March 1999-February 2000. The results show that three species or groups of species (Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus, Eledone cirrhosa and Loligo vulgaris recruited mostly during a well-defined and regular season, while recruitment of the rest of species (Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sepia officinalis and Trisopterus minutus capelanus took place all year round, though with seasonal peaks. Landings of small Merluccius merluccius showed a progressive declining trend from the early 1990s, while the opposite was found for Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Mediterranean Mullidae species (Perciformes inferred from genetic and morphologic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and morphological divergence and phylogenetic relationships of four species Mullus barbatus, Mullus surmuletus, Upeneus moluccensis, Upeneus pori and one subspecies M.b. ponticus of Mullus were investigated using 12 enzymatic systems, corresponding to 17 putative loci. Eight loci (AAT-1*, AAT-2*, ADH*, GAPDH*, G6PDH*, IDHP*, PGI-2*, SOD* were found to be polymorphic in at least one species, while the remaining nine (mAAT*, CK-1*, CK-2*, G3PDH*, MDH*, ME-1*, ME-2*, PGI-1*, PGM* were monomorphic in all species. Several loci showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and thus can be used in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers. The PGM* and SOD* loci proved to be especially species-specific. Fisher’s exact test revealed overall highly significant allele frequency differences between M. barbatus and M. b. ponticus (P

  16. Patterns of DNA methylation in development, division of labor and hybridization in an ant with genetic caste determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Mutti, Navdeep S; Jasper, W Cameron; Naidu, Agni; Smith, Christopher D; Gadau, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common regulator of gene expression, including acting as a regulator of developmental events and behavioral changes in adults. Using the unique system of genetic caste determination in Pogonomyrmex barbatus, we were able to document changes in DNA methylation during development, and also across both ancient and contemporary hybridization events. Sodium bisulfite sequencing demonstrated in vivo methylation of symmetric CG dinucleotides in P. barbatus. We also found methylation of non-CpG sequences. This validated two bioinformatics methods for predicting gene methylation, the bias in observed to expected ratio of CpG dinucleotides and the density of CpG/TpG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Frequencies of genomic DNA methylation were determined for different developmental stages and castes using ms-AFLP assays. The genetic caste determination system (GCD) is probably the product of an ancestral hybridization event between P. barbatus and P. rugosus. Two lineages obligately co-occur within a GCD population, and queens are derived from intra-lineage matings whereas workers are produced from inter-lineage matings. Relative DNA methylation levels of queens and workers from GCD lineages (contemporary hybrids) were not significantly different until adulthood. Virgin queens had significantly higher relative levels of DNA methylation compared to workers. Worker DNA methylation did not vary among developmental stages within each lineage, but was significantly different between the currently hybridizing lineages. Finally, workers of the two genetic caste determination lineages had half as many methylated cytosines as workers from the putative parental species, which have environmental caste determination. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be a conserved regulatory mechanism moderating division of labor in both bees and ants. Current and historic hybridization appear to have altered genomic methylation levels suggesting a possible link

  17. Patterns of DNA methylation in development, division of labor and hybridization in an ant with genetic caste determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a common regulator of gene expression, including acting as a regulator of developmental events and behavioral changes in adults. Using the unique system of genetic caste determination in Pogonomyrmex barbatus, we were able to document changes in DNA methylation during development, and also across both ancient and contemporary hybridization events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sodium bisulfite sequencing demonstrated in vivo methylation of symmetric CG dinucleotides in P. barbatus. We also found methylation of non-CpG sequences. This validated two bioinformatics methods for predicting gene methylation, the bias in observed to expected ratio of CpG dinucleotides and the density of CpG/TpG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP. Frequencies of genomic DNA methylation were determined for different developmental stages and castes using ms-AFLP assays. The genetic caste determination system (GCD is probably the product of an ancestral hybridization event between P. barbatus and P. rugosus. Two lineages obligately co-occur within a GCD population, and queens are derived from intra-lineage matings whereas workers are produced from inter-lineage matings. Relative DNA methylation levels of queens and workers from GCD lineages (contemporary hybrids were not significantly different until adulthood. Virgin queens had significantly higher relative levels of DNA methylation compared to workers. Worker DNA methylation did not vary among developmental stages within each lineage, but was significantly different between the currently hybridizing lineages. Finally, workers of the two genetic caste determination lineages had half as many methylated cytosines as workers from the putative parental species, which have environmental caste determination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that DNA methylation may be a conserved regulatory mechanism moderating division of labor in both bees and ants. Current and historic

  18. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  19. A new carpenter ant, Camponotus parabarbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himender Bharti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of carpenter ant, collected in the Shivalik range of Himalaya is described and illustrated based on the worker and gyne castes under the name Camponotus parabarbatus sp. n. Presence of dense, short setae on gena and ventral surface of head resembles it most to Camponotus barbatus Roger, 1863 distributed in Southeast Asia. A regional identification key of Camponotus species is provided from the Shivalik hills of Indian Himalaya.

  20. Study of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and Aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus is one of the most representative genera of Lamiaceae family. In this study, the essential oils from Plectranthus amboinicus, Plectranthus ornatus, and Plectranthus barbatus were investigated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial and modulatory activities. The major components found were carvacrol (54.4%—P. amboinicus and eugenol (22.9%—P. ornatus e 25.1%—P. barbatus. In vitro antimicrobial activity was conducted against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus aureus (multiresistant using microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that all strains were sensitive to the oils, except P. aeruginosa that was resistant to P. amboinicus and P. ornatus. A synergistic effect of all essential oils combined with the aminoglycosides was demonstrated. These results show that P. amboinicus, P. ornatus, and P. barbatus inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism, and besides this they present antibiotic modifying activity, providing a new perspective against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  1. Quantification of Barbatusin and 3β-Hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin in Plectranthus Species by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of diterpenes barbatusin (1 and 3β-hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin (2 in the extracts from leaves of Plectranthus grandis, P. barbatus, P. ornatus, and P. amboinicus was evaluated by HPLC-DAD analysis on a Luna C-18 column, using isocratic mixtures of water and acetonitrile as eluents. The regression equations were obtained with good linearity (r2 > 0.99 and limit of quantifications was higher than 0.1 µg/mL. The precision (lower than 3.5%, within day and accuracy (higher than 81.7% and lower than 107.6% of the methods were adequate. Barbatusin (1 was detected in P. grandis (15.432 ± 2.28 mg/g and P. barbatus (5.198 ± 3.45 mg/g extracts, while compound 2 was detected in P. grandis (4.068 ± 3.34 mg/g, P. barbatus (0.654 ± 5.86 mg/g, P. amboinicus (0.160 ± 7.25 mg/g, and P. ornatus (0.763 ± 5.10 mg/g. The evaluated validation parameters were satisfactorily achieved, and the developed methodology represents a suitable tool for application in the quantification of barbatusin (1 and 3β-hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin (2 in Plectranthus species.

  2. Quantification of Barbatusin and 3β-Hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin in Plectranthus Species by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos; Lima, Leandro Bezerra; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição Ferreira; de Mattos, Marcos Carlos; Mafezoli, Jair

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of diterpenes barbatusin ( 1 ) and 3 β -hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin ( 2 ) in the extracts from leaves of Plectranthus grandis, P. barbatus, P. ornatus, and P. amboinicus was evaluated by HPLC-DAD analysis on a Luna C-18 column, using isocratic mixtures of water and acetonitrile as eluents. The regression equations were obtained with good linearity ( r 2 > 0.99) and limit of quantifications was higher than 0.1  µ g/mL. The precision (lower than 3.5%, within day) and accuracy (higher than 81.7% and lower than 107.6%) of the methods were adequate. Barbatusin ( 1 ) was detected in P. grandis (15.432 ± 2.28 mg/g) and P. barbatus (5.198 ± 3.45 mg/g) extracts, while compound 2 was detected in P. grandis (4.068 ± 3.34 mg/g), P. barbatus (0.654 ± 5.86 mg/g), P. amboinicus (0.160 ± 7.25 mg/g), and P. ornatus (0.763 ± 5.10 mg/g). The evaluated validation parameters were satisfactorily achieved, and the developed methodology represents a suitable tool for application in the quantification of barbatusin ( 1 ) and 3 β -hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin ( 2 ) in Plectranthus species.

  3. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthéfane G. Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  4. Temporal and spatial distributions of cold-water corals in the Drake Passage: insights from the last 35,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Andrew R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Burke, Andrea; Waller, Rhian G.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Roberts, Mark L.; Auro, Maureen E.; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Scleractinian corals have a global distribution ranging from shallow tropical seas to the depths of the Southern Ocean. Although this distribution is indicative of the corals having a tolerance to a wide spectrum of environmental conditions, individual species seem to be restricted to a much narrower range of ecosystem variables. One way to ascertain the tolerances of corals, with particular focus on the potential impacts of changing climate, is to reconstruct their growth history across a range of environmental regimes. This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution of the solitary scleractinian corals Desmophyllum dianthus, Gardineria antarctica, Balanophyllia malouinensis, Caryophyllia spp. and Flabellum spp. from five sites in the Drake Passage which cross the major frontal zones. A rapid reconnaissance radiocarbon method was used to date more than 850 individual corals. Coupled with U-Th dating, an age range of present day back to more than 100 thousand years was established for corals in the region. Within this age range there are distinct changes in the temporal and spatial distributions of these corals, both with depth and latitude, and on millennial timescales. Two major patterns that emerge are: (1) D. dianthus populations show clear variability in their occurrence through time depending on the latitudinal position within the Drake Passage. North of the Subantarctic Front, D. dianthus first appears in the late deglaciation (~17,000 years ago) and persists to today. South of the Polar Front, in contrast, early deglacial periods, with a few modern occurrences. A seamount site between the two fronts exhibits characteristics similar to both the northern and southern sites. This shift across the frontal zones within one species cannot yet be fully explained, but it is likely to be linked to changes in surface productivity, subsurface oxygen concentrations, and carbonate saturation state. (2) at locations where multiple genera were dated, differences

  5. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  6. Application of a new ultra-microculture system. II. Stimulation of human B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, A J; Gruber, M; Flad, H D

    1988-07-22

    An ultra-microtechnique for culturing human B-lymphocytes in glass capillary tubes using a volume of 2 microliter is described. The advantage of this ultra-microculture system is that only a small number of lymphocytes and minute amounts of culture medium (or test factors) are required. Optimal culture conditions for the formation of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) after stimulation of mononuclear cells with pokeweed mitogen are given. Furthermore it is shown that immunoglobulin secreted into culture supernatants by purified B cells in the presence of T cell subsets can be measured in a microELISA.

  7. Fatty acids affect proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Basiricò

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies were performed to assess the effects of bovine plasma fatty acids on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. PBMC from 6 Holstein heifers were cultured in media containing oleic (OA, palmitic (PA, stearic (SA, linoleic (LA, palmitoleic (POA, or linolenic (LNA acid at concentrations mimicking different degree of lipomobilisation. Proliferation of PBMC was stimulated by concanavalin A or pokeweed mitogen. Concentrations of OA, PA, SA and LA mimicking moderate-intense lipomobilisation impaired PBMC proliferation. Concentrations of OA or LA mimicking low degree of lipomobilisation enhanced PBMC proliferation. None of the POA, and LNA concentrations affected proliferation of PBMC.

  8. Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume, crushed limestone (20% of volume, and sand (45% of volume, and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model.

  9. A comparison of genetic connectivity in two deep sea corals to examine whether seamounts are isolated islands or stepping stones for dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen J.; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M.

    2017-04-01

    Ecological processes in the deep sea are poorly understood due to the logistical constraints of sampling thousands of metres below the ocean’s surface and remote from most land masses. Under such circumstances, genetic data provides unparalleled insight into biological and ecological relationships. We use microsatellite DNA to compare the population structure, reproductive mode and dispersal capacity in two deep sea corals from seamounts in the Southern Ocean. The solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus has widespread dispersal consistent with its global distribution and resilience to disturbance. In contrast, for the matrix-forming colonial coral Solenosmilia variabilis asexual reproduction is important and the dispersal of sexually produced larvae is negligible, resulting in isolated populations. Interestingly, despite the recognised impacts of fishing on seamount communities, genetic diversity on fished and unfished seamounts was similar for both species, suggesting that evolutionary resilience remains despite reductions in biomass. Our results provide empirical evidence that a group of seamounts can function either as isolated islands or stepping stones for dispersal for different taxa. Furthermore different strategies will be required to protect the two sympatric corals and consequently the recently declared marine reserves in this region may function as a network for D. dianthus, but not for S. variabilis.

  10. In vitro synthesis of IgM rheumatoid factor in response to Staphylococcus aureus, by lymphocytes from healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.; Karsh, J.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy adults were tested in vitro for the production of IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in response to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) or pokeweed mitogen. Fifteen of the 20 normal subjects produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 46 +/- 55 ng/ml) in response to SAC, compared with only 2 of 20 who produced greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml IgM-RF (mean +/- SD 2 +/- 4 ng/ml) in response to pokeweed mitogen (P = 0.0001). Separation and reconstitution of autologous T and B cell-enriched fractions, with and without prior T cell irradiation, provided evidence for a radiosensitive T helper/inducer cell involved in the IgM-RF response to SAC in 70% of the normal subjects studied. SAC appears to be a potent stimulus of IgM-RF production, with a cellular mechanism distinct from that of other in vitro systems

  11. Oral candidiasis and immune status of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H; Bentsen, K D; Højtved, L; Willemoes, E H; Scheutz, F; Schiødt, M; Stoltze, K; Pindborg, J J

    1994-03-01

    A total of 84 HIV-infected homosexual men having either normal oral mucosa (NOM), erythematous candidiasis (EC) or pseudomembranous candidiasis (PsC) were included in the study. The patients were evaluated by median number of peripheral CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells and by lymphocyte function assessed by poke-weed mitogen test. There was a significant difference between CD4+ counts among patients with the two subtypes of candidiasis (95% CI of median difference: 10-240/mm3; P = 0.03), but not for pokeweed mitogen response. Survival analysis showed that after 2 y there was no significant difference in development of AIDS between patients with EC and PsC (P = 0.29). If patients with both types of oral candidiasis were pooled and compared with patients with NOM, a significant difference in development of AIDS was found (P = 0.04). It is concluded that HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis of any subtype (EC or PsC) are significantly more immune suppressed and show a faster development of AIDS than HIV-infected patients with NOM. However, in this cohort, EC and PsC are of equal importance as predictors for immune suppression and AIDS development.

  12. Normal mitogen-induced suppression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) response and its deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrington, R.J.; Rutherford, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    A low-frequency suppressor-cell population in normal peripheral blood inhibits the B-cell CESS response to IL-6, following pokeweed mitogen stimulation. The suppression of IL-6 responsiveness is radiation sensitive, directed against CESS targets and not mediated by inhibition of IL-6 production, and associated with nonspecific cytotoxic activity against CESS targets. The generation of these cytolytic cells is also radiation sensitive. A correlation was found between PWM-induced cytotoxicity against CESS and the suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production. But cytotoxicity toward CESS targets is not responsible for this suppression because IL-2 induces equivalent or greater nonspecific cytotoxicity against CESS in the total absence of suppression of CESS-derived IgG production and suppression is also induced by mitogen-activated PBL separated from CESS targets by a cell-impermeable membrane. This suppression was not mediated by TNF alpha/beta or IFN-gamma. In systemic lupus erythematosus, suppression of IL-6-dependent IgG production is impaired in patients with active disease (29.2 +/- 13.7%) compared to patients with inactive disease (70 +/- 19.5%) or normal controls (82.8 +/- 9.2%). There is also a defect in mitogen-induced nonspecific cytotoxicity in active SLE (specific lysis 15.1 +/- 3.5%, compared to 34 +/- 4% in normals). Pokeweed mitogen-activated PBL can therefore normally induce suppression of B-cell IL-6 responses and this response is deficient in lupus

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Phytolacca americana L. in response to cadmium stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Chen

    Full Text Available Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed has metal phytoremediation potential, but little is known about its metal accumulation-related genes. In this study, the de novo sequencing of total RNA produced 53.15 million reads covering 10.63 gigabases of transcriptome raw data in cadmium (Cd-treated and untreated pokeweed. Of the 97,502 assembled unigenes, 42,197 had significant matches in a public database and were annotated accordingly. An expression level comparison between the samples revealed 1515 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 923 down- and 592 up-regulated under Cd treatment. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that they were involved in 72 metabolism pathways, with photosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, ribosome, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms containing 24, 18, 72, 14, 7 and 15 genes, respectively. Genes related to heavy metal tolerance, absorption, transport and accumulation were also identified, including 11 expansins, 8 nicotianamine synthases, 6 aquaporins, 4 ZRT/IRT-like proteins, 3 ABC transporters and 3 metallothioneins. The gene expression results of 12 randomly selected DEGs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR, and showed different response patterns to Cd in their roots, stems and leaves. These results may be helpful in increasing our understanding of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and in future phytoremediation applications.

  14. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our recent investigations have demonstrated that cell cultures from subjects, who received a single spinal manipulative treatment in the upper thoracic spine, show increased capacity for the production of the key immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-2. However, it has not been determined if such changes influence the response of the immune effector cells. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in the same subjects, spinal manipulation-related augmentation of the in vitro interleukin-2 synthesis is associated with the modulation of interleukin 2-dependent and/or interleukin-2-induced humoral immune response (antibody synthesis. Methods A total of seventy-four age and sex-matched healthy asymptomatic subjects were studied. The subjects were assigned randomly to: venipuncture control (n = 22, spinal manipulative treatment without cavitation (n = 25 or spinal manipulative treatment associated with cavitation (n = 27 groups. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from the subjects before (baseline and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours post-treatment. Immunoglobulin (antibody synthesis was induced in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with conventional pokeweed mitogen or by application of human recombinant interleukin-2. Determinations of the levels of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M production in culture supernatants were performed by specific immunoassays. Results The baseline levels of immunoglobulin synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen or human recombinant interleukin-2 stimulation were comparable in all groups. No significant changes in the production of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulins were observed during the post-treatment period in any of the study groups. In contrast, the production of interleukin-2 -induced immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was significantly increased in cultures from subjects treated with spinal manipulation. At 20 min post

  16. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  17. 454-sequencing reveals stochastic local reassembly and high disturbance tolerance within arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Karin Ylva Margareta; Schnoor, Tim; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    applied within a semi-natural grassland would shift the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community towards disturbance-tolerant fungi that are rare in undisturbed soils. 2. We used 454-sequencing of the large subunit rDNAregion to characterizeAMfungal communities in Plantago lanceolata roots grown...... unpredictable, with approximately 40%of all sequences within a sample belonging to a single OTU of varying identity. The distribution of two plant species that are often poorly colonized by AMfungi (Dianthus deltoides and Carex arenaria) correlated significantly with the OTU composition, which may indicate...... that host quality could be an additional driver of fungal communities. 4. Synthesis. Our results suggest that factors other than disturbance drive the relative abundance of OTUs in this grassland and question the long-held assumption that communities shift in a predictable manner after a disturbance event...

  18. Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick M. Musila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus species are difficult to taxonomically delimit due to lack of clear-cut morphological synapomorphies. This study is aimed at bringing insights into classification of ten Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade by using leaf micromorphology and molecular data. Stomatal counts and observation of microtome leaf sections generated leaf micromorphology data, while molecular data was obtained from sequencing MatK and Rbcl genes from each species. Phylogeny based on the MatK and Rbcl gene sequences clustered four species P. caninus, P. otostegioides, P. barbatus, and P. lanuginosus together (Clusters A and D, respectively, while P. pseudomarrubioides, P. ornatus, and P. aegyptiacus were grouped together into Clusters B and E, respectively, and P. montanus and P. amboinicus were grouped together (Cluster C. A dendrogram was generated through a cluster analysis of the leaf micromorphological characters grouped together, P. caninus, P. ornatus, P. otostegioides, P. montanus, and P. pseudomarrubioides (Cluster F. The dendrogram also grouped together P. aegyptiacus, P. amboinicus, P. edulis, P. barbatus, and P. lanuginosus (Cluster G. The present study has grouped the ten studied Plectranthus species using molecular and leaf micromorphology characters into phylogenies, which are supported by previous studies, and proved that these characters can aid in plant identification and phylogenetic studies.

  19. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-04-20

    Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC(50) 4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC(50) < 10 μg/ml) and hence non-specific activities were noted in Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  20. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  1. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  2. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Musayeib Nawal M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 T. brucei and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  3. Review of heavy metal accumulation on aquatic environment in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea part I: some essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Yanar, Alper; Alkan, Ela Nur

    2017-03-01

    All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s. Some concern arose from previous studies, particularly in terms of safety for human consumption. For this purpose, 86 articles and 4 theses were examined and information was collected on the table to open a forward-looking view of the pollution of studied area. In previous studies, the variations in feeding habits, habitats, and the level of copper found in edible muscles of the demersal fish species (deep water fish species, carnivore) such as Mullus barbatus barbatus, Solea lascaris, Sparus aurata were always higher than those found in pelagic (omnivore) Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata. Results show discrepancies caused by many factors; thus, more work must be done carefully.

  4. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...... including a protease inhibitor. Unstimulated and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-, interleukin (IL)-2- and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferative responses increased during follow-up reaching average levels from 1.3-fold (PHA) to 3.7-fold (PWM) above baseline values. The total CD4+ lymphocyte...... count increased mainly due to increases in numbers of CD4+ CD28+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ cells, whereas increases in numbers of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells contributed little to the increase in CD4+ cell count. The total cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) killing of autologous B cells infected with HIV-encoding recombinant...

  5. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  6. Optimal conditions in (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake studies to prevent radiation damage to cells. A scintimetric and cytofluorographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Arguelles, A.; Llorente, L.; Diaz-Jouanen, E.; Alarcon-Segovia, D. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City)

    1981-12-01

    Cells subjected to nucleoside incorporation studies using radiolabelled materials may suffer radiation damage that can alter the results. Scintimetric and cytofluorographic analyses were performed to confirm this and to determine the optimal experimental doses of, and exposure times to, (/sup 3/H)-TdR, in order to prevent or minimize such radiation damage to cells. The results showed that cultures of human mononuclear cells should be pulsed with 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 14 hr when stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 18 hr when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when stimulated with concanavalin A and 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when subjected to allogeneic stimulus, in order to achieve optimal incorporation with minimal disturbances of the cell cycle.

  7. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J

    1990-04-01

    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  8. Postoperative radiation therapy and adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy in breast cancer. Aspects of timing and immune competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klefstroem, P.; Nuortio, L.; Taskinen, E.

    The effects of radiation therapy and adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy on the immune competence of patients with breast cancer were investigated. The tests performed included intradermal tuberculin tests, T- and B-lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte blast transformation tests; phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA) and pokeweed mitogen (PMW) were used as mitogens. Enhancement in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation by PHA and PMW was seen in patients after 3 courses of chemotherapy + levamisole, whereas irradiation given after chemotherapy caused long-lasting depression in response to PHA and PWM (not significant). T-lymphocyte counts were also lower after irradiation than after chemoimmunotherapy. Clinically, the 16 patients treated with radiation therapy after chemotherapy exhibited a higher recurrence rate than the 24 patients treated first by irradiation. Enhanced reactivity to tuberculin tests occurred generally in patients receiving a planned treatment including irradiation, chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) and levamisole. Enhancement of reactivity was seen more often in patients who had not relapsed.

  9. Effects of short-term restraint stress on leukocyte counts, lymphocyte proliferation and lysis of erythrocytes in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, A W; Magnusson, U

    1996-10-01

    The effects of short-term restraint stress on leukocyte counts, lymphocyte proliferation and lysis of erythrocytes were studied in six gilts. A catheter was inserted into the jugular vein and two blood samples were collected before the onset of stress. Thereafter a hog snare was applied and blood samples were collected at 0.5, 2, and 3.5 min after the start of snaring. Neither the total WBC number, nor the total number of lymphocytes, or the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes changed significantly throughout the study. This was also true for the degree of intravasal lysis of erythrocytes. In whole blood cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, an increase (P immunity but not the leukocyte count nor lysis of erythrocytes in pigs.

  10. Effect of levamisole on immune function and reproductive performance in first-litter gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswell, B J; Dawe, D L; Brown, J; Williams, D J

    1988-06-01

    First-litter commercial cross-bred gilts were treated with levamisole (1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 mg/kg of body weight) weekly during the last 4 weeks of gestation, because similar treatment of dairy heifers had improved postpartum maternal health and neonatal survival. In the gilts, differences in reproductive performance were not found on the basis of pig survival at birth, pig survival at weaning, birth weight, or weaning weight. Also, differences between treated and control gilts were not found in response of circulating lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation (phytohemagglutinin A, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen). In all gilts, the lymphocyte response to mitogen stimulation was decreased during the first week after farrowing.

  11. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    The light chain isotype of immunoglobulin-secreting blood cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays allowing direct immunofluorescence staining for cytoplasmic kappa and lambda light chains in centre cells. The study revealed that cultured, polyclonally activated...... pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells expressed the kappa light chain isotype in approximately 65% of the cells. IgM- and IgG-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides had a similar percentage of kappa light chain......-containing cells. In contrast, IgA-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides showed a different (bimodal) distribution as regards expression of kappa light chain. The majority (56%) of the investigated individuals expressed kappa light chain in approximately 50% of the cells...

  12. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  13. Experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis: T-lymphocyte suppression and misdirected immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, J F; Smith, A R

    1985-04-01

    Immune responses and hematologic alterations were investigated in splenectomized pigs after IM inoculation with Eperythrozoon suis. Early hematologic alterations were massive parasitism of RBC, severe hypoglycemia, moderate bilirubinemia, and mild anemia; later findings included severe anemia, minimal parasitism of RBC, spontaneous agglutination of RBC at 25 C and 4 C which was reversible at 37 C, transient thrombocytopenia, and mild bilirubinemia. The humoral immune responses consisting of a transitory hyperglobulinemia and increase of indirect hemagglutination (IHA) titers against E suis were attributed to immunoglobulin M cold agglutinins. Cell-mediated immune responses, measured by phytohemagglutinin- and pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, were reduced after massive parasitemia. Blastogenesis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide mitogen was increased before the hyperglobulinemia and an increase in IHA titer. There was an increase in the uptake of [3H]thymidine by lymphocytes cultured without mitogens after the decline in total globulin concentration and IHA titer.

  14. Immunological studies in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. II. Active suppression or intrinsic defect--investigated by mixing AIDS cells with HLA-DR identical normal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)), allogeneic cells, and the antigen-purified protein derivative (PPD) were studied in six acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and in six healthy controls......, each of whom was HLA-DR- and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)-identical with one of the AIDS patients. No evidence of suppression was observed when irradiated or non-irradiated AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were added to cultures of HLA-DR-identical PMBC from healthy controls stimulated...... with the strong mitogens PHA and Con A or with allogeneic cells, but suppression may be involved in the decreased responses in cultures stimulated with PWM or PPD. Addition of supernatants from macrocultures of AIDS cells did not suppress responses of control PBMC. Thus, suppression by any lymphocyte subset...

  15. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...... lymphocyte count, T-helper (CD4) and T-cytotoxic/suppressor (CD8) counts, and lymphocyte transformation responses to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and to antigenic extracts from Candida albicans and cytomegalovirus. 24 individuals developed HIV-related symptoms or AIDS (11...... cases). All parameters except the CD8 count were of prognostic value, but a multivariate analysis of symptom-free survival showed that HIV antigenemia, a CD4 count less than 0.5 x 10(9)/l, and relative response to PWM below 25% of controls contained all the prognostic information. Individuals abnormal...

  16. Incongruent genetic connectivity patterns for VME indicator taxa: implications for the management of New Zealand's vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. R.; Gardner, J.; Holland, L.; Zeng, C.; Hamilton, J. S.; Rowden, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the New Zealand region vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are at risk from commercial fishing activity and future seabed mining. Understanding connectivity among VMEs is important for the design of effective spatial management strategies, i.e. a network of protected areas. To date however, genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region has rarely been documented. As part of a project developing habitat suitability models and spatial management options for VMEs we used DNA sequence data and microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic connectivity for a range of VME indicator taxa, including the coral Desmophyllum dianthus, and the sponges Poecilastra laminaris and Penares palmatoclada. Overall, patterns of connectivity were inconsistent amonst taxa. Nonetheless, genetic data from each taxon were relevant to inform management at a variety of spatial scales. D. dianthus populations in the Kermadec volcanic arc and the Louisville Seamount Chain were indistinguishable, highlighting the importance of considering source-sink dynamics between populations beyond the EEZ in conservation planning. Poecilastra laminaris populations showed significant divergence across the Chatham Rise, in contrast to P. palmatoclada, which had a uniform haplotypic distribution. However, both sponge species exhibited the highest genetic diversity on the Chatham Rise, suggesting that this area is a genetic hotspot. The spatial heterogeneity of genetic patterns of structure suggest that inclusion of several taxa is necessary to facilitate understanding of regional connectivity patterns, variation in which may be attributed to alternate life history strategies, local hydrodynamic regimes, or in some cases, suboptimal sample sizes. Our findings provide important information for use by environmental managers, including summary maps of genetic diversity and barriers to gene flow, which will be used in spatial management decision-support tools.

  17. Secondary immunity to Legionella pneumophila and Th1 activity are suppressed by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C A; Klein, T W; Friedman, H

    1994-01-01

    Resistance to infection with Legionella pneumophila is primarily dependent upon cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity. Recent evidence suggests that activation of cell-mediated immunity depends on Th1 cells and activation of humoral immunity depends on Th2 cells. In this report, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive cannabinoid of marijuana and an immunomodulator, suppressed development of secondary immunity to L. pneumophila, which correlated with a reduction in Th1 activity. BALB/c mice, infected with a primary sublethal dose of L. pneumophila, developed resistance to a larger challenge infection 3 to 4 weeks later. However, intravenous injection of THC (4 mg/kg of body weight) 1 day prior to primary infection resulted in increased mortality after the challenge infection. The level of anti-L. pneumophila antibodies in serum increased in both THC-treated and control mice; however, in the THC group IgG1 antibodies which are stimulated by Th2 cells were elevated while Th1-regulated, IgG2a antibodies were depressed. Furthermore, cultured splenocytes from THC-treated mice had less L. pneumophila-specific lymphoproliferation, indicating a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity. Normal mouse splenocytes treated in vitro with THC and pokeweed mitogen showed suppressed production of gamma interferon, a cytokine associated with Th1 cells, but increased production of interleukin 4, a cytokine produced by Th2 cells. Splenocytes from THC-treated mice, stimulated in vitro with either pokeweed mitogen or anti-CD3 antibodies, also produced less gamma interferon, indicating less Th1 activity in these mice. These results suggest that THC decreases the development of anti-L. pneumophila immunity by causing a change in the balance of Th1 and Th2 activities. PMID:8063421

  18. Biologic significance of constitutive and subliminal growth factor production by bone marrow stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, E L; McGrath, H; Temeles, D; Crittenden, R B; Kister, V K; Quesenberry, P J

    1992-06-15

    The "stromal" or adherent cells of long-term murine Dexter explant bone marrow cultures provide the best in vitro model of the bone marrow microenvironment. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is produced constitutively by these cells and is easily detected, but most investigators have not found constitutive production of the other hemolymphopoietic cytokines. We have previously reported the detection of granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) in murine stromal cultures and its induction by the lectin Pokeweed mitogen. The present studies analyzing stromal cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) production by standard Northern blot analysis show constitutive production of mRNAs for CSF-1, GM-CSF, granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), c-kit ligand (KL), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not IL-3, IL-4, or IL-5 by 3-week irradiated or nonirradiated murine Dexter stromal cells. Exposure of stromal cells to Pokeweed mitogen or IL-1 16 hours before RNA harvest induces the messages for GM-CSF, G-CSF, KL, and IL-6, but not IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, or CSF-1. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA made with reverse transcriptase from stromal RNA using two separate sets of IL-3-specific primers shows the presence of IL-3 message in irradiated stromal cells, which is only detectable with this more sensitive technique. The factor-dependent cell lines FDC-P1 and 32D are supported by the stromal cells without the addition of exogenous growth factors, demonstrating a cytokine activity in these cultures that is inhibited by the addition of anti-IL-3 or anti-GM-CSF antibodies. These data indicate that murine Dexter stromal cells constitutively produce CSF-1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-6, KL, and IL-3. This growth factor production could explain the support of granulocyte, macrophage, and megakaryocyte production and stem cell maintenance in Dexter-type long-term murine bone marrow cultures.

  19. Composição do óleo essencial de quatro espécies do gênero Plectranthus Essential oil composition of four Plectranthus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Bandeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Plectranthus é considerado um dos mais ricos em óleos essenciais dentro da família Lamiaceae, compreendendo muitas espécies com propriedades medicinais. Algumas destas são conhecidas popularmente como boldo, as quais possuem semelhanças taxonômicas e diversas sinonímias, possuindo ações anti-dispépticas, analgésicas e digestivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quantitativa e qualitativamente os óleos essenciais presentes nas folhas das espécies P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis e P. neochilus. A extração do óleo foi realizada por hidrodestilação, utilizando pentano como solvente extrator, repetida por três vezes para cada uma das espécies. A análise dos componentes dos óleos essenciais das quatro espécies de Plectranthus, através da CG/EM, permitiu identificar 14 componentes químicos, sendo a maioria sesquiterpenos. O trans-cariofileno se apresentou em elevada concentração nos óleos estudados. Alguns componentes químicos demonstraram ser específicos para cada espécie e outros apresentaram ocorrência comum a todas as quatro, possibilitando a diferenciação das mesmas em dois grupos, um formado por P. amboinicus e P. neochilus e o outro por P. grandis e P. barbatus. Conclui-se que as quatro espécies de boldo apresentam diferenças significativas quanto ao teor e à constituição química do óleo essencialPlectranthus has been considered one of the richest genera in essential oils within the Lamiaceae family, which includes several species with medicinal properties. Some of them are commonly known as boldo and present taxonomic similarities and several synonymies, with antidyspeptic, analgesic and digestive actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the essential oils from P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. grandis and P. neochilus leaves. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using pentane as extracting solvent and was repeated three times for each

  20. Geographic variation in helminth parasites from the digestive tract of Tennessee raccoons, Procyon lotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafundo, K W; Wilhelm, W E; Kennedy, M L

    1980-02-01

    The stomachs and intestinal tracts of 253 raccoons, Procyon lotor, were examined for helminth parasites. Sixteen species of helminths were found including eight trematodes, two cestodes, five nematodes, and one acanthocephalan. Fourteen of these helminths are new geographic records for the state of Tennessee. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze two-state and multistate character sets. Matrices of correlation among characters were computed and the first three principal components were extracted, accounting for 79.7% and 66.5% of the variation in the respective character sets. Three-dimensional projections of Tennessee's eight geographic localities onto two-state and multistate principal components demonstrated that raccoons in western localities were parasitized most heavily by Atriotaenia procyonis. Mesocestoides variabilis, Gnathostoma procyonis, and Pharyngostomoides procyonis. Parallelorchis diglossus, Euparyphium beaveri. Eurytrema procyonis, Euryhelmis squamala, Molineus barbatus, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens were most common to P. lotor from eastern areas.

  1. Biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) measured by fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) in several marine fish species from the NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, David; Carrasson, Maite; Maynou, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E; Solé, Montserrat

    2009-11-01

    The fixed wavelength fluoresce (FF) method was used to estimate the levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in the bile of fourteen fish species of commercial and/or ecological interest. Sampling was carried out in the NW Mediterranean at depths ranging from 50 to 1000 m during four seasonal cruises. During the summer sampling period, some species were also collected from another site (Vilanova fishing grounds) for comparison. Baseline levels of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were measured. Some seasonality was observed, with reduced FF levels in summer and no differences among sites, consistent with sediment PAH levels. We discuss our results in relation to fish phylogeny, season, depth, diet, trophic level and swimming capacity. Overall FF levels indicated differences among species; the suprabenthic feeders from shallow and deep communities, and Mullus barbatus in particular, displayed elevated FF values and are potential candidates for additional monitoring studies.

  2. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel da Costa e Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: P. kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin and P. asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus, P. nigrescens, P. reus, and P. zawadzkii by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of P. reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  3. JENIS-JENIS MAMALIA YANG MENGUNJUNGI KUBANGAN BABI HUTAN DI KAWASAN HUTAN KONSERVASI PT TIDAR KERINCI AGUNG DAN PT KENCANA SAWIT INDONESIA, SOLOK SELATAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Insani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai jenis-jenis mamalia yang mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan di hutan konservasi PT Tidar Kerinci Agung dan PT Kencana Sawit Indonesia, Solok Selatan, Sumatera Barat telah dilaksanakan dari 15 Juni sampai dengan 8 Desember 2015. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan tujuh buah perangkap kamera di sekitar kubangan babi hutan. Selama penelitian didapatkan 18 jenis hewan mamalia dari 12 famili dan 5 ordo. Hewan mamalia yang sering mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan yaitu Sus scrofa (481 foto, Macaca nemestrina (476 foto, Sus barbatus (269 foto, Macaca fascicularis (38 foto dan Muntiacus muntjak (33 foto. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kubangan babi hutan menarik bermacam-macam jenis mamalia dengan frekuensi kunjungan yang berbeda-beda.

  4. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  5. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera in New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bourguignon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy.

  6. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-03-01

    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  7. Automated identification of copepods using digital image processing and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Lee Kien; Chew, Li-Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are planktonic organisms that play a major role in the marine food chain. Studying the community structure and abundance of copepods in relation to the environment is essential to evaluate their contribution to mangrove trophodynamics and coastal fisheries. The routine identification of copepods can be very technical, requiring taxonomic expertise, experience and much effort which can be very time-consuming. Hence, there is an urgent need to introduce novel methods and approaches to automate identification and classification of copepod specimens. This study aims to apply digital image processing and machine learning methods to build an automated identification and classification technique. We developed an automated technique to extract morphological features of copepods' specimen from captured images using digital image processing techniques. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to classify the copepod specimens from species Acartia spinicauda, Bestiolina similis, Oithona aruensis, Oithona dissimilis, Oithona simplex, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Tortanus barbatus and Tortanus forcipatus based on the extracted features. 60% of the dataset was used for a two-layer feed-forward network training and the remaining 40% was used as testing dataset for system evaluation. Our approach demonstrated an overall classification accuracy of 93.13% (100% for A. spinicauda, B. similis and O. aruensis, 95% for T. barbatus, 90% for O. dissimilis and P. crassirostris, 85% for O. similis and T. forcipatus). The methods presented in this study enable fast classification of copepods to the species level. Future studies should include more classes in the model, improving the selection of features, and reducing the time to capture the copepod images.

  8. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. MACIEL

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  9. Alelopatia de espécies vegetais com importância farmacêutica para espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p37   O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos foliares de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw. e Plectranthus barbatus Andr. sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller e Eruca sativa L. Para obtenção dos extratos aquosos foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1g.10mL-1, diluída em seis soluções (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100% e comparadas com o controle, água destilada, com cinco repetições de 10 sementes para todas as espécies olerícolas. Os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular das hortaliças. Os extratos aquosos de C. rotundus e P. barbatus exerceram menores e maiores efeitos alelopáticos, respectivamente, e a estrutura vegetal mais afetada pelos extratos foi a raiz primária. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático das espécies testadas, sendo necessários cuidados quando se cultiva hortaliças com elas.

  10. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  11. Local shifts in floral biotic interactions in habitat edges and their effect on quantity and quality of plant offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spatial shifts in insect fauna due to ecological heterogeneity can severely constrain plant reproduction. Nonetheless, data showing effects of insect visit patterns and intensity of mutualistic and/or antagonistic plant–insect interactions on plant reproduction over structured ecological gradients remain scarce. We investigated how changes in flower-visitor abundance, identity and behaviour over a forest-open habitat gradient affect plant biotic interactions, and quantitative and qualitative fitness in the edge-specialist Dianthus balbisii. Composition and behaviour of the insects visiting flowers of D. balbisii strongly varied over the study gradient, influencing strength and patterns of plant biotic interactions (i.e. herbivory and pollination likelihood). Seed set comparison in free- and manually pollinated flowers suggested spatial variations in the extent of quantitative pollen limitation, which appeared more pronounced at the gradient extremes. Such variations were congruent to patterns of flower visit and plant biotic interactions. The analyses on seed and seedling viability evidenced that spatial variation in amount and type of pollinators, and frequency of herbivory affected qualitative fitness of D. balbisii by influencing selfing and outcrossing rates. Our work emphasizes the role of plant biotic interactions as a fine-scale mediator of plant fitness in ecotones, highlighting that optimal plant reproduction can take place into a restricted interval of the ecological gradients occurring at forest edges. Reducing the habitat complexity typical of such transition contexts can threat edge-adapted plants. PMID:28775831

  12. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment alternative for cut flowers; Uso da radiacao gama como alternativa de tratamento quarentenario de flores cortadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikichi, Olivia Kimiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide to control insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens and rodents It is effective to commodity treatment designed for exportation/importation, but is also toxic for human being. Besides, it is an ozone layer depleting substance and many countries are interested in finding other less damaging alternatives. The methyl bromide shall be banned until 2015 and one promising alternative is the radiation. It can be effective for some vegetables, like fresh cut flowers. The tolerance to gamma radiation was observed in some cut flowers. Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophyla (Caryophyllaceae), Gomphrena (Amarantaceae), Celosia (Amarantaceae) and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) were tolerant to 750 Gy. Heliconia and Strelitzia (Musaceae) were not tolerant, presenting a severe browning of the colored sepals. Anthurium (Araceae) was also sensitive to 750 Gy, presenting browning of the spike, discoloration and black spots on the sepals. The radiation inhibited the bud opening of Hemerocallis (Liliaceae) and Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Gerbera (Compositae) and Callistemon (Myrtaceae) wilted before the control flowers. Helianthus (Compositae) leaves wilted before the flowers because of the radiation. (author) 7 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: okikuchi at net.ipen.br

  13. Acceleration of membrane senescence in cut carnation flowers by treatment with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J E; Mayak, S; Shinitzky, M; Halevy, A H

    1982-04-01

    The lipid microviscosity of microsomal membranes from senescing cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. White Sim) flowers rises with advancing senescence. The increase in membrane microviscosity is initiated within 3 to 4 days of cutting the flowers and coincides temporally with petal-inrolling denoting the climacteric-like rise in ethylene production. Treatment of young cut flowers with aminoethoxyvinylglycine prevented the appearance of petal-inrolling and delayed the rise in membrane microviscosity until day 9 after cutting. When freshly cut flowers or aminoethoxyvinylglycine-treated flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene (1 microliter per liter), the microviscosity of microsomal membranes rose sharply within 24 hours, and inrolling of petals was clearly evident. Thus, treatment with ethylene accelerates membrane rigidification. Silver thiosulphate, a potent anti-ethylene agent, delayed the rise in microsomal membrane microviscosity even when the flowers were exposed to exogenous ethylene. Membrane rigidification in both naturally senescing and ethylene-treated flowers was accompanied by an increased sterol:phospholipid ratio reflecting the selective loss of membrane phospholipid that accompanies senescence. The results collectively indicate that the climacteric-like surge in ethylene production during senescence of carnation flowers facilitates physical changes in membrane lipids that presumably lead to loss of membrane function.

  14. Immunosuppressive Effects of the Traditional Chinese Herb Qu Mai on Human Alloreactive T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Adam, Jessica; Yang, Nan; Song, Ying; Cravedi, Paolo; Li, Xiu-Min; Heeger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Current therapies for transplant rejection are sub-optimally effective. In an effort to discover novel immunosuppressants we used cytokine ELISPOT and ELISAs to screen extracts from 53 traditional Chinese herbs for their ability to suppress human alloreactive T cells. We identified a dichloromethane-soluble fraction (QMAD) of Qu Mai (Dianthus superbus) as a candidate. HPLC analysis of QMAD revealed 3 dominant peaks, each with a MW ~600 Daltons and distinct from cyclosporine and rapamycin. When we added QMAD to human mixed lymphocyte cultures, we observed dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and IFNγ production, by naïve and memory alloreactive T cells, and observed an increased frequency of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells. To address whether QMAD induces regulatory T cells we added QMAD to anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells and observed a dose-dependent upregulation of Foxp3 associated with new suppressive capacity. Mechanistically, QMAD did not induce T cell IL-10 or TGFβ but blocked T cell AKT phosphorylation, a key signaling nexus required for T cell proliferation and expansion, that simultaneously prevents Foxp3 transcription. Our findings provide novel insight into the anti-inflammatory effects of one traditional Chinese herb, and support the need for continued isolation, characterization and testing of QMAD-derived components as immune suppressants for transplant rejection. PMID:23433080

  15. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  16. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Characterization of two carnation petal prolyl 4 hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Florina; Tiainen, Päivi; Owen, Carolyn; Spano, Thodhoraq; Daher, Firas Bou; Oualid, Fatiha; Senol, Namik Ozer; Vlad, Daniela; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2010-10-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze the proline hydroxylation, a major post-translational modification, of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Two carnation petal P4H cDNAs, (Dianthus caryophyllus prolyl 4-hydroxylase) DcP4H1 and DcP4H2, were identified and characterized at the gene expression and biochemical level in order to investigate their role in flower senescence. Both mRNAs showed similar patterns of expression with stable transcript abundance during senescence progression and differential tissue-specific expression with DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 strongly expressed in ovaries and stems, respectively. Recombinant DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 proteins were produced and their catalytic properties were determined. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate (PDCA) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the in vitro enzyme activity of both P4Hs and used to determine whether inhibition of proline hydroxylation in petals is involved in senescence progression of cut carnation flowers. PDCA suppressed the climacteric ethylene production indicating a strong correlation between the inhibition of DcP4H1 and DcP4H2 activity in vitro by PDCA and the suppression of climacteric ethylene production in cut carnation flowers. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  18. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  19. Evidence for a putative flavonoid translocator similar to mammalian bilitranslocase in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, E; Petrussa, E; Bertolini, A; Peresson, C; Ermacora, P; Loi, N; Terdoslavich, M; Passamonti, S; Macrì, F; Vianello, A

    2008-06-01

    During maturation, Vitis vinifera berries accumulate a large amount of several anthocyanins in the epidermal tissue, whereas their precursors and intermediates are ubiquitously synthesized within the fruit. Up to date, several mechanisms of flavonoid transport at subcellular level have been hypothesized, but it is not possible to identify a general model applicable in every plant tissue and organ. Recently, a putative anthocyanin carrier, homologue to mammalian bilitranslocase (BTL) (TC 2.A.65.1.1), was found in Dianthus caryophyllus petal microsomes. In the present paper, an immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis, using an antibody raised against a BTL epitope, evidences the expression and function of such a transporter in V. vinifera berries (cv. Merlot). Specific localisations of the putative carrier within berry tissues together with expression changes during different developmental stages are shown. Water stress induces an increase in protein expression in both skin and pulp samples. A bromosulfalein (BSP) uptake activity, inhibitable by the BTL antibody, is detected in berry mesocarp microsomes, with K (m) = 2.39 microM BSP and V (max) = 0.29 micromol BSP min(-1) mg(-1) protein. This BSP uptake is also competitively inhibited by quercetin (K (i) = 4 microM). A putative role for this carrier is discussed in relation to the membrane transport of secondary metabolites.

  20. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment alternative for cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1999-01-01

    Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide to control insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens and rodents It is effective to commodity treatment designed for exportation/importation, but is also toxic for human being. Besides, it is an ozone layer depleting substance and many countries are interested in finding other less damaging alternatives. The methyl bromide shall be banned until 2015 and one promising alternative is the radiation. It can be effective for some vegetables, like fresh cut flowers. The tolerance to gamma radiation was observed in some cut flowers. Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophyla (Caryophyllaceae), Gomphrena (Amarantaceae), Celosia (Amarantaceae) and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) were tolerant to 750 Gy. Heliconia and Strelitzia (Musaceae) were not tolerant, presenting a severe browning of the colored sepals. Anthurium (Araceae) was also sensitive to 750 Gy, presenting browning of the spike, discoloration and black spots on the sepals. The radiation inhibited the bud opening of Hemerocallis (Liliaceae) and Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Gerbera (Compositae) and Callistemon (Myrtaceae) wilted before the control flowers. Helianthus (Compositae) leaves wilted before the flowers because of the radiation. (author)

  1. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O 2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO 2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO 2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO 2 /bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO 2 ) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited

  2. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1993-10-15

    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  3. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles usingArtemisia annuacallus for inhibiting stem-end bacteria in cut carnation flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qian Hua; Zheng, Li Ping; Zhao, Pei Fei; Wang, Jian Wen

    2017-03-01

    A biological method for synthesising silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using the callus extracts from Artemisia annua L. under sunlight at 25,000 lx. The AgNPs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs were mostly spherical with the size of 2.1 to 45.2 nm (average 10.9 nm). Pulse treatments of AgNPs at 125, 250 and 500 mg/l for 1 h extended vase life of cut carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Green Land) flowers. Four dominant bacteria strains Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Kocuria sp., Staphylococcus equorum and Microbacterium oxydans were isolated from the stem-ends of cut D. caryophyllus flowers. AgNP pulse inhibited significantly bacterial growth in vase solution and cut stem ends during all of the vase period. The bacteria related blockage in the stem-ends was significantly alleviated by AgNP pulse because of its higher antibacterial efficacy against the dominant bacteria. In addition, ethylene release of cut carnation flowers was inhibited in response to AgNP pulse. This is the first time that the biologically synthesised AgNPs could be applied as a promising preservative agent for cut carnation flowers.

  5. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, Elena; Rybin, Viacheslav; Gorovoy, Petr; Gavrilenko, Irina; Doudkin, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), ecdysone (3), 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4) has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan) system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandriumsachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae). Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis. PMID:26109770

  6. Effect of the serotonin receptor agonist, buspirone, on immune function in HIV-infected individuals: a six-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Benfield, T; Axen, T E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that agents modulating the cAMP/PKA pathway have a beneficial effect on immune reconstitution in HIV-infected individuals. Here we evaluate the effect of buspirone on immune function as measured by CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, HIV viral load......, and response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in antiretroviral naive HIV-1-infected individuals. METHOD: Twenty-three HIV-infected patients with CD4 T-cell counts above 300 per microL were enrolled in a 6-month double-blinded placebo controlled trial. No patients received antiretroviral therapy during the study...... to placebo-treated patients was observed. There were no significant differences in CD4 T-cell counts, HIV viral load, or proliferative response to PWM between those receiving placebo and those receiving buspirone. CONCLUSION: Buspirone treatment leads to significant changes in CD8 T-cell count and in CD4/CD8...

  7. Immunological monitoring of patients affected by anaplastic glioma concerning the effects of surgery, radio-, and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servadei, F.; Gaist, G.; Padovani, R.; Parente, R.; Bucci, M.; Spagnolli, F.; Steiner, L.

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied 24 patients affected by anaplastic gliomas as regards immunology. In all of them the authors evaluated the lymphocyte subpopulation (B and T), firstly by simple lymphocyte count, secondly by studying the rosettes E-total and EAC, thirdly by stimulating the lymphocytes with mitogenes phytohaemoagglutinin-P (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and poke-weed mitogen (PWM), and lastly by counting the release of Cr 51 in Chang liver cells culture in order to obtain antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The parameters were also evaluated after surgery and during conventional radio-chemotherapy with BCNU. Whereas the so-called B-pool seems to be unaffected, the preliminary results show that the T-pool (identified by the E-t rosettes and by responses to PHA, PWM and ConA) is depressed to a statistically significant degree, if compared with a control group. This depression seems to be related to the tumoral mass and it is not increased by radio-chemotherapy. In addition, ADCC also seems to be depressed in our glioma patients in comparison with a control group and with a group of bladder cancer patients. (author)

  8. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis (CP is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P<0.001 to P<0.05. IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP.

  9. Immunoregulatory activities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteins: Effect of HIV recombinant and synthetic peptides on immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferative responses by normal lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.P.N.; Pottathil, R.; Heimer, E.P.; Schwartz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant and synthetic peptides corresponding to envelope proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for their effects on the activities of lymphocytes from normal donors in vitro. Although lymphocytes cultured with env-gag peptides produced significant amounts of IgG, addition of env-gag peptides to a pokeweed mitogen-induced B-cell activation system resulted in suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis by normal lymphocytes. Recombinant antigens, env-gag and env-80 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), produced a substantial proliferative response by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation. PBMC precultured with HIV synthetic peptide env 578-608 also manifested significant proliferative responses as compared to control cultures. CD3 + lymphocytes precultured with recombinant HIV antigens, env-gag and env-80 DHFR, and synthetic HIV peptide, env 487-511, showed moderate but significant proliferative responses. Both recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides also produced a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on proliferation by CD3 - lymphocytes. These studies demonstrate that recombinant and synthetic peptides of the HIV genome express immunoregulatory T- and B-cell epitopes. Identification of unique HIV epitopes with immunogenic and immunoregulatory activities is necessary for the development of an effective vaccine against HIV infection

  10. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  11. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  12. In vitro regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis after human marrow transplantation. II. Deficient T and non-T lymphocyte function within 3-4 months of allogeneic, syngeneic, or autologous marrow grafting for hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, R.P.; Lum, L.G.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Immunoglobulin secretion was studied in 37 patients between 19 and 106 days after allogeneic HLA-identical (30 patients), allogeneic one HLA-haplotype-identical (three patients), syngeneic (three patients), or autologous (one patient) marrow grafting. E rosette-positive (T) and E rosette-negative (non-T) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with pokeweed mitogen for 6 days. Polyvalent immunoglobulin secretion was determined by counting plaque forming cells in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay. The number of antibody secreting cells in cocultures of autologous T and non-T lymphocytes was low in 40 of 44 tests conducted on samples from the 37 patients. Mononuclear or non-T cells from 38 of 40 tests failed to produce antibody when cultured with normal helper T cells. T cells from 23 of 37 tests failed to help normal non-T cells secrete antibody. T lymphocytes from 23 of 41 tests suppressed antibody production greater than 80% by normal T and non-T cells. The suppressor cells were radiosensitive in 17 of the 25 tests. The abnormal function of lymphocyte subpopulations in patients during the first 3 mo after syngeneic, allogeneic or autologous marrow grafting was similar regardless of the type of graft or the presence of acute graft versus host disease

  13. Systemic immune dysfunction in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Bertram; Lotspeich, Errki; Ramadani, Marco; Gansauge, Susanne; Beger, Hans G; Gansauge, Frank

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the immune status in 32 pancreatic cancer patients (PC) in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were characterized by the expression of surface markers for T helper cells (CD4), T suppressor cells (CD8), B cells (CD19) and NK cells (CD56). The blastogenic response of PBL was analyzed after stimulation with concavalin A (ConA), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and anti-CD3 antibodies. The serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1RA, sIL-2R and TGF-beta were determined by ELISA. No differences in the distribution of peripheral immunocytes in PC were found, whereas the blastogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) after stimulation with PHA or anti-CD3 antibodies was significantly decreased in PC. In PC, we found reduced serum levels of IL-2 and significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, IL-10, IL-2R, IL-1beta and IL-1RA. These data provide evidence for a systemic immune dysfunction in pancreatic cancer patients characterized by a shift towards a T helper cell type 2 cytokine profile, a significant elevation of substances related to T cell suppression and a reduced blastogenic response to PHA and anti-CD3 antibodies of PBL.

  14. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  15. The mitogenic response of cryopreserved human lymphocytes in a microculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C M; Ennis, M; Levin, A G; Wasunna, A

    1977-01-01

    Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

  16. Functional studies on lymphocytes from two siblings with congential hypogammaglobulinaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauris, P.; Wendelboe Hansen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Two brothers with hypogammaglobulinaemia classified as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) were investigated for distribution of pheripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) subpopulations, DNA synthesis and plaque-forming cell (PFC) capability of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated autologous and allogenic cocultures. Both patients had a decreased absolute number of T cells and normal or elevated levels of surface immunoglobulin (SmIg) bearing cells. Isolated B cells cocultured with autologous or allogeneic 4000 r irradiated T cells responded subnormally to PWM monitored by the 3 H-thymidine incorporation in microcultures whereas B cells cocultured with allogeneic untreated normal T cells proliferated normally. PBL from parallel macrocultures of unfractionated or T/B separated patients' cells were not able to produce plaques using a reversed haemolytic protein A assay. Addition of glucocorticoid to unfractionated PBL did not reverse the unresponsiveness. In allogeneic cocultures patients' untreated or 2000 r irradiated T cells induced a normal PFC response. Normal untreated T cells induced a reduced number of IgM- and IgG-PFC from patients' B cells but this response was almost eliminated using irradiated normal T cells. These results demonstrate a primary B cell defect in the patients and indicate an impaired cooperation between patients' B and T cells. Activation of patients' B cells to Ig secretion requires the presence of proliferating T cells. (author)

  17. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values

  18. The role of monocytes and T cells in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediated inhibition of B cell function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Heilmann, C; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits immunoglobulin production by human mononuclear cells (MNC) in vitro. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of T cells and monocytes in 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced suppression of B cell functions. The synthetic vitamin D3 analogue MC 903...... are not directly affected by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was further supported by the fact that 24 h of culture with 10(-8) M 1,25-(OH)2D3 failed to reduce immunoglobulin production by in vivo activated B cells....... was examined in parallel. 1,25-(OH)2D3 and MC 903 showed a dose-related inhibition of IgM, IgG and IgA plaque-forming cells in poke-weed mitogen (PWM) activated cultures of MNC. This effect was most likely mediated through impairment of T cell and monocyte functions. First, the inhibitory effect was seen after...

  19. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  20. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy

  1. Immunomodulation and disease resistance in postyearling rainbow trout infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxosporean parasite that causes whirling disease, has a number of deleterious effects on its salmonid host. Although it is well established that juvenile salmonids in the active stages of whirling disease mount an immune response to the pathogen, the occurrence and longevity of any related immunomodulatory effects are unknown. In this study, postyearling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with M. cerebralis were examined for leukocyte functions and for resistance to Yersinia ruckeri, a bacterial pathogen of salmonids. Compared with uninfected controls, M. cerebralis-infected fish showed lower proliferative lymphocyte responses to four mitogens (concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide). Conversely, M. cerebralis-infected fish displayed greater bactericidal activity of anterior kidney macrophages than did uninfected fish. After bath challenges with K. ruckeri, M. cerebralis-infected fish had slightly lower survival and a more rapid onset of mortality than did the control fish. Renal tissue and fecal samples from M. cerebralis-infected and uninfected survivors were cultured for the presence of K. ruckeri, and no difference in prevalence was noted between the two groups. Because immunomodulatory changes in the M. cerebralis-infected fish involved functional enhancement and suppression of different leukocyte populations, disease resistance among M. cerebralis-infected fish in the later stages of whirling disease will probably vary with the secondary pathogen and the nature of immune response the pathogen evokes.

  2. A technique for separation of canine lymphocytes and their use in the lymphocytotoxic, blastogenic, and rosette assys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, C C; Lang, R W

    1975-01-01

    When the techniques established for preparing lymphocytes from human blood were applied to canine blood, the resulting preparations were contaminated with significant numbers of other blood cells. A three-step technique is described here for the separation of canine lymphocytes from blood which eliminates most granulocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes. Defibrinated blood is incubated with iron particles to allow phagocytosis by granulocytes. When mixed with Plasmagel, erythrocytes and iron-containing granulocytes sediment rapidly, leaving a lymphocyte-rich supernate plasma which is recovered and banded by centrifugation on a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Any erythrocytes remaining in the lymphocyte suspension aspirated from the gradient are eliminated by hypotonic lysis and centrifugation. The resulting preparation, representing 30 per cent recovery of the circulating lymphocytes, contained 85 to 94 per cent lymphocytes with a cell viability of 99 per cent. The functional capacity of the lymphocyte preparation was tested in three assays: 1) lymphoblastic transformation using phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen, 2) E rosette formation with human erythrocytes showed a mean 5 per cent rosette forming lymphocytes, 3) antibody-mediated lymphocytotoxicity using a canine anti-lymphocyte serum showed titers reproducible within one tube dilution.

  3. Mitogen-induced responses in lymphocytes from platypus, the Tasmanian devil and the eastern barred bandicoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N J; Bettiol, S S; Kreiss, A; Fox, N; Woods, G M

    2008-10-01

    As the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisi) and the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunni) are currently at risk of serious population decline or extinction from fatal diseases in Tasmania, the goal of the present study was to describe the normal immune response of these species to challenge using the lymphocyte proliferation assay, to give a solid basis for further studies. For this preliminary study, we performed lymphocyte proliferation assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the three species. We used the common mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). All three species recorded the highest stimulation index (SI) with the T-cell mitogens PHA and ConA. Tasmanian devils and bandicoots had greater responses than platypuses, although variability between individual animals was high. For the first time, we report the normal cellular response of the platypus, the Tasmanian devil and the eastern barred bandicoot to a range of commonly used mitogens.

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism of lymphocytes: modified methodology and comparisons of diabetics with non-diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassman, A.B.; Bennett, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) and Krebs cycle activity during lymphocyte blast transformation are reported in 50 patients with diabetes mellitus and 50 non-diabetics. A modified technique using 12 X 75 mm sterile tubes and micropipette tips stuffed with filter paper was used. The filter paper, soaked with hyamine hydroxide, absorbed radioactively labeled CO 2 produced from [ 14 C]- labeled glucose incorporated by cells. [ 14 C]CO 2 from glucose labeled at the C-1 position measured the activity of the HMPS. [ 14 C]CO 2 from glucose labeled at the C-2 position measured the HMPS activity associated with the feedback of pentose sugars. [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 from glucose labeled at the C-6 position was used to measure Krebs cycle activity. A statistically significant decrease in HMPS activity was found in diabetic cells exposed to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P), concanavalin-A (CON-A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) (P<0.01). This decrease in HMPS activity and its relation to lymphocyte blast transformation may be related to the increased incidence of infection known to occur in patients with diabetes mellitus. (Auth.)

  5. Common variable immunodeficiency in three horses with presumptive bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini-Masini, Alessandra; Bentz, Amy I; Johns, Imogen C; Parsons, Corrina S; Beech, Jill; Whitlock, Robert H; Flaminio, M Julia B F

    2005-07-01

    Three adult horses were evaluated for signs of musculoskeletal pain, dullness, ataxia, and seizures. A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made on the basis of results of CSF analysis. Because primary bacterial meningitis is so rare in adult horses without any history of generalized sepsis or trauma, immune function testing was pursued. Flow cytometric phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed, and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and lipopolysaccharide was determined. Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG concentrations were measured by means of radial immunodiffusion, and serum concentrations of IgG isotypes were assessed with a capture antibody ELISA. Serum tetanus antibody concentrations were measured before and 1 month after tetanus toxoid administration. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of isolated peripheral blood phagocytes were evaluated by means of simultaneous flow cytometric analysis. Persistent B-cell lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and abnormal in vitro responses to mitogens were detected in all 3 horses, and a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was made.

  6. Comparing seven mitogens with PHA-M for improved lymphocyte stimulation in dicentric chromosome analysis for bio-dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinke, C.; Port, M.; Lamkowski, A.; Abend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric chromosome analysis (DCA) is the gold standard for individual radiation dose estimation. Two limiting factors of DCA are the time-consuming lymphocyte stimulation and proliferation using the lectin PHA-M and the upper dose limit of individual dose assessment of ∼4 Gy. By measuring the mitotic index (MI), the authors investigated systematically whether the stimulation of lymphocytes can be improved after administration of alternative (and combined) mitogens. The authors compared the lymphocyte stimulation effectiveness of the traditionally used PHA-M (from Phaseolus vulgaris) with seven cited mitogens by determination of MIs: five lectins namely CNA (concanavalin A), PW (pokeweed), LMA (Maackia amurensis), LTV (T. vulgaris), PHA-L (P. vulgaris) as well as LPS (lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli) and SLO (strepto-lysine O, Streptococcus pyogenes) were applied. The conventional protocol using PHA-M for lymphocyte stimulation proved to be superior over lower/higher PHA-M concentrations as well as seven other mitogens administered either alone or combined with SLO or LPS. (authors)

  7. Dispersal of invasive Phytolacca americana seeds by birds in an urban garden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Yang, Wen; Fang, Shubo; Li, Xinhai; Liu, Zhanchen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    Although seed dispersal is a key process determining the regeneration and spread of invasive plant populations, few studies have explicitly addressed the link between dispersal vector behavior and seedling recruitment to gain insight into the invasion process within an urban garden context. We evaluated the role of bird vectors in the dispersal of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), a North American herb that is invasive in urban gardens in China. Fruiting P. americana attracted both generalist and specialist bird species that fed on and dispersed its seeds. The generalist species Pycnonotus sinensis and Urocissa erythrorhyncha were the most frequent dispersers. Seedling numbers of P. americana were strongly associated with the perching behavior of frugivorous birds. If newly recruited bird species use seedling-safe perching sites, the P. americana will regenerate faster, which would enhance its invasive potential. Based on our observations, we conclude that the 2 main bird vectors, P. sinensis and U. erythrorhyncha, provide potential effective dispersal agents for P. americana. Our results highlight the role of native birds in seed dispersal of invasive plants in urban gardens. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Effects of atomic bomb radiation on differentiation of B lymphocytes and on the function of concanavalin A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Neriishi, S.; Ishimaru, T.; Shimba, N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Ohgushi, Y.; Koyanagi, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1985-01-01

    The differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin-producing cells (Ig-PC) by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and the function of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor T lymphocytes were examined to elucidate the late effects of atomic bomb radiation. A total of 140 individuals, 70 with an exposure dose of 100 rad or more and an equal number with an exposure dose of 0 rad matched by sex and age, were selected from the Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) sample. Both the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into Ig-PC by PWM and the function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to be more depressed in the exposed group than in the control group, but a statistically significant difference could not be observed between the two groups. The function of Con A-induced suppressor T lymphocytes tended to decrease with age, but a statistical significance was detected only for percentage suppression against IgM-PC

  9. Common plant toxicology: A comparison of national and Southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Dan D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Cincinnati-based Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. Approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4.3 million annual calls to the AAPCC centers involved plants, with a higher fraction (4.5%) for pediatric exposures. Nearly 70% of plant exposures occurred in children under six. Only 8% of cases required treatment in a health-care facility, and only 0.1% (in 2008) were considered severe outcomes. The most prominent groups of plants involved in exposures are those containing oxalates, and the most common symptom is gastroenteritis. The top 12 identified plants (in descending order) nationally were Spathiphyllum species (peace lilly), Philodendron species (philodendron), Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinssettia), Ilex species (holly), Phytolacca americana (pokeweed), Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), Capsicum (pepper), Ficus (rubber tree, weeping fig), Crassula argentea (jade plant), Diffenbachia (dumb cane), Epipremnum areum (pothos) and Schlumbergera bridesii (Christmas cactus). Broad overlaps between the DPIC and the AAPCC incidence data were noted, with essentially the same plant species in each dataset. The nature of the various toxins, the symptomatology and potential treatments are discussed for the highest ranking plant species.

  10. Comparison of the immunosuppressive effect of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) vs conventional immunosuppression (CI) in renal cadaveric allotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Michielsen, P.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in November 1981, eight patients with end stage diabetic nephropathy underwent renal cadaveric transplantation after TLI. Transplantation was done between 2 to 11 days after the end of a fractionated TLI to a total dose of 20 to 30 Gy. During the same observation period, 60 nondiabetic patients with end stage renal disease of different origin also received a cadaveric kidney graft, with a conventional regimen of immunosuppression that consists of anti-lymphocyte-globulin, tapering high doses of prednisone, and azathioprine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-, concanavalin A (con A)-, and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced blastogenesis, as well as the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) decreased progressively during the first months after conventional immunosuppression to 50% of the pretransplantation level, and remained there for the first year after transplantation. These tests were much more impaired after TLI and again no recovery occurred during the first year. In the clinic, the more profound immunosuppression in TLI patients was more frequently associated with viral infections (cytomegalovirus and herpes zoster). The incidence of rejections, however, was somewhat less frequent in the TLI-treated group and occurred significantly later. After TLI, the mean cumulative dose of steroids needed for kidney transplantation during the first year after transplantation could be substantially reduced

  11. Resúmenes de las tesis de grado en floricultura realizadas en la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá D.C., entre 1981 y 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Eduardo

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Reconocimiento e identificación de Phialophora cinerescens y Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi en el cultivo del clavel en la sabana de Bogotá. / Estudio del poder patogénico de Botrytis cinerea pers. Sobre cinco especies de flores de exportación. / Botrytis cinerea Pers. / Agente causal de la pudrición de las flores y de la corona del estatice (Limonium sinuatum mili. / Aspectos biológicos y control químico de la roya del clavel en la sabana de Bogotá. / Patogenicidad de agrobacterium tumefaciens en algunas especies de plantas de flores de exportación. / Control del marchitamiento vascular del clavel ocasionado por Phialophora cinerescens y Fusarium oxysporum. / Control biológico de la agalla de corona en plantas de crisantemo con la cepa k-84 de Agrobacterium radiobacter var. Radiobacter (Beijerink & van celden Conn. / Control de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi en clavel mediante tratamiento del suelo y aplicación de antagonistas. / Control del marchitamiento vascular del clavel ocasionado por Fuserium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. / Estudios orientados a la determinación del agente causal del síntoma "tallo flexuoso" en Rosa sp. Variedad visa. / Control de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib. de Bary en crisantemo y habichuela con diferentes aislamientos de Trichoderma y con fungicidas. / Efecto del fotoperiodo sobre la concentración y expresión de síntomas del virus Tswv en pompón y producción de material libre por cultivo de meristemos. / Estudios preliminares de la posible interacción entre el hongo Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. dianthi (Prill & Del Snyder & Hansen y el nematodo quiste Heterodera trifolii (Goffart, en clavel estándar (Dianthus caryophyllus l. / Control químico de la .mancha foliar anillada del clavel causada

  12. Plectranthus: a review of ethnobotanical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhoba, Catherine W; Simmonds, Monique S J; Paton, Alan J

    2006-01-03

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species' ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the 'Coleus' Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus and Plectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid

  13. Avifauna del bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México Avifauna of the tropical montane cloud forest of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un inventario avifaunístico realizado de 1997 a 1999 en fragmentos de bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México. Se registraron 41 familias y 181 especies de aves mediante observaciones visuales y auditivas en 2 057 puntos de conteo, lo que representó el 98% de las especies esperadas en el área de estudio, para el período y método de muestreo utilizado. Se detectaron 16 especies restringidas al bosque mesófilo, 11 endémicas de México y 3 de distribución restringida. Adicionalmente, con base en la legislación mexicana vigente, 28 de las especies registradas están incluidas dentro de alguna categoría de riesgo de conservación. Esta comunidad de aves estuvo dominada por especies de aves pequeñas, raras (poco abundantes y residentes. Es probable que las más vulnerables de sufrir extinciones locales sean las especies raras y restringidas al bosque mesófilo, donde están incluidas las 3 especies de distribución restringida (Dendrortyx barbatus, Glaucidium sanchezi y Cyanolyca nana. La avifauna del bosque mesófilo de esta región incluye al 40% de la avifauna estatal, lo que destaca la relevancia de este tipo de vegetación y una urgente necesidad de establecer estrategias de manejo para su conservación.This study shows the results of bird census carried out from 1997 to 1999 in cloud forest fragments of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico. Forty-one bird families and 181 species were recorded through visual and acoustic detections in 2 057 point counts. This represents 98% of the expected species richness for the sampling period and method used. Sixteen species restricted to the cloud forest were detected, 11 Mexican endemic species, and 3 restricted-range species were recorded. Additionally, 28 species are included within some category of conservation concern according to the present Mexican legislation. This bird community was dominated by small, rare (low in abundance, and

  14. Diagnóstico de comunidades vegetales con análisis geomorfológico en la región árida oriental de Tulum Relationship between plant communities and geomorphological environments in the arid region of Eastern Tulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ortega

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el este de la Depresión de Tulum, región desértica del centro y oeste de la Argentina, se efectuó un análisis entre las unidades geomorfológicas, procesos y texturas de los suelos, con el fin de establecer vinculaciones entre estos recursos y diagnosticar las comunidades de vegetación. Se identificaron y clasificaron tres principales ambientes geomorfológicos: un relieve dunar, una planicie arenosa eólica loessoide y una planicie fluvial abandonada del río San Juan. Se trazaron 3 transectas para relevar la vegetación y las texturas de los suelos. En el ambiente dunar actual, con procesos eólicos, domina Panicum urvellanum; en la planicie arenosa loessoide, con procesos fluviales antiguos y eólicos, Suaeda divaricata asociada a Atriplex lampa y Schismus barbatus, y en la planicie fluvial antigua, con procesos de salinización, Atriplex crenatifolia. La mayor riqueza y diversidad de especies se encontraron en la planicie arenosa loessoide y en suelos limosos y la menor en la planicie fluvial antigua, y suelos arcillosos correspondiendo a S2 y S3, respectivamente.A multidisciplinary analysis was carried out to determine geomorphological units in the desert region of central and west Argentina and their relationship with plant communities. Three east-west transects were studied, resulting in the identification and classification of three main geomorphological environments: a dune relief, a sandy loess plain and an ancient fluvial plain of the San Juan River. The dominant plant community in the dune environment, characterized by wind processes, was found to be Panicum urvellanum; in the sandy loess plain, characterized by wind and ancient fluvial processes, Suaeda divaricata in association with Atriplex lampa and Schismus barbatus predominates; and in the ancient fluvial plain, where salt processes occur, Atriplex crenatifolia is the main community. The richest abundance and widest diversity were found in the sandy loess plain and in

  15. Caracterização do comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais são, em muitos casos, a única alternativa possível para boa parte da população brasileira que as obtém geralmente do próprio quintal ou de raizeiros. O objetivo no presente estudo foi caracterizar o comércio de plantas medicinais por raizeiros em Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Foram usadas as técnicas de observação direta e participante e aplicadas entrevistas semiestruturadas. A comercialização de plantas e produtos medicinais é considerada a principal fonte de renda dos raizeiros entrevistados. Foram citadas 86 plantas de uso medicinais entre os raizeiros, sendo Linum usitatissimum L. (86% a mais citada, seguida de Plectranthus barbatus L (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% e Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. As plantas são procuradas para 67 tipos de enfermidades, como anemia, artrite e vermes. A gripe e inflamação foram as doenças mais citadas. As plantas são armazenadas no próprio estabelecimento por períodos longos comprometendo sua eficácia e não são cultivadas pelos raizeiros. Characterization of the medicinal plant trade by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do NorteAbstract: Medicinal plants are, in many cases, the only possible alternative for much of the Brazilian population that usually gets the own homegarden or healers. The aim of this study was to characterize the trade of medicinal plants by healers in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. They were used the techniques of direct observation and participant and applied semi-structured interviews. The marketing of medicinal plants and products is considered the main source of income of healers. There were 86 medicinal plants among the raizers, with Linum usitatissimum L. (86% being the most cited, followed by Plectranthus barbatus L. (71%, Pterodon emarginatus Vogel (71% and Bauhinia forficata Link. (71%. Plants are sought for 67 types of diseases, from diseases such as anemia, arthritis and worms. Influenza and inflammation were the most

  16. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  17. Trace metals in tissues of the six most common fish species in the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Didem; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Ag and Pb in scale, skin, muscle, gills, liver and the gonads of Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Black Sea salmon (Salmo trutta labrax), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Whiting (Merlangius merlangius euxinus) from the Black Sea, in Turkey, were investigated. Elemental analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sample preparation by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were in the following ranges: Mn 0.09-23.1, Fe 0.58-326, Co 0.01-0.22, Ni 0.03-1.34, As 0.13-3.40, Se 0.13-4.42, Ag 0.01-0.18, Cd 0.32-6.25, Pb 0.02-0.38 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight. Metal concentrations in the muscles of the examined species were generally lower than those in scale, skin, gills, liver and the gonads. The described method was validated by analysis of Dogfish Liver-certified reference material, DOLT-4.

  18. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus associated with high mercury levels?

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    Born Erik W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus. Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. Methods We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59 and kidney (n = 57 tissues. Results Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1–35.6 μg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1–50 μg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 μg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p Conclusion Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs.

  19. Discards of the commercial boat seine fisheries on Posidonia oceanica beds in the eastern Adriatic Sea

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    Perica Cetinić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific observer records were used to estimate the retained and discarded catch composition of the commercial boat seine fisheries over Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile meadows in the eastern Adriatic, from November 2008 to December 2009. A total of 91 fish and cephalopod species were recorded in the catches, of which 20 species were always retained, 40 were always discarded and the remaining 31 were selected depending on size (only larger specimens were retained. The most abundant species in the retained catch were Spicara smaris, Atherina hepsetus and Mullus barbatus, while Chromis chromis, Symphodus ocellatus and small specimens of Boops boops dominated the discards. An estimated 43.5% by number and 28.5% by weight of the total catch were discarded. Since the minimum landing size (MLS is regulated for only 4 out of the 15 most important species in this study, and even these regulations are only partially followed, discarding practices were generally market-driven. The retained and discarded amounts of the catch as well as the numbers of retained and discarded species showed a seasonal pattern. The catches recorded during summer/autumn were generally larger than those in winter/spring. High rates of immature specimens were observed for the most important species, which is probably related to the role of Posidonia beds as important nursery grounds.

  20. Blackchested Prinia Prinia flavicans in Breeding Plumage at Satara, Kruger National Park

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    H. Roome

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available On 8 October 1986 a pair of Blackchested Prinia Prinia flavicans in breeding plumage was observed in the camping area of Satara Rest Camp, Kruger National Park. Playing and replaying a tape recording of the call of a Pearlspotted Owl Glaucidium perlatum, in order to see what avian activity would be aroused, the recording attracted Blackeyed Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus, Whitebellied Sunbird Nectarinia talatala and Tawnyflanked Prinia Prinia subflava, in addition to the pair of Blackchested Prinia, all highly excited and in search of the intruding Pearlspotted Owl. The birds homed in on the source of the call and all species were observed from a distance of some 2 m-3 m. Although recorded previously from the Kruger National Park (Newman 1980, Birds of Southern Africa 1: Kruger National Park, Johannesburg: Macmillan in non-breeding plumage and also referred to by Milstein & Milstein (1981, Koedoe 24: 109-117 as a species which they probably observed near Punda Milia (in winter plumage, the Blackchested Prinia recorded at Satara were most obliging and it was possible to positively identify the presence of this species in the Kruger National Park in its breeding plumage.

  1. Detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Mar; González, Fernando; Nicolás, Olga; López, Irene; Jiménez, María de Los Ángeles; Jato-Sánchez, Susana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-23

    Most European birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. Since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. By considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. Three individuals from three endangered raptor species [Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)] were studied thermographically from the time they were admitted to a rehabilitation centre to the time their clinical cases were resolved. The three raptors presented lesions lacking thermal bilateral symmetry and were consistent with electrocution of feet, wings and eyes, visible by thermography before than clinically; lesions were well-defined and showed a lower temperature than the surrounding tissue. Some lesions evolved thermally and clinically until the appearance of normal tissue recovered, while others evolved and became necrotic. A histopathological analysis of a damaged finger amputated off a Lammergeier, and the necropsy and histopathology examination of an osprey, confirmed the electrocution diagnosis. These results suggest that thermography is effective and useful for the objective and early detection and monitoring of electrocuted birds, and that it may prove especially useful for examining live animals that require no amputation or cannot be subjected to invasive histopathology.

  2. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

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    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  3. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2008-01-01

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  4. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  5. CONSUMPTION OF HERBAL TOWARD SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES: ACCOUNTS EXPERIENCES

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    J.G.A. Paiva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants has an important role in human life and health forever. Medicinal plants are used for prophylaxis, welfare, improvement in quality of life and cure of diseases, which can be sources of medicines, earning preference and market space, a fact that influences business changes. The present study reports the knowledge of teachers and students of the degree course of Bachelor of Pharmacy UNIDESC-GO and seeks to identify medicinal plants and the most widely used herbal medicines. Semi structured questionnaires were used to evaluate the rational use and return to this same population, the correct way to use, care, prevention and current plants and herbal consumed. Of the respondents, 52% are female, 95% are students and 5% are Bachelor of Pharmacy. About 90% of respondents do not have a university education, 75% of respondents say they have learned to use medicinal plants with relatives, 80% of first degree relatives. The bilberry (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews was the most cited plant. Exposing the importance of scientific knowledge, it is noted that the academy should work with more affinity to traditional experiences. Thus, it creates the technical and scientific knowledge to better achieve the rational use of medicinal and herbal plants.

  6. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

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    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation, aging and the skin: prevention of damage by topical cAMP manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Yan, Betty; D'Orazio, John A

    2014-05-15

    Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of "realized" solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  8. An interesting sexually dimorphic species, Neoribates isabelaensis sp. nov. (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae) with remarks on sexual dimorphism in Oripodoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj; Ermilov, Sergey G; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila

    2017-11-10

    A new species Neoribates isabelaensis sp. nov. showing an interesting sexual dimorphism is described from bamboo litter on Luzon Island in the Philippines. This species is unique among other species of Neoribates in the structure of the posterior part of notogaster in males, which has a large round concavity bearing a pair of large sacculi S3. The specific function of this structure is not yet known, but the found sexual dimorphism is presumably involved in pheromonal communication allowing rapid sperm transfer. This is the fourth Neoribates species displaying sexually dimorphic characters. Additionally, Neoribates isabelaensis sp. nov. differs from the morphologically most similar species, Neoribates barbatus Hammer, 1968, by its smaller body size, pointed rostrum, long and setiform bothridial setae and the localization of notogastral setae h1 and h2, which insert close to each other. Further, we discussed all cases of sexual dimorphism in the family Parakalummidae as well as other related groups of Oripodoidea, and the possible function of these modifications.

  9. Plantas medicinais cultivadas em quintais de comunidades rurais no domínio do cerrado piauiense (Município de Demerval Lobão, Piauí, Brasil Medicinal plants cultivated in homegardens of rural communities in the domain of Cerrado in Piaui (Demerval Lobão Municipality, Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.G.G. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento terapêutico acumulado por populações rurais através de séculos de estreito contato com o meio possibilita a obtenção de informações acerca do uso dos recursos naturais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um inventário das plantas medicinais cultivadas em quintais do município de Demerval Lobão, Piauí, bem como, conhecer o emprego e a importância dessas espécies na comunidade. Foram amostrados 21 quintais em nove comunidades da zona rural do município de Demerval Lobão com vegetação de cerrado. O trabalho foi conduzido com os mantenedores dos quintais a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação direta, associada à técnica de turnê-guiada. As plantas medicinais coletadas foram catalogadas, identificadas, e depositadas no Herbário Graziela Barroso (TEPB da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI. Foram referidas 100 espécies botânicas, predominantemente herbáceas e cultivadas, distribuídas em 49 famílias, sendo Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Lamiaceae as mais representativas em número de espécies. Na preparação dos remédios, as folhas foram as mais utilizadas, sendo a decocção a principal forma de preparo. As doenças mais frequentes tratadas por remédios caseiros referem-se ao sistema respiratório e digestivo. Observou-se que não há rigidez quanto à posologia e a duração do tratamento, ficando este a critério do hábito de cada pessoa entrevistada. As plantas que apresentaram índice de importância relativa e concordância de uso (CUP acima de 60% foram cansansão (Cnidosculus urens, boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, jurema-preta (Mimosa verrucosa Benth e cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson. P. barbatus foi a mais citada e também a que apresentou os índices mais altos de CUP (100%, fator de correção - FC (1,00 e concordância de uso corrigido - CUPc (100% para dores no estômago e problemas no fígado. Observou-se a necessidade de resgatar o

  10. Variation in the position of the jugal medial ridge among lizards (reptilia: squamata): its functional and taxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerňanský, Andrej; Smith, Krister T; Klembara, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    The course of the medial ridge in the lizard jugal shows considerable morphological variation. There are four basic configurations: (1) the medial ridge is located ventral to mid-height on the suborbital process and anterior to mid-length on the postorbital process; (2) the medial ridge is located ventrally on the suborbital process (as above), but posteriorly on the postorbital process; (3) the medial ridge is located dorsally on the suborbital process and anteriorly on the postorbital process; and (4) the medial ridge is centrally located along the entire length of the jugal. Ancestral character state reconstruction shows that type 1 is plesiomorphic for Squamata regardless of the broad-scale phylogenetic topology. Type 3 is present in chamaeleonids and convergently in Anolis barbatus. Type 3 is a synapomorphy of the chamaeleonids. Type 2 is considered plesiomorphic for Anguidae, Heloderma and Xenosaurus, although it is independently modified in some extant members. These taxa form a clade in molecular phylogenies of Squamata, and the course of the medial ridge of the jugal therefore provides some measure of morphological support for this arrangement. The course of the medial ridge may be best explained by the position of the eye and by the angle of the jugal; its relations with other bony orbital structures (supraocular osteoderms, palpebral, supraorbital flanges) and the posterior extent of the maxilla are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  12. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part II--other microfungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the collection of Ascomycotina in the Carnic Alps (see New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps) part I ) we were able to treasure about 300 species of parasitic and saprophytic microfungi. Among them Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Deuteromycets like Bostrichonema polygoni (UNGER) SCHROT. on Polygonum viviparum L., Chrysomyxa rhododendri DE BY on Picea abies (L.) KARSTEN, Coleosporium tussilaginis (PERS.) BERK. I=C. cacaliae OTTH.] on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Dasyscyphus barbatus (KUNZE) MASSEE on Lonicera nigra L., Leptosphaeria coniothyrium (FUCKEL) SACC. on Rosa canina L., Leptotrochila brunellae (LIND) DENNIS on Prunella grandiflora (L.) SCHOLLER., Marssonina kriegeriana (BES.) MAGNUS on Salix reticulata L., Puccinia alpina FUCKEL on Viola biflora L., Puccinia maculosa (STRAUSS.) ROHLING and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. On Prenanthes purpurea L., Septoria microsora SPENG. on Gentianella germanica (WILLD.) BORNER, Urocystis orobranches (FR.) FISCH. V. WALDH. on Orobranche gracilis SM., Urocystis violae (J. SOWERBY) A. FISCHER VON WALDHEIN on Viola biflora L. and Uromyces phyteumatum (DC.) UNG. on Phyteuma spicatum L. were dominant. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  13. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)], E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2008-05-15

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

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    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  15. Seven new and four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the abyssal manganese nodule field (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North-Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2012-09-01

    The descriptions of seven new and supplemental descriptions of four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from about 5,000 m depth in the abyssal manganese nodule field of the French Claim of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (north-eastern tropical Pacific) are given. A. arthrochaeta sp. n. differs from other Acantholaimus species in having jointed cephalic setae. A. barbatus sp. n. is characterized by long cephalic setae and the presence of numerous somatic setae at the level of the pharynx. A. cornutus sp. n. possesses strong onchia and rugae and short cephalic setae. A. robustus sp. n. is characterized by a very large body size, two very large onchia, strongly developed rugae, and cervical setae grouped in threes. A. sieglerae sp. n. is a comparatively small species, though with very large onchia. A. tchesunovi sp. n. can be differentiated from the other species by the lateral differentiation of the body cuticle, consisting of 6-7 longitudinal rows of pores. A. veitkoehlerae sp. n. has a narrow elongate anterior end, two cervical setae, and strong onchia. A. angustus and A. occultus were found about 5,200 km from their type localities in the Peru Basin, south-east Pacific. A. iubilus and A. maks were previously found in different parts of the Atlantic and in the Peru Basin.

  16. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  17. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  18. Chromosome mutagenesis in populations of aquatic biota in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Danube and Dnieper rivers, 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the level of structural mutagenesis in the reproductive and somatic cells of aquatic biota of various taxa from natural populations of neustic and benthic communities in the Black and Aegean Seas and the Dnieper and Danube rivers between 1986 and 1989. The cytogenetic research covered embryos, larvae and adult worms of Nereidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Turbellaria, adult Sagitta setosa, young Bivalvia molluscs, embryos of Mysidacea, and growing roe of Engraulis encrasicholus, Sprattus sprattus, Diplodus annularis, Mullus barbatus, Trachurus trachurus, Scophthalmus maeoticus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus and Stizostedion lucioperca. It was established that aquatic biota in the open waters of the Black and Aegean Seas had a lower level of chromosome mutagenesis than representatives of the fluvial communities. The intensity of mutagenesis was compared with the data published in the literature on radioactive contamination/chemical pollution of the aqueous medium in these areas. The paper sets out statistical regularities in chromosome mutagenesis (inter-individual variability in the chromosome aberration rate and distribution of chromosome damage in cells), noting different patterns of chromosome aberration distribution among cells. On the basis of a large quantity on our own data from field and experimental cytogenetic studies involving aquatic biota, the paper considers the possibility of using - for the purposes of radiochemical-ecological monitoring - chromosome damage distribution in cells as an indicator of whether mutagens are radiation-related or not. (author)

  19. Variation in winter diet of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears inferred from stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, Erich H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Ringed seals (Phoca hispida Schreber, 1775 = Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775)) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777)) represent the majority of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) annual diet. However, remains of lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758) are available in the southern Beaufort Sea and their dietary contribution to polar bears has been unknown. We used stable isotope (13C/12C, δ13C, 15N/14N, and δ15N) analysis to determine the diet composition of polar bears sampled along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coast in March and April 2003 and 2004. The mean δ15N values of polar bear blood cells were 19.5‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2003 and 19.9‰ (SD = 0.7‰) in 2004. Mixing models indicated bowhead whales composed 11%–26% (95% CI) of the diets of sampled polar bears in 2003, and 0%–14% (95% CI) in 2004. This suggests significant variability in the proportion of lower trophic level prey in polar bear diets among individuals and between years. Polar bears depend on sea ice for hunting seals, and the temporal and spatial availabilities of sea ice are projected to decline. Consumption of low trophic level foods documented here suggests bears may increasingly scavenge such foods in the future.

  20. Ultraviolet Radiation, Aging and the Skin: Prevention of Damage by Topical cAMP Manipulation

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    Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  1. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.9306

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    Edmar Antônio Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.  

  3. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-04-01

    Response to habitat fragmentation may not be generalized among species, in particular for plant communities with a variety of dispersal traits. Calcareous grasslands are one of the most species-rich habitats in Central Europe, but abandonment of traditional management has caused a dramatic decline of calcareous grassland species. In the Southern Franconian Alb in Germany, reintroduction of rotational shepherding in previously abandoned grasslands has restored species diversity, and it has been suggested that sheep support seed dispersal among grasslands. We tested the effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland specialist plants and whether the response of plant populations to shepherding was limited to species dispersed by animals (zoochory). Specifically, we tested competing dispersal models and source and focal patch properties to explain landscape connectivity with patch-occupancy data of 31 species. We fitted the same connectivity models to patch occupancy and nuclear microsatellite data for the herb Dianthus carthusianorum (Carthusian pink). For 27 species, patch connectivity was explained by dispersal by rotational shepherding regardless of adaptations to zoochory, whereas population size (16% species) and patch area (0% species) of source patches were not important predictors of patch occupancy in most species. [Correction made after online publication, February 25, 2014: Population size and patch area percentages were mistakenly inverted, and have now been fixed.] Microsite diversity of focal patches significantly increased the model variance explained by patch occupancy in 90% of the species. For D. carthusianorum, patch connectivity through rotational shepherding explained both patch occupancy and population genetic diversity. Our results suggest shepherding provides dispersal for multiple plant species regardless of their dispersal adaptations and thus offers a useful approach to restore plant

  4. Use of tetrazolium (TTC, Germ's and greenhouse plant emergences methods for testing seed vigour of selected ornamental plant species

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    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996-1997 the experiments were carried out on methods to investigate seed vigour of tassel flower (Amaranthus caudatus L., sand pink (Dianthus chinensis L., babies' breath (Gypsophila elegans M.B., sweet pea (Lathyrus odorathus L., African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jasq.. The main goals of this research were to specify conditions for accelerated ageing (AA of the seeds of a few selected ornamental plant species and to choose the most appropriate methods for their seed vigour evaluation in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. All used in the experiments seeds came from the commercial seed lots from Polish seed company. Evaluation was carried out on the seed samples with high and low vigour. The latter ones were received through subjecting the seed samples to AA, i.e. by placing them in 100% relative humidity (RH at 44°C, except African marigold-at 42°C, in the darkness and keeping them for 144, 88, 100, 48, 72 and 72 hours, respectively. The tested seed vigour estimated methods included the Germ's method, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazoilum chloride (TTC method and the test of plant emergences in the greenhouse. The high vigour seeds samples were used as a check. The Germ's method was found to be useful to evaluate sand pink, babies' breath and African marigold seed vigour, whereas the TTC method was found to be suitable for vigour evaluation of sand pink, babies' breath and zinnia. At present stage of our knowledge about seed vigour, the plant emergences in the greenhouse method was found to be the best for evaluation of seed vigour of tassel flower, sand pink, babies' breath, sweet pea and zinnia. It is reasonable to combine a few methods of seed vigour evaluation for ornamental plant species.

  5. Alleviation of salt stress by enterobacter sp. EJ01 in tomato and Arabidopsis is accompanied by up-regulation of conserved salinity responsive factors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangmin; Jang, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Chae, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kui-Jae

    2014-02-01

    Microbiota in the niches of the rhizosphere zones can affect plant growth and responses to environmental stress conditions via mutualistic interactions with host plants. Specifically, some beneficial bacteria, collectively referred to as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs), increase plant biomass and innate immunity potential. Here, we report that Enterobacter sp. EJ01, a bacterium isolated from sea china pink (Dianthus japonicus thunb) in reclaimed land of Gyehwa-do in Korea, improved the vegetative growth and alleviated salt stress in tomato and Arabidopsis. EJ01 was capable of producing 1-aminocy-clopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and also exhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The isolate EJ01 conferred increases in fresh weight, dry weight, and plant height of tomato and Arabidopsis under both normal and high salinity conditions. At the molecular level, short-term treatment with EJ01 increased the expression of salt stress responsive genes such as DREB2b, RD29A, RD29B, and RAB18 in Arabidopsis. The expression of proline biosynthetic genes (i.e. P5CS1 and P5CS2) and of genes related to priming processes (i.e. MPK3 and MPK6) were also up-regulated. In addition, reactive oxygen species scavenging activities were enhanced in tomatoes treated with EJ01 in stressed conditions. GFP-tagged EJ01 displayed colonization in the rhizosphere and endosphere in the roots of Arabidopsis. In conclusion, the newly isolated Enterobacter sp. EJ01 is a likely PGPR and alleviates salt stress in host plants through multiple mechanisms, including the rapid up-regulation of conserved plant salt stress responsive signaling pathways.

  6. Phylogenetic evidence for a Miocene origin of Mediterranean lineages: species diversity, reproductive traits and geographical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, P; Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Heleno, R

    2018-01-01

    A review of 27 angiosperm clades (26 genera) of species-rich and species-poor plant groups of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed with phylogenetic and biological trait data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (34-23 Ma), far earlier than the onset of the Mediterranean climate (ca. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 of 14 clades of the species-poor group have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six of 13 clades within the species-rich group show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene. High levels of species diversity are related to an ancient (Paleocene-Miocene) origin and also to recent origin (Pliocene-Pleistocene) followed by active speciation and even explosive radiations: some species and lineages diversified over a short period (Aquilegia, Cistus, Dianthus, Linaria sect. Supinae, Reseda). In the species-rich group, key reproductive characters were found to be significantly more important for species recognition than key vegetative characters in eight clades, but no difference was found in four clades, and vegetative characters were predominant in one clade (Saxifraga). Geographical differentiation is proposed as predominant over divergence driven by pollination ecology. We hypothesise an evolutionary process in which lineages adapted to pre-Mediterranean (pre-Pliocene) conditions in relatively small, xeric areas became strongly competitive and expanded as the Mediterranean climate became dominant (Pliocene-Quaternary) across the Mediterranean Basin. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Bamboo tea: reduction of taxonomic complexity and application of DNA diagnostics based on rbcL and matK sequence data

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    Thomas Horn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear. However, products containing bamboo leaves are currently marketed. Methods We analysed bamboo species and tea products containing bamboo leaves using anatomical leaf characters and DNA sequence data. To reduce taxonomic complexity associated with the term bamboo, we used a phylogenetic framework to trace the origin of DNA from commercially available bamboo leaves within the bambusoid subfamily. For authentication purposes, we introduced a simple PCR based test distinguishing genuine bamboo from other leaf components and assessed the diagnostic potential of rbcL and matK to resolve taxonomic entities within the bamboo subfamily and tribes. Results Based on anatomical and DNA data we were able to trace the taxonomic origin of bamboo leaves used in products to the genera Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa from the temperate “woody” bamboo tribe (Arundinarieae. Currently available rbcL and matK sequence data allow the character based diagnosis of 80% of represented bamboo genera. We detected adulteration by carnation in four of eight tea products and, after adapting our objectives, could trace the taxonomic origin of the adulterant to Dianthus chinensis (Caryophyllaceae, a well known traditional Chinese medicine with counter indications for pregnant women.

  8. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

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    Mark P Johnson

    Full Text Available We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm, and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs.

  9. Variations in Host Preference among and within Populations of Heterodera trifolii and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Riggs, R D

    1999-12-01

    Seven populations of Heterodera trifolii from Arkansas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Australia plus 3 or 4 single-cyst isolates (SCI) from each population were tested for reproduction on seven species of plants to compare the host preferences among and within populations. Common lespedeza, Kummerowia striata cv. Kobe, was a good host for all populations and isolates. Therefore, a plant was considered to be a host if the number of females produced on it was 10% or more of the number on Kobe. All seven populations reproduced on Trifolium repens and T. pratense. None reproduced on Beta vulgaris or Glycine max. One single-cyst isolate from the Australian population produced a few females on T. pratense. The Australian population maintained on carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus, produced females on carnation but not on curly dock, Rumex crispus. However, its subpopulation maintained on T. repens produced females on R. crispus but not on carnation. Four of the other six populations produced females on R. crispus, and four produced females on carnation. Differences in host range were observed among seven of the mother populations and their SCI, and among isolates within each population. Five host range patterns were found in populations and SCI of H. trifolii. Significant quantitative differences occurred among populations in the numbers of females on most hosts, between isolates and their original populations, and among isolates from the same population. SCI selected from white clover produced fewer females on a series of test hosts and had host ranges the same as or narrower than those of the original populations. However, SCI selected from Kobe lespedeza had more females on some hosts and had host ranges the same as or wider than those of the original populations. The host ranges of all populations and SCI of H. trifolii were different from those of populations and SCI of race 3 of H. glycines and H. lespedezae.

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts isolated from endemic plants of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province on PC-3, MCF-7, Hep G2, CHO and B16-F10 cell lines

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    Z. Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To date, thousands of secondary metabolites have been isolated from plants and microorganisms and there is an unprecedented attention towards potential biomedical applications of natural compounds. In this study, cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of Stachys obtusicrena, Aristolochia olivieri, Linum album, Dionysia sawyeri, Ajuga chamaecistus, Achillea kellalensis, Nepeta glomerulosa, Phlomis aucheria, Tanacetum dumosum, Dianthus orientalis, Scutellaria multicaulis, Cicer oxyodon and Picris oligocephalum which are widely grown in Iran, were investigated on PC-3 (prostat cancer, MCF-7 (breast cancer, Hep-G2 (liver cancer, CHO (ovarian cancer and B16-F10 (melanoma cell lines. Methods: The cancer cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by Alamar blue® assay. The apoptotic cells were determined by PI coloring and Flow Cytometry (Sub-G1 peak. Results: The methanol extracts of D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon significantly decreased the viability of CHO cells. The Methanol extract of D. sawyer and L. album had cytotoxic effects on B16-F10 cells, whereas no toxicity was observed in MCF-7, Hep-G2 and PC-3 cell lines after incubation of the cancer cells with the plant extracts. The PI staining results showed that D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon in CHO cancer cells could induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Screening plants to find the most cytotoxic extract showed D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, C. oxyodon and L. album had the potential for further analysis toward finding active phytochemicals with cytotoxic activity.

  11. Prospección y evaluación de especies con potencial de follaje para la elaboración de bouquets

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    Gutiérrez Iveth Cristina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo incluyó labores de documentación, prospección, establecimiento, caracterización y evaluación de especies con potencial de follaje para uso en la industria de flor cortada. La fase de documentación se realizó en el Herbario Nacional de Colombia en donde se identificaron 88 especies; los departamentos de Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Valle del Cauca y Meta son las zonas con mayor número de especies referenciadas. En la fase de prospección se colectaron 105 especies, de las cuales se logró establecer en invernadero con éxito el 81%. Con las especies establecidas se realizaron tres evaluaciones para determinar el comportamiento de los tallos en cuarto frío, la vida en florero y el potencial de mercado. Las diferentes evaluaciones señalaron que Dianthus caryophyllus(var. Espiga, Coprosma kikiicu, Eucalipto sp.(var. Silver dolar, Euonymus japonicus L., Hedera madeirensis, Hedera helix (verde, Ligustrum lucidum, Fotinia serrulata, Protea grandiceps, Pyracantha coccinea y Rosmarinus oficcinalis son especies con potencial de follaje para su uso en bouquets por presentar tallos largos, erectos, firmes, forma atractiva, follaje denso, colores vistosos, brillo, consistencia en las hojas, buen comportamiento en cuarto frío, duración en florero y aceptación comercial.

  12. Gender differences and inflammation: an in vitro model of blood cells stimulation in prepubescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corazza Francis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender influences clinical presentations and markers in inflammatory diseases. In many chronic conditions, frequency of complications is greater in females, suggesting that continuous inflammatory reaction may induce greater damage in targeted organs and functions. Methods To investigate gender dimorphism at a cellular level, we evaluated the production of cytokines implicated in inflammatory processes (IL -1, IL- 6, PGE-2 and TNF alpha, in healthy prepubescent children of both sex and Turner's syndrome (TS patients (genotype XO. We used stimulation by LPS (0.2 and 1 ng/ml and Pokeweed Mitogen (PWM on overnight cultures from whole blood samples, collected in 57 subjects: 22 girls/26 boys (5-96 months, and 9 TS patients (6-15 years. The primary outcome was to evaluate if gender influences the production of cytokines, with potential relation to X chromosome monosomy. Secondary endpoints were to relate different cytokines level productions and conditions. Results We confirm the male over female increased cytokine productions already observed in adults. This is contrasting with numerous observations obtained in vivo about increased production of inflammatory markers in females (CRP, ESR and neutrophil counts, as we recently reported in children. Relative variations of the dimorphism according to stimulus, its concentration and cytokine type are discussed, presenting IL6 with a modulating function that could be more potent in males. TS subjects follow mostly the male pattern of reactivity, sustaining the role of some gene expression differing with X chromosome monosomy and disomy. Conclusions Persistence of the latter dimorphism throughout life casts doubts on its direct relationship with individual hormonal status, as already documented by others in vitro, and supports the need for alternative hypothesis, such as the influence of X chromosome gene products escaping X inactivation in females and absent in subjects with X monosomy

  13. Respective roles and interactions of T-lymphocyte and PGE2-mediated monocyte suppressive activities in human newborns and mothers at the time of delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Mamas, S.; Dray, F.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the concept of a poorly functional humoral immune response in the newborn was proposed. Data have been presented indicating that the impaired newborn B cell maturation, as shown in vitro in a pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell maturation system, is due both to an immaturity of lymphocyte subsets and to an increased suppressive T activity. In the present work, we present evidence that there exists a predominance of a naturally occurring T lymphocyte suppressive activity in the cord blood in that the removal of the suppressive activity by irradiation allows a normal maturation of newborn B cells. Such normal maturation of newborn B cells can also be obtained using mixed cultures of adult T cells and newborn B cells. Newborn suppressor T cells belong to both EA gamma (+) and EA gamma (-) fractions, and it is not known whether these two groups do or do not belong to different subsets. The PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity does not play any role in the suppression observed in newborns since newborn monocytes are poorly suppressive and since they produce a smaller amount of PGE2 than adult monocytes. Some observations suggest, on the contrary, that the suppressive T lymphocytes can regulate the level of the PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activity. It should be noticed that similar observations about T lymphocyte and PGE2-dependent monocyte suppressive activities have been made at the same time using mothers' cells. These observations suggest the possibility that such changes in B cell immune regulation may result from an interaction between maternal and fetal lymphoid cells

  14. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Delirezh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is exclusively produced by CD4 helper T-cells upon activation. It most often acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. In this study, we studied the in-vitro IL-17 response to specific antigens and a variety of mitogens and compared the IL-17 response to IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses. We used a foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine as specific antigens and mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], pokeweed mitogen [PWM], and concanavalin A [Con A] to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of vaccinated calves. Cell culture supernatant was harvested and analyzed for cytokines, using commercially available bovine ELISA kits. The mitogens induced a significant increase in IL-17 production. IL-17 was produced at high levels in response to the T cell-stimulated mitogens, PHA, and Con A, and at low levels in response to PWM mitogens. In contrast, level of the produced IL-17 cytokines in response to the FMDV antigens was lower as compared to those produced by mitogens. The FMDV antigens and mitogens significantly increased IL-17 production. There was not a correlation between IL-17 production and type-1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and IL-2, while there was a correlation between type-2 cytokine, IL-4, and IL-5 at either cytokine level produced by PBMCs stimulated by FMDV antigens. Moreover, there was an interaction between IL-17 and IL-6, that is, as IL-6 cytokine level elevated or diminished, IL-17 cytokine level increased or decreased, as well.

  15. The effect of deoxyguanosine on human lymphocyte function. I. Analysis of the interference with lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaapen, L J; Rijkers, G T; Staal, G E; Rijksen, G; Wadman, S K; Stoop, J W; Zegers, B J

    1984-05-01

    The effect of deoxyguanosine on mitogen- and antigen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors was studied. Deoxyguanosine was found to inhibit the proliferative response to mitogens and antigens. Concentrations of deoxyguanosine causing 50% inhibition of the proliferation proved to be dependent on the activity of catabolic enzymes, such as purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), in sera used in the culture media. The inhibitory effect of deoxyguanosine on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cell proliferation was prevented by deoxycytidine as well as by hypoxanthine. These findings were analyzed further by determination of intracellular (deoxy)-nucleotide levels. Stimulation of lymphocytes by PHA in the presence of deoxyguanosine leads to intracellular accumulation of dGTP. The presence of hypoxanthine in addition to deoxyguanosine abolished the inhibitory effect but did not prevent dGTP accumulation. On the other hand, the addition of deoxycytidine in combination with deoxyguanosine did not lead to intracellular accumulation of detectable amounts of dGTP, but only gave partial protection against the toxic effect. Furthermore, guanosine inhibited mitogen-induced cell proliferation to the same extent as did deoxyguanosine provided that the culture media were supplemented with pretreated fetal calf serum. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of a PNP-deficient or a HGPRT-deficient patient in cultures stimulated with PHA or pokeweed mitogen were resistant to the inhibitory effects of guanosine and were less sensitive to deoxyguanosine than cells of normal donors. The present results clearly show the involvement of two pathways contributing to deoxyguanosine-mediated inhibition of the proliferation of normal lymphocytes, i.e., on the one hand degradation of deoxyguanosine by PNP, salvage of guanine by HGPRT, and (possibly) phosphorylation of GMP eventually leading to GTP, and on the other hand formation of dGTP by direct phosphorylation of

  16. Aspirin down-regulates tryptophan degradation in stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroecksnadel, K; Winkler, C; Wirleitner, B; Schennach, H; Fuchs, D

    2005-04-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used drugs worldwide, due mainly to its broad therapeutic spectrum with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antithrombotic and analgesic effects. However, the exact mechanisms by which aspirin influences inflammation, pain and immune system activation are only partly understood. Within activation of the cellular immune system, Th1-type cytokine interferon (IFN)-gamma induces enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) which converts tryptophan to kynurenine. In parallel, IFN-gamma induces enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase I, which gives rise to neopterin production by activated human macrophages. Similarly, tryptophan degradation and neopterin formation increase during several disease states involving Th1-type immune activation. Using stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the effect of aspirin on tryptophan degradation and neopterin production was investigated. Stimulation of PBMC with mitogens concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen induced significant tryptophan catabolism as was reflected by a decline in tryptophan levels and a parallel increase in kynurenine concentrations compared with unstimulated cells. In parallel, neopterin production was enhanced. Treatment of stimulated PBMC with increasing doses of 1-5 mM aspirin significantly decreased stimulation-induced tryptophan degradation and neopterin production as well. All the effects of aspirin were dose-dependent. The parallel influence of aspirin on both biochemical pathways implies that there was no direct inhibitory effect of aspirin on IDO; rather, it inhibits production of IFN-gamma in mitogen-treated PBMC. The influence of aspirin on biochemical pathways induced by IFN-gamma may represent an important part of its broad pharmacological effect.

  17. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in ZAP70 in a Chinese patient with leaky severe combined immunodeficiency disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qiao; Zhao, Qin; Chen, Xue-Mei; Xue, Xiu-Hong; Zhou, Li-Na; Ding, Yuan; Tang, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2017-04-01

    In humans, the complete lack of tyrosine kinase ZAP70 function results in combined immunodeficiency (CID), with abnormal thymic development and defective T cell receptor (TCR) signaling of peripheral T cells, characterized by the selective absence of CD8 + T cells. So far, 15 unique ZAP70 mutations have been identified in approximately 20 patients with CID, with variable clinical presentations. Herein, we report the first case from China of novel compound heterozygous mutations in ZAP70 (c.598-599delCT, p.L200fsX28; c.847 C>T, R283H). The patient suffered from early-onset and recurrent infections, but showed normal growth and development without signs of failure to thrive, thus presenting as leaky SCID. The patient also had clinical manifestations of autoimmunity, such as eczematous skin lesion, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and intractable diarrhea, suggesting compromised T cell tolerogenic functions. Residual ZAP70 expression was identified. Immunological analysis revealed the selective absence of CD8 + T cells in the periphery and the presence of CD4 + T cells that failed to respond to phytohemagglutinin. Stimulation with lectin from pokeweed mitogen also failed to stimulate B cell proliferation in the patient. The frequency of Tfhs and Tregs in the patient was lower compared with the normal reference. Compared with the age-matched healthy control, the level of IL-17 was higher and the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-21 were lower. Infants with selected CD8 deficiency and severe autoimmune disorders or exaggerated inflammation should be screened for ZAP70 deficiency.

  18. The effects of selected drugs, including chlorpromazine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, on polyclonal IgG synthesis and interleukin 1 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Coleman, J W

    1989-01-01

    We tested a range of drugs for their effects on in vitro polyclonal IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with the lectin pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The test drugs were selected on the basis of reported disruptive effects on immune function in vivo. IgG production between day 4 and days 7 or 8 of culture was measured by biotin-streptavidin sandwich ELISA. The anti-psychotic agent chlorpromazine (0.55-1.7 microM) enhanced IgG synthesis to approximately double control levels. In contrast, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin, piroxicam, ibuprofen and aspirin inhibited IgG synthesis by up to 50%, with a rank order of potency that reflects their activity as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. Phenytoin, procainamide, propylthiouracil, methimazole, D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine all failed to modulate IgG synthesis at non-toxic concentrations. The potentiation and inhibition of IgG synthesis by chlorpromazine and indomethacin, respectively, was observed only when the drug was present during the first 24 h of culture. Neither chlorpromazine nor indomethacin, at non-toxic concentrations, affected PHA- and PWM-stimulated proliferation of PBMC. In addition, chlorpromazine, indomethacin and piroxicam, at concentrations which produced maximal modulation of IgG synthesis, and D-penicillamine and D-penicillamine-L-cysteine at 10 microM failed to influence production of interleukin-1-like activity. We conclude that chlorpromazine and NSAIDs, although they exert opposite effects on IgG synthesis, act at an early stage of B cell differentiation that appears to be independent of interleukin 1 synthesis and early proliferative events. PMID:2788047

  19. Cytogenic follow-up studies in six radiation accident victims 16 and 17 years post-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, L.G.; Joiner, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Detailed cytogenetic evaluations were recently conducted in cultured lymphocytes from six men accidentally exposed to fission neutron and gamma radiation in 1958 (dose range 22.8-365 rads). Two-day lymphocyte cultures stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and seven-day cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were initiated on all six men for routine microscopic and karyotypic analysis. PHA-stimulated cultures from the two men with the highest exposures were also evaluated using Giemsa-banding procedures. Approximately 9% of the metaphases in the PHA cultures and 11% of the metaphases in the PWM cultures were found to have residual radiation-induced aberrations (symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges and deletions). In both the PHA and PWM cultures the highest frequencies of lesions were observed in preparations from three men with the highest radiation exposures. Among the abnormal metaphases from the various PHA cultures five possible clones were identified (two or more cells having apparently identical lesions) whereas no stemlines were detected in the PWM cultures. The frequency of stable lesions in 92 banded metaphases from the two men with the highest exposures did not differ significantly from the frequency of lesions detected in 300 metaphases evaluated with routine staining and karyotypic procedures. These data suggest that radiation-damaged lymphocytes responsive to mitogenic stimulation by PHA and PWM may survive for many years following exposure, that the frequency of lymphocytes with persistent aberrations can be roughly correlated with dose, and that in some instances cells bearing 'stable' radiation-induced lesions may propagate in vivo. The findings also show that banding procedures, compared with routine microscopic and karyotypic methods, do not significantly improve the rate of detection of symmetrical lesions in lymphocytes from irradiated persons

  20. Immunological and clinical observations in diabetic kidney graft recipients pretreated with total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Roels, L.

    1987-01-01

    In a feasibility study, twenty patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy were treated with fractionated total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI, mean dose 25 Gy), before transplantation of a first cadaveric kidney. During radiotherapy, only one patient had a serious side effect (bone marrow depression). After transplantation four patients died (one of a myocardial infarction, one of ketoacidosis, and two of infections occurring during treatment of rejection crises). One graft was lost because of chronic rejection. The other 15 patients have a functioning graft (mean follow-up 24 months) and receive low-dose prednisone alone (less than 10 mg/day, n = 11) or in conjunction with cyclosporine (n = 4) as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. A favorable clinical outcome after TLI (no, or only one, steroid-sensitive rejection crisis) was significantly correlated with a high pre-TLI helper/suppressor lymphocyte ratio, a short interval between TLI and the time of transplantation, and the occurrence of functional suppressor cells early after TLI. The most striking immunological changes provoked by TLI consisted of a long-term depression of the mixed lymphocyte reaction and of the phytohemagglutinin, and Concanavalin A or pokeweed-mitogen-induced blastogenesis. A rapid and complete recovery of the natural killer cell activity was observed after TLI. A permanent inversion of the OKT4+ (T helper/inducer) over OKT8+ (T suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocyte ratio was provoked by a decrease of the OTK4+ subpopulation, together with a supranormal recovery of the OKT8+ lymphocytes. A majority of the latter lymphocytes did also express the Leu 7 and the Leu 15 phenotype

  1. Immunological and clinical observations in diabetic kidney graft recipients pretreated with total-lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waer, M.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Roels, L.; Ang, K.K.; Bouillon, R.; Lerut, T.; Gruwez, J.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Michielsen, P.

    1987-03-01

    In a feasibility study, twenty patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy were treated with fractionated total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI, mean dose 25 Gy), before transplantation of a first cadaveric kidney. During radiotherapy, only one patient had a serious side effect (bone marrow depression). After transplantation four patients died (one of a myocardial infarction, one of ketoacidosis, and two of infections occurring during treatment of rejection crises). One graft was lost because of chronic rejection. The other 15 patients have a functioning graft (mean follow-up 24 months) and receive low-dose prednisone alone (less than 10 mg/day, n = 11) or in conjunction with cyclosporine (n = 4) as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. A favorable clinical outcome after TLI (no, or only one, steroid-sensitive rejection crisis) was significantly correlated with a high pre-TLI helper/suppressor lymphocyte ratio, a short interval between TLI and the time of transplantation, and the occurrence of functional suppressor cells early after TLI. The most striking immunological changes provoked by TLI consisted of a long-term depression of the mixed lymphocyte reaction and of the phytohemagglutinin, and Concanavalin A or pokeweed-mitogen-induced blastogenesis. A rapid and complete recovery of the natural killer cell activity was observed after TLI. A permanent inversion of the OKT4+ (T helper/inducer) over OKT8+ (T suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocyte ratio was provoked by a decrease of the OTK4+ subpopulation, together with a supranormal recovery of the OKT8+ lymphocytes. A majority of the latter lymphocytes did also express the Leu 7 and the Leu 15 phenotype.

  2. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  3. Evaluation of an in vitro blood-based assay to detect production of interferon-gamma by Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Waters, W Ray; Whipple, Diana L; Slaughter, Ralph E; Jones, Stephen L

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in captive Cervidae was identified as an important disease in the United States in 1990 and prompted the addition of captive Cervidae to the USDA Uniform Methods and Rules for eradication of bovine tuberculosis. As well, M. bovis infection was identified in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeast Michigan in 1995. Tuberculosis in both captive and free-ranging Cervidae represents a serious challenge to the eradication of M. bovis infection from the United States. Currently, the only approved antemortem tests for tuberculosis in Cervidae are the intradermal tuberculin skin test and the blood tuberculosis test (BTB). At present, the BTB is not available in North America. Tuberculin skin testing of Cervidae is time-consuming and involves repeated animal handling and risk of injury to animals and humans. This study evaluated the potential of a new blood-based assay for tuberculosis in Cervidae that would decrease animal handling, stress, and losses due to injury. In addition, a blood-based assay could provide a more rapid diagnosis. Twenty 6-9-month-old white-tailed deer, male and female, were experimentally inoculated by instillation of 300 colony-forming units of M. bovis in the tonsillar crypts. Seven, age-matched uninfected deer served as controls. Blood was collected on days 90, 126, 158, 180, 210, 238, 263, and 307 after inoculation and was analyzed for the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to incubation with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPDb), M. avium PPDa, pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or media alone. Production of IFN-gamma in response to PPDb was significantly greater (P deer as compared with uninfected control deer, whereas IFN-gamma production to PWM did not differ significantly between infected and control deer. Measurement of IFN-gamma production to PPDb may serve as a useful assay for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in Cervidae.

  4. Cytokine and immunoglobulin production by PWM-stimulated peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzouita Kamel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-specific cytotoxic activity is detectable by the standard chromium-release assay at both peripheral and intratumoral levels. The mechanisms underlying this discrepancy between the humoral and cellular immune responses in NPC are still unknown, but might be related to an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production. In this report, we investigated the ability of peripheral (PBL and tumor- infiltrating (TIL lymphocytes of undifferentiated NPC patients to produce in vitro three interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and three immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA. Methods Lymphocytes from 17 patients and 17 controls were cultured in the presence of Pokeweed mitogen (PWM for 12 days and their culture supernatants were tested for interleukins and immunoglobulins by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and probability values below 5% were considered significant. Results The data obtained indicated that TIL of NPC patients produced significantly more IL-2 (p = 0,0002, IL-10 (p = 0,020, IgM (p= 0,0003 and IgG (p Conclusion Taken together, our data reinforce the possibility of an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production in NPC patients. An increased ability to produce cytokines such as IL-10 may underlie the discrepancy between humoral and cellular immune responses characteristic of NPC.

  5. Inhibition of human antigen-induced lymphoblastoid B-cell function by an in vivo-induced suppressor T cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieva, J A; Stevens, R H

    1983-04-01

    Lymphoblastoid (LB) B cells which spontaneously produce antitetanus toxoid IgG antibodies (Tet-IgG) in short-term cultures (3 days) appear in the circulation 5-7 days after immunization with tetanus toxoid. Addition of pokeweed mitogen (PWM), normally a stimulator of antibody production, caused instead a reduction in the in vitro synthesis of Tet-IgG by the LB cells. In order for this inhibition of antibody production to occur, T cells had to be present, and the inhibition was proportional to the number of T cells added to the culture, demonstrating the existence of PWM-inducible suppressor cells. The cells mediating the suppression had the OKT8 phenotype and also exhibited the following characteristics: (1) a PWM pretreatment period as little as 14 hr was enough to complete activation; (2) conventional inhibitors of suppressor T cells as hydrocortisone and cyclosporin A only partially reversed its effect; and (3) DNA synthesis was not required. The T-suppressor activity was detectable in the circulation before immunization, increased two- to fourfold by 5-12 days after boosting, and waned after 3 weeks. The mechanism of action of this suppression does not appear to involve conventional cytotoxic T cells as (1) the suppression was mediated across allogeneic barriers and (2) the suppression could not be reversed by inclusion of anti-Leu-2a antibodies in the culture. These results suggest that this suppressor T-cell subset may be important in the normal regulation of activated stages of human B lymphocytes.

  6. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.

    1986-01-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with 35 S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants

  7. Towards establishing a rhinoceros-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, D; Schreuder, J; Mény, M; van Kooten, P J S; Tijhaar, E; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), with a diverse host range, extending from livestock to domestic and captive wild animals as well as free-ranging wildlife species. In South Africa, BTB is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Hluluwe iMfolozi National Park (HiP), where the high prevalence of M. bovis infections in buffalo herds has led to infection of a number of wildlife species. This has raised concerns about the spillover into the rhinoceros population, a species known to be susceptible to both M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, jeopardizing breeding and relocation projects that serve to conserve and protect this species. In view of the advantages of the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay in the diagnosis of BTB in a variety of species worldwide, such an assay has been developed for rhinoceroses by Morar and co-workers in 2007. In this study, this assay was optimized using recombinant eukaryotic rhinoceros IFN-γ and the lower detection limit was calculated to be 0.5 ng/ml. Subsequently, assessing the detection of native rhinoceros IFN-γ protein in whole-blood samples revealed stimulation with each of the mitogens: pokeweed (PWM), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) & phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore (PMA/CaI), though most prominently with the latter two. In addition, samples collected from 52 clinically healthy rhinoceroses, of presumed negative BTB status, from two different areas in South Africa were used to determine the cut-off value for a negative test result. This was calculated to be 0.10 (OD490 nm ) and as determined in this study is a preliminary recommendation based on IFN-γ responses observed in samples from BTB-free rhinoceroses only. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Lymphocyte transformation assay for C neoformans antigen is not reliable for detecting cellular impairment in patients with neurocryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Katya C; Pinhal, Cinthia; Cavalcanti, Sônia; Vidal, Monica S M; Toscano, Matheus; Moraes-Vasconcelos, Dewton; Duarte, Alberto J S; Fonseca, Fernando L A; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Grumach, Anete S G

    2012-10-30

    Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningitis and disseminated infection in healthy individuals, but more commonly in hosts with defective immune responses. Cell-mediated immunity is an important component of the immune response to a great variety of infections, including yeast infections. We aimed to evaluate a specific lymphocyte transformation assay to Cryptococcus neoformans in order to identify immunodeficiency associated to neurocryptococcosis (NCC) as primary cause of the mycosis. Healthy volunteers, poultry growers, and HIV-seronegative patients with neurocryptococcosis were tested for cellular immune response. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed by India ink staining of cerebrospinal fluid and cryptococcal antigen test (Immunomycol-Inc, SP, Brazil). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with C. neoformans antigen, C. albicans antigen, and pokeweed mitogen. The amount of 3H-thymidine incorporated was assessed, and the results were expressed as stimulation index (SI) and log SI, sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value (receiver operating characteristics curve). We applied unpaired Student t tests to compare data and considered significant differences for p<0.05. The lymphotoxin alpha showed a low capacity with all the stimuli for classifying patients as responders and non-responders. Lymphotoxin alpha stimulated by heated-killed antigen from patients with neurocryptococcosis was not affected by TCD4+ cell count, and the intensity of response did not correlate with the clinical evolution of neurocryptococcosis. Response to lymphocyte transformation assay should be analyzed based on a normal range and using more than one stimulator. The use of a cut-off value to classify patients with neurocryptococcosis is inadequate. Statistical analysis should be based on the log transformation of SI. A more purified antigen for evaluating specific response to C. neoformans is needed.

  9. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R. [Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States) and USGS, Leetown Science Center, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States)]. E-mail: luke_iwanowicz@usgs.gov; Lerner, Darren T. [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Blazer, Vicki S. [USGS, Leetown Science Center, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); McCormick, Stephen D. [Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); USGS, Leetown Science Center, Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center, Turners Falls, MA 01376 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} groups (n = 12, P < 0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n = 12, P 0.036) only in the 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations.

  10. La fauna del pleistoceno inferior de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia

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    Szyndlar, Z.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary karstic site of Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia, Spain has provided a wide faunistic list with 53 species distributed among gastropods, myriapods, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Especially interesting among the gastropods is Palaeoglandina that became extinct in Europe during the Pliocene. It remains as a relict genus in the Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Two of the birds, Gypaetus barbatus and Geronticus eremita, and a snake, Elaphe cf. E. sealaris, are scarcely represented in the fossil record. For several birds, it is the first record in the Lower Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Among the mammals, the presence of the Cercopithecine Macaca sylvanus is especially relevant one. The assemblage of the taxa Arvicola deucalion, Castillomys rivas rivas, Eliomys intermedius, Equus altidens and Capra sp. aff. C. alba allows the correlation with Plines 1, Orce 3 and Venta Micena, among other sites. Therefore Quibas can be dated before the end of Lower Pleistocene, between 1.3 and 1 Ma. A dry paleoclimatic regime, very similar to the current climate in the geographical area, though perhaps slightly wetter and warmer, can be inferred from the faunistic assemblage. The environment of the karstic cavity was a rocky place with open brushwood areas, but in the proximities there were wetlands and woodlands, as can be inferred from the presence of birds and micromammals characteristic of these habitats.El yacimiento kárstico cuaternario de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia ha proporcionado una amplia lista faunística constituida por 53 especies repartidas entre gasterópodos, miriápodos, anfibios, reptiles, aves y mamíferos. En el conjunto de los gasterópodos destaca Palaeoglandina, un género que se extingue en el resto de Europa durante el Plioceno y que se mantiene como relicto en el Pleistoceno de la Península Ibérica. Dos de las especies de aves determinadas, Gypaetus barbatus y Gerontieus eremita, y una

  11. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

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    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: identificar as espécies vegetais utilizadas com fins medicinais pela comunidade de Ipameri (Estado de Goiás; investigar as preferências com relação à produção e comercialização dessas plantas; e diagnosticar o perfil de gênero e as faixas etárias e salariais de seus usuários. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas estruturadas com 200 famílias da cidade e coletadas as plantas visando-se a sua correta identificação. O material foi herborizado, identificado e depositado no Herbário da Universidade Estadual de Goiás (HUEG. Das 200 famílias entrevistadas, 75 disseram não fazer uso de plantas com fins medicinais (37,5%, enquanto 125 afirmaram fazê-lo (62,5%. O grupo que utiliza relacionou 35 espécies mais empregadas: hortelã-rasteira (Mentha x villosa L., boldo-sete-dores (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus niruri L., camomila (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., poejo (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., alfavacão (Ocimum gratissimum L., losna (Artemisia canphorata Vill., bálsamo (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., babosa (Aloe vera L. e malva (Althaea officinalis L.. Todas as famílias consumidoras (100% afirmaram preferir as plantas cultivadas de forma orgânica, selecionando-as através da boa aparência (68% das famílias e consumindo-as in natura (sem beneficiamento, 100%. A utilização de plantas medicinais em Ipameri é independente do sexo (54%, mulheres e 46%, homens e se estende às várias faixas etárias e também sócio-econômicas, configurando-se assim, um bom mercado consumidor.The aims of this study were: to identify the plant species used for medicinal purposes by the community at Ipameri (Goiás State; to investigate the preferences with respect to the production and marketing

  12. Composición y abundancia del banco de semillas en una región semiárida del trópico mexicano: patrones de variación espacial y temporal Composition and abundance of the seed bank in a semiaridregion in tropical Mexico: spatial and temporal patterns

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    Adriana Cano-Salgado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura del banco de semillas en el valle semiárido de Zapotitlán, Puebla. El registro de la composición y abundancia del banco de semillas se realizó en 2 tipos de vegetación (tetechera y matorral espinoso en los microhábitats (bajo arbustos, espacio abierto y basureros de la hormiga granívora Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Las semillas se recolectaron en las épocas de secas, lluvias y finales de lluvias durante 2 años. No se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de semillas entre las épocas y años, pero sí hubo diferencias entre los microhábitats evaluados. El microhábitat del hormiguero presentó la mayor abundancia de semillas, lo que resalta la importancia de las hormigas en la conformación espacial de la estructura de las comunidades en estos ecosistemas. Se registraron semillas de 38 especies de plantas. La densidad promedio varió de 23 800 a 28 000 semillas m-2, concordando con otros registros de regiones semiáridas y áridas. Las especies más frecuentes fueron las anuales Eragrostis mexicana, Bouteloua barbata, Kallstroemia rosei y Portulaca pilosa. Los resultados muestran que la heterogeneidad de sitios y de microhábitats en esta zona es alta. Es necesaria la realización de más estudios sobre patrones espacio-temporales en los bancos de semillas y su relación con la vegetación en pie en zonas áridas y semiáridas en México.The seed bank structure in the semiarid valley of Zapotitlán, Puebla was studied. The record of the composition and abundance of the seed bank was conducted in 2 types of vegetation (tetechera and thorny scrub in the microhabitats (under shrubs, open space and refuse- dumps of granivorous ants Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Seed collection was carried out in dry, rainy and late rainy seasons for 2 years. There were no differences in seed density between seasons and years, but there were differences between microhabitats evaluated. The microhabitat of the ant refuse-dumps had the highest

  13. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

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    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  14. Obtenção e uso das plantas medicinais no distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, Brasil Acquisition and use of medicinal plants in Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Milena Andrea Curitiba Pilla

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um inventário das plantas medicinais conhecidas e usadas pela população do distrito de Martim Francisco, Município de Mogi-Mirim, SP, bem como conhecer seus empregos e sua importância na comunidade. Foram amostradas aleatoriamente 50 unidades domiciliares. Apenas um dos adultos responsáveis pela casa (homem ou mulher foi entrevistado, através de questionários. As plantas citadas foram coletadas e fotografadas paralelamente à aplicação dos questionários. O material botânico foi identificado e depositado no Herbarium Rioclarense (HRCB. Ao todo, foram catalogadas 107 espécies botânicas, predominantemente herbáceas e cultivadas, distribuídas em 40 famílias, sendo as famílias Lamiaceae e Asteraceae as mais representativas. Os índices de diversidade (H' = 4,07; e = 0,87 foram altos, se comparados aos obtidos em outros trabalhos no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Na preparação dos remédios, as folhas foram a parte da planta mais utilizada e a decocção a principal forma de preparo. A via oral foi a mais empregada para a administração dos medicamentos e as doenças mais freqüentemente tratadas por remédios caseiros referem-se aos Sistemas Digestivo e Respiratório. Não existe um rigor na posologia e na duração do tratamento, ficando este a critério do hábito de cada pessoa entrevistada. As plantas que apresentaram índice de importância relativa e concordância de uso acima de 60% foram: boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, hortelã (Mentha sp. 2 e poejo (Cunila microcephala Benth..The aim of this work was to do an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants known and used by people in the Martim Francisco district, Mogi Mirim Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, as well as to investigate their application and importance for the community. A questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 50 households; in each, one adult (male

  15. Fungos endofíticos associados a plantas medicinais Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants

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    V Mussi-Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização de plantas medicinais em infusões, xaropes, tinturas, ungüentos, dentre outras formas, pressupõe-se que fungos endofíticos, presentes no interior das plantas, mas sem causar doença, possam tornar-se um componente destes produtos, principalmente quando utilizados in natura. Além disso, os fungos endofíticos podem também produzir substâncias tóxicas aos usuários ou mesmo alterar o metabolismo vegetal, modificando a composição e as propriedades medicinais, assim como, a qualidade do produto armazenado e comercializado. Neste sentido, objetivou-se isolar e identificar a flora fúngica endofítica de onze espécies medicinais escolhidas ao acaso. Obtiveram-se culturas-puras dos fungos Phomopsis, Colletotrichum, Pestalotia, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Nigrospora e Glomerella ocorrendo endofiticamente em Plectranthus barbatus, Vernonia condensata, Pfaffia paniculata, Foeniculum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia curassavica, Maytenus ilicifolia, Punica granatum, Morus nigra e Bauhinia forficata. As espécies vegetais em que se identificaram o maior número de fungos endofíticos foram Vernonia condensata, Punica granatum e Morus nigra. Todos os fungos recuperados neste trabalho apresentaram características estritamente endofíticas, não manifestando patogenicidade nas espécies hospedeiras. Dentre os fungos detectados, especial atenção deve ser dada ao gênero Fusarium, uma vez que inúmeras espécies deste gênero são conhecidas produtoras de micotoxinas e constituem-se em importantes patógenos pós-colheita.With the use of medicinal plants in infusions, syrups, dyes, unguents, among other forms, it is expected that endophytic fungi, present inside the plants but not causing diseases, become components of these products, especially when used in natura. In addition, endophytic fungi can produce toxic substances to the users or even modify the plant metabolism, altering the medicinal composition and

  16. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach=Medicina popular em Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná: uma abordagem etnobotânica

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    Gisele Caroline Novakowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.Apresenta-se resultado de estudo etnobotânico (fevereiro a agosto/2009 visando melhoramento e racionalização das práticas medicinais populares fundamentadas no uso de plantas. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 220 famílias pertencentes à zona urbana do município de Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná. Durante as entrevistas foram registradas as seguintes informações das plantas utilizadas: nome comum, parte usada, modo de preparo, local de coleta, indica

  17. Bioactivities of decoctions from Plectranthus species related to their traditional use on the treatment of digestive problems and alcohol intoxication.

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    Brito, Elsa; Gomes, Emma; Falé, Pedro L; Borges, Carlos; Pacheco, Rita; Teixeira, Vitor; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Ascensão, Lia; Serralheiro, Maria Luisa M

    2018-04-04

    Decoctions of Plectranthus species are traditionally ingested after large meals for treatment of food digestion and alcohol abuse. This study aims at associating the digestion-related ethno-uses of Plectranthus species decoctions to molecular mechanism that might explain them: easing digestion (AChE inhibition) and treating hangover (ADH inhibition) MATERIAL AND METHODS: Decoctions from Plectranthus species were analysed for their alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, related with alcohol metabolism and intestinal motility, respectively. Identification of the active components was carried out by LC-MS/MS and the docking studies were performed with AChE and the bioactive molecules detected. All decoctions inhibited ADH activity. This inhibition was correlated with their rosmarinic acid (RA) content, which showed an IC 50 value of 19 μg/mL, similar to the reference inhibitor CuCl 2 . The presence of RA also leads to most decoctions showing AChE inhibiting capacity. P. zuluensis decoction with an IC 50 of 80 μg/mL presented also medioresinol, an even better inhibitor of AChE, as indicated by molecular docking studies. Furthermore, all decoctions tested showed no toxicity towards two human cell lines, and a high capacity to quench free radicals (DPPH), which also play a helpful in the digestive process, related with their RA content. All activities presented by the RA-rich Plectranthus decoctions support their use in treating digestion disorders and P. barbatus could explain its use also for alleviating hangover symptoms. Medioresinol, which is present in P. zuluensis, exhibited a significant AChE inhibition and may provide, in the future, a new lead for bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  19. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) associated with high mercury levels?

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    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, Pall S; Asmund, Gert; Born, Erik W; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2007-04-17

    In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59) and kidney (n = 57) tissues. Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1-35.6 microg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1-50 microg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 microg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p < 0.02) and a similar trend was found for lipid granulomas (p = 0.07). Liver mercury levels were significantly lower in individuals with portal bile duct proliferation/fibrosis (p = 0.007) and a similar trend was found for proximal convoluted tubular hyalinisation in renal tissue (p = 0.07). Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs.

  20. Interactions with combined chemical cues inform harvester ant foragers' decisions to leave the nest in search of food.

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    Michael J Greene

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies operate without central control or any global assessment of what needs to be done by workers. Colony organization arises from the responses of individuals to local cues. Red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus regulate foraging using interactions between returning and outgoing foragers. The rate at which foragers return with seeds, a measure of food availability, sets the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest on foraging trips. We used mimics to test whether outgoing foragers inside the nest respond to the odor of food, oleic acid, the odor of the forager itself, cuticular hydrocarbons, or a combination of both with increased foraging activity. We compared foraging activity, the rate at which foragers passed a line on a trail, before and after the addition of mimics. The combination of both odors, those of food and of foragers, is required to stimulate foraging. The addition of blank mimics, mimics coated with food odor alone, or mimics coated with forager odor alone did not increase foraging activity. We compared the rates at which foragers inside the nest interacted with other ants, blank mimics, and mimics coated with a combination of food and forager odor. Foragers inside the nest interacted more with mimics coated with combined forager/seed odors than with blank mimics, and these interactions had the same effect as those with other foragers. Outgoing foragers inside the nest entrance are stimulated to leave the nest in search of food by interacting with foragers returning with seeds. By using the combined odors of forager cuticular hydrocarbons and of seeds, the colony captures precise information, on the timescale of seconds, about the current availability of food.

  1. Trichomonas gypaetinii n. sp., a new trichomonad from the upper gastrointestinal tract of scavenging birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rodríguez-Arce, Irene; del Martínez-Herrero, María Carmen; González, Fernando González; Molina-López, Rafael Ángel; Gómez-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an epidemiological study carried out by several wildlife recovery centers in Spain, trichomonads resembling Trichomonas gallinae were found in the oropharyngeal cavity of 2 Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) and 14 cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) which did not show any symptoms of trichomonosis. In order to characterize them, these isolates along with seven other T. gallinae isolates obtained from different hosts and from different geographical origin were analyzed. Genetic analyses were performed by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA regions. The morphological study of the isolates in both light and scanning electron microscopy was also performed. The sequences obtained in the genetic analysis coincide with previously published sequences of an isolate named as Trichomonas sp., obtained from a bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), and showed clear differences to the T. gallinae sequences (97 and 90-91% homology, respectively, for SSU-rRNA and ITS regions) and display higher similarity with Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas stableri than with T. gallinae. Multivariate statistical analysis of the morphometric study also reveals significant differences between the trichomonads of vultures and the isolates of T. gallinae. The isolates from vultures presented smaller values for each variable except for the length of axostyle projection, which was higher. These results together with the different nature of their hosts suggest the possibility of a new species of trichomonad which we hereby name Trichomonas gypaetinii, whose main host are birds of the subfamily Gypaetinae.

  2. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

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    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  3. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  4. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae at La Gamba (Costa Rica

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    Michael Schmitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found.Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression.A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  5. Testing the goodness of supplementary feeding to enhance population viability in an endangered vulture.

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    Daniel Oro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human-predator conflicts are directly or indirectly threatening many species with extinction. Thus, biologists are urged to find simple solutions to complex situations while avoiding unforeseen conservation outcomes. The provision of supplementary food at artificial feeding sites (AFS is frequently used in the conservation of scavenger bird populations currently suffering from indirect poisoning, although no scientific studies on its effectiveness have been conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a long-term data set of 95 individually marked birds from the largest European core of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus to test the long-term effects of specific AFS for bearded vultures on their survival rates (by CMR models and population dynamics (by Monte Carlo simulations in an area where fatalities derived from illegal poisoning and the use of other toxics like veterinary drugs have increased over the last several years. Our data support the positive relationship between the use of AFS and survival. However, contrary to theoretical predictions (e.g. high and more stable adult survival among long-lived species, the use of AFS increased only survival of pre-adults. Moreover, AFS buffered the effects of illegal poisoning on this age-class, while adult survival decreased over years. Our simulations predicted a maximum value of extinction probability over a time horizon of 50 years. Population projections run with survival rates expected in scenarios without poisoning predicted the situation of least conservation concern, while including only AFS can maintain a large floater surplus that may delay population decline but fails to reduce poisoning risk among adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although AFS are not effective to save bearded vultures from an expected population decline, they delay population extinction and can be a useful tool for prolonging population viability while combating illegal and indirect

  6. Uneven large-scale movement patterns in wild and reintroduced pre-adult bearded vultures: conservation implications.

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    Antoni Margalida

    Full Text Available After the quasi-extinction of much of the European vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. However, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. This is the case of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, an Old World, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. Although persecution in Western Europe restrained it to the Pyrenees, the species is nowadays present in other mountains thanks to reintroduction projects. We examined the movement patterns of pre-adult non-breeding individuals born in the wild population of the Pyrenees (n = 9 and in the reintroduced populations of the Alps (n = 24 and Andalusia (n = 13. Most birds were equipped with GPS-GSM radio transmitters, which allowed accurate determination of individual dispersal patterns. Two estimators were considered: i step length (i.e., the distance travelled per day by each individual, calculated considering only successive days; and ii total dispersal distance (i.e., the distance travelled between each mean daily location and the point of release. Both dispersal estimators showed a positive relationship with age but were also highly dependent on the source population, birds in Andalusia and Alps moving farther than in Pyrenees. Future research should confirm if differences in dispersal distances are the rule, in which case the dynamics of future populations would be strongly influenced. In summary, our findings highlight that inter-population differences can affect the flow of individuals among patches (a key aspect to ensure the viability of the European metapopulation of the endangered bearded vulture, and thus should be taken into account when planning reintroduction programs. This result also raises questions about whether similar scenarios may occur in other

  7. Seasonal and circadian biases in bird tracking with solar GPS-tags.

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    Rafa Silva

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. This geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite GPS geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. In addition, new solar-powered GPS tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. We use a GPS tracking dataset of bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus, tracked for several years with solar GPS tags, to evaluate the causes and triggers of fix and data retrieval loss biases. We compare two models of solar GPS tags using different data retrieval systems (Argos vs GSM-GPRS, and programmed with different duty cycles. Neither of the models was able to accomplish the duty cycle programed initially. Fix and data retrieval loss rates were always greater than expected, and showed non-random gaps in GPS locations. Number of fixes per month of tracking was a bad criterion to identify tags with smaller biases. Fix-loss rates were four times higher due to battery drain than due to poor GPS satellite geometry. Both tag models were biased due to the uneven solar energy available for the recharge of the tag throughout the annual cycle, resulting in greater fix-loss rates in winter compared to summer. In addition, we suggest that the bias found along the diurnal cycle is linked to a complex three-factor interaction of bird flight behavior, topography and fix interval. More fixes were lost when vultures were perching compared to flying, in rugged versus flat topography. But long fix-intervals caused greater loss of fixes in dynamic (flying versus static situations (perching. To conclude, we emphasize the importance of evaluating fix-loss bias in current tracking projects, and deploying GPS tags that allow remote duty cycle updates so that the most appropriate fix and data retrieval intervals can be selected.

  8. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  9. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehn, Larissa-A.; Follmann, Erich H.; Thomas, Dana L.; Sheffield, Gay G.; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on δ 15 N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean δ 15 N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of dynamic and actively regulated trace metals

  10. Trophic relationships in an Arctic food web and implications for trace metal transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, Larissa-A. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)]. E-mail: ftld@uaf.edu; Follmann, Erich H. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Thomas, Dana L. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-6660 (United States); Sheffield, Gay G. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Division of Wildlife Conservation, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99701-1599 (United States); Rosa, Cheryl [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); Duffy, Lawrence K. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-7000 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon ({delta} {sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta} {sup 15}N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) and biomagnification factors for selected predator-prey scenarios (BMFs) were calculated to describe pathways of heavy metals in the Alaskan Arctic. FWMFs in this study indicate that magnification of selected heavy metals in the Arctic food web is not significant. Biomagnification of Cd occurs mainly in kidneys; calculated BMFs are higher for hepatic THg than renal THg for all predator-prey scenarios with the exception of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). In bears, the accumulation of renal THg is approximately 6 times higher than in liver. Magnification of hepatic Ag is minimal for all selected predator-prey scenarios. Though polar bears occupy a higher trophic level than belugas (Delphinapterus leucas), based on {delta} {sup 15}N, the metal concentrations are either not statistically different between the two species or lower for bears. Similarly, concentrations of renal and hepatic Cd are significantly lower or not statistically different in polar bears compared to ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), their primary prey. THg, on the other hand, increased significantly from seal to polar bear tissues. Mean {delta} {sup 15}N was lowest in muscle of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and foxes also show the lowest levels of Hg, Cd and Ag in liver and kidney compared to the other species analyzed. These values are in good agreement with a diet dominated by terrestrial prey. Metal deposition in animal tissues is strongly dependent on biological factors such as diet, age, sex, body condition and health, and caution should be taken when interpreting magnification of

  11. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  12. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-08-05

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes--bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  13. Environmental conditions influencing the larval fish assemblage during summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia: South central Mediterranean

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    W. K. KOCHED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic survey was carried out during the summer of 2009, from June 25 to July 3 in the Gulf of Gabes. The study area is characterized by a wide continental shelf. A plankton sampling scheme was carried out to study the structure of the larval fish assemblages that characterizes the surface mixed layer, and to assess the influence of the environmental parameters on their spatial distribution. A total of 36 taxa were identified, 3 classified to the level of genus, 5 to family and 28 to species. The majority of identified fish larvae belonged to demersal species, mainly picarel Spicara smaris (23.76% of the total larval fish abundance, followed by red mullet Mullus barbatus (14.92% and several species of the Sparidae family (9.15%. Small pelagic species as Sardinella Sardinella aurita and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus were also abundant (27.75 % and dominated the fish larvae community in offshore stations. Five large pelagic species were found among the larvae, including bullet tuna Auxis rochei, Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, swordfish Xiphias gladius and the highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. All these apex predator species appear in 38.5% of the sampling stations and contribute about 7.9% of the total larval catches. The larval fish assemblage of the Gulf of Gabes is predominantly composed of neritic species in correspondence with the shallow depths of the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that larval distributions were mainly conditioned by depth. However, other factors, like hydrographic processes, play also a very important role in shaping the spatial pattern of larval fish distribution.

  14. Estudo das plantas medicinais, utilizadas pelos pacientes atendidos no programa “Estratégia saúde da família” em Maringá/PR/Brasil

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    M.A. LOPES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estima-se que 80% da população mundial dependam das plantas medicinais no processo da atenção primária em saúde, e grande parte destes tem nas plantas a única fonte de medicamentos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a utilização de plantas medicinais pela comunidade, pertencente à equipe 10 da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF da Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS Pinheiros, em Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2012. A equipe de pesquisadores aplicou 95 questionários intercalando os domicílios. Observou-se que 24,2% utilizam plantas medicinais com frequência, 40% utilizam esporadicamente e 35,8% não utilizam. Entre as pessoas que utilizam, observou-se que a forma mais citada foi o uso era pela indicação de amigos ou pelos ancestrais As plantas medicinais mais citadas foram: hortelã (Mentha sp., boldo (Plectranthus barbatus, camomila (Matricaria recutita, erva cidreira (Melissa officinalis e guaco (Mikania glomerata. Quando perguntados se o uso de plantas medicinais somente fazem bem à saúde, 68,5% dos participantes afirmaram que plantas medicinais não causam nenhum mal à saúde. A partir destes resultados, observou-se que a utilização de plantas medicinais é bem aceita pela população e que ainda existe uma lacuna grande a ser preenchida pelos profissionais da saúde no que diz respeito à orientação sobre o uso correto desse tipo de terapia.

  15. Pesquisa e atividades de extensão em fitoterapia desenvolvidas pela Rede FitoCerrado: uso racional de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos por idosos em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou realizar atividades de extensão em fitoterapia, a partir de um levantamento de dados sobre as plantas medicinais, fitoterápicos e medicamentos convencionais utilizados por 292 idosos frequentadores de um programa de Atividades Físicas e Recreativas para a Terceira Idade (AFRID, na cidade de Uberlândia-MG, utilizando como instrumento de investigação, um questionário semiestruturado. Dentre os entrevistados verificamos que 88% utilizavam medicamentos prescritos, principalmente para o controle da hipertensão. O uso de plantas medicinais foi relatado por 76,7% dos idosos, sendo as mais citadas: Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha sp., Rosmarinus officinalis, Plectranthus barbatus, Ocimum gratissimum, e Matricaria chamomilla. Dezesseis (5,5% idosos utilizavam fitoterápicos, principalmente preparados a partir de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Aesculus hippocastanum e Passiflora incarnata em associação com Crataegus oxyacantha e Salix alba. O uso concomitante de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos com medicamentos convencionais foi relatado por 86,2% e 81,3% dos idosos, respectivamente. Após a análise dos dados percebemos a necessidade do desenvolvimento de ações educativas para informar e conscientizar os idosos sobre o uso da fitoterapia. Elaboramos uma caderneta e uma cartilha para promoção da difusão dessas informações e o aprimoramento do uso da fitoterapia entre os idosos e, dessa forma, alcançar os profissionais de saúde sobre os riscos e benefícios dessa terapêutica; contribuindo assim para o uso seguro e racional da fitoterapia.

  16. Implications of ocean acidification in the Pacific Arctic: Experimental responses of three Arctic bivalves to decreased pH and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethel, Christina L.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Miller, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent sea ice retreat and seawater warming in the Pacific Arctic are physical changes that are impacting arctic biological communities. Recently, ocean acidification from increases in anthropogenic CO2 has been identified as an additional stressor, particularly to calcifying organisms like bivalves. These bivalves are common prey items for benthivorous predators such as Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and diving seaducks, such as Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri). We investigated the effects of decreased pH and food availability on growth (% change in length and wet weight and allometric growth characterizations) and oxygen consumption (mg/L/hour) of three common Arctic bivalves, Macoma calcarea, Astarte montagui, and Astarte borealis. Two sets of experiments were run for seven and eleven weeks, exposing the bivalves to control (8.05 ± 0.02 and 8.19 ± 0.003, respectively) and acidified (7.76 ± 0.01 and 7.86 ± 0.01, respectively) pH treatments. Length, weight, and oxygen consumption were not significantly different among the varying treatments after the seven-week exposure and only one significant effect of decreased pH and one significant effect of decreased food availability were observed after the end of the eleven-week exposure. Specifically, shells of A. borealis displayed a decrease in length in response to decreased pH and M. calcarea showed a decrease in length in response to limited food. The negative effects of pH observed in the experiments on growth and oxygen consumption were small, suggesting that at least two of these species are generally resilient to decreasing pH.

  17. The significance of the north water polynya to arctic top predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Burt, Louise M; Hansen, Rikke Guldborg; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Rasmussen, Marianne; Fossette, Sabrina; Stern, Harry

    2013-09-01

    The North Water polynya (~76°N to 79°N and 70°W to 80°W) is known to be an important habitat for several species of marine mammals and sea birds. For millennia, it has provided the basis for subsistence hunting and human presence in the northernmost part of Baffin Bay. The abundance of air-breathing top predators also represents a potential source of nutrient cycling that maintains primary production. In this study, aerial surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 were used for the first time to map the distribution and estimate the abundance of top predators during spring in the North Water. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) were not detected north of 77°20'N but were found along the coast of West Greenland and offshore in the middle of the North Water with an abundance estimated at 2245 (95 % CI 1811-2783). Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were widely distributed on the eastern side of the North Water with an estimate of abundance of 7726 (3761-15 870). Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) were found across the North Water over both shallow and deep (>500 m) water with an estimated abundance of 1499 (1077-2087). Bearded (Erignathus barbatus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) used the large floes of ice in the southeastern part of the North Water for hauling out. Most polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were detected in the southern part of the polynya. The abundances of bearded and ringed seals were 6016 (3322-10 893) and 9529 (5460-16 632), respectively, and that of polar bears was 60 (12-292). Three sea bird species were distributed along the Greenland coast (eiders, Somateria spp.), in leads and cracks close to the Greenland coast (little auks, Alle alle) or widely in open water (thick-billed guillemots, Uria lomvia).

  18. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  19. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

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    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  20. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  1. USO POPULAR DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS PELAS COMUNIDADES DE TRÊS LAGOAS/MS, PORTO VELHO/RO E RIO VERDE/GO

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    Sandra Maria Eugênia PINTO, Leonice Manrique Faustino TRESVENZOL, Rosangela Romano Lopes JOHN, Euclenia Oliveira ALVES, José Realino de PAULA, Tatiana de Sousa FIUZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos conhecer o perfil sociocultural dos usuários e verificar o conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais de pessoas atendidas em programas assistenciais nas cidades de TrêsLagoas/MS, Rio Verde/GO e Porto Velho/RO. As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas orientadas por um questionário; as cinco plantas mais citadas foram selecionadas para levantamento bibliográfico. Foram entrevistadas 67 pessoas, a maioria (88% do sexo feminino e idade entre 35 a 64 anos. Quanto ao grau de instrução, 89,5% afirmaram serem alfabetizados; 73,1% relataram terem vindo da zona rural, enquanto 26,9% sempre residiram no perímetro urbano. Sobre as plantas medicinais, 92% afirmaram terem acesso a essas plantas desde crianças e que o conhecimento foi adquirido no convívio familiar. Nas três cidades pesquisadas, as plantas medicinais são utilizadas para vários problemas de saúde, que podem ir de uma gripe ou resfriado a doenças mais graves como o diabetes, a hipertensão arterial e as doenças reumáticas. As folhas foram a parte das plantas mais utilizadas (58,8% e o chá(infusão a forma de preparo mais empregada(83,6%. Os motivos alegados para o uso de plantas medicinais foram os bons resultados, a facilidade de obtenção e o baixo custo. Foram citadas 106 plantas pelos nomes populares e as cinco mais citadas foram: boldo nacional (Plectranthus barbatus, boldo de Goiás(Vernonia condensata, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba,hortelã (Mentha sp e arruda (Rutagraveolens.Verificou-se que essas cinco plantas já apresentam estudos científicos.

  2. Uneven Large-Scale Movement Patterns in Wild and Reintroduced Pre-Adult Bearded Vultures: Conservation Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Carrete, Martina; Hegglin, Daniel; Serrano, David; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    After the quasi-extinction of much of the European vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. However, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. This is the case of the bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, an Old World, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. Although persecution in Western Europe restrained it to the Pyrenees, the species is nowadays present in other mountains thanks to reintroduction projects. We examined the movement patterns of pre-adult non-breeding individuals born in the wild population of the Pyrenees (n = 9) and in the reintroduced populations of the Alps (n = 24) and Andalusia (n = 13). Most birds were equipped with GPS-GSM radio transmitters, which allowed accurate determination of individual dispersal patterns. Two estimators were considered: i) step length (i.e., the distance travelled per day by each individual, calculated considering only successive days); and ii) total dispersal distance (i.e., the distance travelled between each mean daily location and the point of release). Both dispersal estimators showed a positive relationship with age but were also highly dependent on the source population, birds in Andalusia and Alps moving farther than in Pyrenees. Future research should confirm if differences in dispersal distances are the rule, in which case the dynamics of future populations would be strongly influenced. In summary, our findings highlight that inter-population differences can affect the flow of individuals among patches (a key aspect to ensure the viability of the European metapopulation of the endangered bearded vulture), and thus should be taken into account when planning reintroduction programs. This result also raises questions about whether similar scenarios may occur in other restoration

  3. Examination of the Fish Price Offered for Sale During 2012-2013 Fishing Season in Sinop, Turkey

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    Şennan Yücel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the monthly price distribution of the offered fish species for sale within the scope of information received from the centers engaged in the sale of retail fish during 2012-2013 fishing season in Sinop, Turkey. The enterprises were grouped as I (the most, II (middle and III (the least according to the sales volume and fish species. Each group was represented by two different fish enterprise and so a total of six separate enterprises were determined by purpose sampling method. During the study, sale prices and fish species were obtained twice every month at the same time of day. It was determined that anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda, twait shad (Alosa fallax nilotica, needlefish (Belone belone, mullet (Mugil cephalus, shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa, brown meagre (Sciana umbra, common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris, annular bream (Diplodus annularis, tub gurnard (Trigla lucerna, picarel (Maena smaris, turbot (Psetta maxima, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, whiting (Merlangus merlangus, scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus, goby (Gobius niger were offered for sale in fish markets. While the prices of higher economic valued fish species like anchovy, bluefish, atlantic bonito and turbot prices were different between the enterprises, the prices of horse mackerel, red mullet and whiting species were not different. When considering the fish prices based on years, the prices of horse mackerel, bluefish, atlantic bonito, red mullet and haddock during 2012-2013 years were close to the average price of 2008-2012 years and the prices of anchovy and turbot during 2012-2013 years were higher than the average price of 2008-2012 years in Sinop.

  4. Resource partitioning between Pacific walruses and bearded seals in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, L E; Horstmann, L; Budge, S M; O'Brien, D M; Wang, S W; Schollmeier, T; Wooller, M J

    2017-06-01

    Climate-mediated changes in the phenology of Arctic sea ice and primary production may alter benthic food webs that sustain populations of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Interspecific resource competition could place an additional strain on ice-associated marine mammals already facing loss of sea ice habitat. Using fatty acid (FA) profiles, FA trophic markers, and FA stable carbon isotope analyses, we found that walruses and bearded seals partitioned food resources in 2009-2011. Interspecific differences in FA profiles were largely driven by variation in non-methylene FAs, which are markers of benthic invertebrate prey taxa, indicating varying consumption of specific benthic prey. We used Bayesian multi-source FA stable isotope mixing models to estimate the proportional contributions of particulate organic matter (POM) from sympagic (ice algal), pelagic, and benthic sources to these apex predators. Proportional contributions of FAs to walruses and bearded seals from benthic POM sources were high [44 (17-67)% and 62 (38-83)%, respectively] relative to other sources of POM. Walruses also obtained considerable contributions of FAs from pelagic POM sources [51 (32-73)%]. Comparison of δ 13 C values of algal FAs from walruses and bearded seals to those from benthic prey from different feeding groups from the Chukchi and Bering seas revealed that different trophic pathways sustained walruses and bearded seals. Our findings suggest that (1) resource partitioning may mitigate interspecific competition, and (2) climate change impacts on Arctic food webs may elicit species-specific responses in these high trophic level consumers.

  5. Ant Foraging As an Indicator of Tropical Dry Forest Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, J; Osorio-Beristain, M; Martínez-Garza, C

    2016-08-01

    Variation in foraging behavior may indicate differences in food availability and allow assessment of restoration actions. Ants are prominent bioindicators used in assessing ecological responses to disturbance. However, behavioral data have been poorly incorporated as an index. The foraging performance of red harvester ants was quantified in order to evaluate the success of a restoration ecology experiment in the tropical dry forest of Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, in central Mexico. Foraging performance by granivorous, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, ants was diminished after 6 and 8 years of cattle grazing and wood harvest were excluded as part of a restoration experiment in a highly degraded biome. Despite investing more time in foraging, ant colonies in exclusion plots showed lower foraging success and acquired less seed biomass than colonies in control plots. In line with the predictions of optimal foraging theory, in restored plots where ant foraging performance was poor, ants harvested a higher diversity of seeds. Reduced foraging success and increased harvest of non-preferred foods in exclusion plots were likely due to the growth of herbaceous vegetation, which impedes travel by foragers. Moreover, by 8 years of exclusion, 37% of nests in exclusion plots had disappeared compared to 0% of nests in control plots. Ants' foraging success and behavior were sensitive to changes in habitat quality due to the plant successional process triggered by a restoration intervention. This study spotlights on the utility of animal foraging behavior in the evaluation of habitat restoration programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  7. Investigation of urban ethnoveterinary in three veterinary clinics at east zone of São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, R L; Souza, R M; Furlan, M R; Pedro, C R; Cassas, F; Honda, S; Rodrigues, E

    2015-09-15

    Urban Ethnoveterinary should be further explored because of its value as it resists conventional medical care. In addition, the comparison between the resources used by Ethnoveterinary and Ethnopharmacology should be investigated in depth, increasing the availability of new bioactive potential in human and veterinary medicines. This project aimed to determine whether plants are used in the health care of dogs and/or cats in urban area and to compare its uses with other ethnoveterinary and ethnopharmacological data. Three veterinary clinics from east area of São Paulo city were selected, in order to record the offering of plants to pets by their owners. Individual interviews were conducted from May to November 2012 and consisted of application of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. A literature search was performed to compare our findings with other ethnopharmacological and ethnoveterinarian data from the literature. A total of 273 people were interviewed and 46 (16.84%) of them utilize medicinal plants for their pets. Most plant species are exclusively home grown (57.9%). The plants most cited were Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The most frequent route of administration, part utilized and mode of preparation was oral (80.35%), leaves (89.47%) and infusion (61.90%), respectively. From 19 cited plants, 14 (73.7%) are mentioned in ethnoveterinary literature, whereas 11 (57.9%) are used for the same purposes. All plants reported in our study have at least one common use with ethnopharmacology. The survey provided evidence of ethnoveterinary use of medicinal plants for dogs and/or cats in urban area of São Paulo, complementarily with the official veterinary, and showed that the plants used in pets are also used in humans with the same purposes and routes of administration, as well as in other animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CATFISH KECIL UNIK, Corydoras sp. UNTUK AKUARIUM, TINGKAH LAKU BIOLOGI DAN REPRODUKSINYA

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    Darti Satyani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Corydoras sp. termasuk dalam familia Collichthyidae, kelas Siluridae dan sangat dikenal olah para hobiis ikan hias air tawar. Genus Corydoras yang berasal dari Amerika Selatan ini mempunyai banyak spesies tetapi yang banyak beredar dan sudah dibudidayakan ada 10 spesies yaitu C. aeneus, C. adolfoi, C. barbatus, C. paleatus, C. panda, C. pygmaeus, C. rabauti, C. septentrionalis, C. sterbai, dan C. sychri. Selain ukurannya yang umumnya kecil (maksimum 7,5 cm dibandingkan dengan jenis catfish lain, jenis ini mempunyai dua baris sisik keras. Bentuk badannya kompak agak pipih ke samping dengan mulut menghadap ke bawah. Hidup merayap di dasar pada suhu 24°C--28°C (tergantung spesiesnya; pH 7,0--7,5; dan hardness sekitar 10° dH. Disebut “tukang bersih-bersih” karena senang membersihkan dinding akuarium dengan mulutnya. Tingkah laku reproduksinya amat unik. Sebelum ovulasi induk betina akan menempatkan mulutnya kearah genital induk jantan yang dikenal dengan “posisi T” dan akan mengisap spermanya. Sperma ini akan dilepas melewati usus bersama dengan lepasnya telur kedalam “kantong” yang dibentuk oleh kedua sirip perutnya. Pembuahan efektif terjadi di sini. Kemudian telur akan dilekatkan ke substrat atau objek (daun, batu datar, dan sebagainya yang sebelumnya telah dibersihkan oleh induk jantannya. Telur yang ditinggalkan akan menetas di substrat bila kondisi airnya sesuai dan cukup baik.

  9. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  10. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  11. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindell, Mark A; Lydersen, Christian; Hop, Haakon; Kovacs, Kit M

    2012-01-01

    Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007) with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15)N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005), the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006), the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  12. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hindell

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007 with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13C and δ(15N measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005, the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006, the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  13. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 10. The genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2015-10-28

    The genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880 is revised and the genus Camacolaimus de Man, 1889 is considered a junior synonym of Deontolaimus based on re-examination of type material of Camacolaimus tardus de Man, 1889 and C. barbatus Warwick, 1970. Two known and three new species of Deontolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden: Deontolaimus uniformis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n., D. longicauda (de Man, 1922) comb. n., Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n., D. paraguillei sp. n. and Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.3-1.7 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located short distance posterior to amphid; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located in front of cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located short distance posterior to onchiostyle base; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to middle of body, tubular supplements absent; spicules 36-40 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus paraguillei sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.4-1.8 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located at level with cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located just posterior to nerve ring level; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to about three body diameters in front of cloaca, tubular supplements absent; spicules 42-46 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. is characterized by body length of 0.7-0.9 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length

  14. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Montagna, Paolo; López Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-09-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480,000 years, especially during cool interstadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12,900 to 11,700 years BP followed by a short (~ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11,230 to 10,900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12,500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (τ isol) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ~ 10,900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in a thin veneer

  15. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  16. Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure Marine Biofouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Gormley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, some of the oldest oil and gas installations have been in the water for over 40 years and have considerable colonisation by marine organisms, which may lead to both industry challenges and/or potential biodiversity benefits (e.g., artificial reefs. The project objective was to test the use of an automated image analysis software (CoralNet on images of marine biofouling from offshore platforms on the UK continental shelf, with the aim of (i training the software to identify the main marine biofouling organisms on UK platforms; (ii testing the software performance on 3 platforms under 3 different analysis criteria (methods A–C; (iii calculating the percentage cover of marine biofouling organisms and (iv providing recommendations to industry. Following software training with 857 images, and testing of three platforms, results showed that diversity of the three platforms ranged from low (in the central North Sea to moderate (in the northern North Sea. The two central North Sea platforms were dominated by the plumose anemone Metridium dianthus; and the northern North Sea platform showed less obvious species domination. Three different analysis criteria were created, where the method of selection of points, number of points assessed and confidence level thresholds (CT varied: (method A random selection of 20 points with CT 80%, (method B stratified random of 50 points with CT of 90% and (method C a grid approach of 100 points with CT of 90%. Performed across the three platforms, the results showed that there were no significant differences across the majority of species and comparison pairs. No significant difference (across all species was noted between confirmed annotations methods (A, B and C. It was considered that the software performed well for the classification of the main fouling species in the North Sea. Overall, the study showed that the use of automated image analysis software may enable a more efficient and consistent

  17. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  18. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  19. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  20. Production of hydroxycinnamoyl anthranilates from glucose in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oats contain hydroxycinnamoyl anthranilates, also named avenanthramides (Avn), which have beneficial health properties because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects. The microbial production of hydroxycinnamoyl anthranilates is an eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis or purification from plant sources. We recently demonstrated in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that coexpression of 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana and hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA/anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase (HCBT) from Dianthus caryophyllusenabled the biological production of several cinnamoyl anthranilates upon feeding with anthranilate and various cinnamates. Using engineering strategies to overproduce anthranilate and hydroxycinnamates, we describe here an entire pathway for the microbial synthesis of two Avns from glucose in Escherichia coli. Results We first showed that coexpression of HCBT and Nt4CL1 from tobacco in the E. coli anthranilate-accumulating strain W3110 trpD9923 allowed the production of Avn D [N-(4′-hydroxycinnamoyl)-anthranilic acid] and Avn F [N-(3′,4′-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-anthranilic acid] upon feeding with p-coumarate and caffeate, respectively. Moreover, additional expression in this strain of a tyrosine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis (RgTAL) led to the conversion of endogenous tyrosine into p-coumarate and resulted in the production of Avn D from glucose. Second, a 135-fold improvement in Avn D titer was achieved by boosting tyrosine production using two plasmids that express the eleven genes necessary for tyrosine synthesis from erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. Finally, expression of either the p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase Sam5 from Saccharothrix espanensis or the hydroxylase complex HpaBC from E. coli resulted in the endogenous production of caffeate and biosynthesis of Avn F. Conclusion We established a biosynthetic pathway for the microbial

  1. Dickeya species relatedness and clade structure determined by comparison of recA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Neil; Stead, David; Bew, Janice; Heeney, John; Tsror Lahkim, Leah; Elphinstone, John

    2009-10-01

    . Isolation of this sequevar on multiple occasions from Dianthus and (more recently) potato demonstrates that this lineage has become established in these species. The D. dadantii clade comprised 11 sequevars, and the known host range of the species was extended from eight to 19 species. New hosts included several ornamental species and potato. The clade DUC-1 was made up exclusively of potato strains originating from Europe, which had identical sequences, whilst DUC-2 strains were isolated mostly from a variety of monocotyledonous species. A single strain from Aglaonema sp. made up DUC-3. A single sequevar constituted the D. dieffenbachiae clade. The phylogenetic method described will provide a simple means for identification to the species and intraspecies level, which will support efforts to control these pathogens based on monitoring and surveillance.

  2. Composición química y evaluación de degradabilidad de residuos tóxicos de un núcleo ensilado a base de desechos de clavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Dairo Roberto-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición química y se cuantificaron los niveles de residuos tóxicos en núcleos ensilados de desechos de clavel (Dianthus caryophillus; los desechos de clavel fueron tomados del cuarto de poscosecha, y se enviaron muestras de clavel fresco al laboratorio de nutrición animal y al laboratorio de toxicología; posteriormente fueron mezclados con otros subproductos en los siguientes porcentajes: desechos de clavel, 50%; gallinaza, 30%; harina de alfalfa, 15%; melaza, 5%, y sal mineralizada, 1%; con esta mezcla se hicieron microsilos para tomar muestras de éstos a los 0, 15 y 30 días de fermentación, las cuales se enviaron a los laboratorios. Los niveles de residualidad presentes en el núcleo ensilado luego de 30 días de fermentación mostraron una notoria reducción de porcentaje de todos los plaguicidas encontrados en la muestra de clavel fresco; algunos de estos plaguicidas tuvieron un mayor porcentaje de reducción que otros; este hecho podría evidenciar un posible efecto de las reacciones bioquímicas y microbiológicas que ocurren durante el proceso de ensilaje, que conducirían a la biotransformación o biodegradación de los compuestos encontrados. Por otra parte, el subproducto del clavel ensilado presentó un contenido en materia seca del 52,8% mayor al fresco, con un 28.6%. La fracción proteica se vio disminuida por el proceso de ensilado hasta el 13,6% frente al 16,7% en fresco. Las cenizas disminuyeron en casi dos puntos, y la grasa aumentó considerablemente, casi en un punto; la relación entre fibra en detergente neutro y fibra en detergente ácido aumentó.

  3. Hospitability of ornamental and medicinal plants to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of species and genus of nematodes that affect a particular culture is of great importance to form a quantity of information that will be useful to laboratories for diagnosis and control of these pathogens. Because of the increase in the production of ornamental and medicinal plants in the of Cear. á State, the agricultural importance of the genus Meloidogyne and the scarcity of information on the hospitability this pathogen in these species, in that it was to evaluate the susceptibility testing of 30 species, and 20 ornamental (Antirrhimum majus, Gazania ringens, Carthamus tinctorius, Bryophyllum cayicinum, Ceasalpinia pulcherrima, Thumbergia alata, Petunia hibryda, Exacum affine, Catharanthus roseus, Opuntia sp., Sansevieria trifasciata, Asparagus densiflorus, Hibiscus mutabilis-roreus, Impatiens balsamiana, Celosia spicata, Antirrhimum sp., Dianthus chinensis, Zinnia elegans, Tagetes patula, Capsicum annuum and 10 medicinal (Peumus boldus, Ocimum gratissimum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Mentha x Vilosa, Plectranthus amboinicus, Ocimum bassilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba, Cymbopogon winterianus. The test was conducted in a greenhouse, of the Phytosanitary Sector, Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. The inoculation was conducted with 4,000 eggs/J2 for pot. Evaluation of the plants gave to 60 days after inoculation. Evaluated is the reaction of the plants, measuring up: number of galls and eggs, egg mass index, reproduction factor and reduce the reproduction factor. From these variables it was classified the reaction of plants to the nematode by means of five criterions. Of ownership of the results, it was verified that of the ornamental plants only species T. patula didn’t presented galls in your root system. Concerning medicinal species M. vilosa, C. citrates, L. alba, C. winterianus and P. boldus showed no galls in their root systems. Thus, concluded

  4. Phytolacca americana from contaminated and noncontaminated soils of South Korea: Effects of elevated temperature, CO2 and simulated acid rain on plant growth response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.-O.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Lee, E.J.; Redman, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in industrially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH4, N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumulation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO2 and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30??C) and non-elevated (25??C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO2 levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respectively. The impact of soil pH (2-6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumulation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2-5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Development and evaluation of an interferon gamma assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in red deer experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risalde, María Ángeles; Thomas, Jobin; Sevilla, Iker; Serrano, Miriam; Ortíz, Jose Antonio; Garrido, Joseba; Domínguez, Mercedes; Domínguez, Lucas; Gortázar, Christian; Ruíz-Fons, Jose Francisco

    2017-11-16

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs. This study aims to develop an in-house sandwich ELISA for deer IFNγ, based on the cross-reactivity of the antibodies to both cervid and bovine IFNγ, and to evaluate the potential of this assay to detect M. bovis-infected red deer in response to the in vitro stimulation of whole-blood cells with bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD), p22 protein complex derived from bPPD or using the specific tuberculous mycobacterial proteins ESAT-6/CFP-10, Rv3615c and Rv3020c. The positive control stimulant used in this study was pokeweed mitogen, which resulted in a consistent induction of IFNγ in samples from red deer, thus allowing the interpretation of the assay. The percentage of animals correctly classified by this technique as M. bovis non-infected was 100%. The detection of infected animals as positive was high and ranged widely depending upon the antigen and the cut-off value applied, as well as the time after infection. Our findings indicate that this protocol may serve as a reliable assay for the antemortem diagnosis of TB from the initial stage of M. bovis-infection, and may also be adequately sensitive. The suggested optimal antigens and cut-off are bPPD, p22 and the combination of ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3020c with a 0.05 Δ optical density, which yielded a up to 100% correct classification of TB positive and negatve red deer under our experimental conditions. This technique will aid in TB testing of farmed and translocated deer. Future studies

  6. The elephant interferon gamma assay: a contribution to diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkawanish, T; Morar, D; van Kooten, P; Bontekoning, I; Schreuder, J; Maas, M; Wajjwalku, W; Sirimalaisuwan, A; Michel, A; Tijhaar, E; Rutten, V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) has been shown to be the main causative agent of tuberculosis in elephants worldwide. M. tb may be transmitted from infected humans to other species including elephants and vice versa, in case of prolonged intensive contact. An accurate diagnostic approach covering all phases of the infection in elephants is required. As M. tb is an intracellular pathogen and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses are elicited early after infection, the skin test is the CMI assay of choice in humans and cattle. However, this test is not applicable in elephants. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay is considered a good alternative for the skin test in general, validated for use in cattle and humans. This study was aimed at development of an IFN-γ assay applicable for diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants. Recombinant elephant IFN-γ (rEpIFN-γ) produced in eukaryotic cells was used to immunize mice and generate the monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas were screened for IFN-γ-specific monoclonal antibody production and subcloned, and antibodies were isotyped and affinity purified. Western blot confirmed recognition of the rEpIFN-γ. The optimal combination of capture and detection antibodies selected was able to detect rEpIFN-γ in concentrations as low as 1 pg/ml. The assay was shown to be able to detect the native elephant IFN-γ, elicited in positive-control cultures (pokeweed mitogen (PWM), phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA/I)) of both Asian and African elephant whole-blood cultures (WBC). Preliminary data were generated using WBC from non-infected elephants, a M. tb infection-suspected elephant and a culture-confirmed M. tb-infected elephant. The latter showed measurable production of IFN-γ after stimulation with ESAT6/CFP10 PPDB and PPDA in concentration ranges as elicited in WBC by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-specific antigens in other species. Hence, the IFN-γ assay presented potential as a diagnostic tool for the

  7. Novel antibody conjugates for enhanced tumor uptake. Final report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.

    1997-01-01

    Progress in three areas of research is summarized. These are as follows: Labeling Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with Tc-99m and Re-186; human melanoma tumors and specific MAbs; evaluation of biological response modifiers (BRM). The techniques of labeling MAbs (IgM, IgG, F(ab') 2 or F(ab')) with Tc-99m was developed in the author's laboratory in 1989 and that with Re-186 in 1992. The techniques are in daily use in the laboratory since then and are adapted to a convenient kit formulation. The metal ions are bound at MAb sulfhydryls generated by a controlled reduction of a pair of disulfide groups. At least two types of MAbs labeled with Tc-99m by this method have been administered into patients and excellent diagnostic results have been obtained. Over the past two and a half years the author has been successfully growing human melanoma tumors in athymic Balb/c nude mice. The cell LINE, WM-9, was obtained from Dr. D Herlyn's laboratory at Wistar Institute in Philadelphia. Sufficient quantities of antihuman melanoma specific antibodies ME 31.3 (Wistar, IgG-1) and MEM-136 (Hybritech, IgG-2A) and their F(ab') 2 fragments are also available in the laboratory. The use of BRM is a rapidly evolving field. Over the past four years, the author has evaluated a number of BRMs in a quest for agents that may augment MAb tumor uptake. These included interferon-α; a pokeweed mitogen and Ukrain, an alkaloid separated from a plant Chelideonium Majis. In these preliminary studies, normal Balb/c mice were used and the BRMs were given i.p. one hour prior to the i.v. administration of tumor necrosis factor or an MAb (TNT-F(ab') 2 ) labeled with Tc-99m which served as an imaging agent. Animals were sacrificed at 1.5 hr or 4 hrs post-injection. Highlights of the work are given here in a table

  8. Behavioural, endocrine and immune responses to repeated social stress in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, D; Otten, W; Puppe, B; Prunier, A; Merlot, E

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of repeated social stress in pregnant female pigs on their behavioural, endocrine and immunological responses and on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant gilts were submitted to a repeated social stress procedure induced by housing unfamiliar gilts in pairs changed twice a week between days 77 and 105 of gestation (S group, n = 18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs during the same period (C group, n = 18). Agonistic behaviour was observed during the first 3 h after each grouping. Skin lesions were numbered 2 h after each grouping. Salivary cortisol was measured before and repeatedly during the 4 weeks of grouping. Gilts were immunized against keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) on days 81 and 95 of gestation. Immunoglobulins G against KLH, proliferative responses to concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen and KLH and peripheral blood leukocyte numbers were evaluated 1 week before the first grouping and 3 days after the last one. Agonistic interactions and skin lesions were observed in S gilts at each grouping, although there was a decline between the first and the last grouping (P gilts compared to C gilts. The cellular as well as the humoral immunity and the leukocyte numbers were not influenced by social stress. Gestation length tended to be shorter in S gilts (P = 0.09), but litter size, piglet weight or mortality at birth were not affected. Variability of the response of S gilts to groupings was partly explained by their average success value determined according to the outcome (defeat or win) of all the groupings. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the application of repeated social stress

  9. Roles of PU.1 in monocyte- and mast cell-specific gene regulation: PU.1 transactivates CIITA pIV in cooperation with IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomonobu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Nishiyama, Makoto; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kanada, Shunsuke; Fukuyama, Kanako; Akiba, Hisaya; Tokura, Tomoko; Hara, Mutsuko; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-07-01

    Over-expression of PU.1, a myeloid- and lymphoid-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family, induces monocyte-specific gene expression in mast cells. However, the effects of PU.1 on each target gene and the involvement of cytokine signaling in PU.1-mediated gene expression are largely unknown. In the present study, PU.1 was over-expressed in two different types of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs): BMMCs cultured with IL-3 plus stem cell factor (SCF) and BMMCs cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen-conditioned medium (PWM-SCM). PU.1 over-expression induced expression of MHC class II, CD11b, CD11c and F4/80 on PWM-SCM-cultured BMMCs, whereas IL-3/SCF-cultured BMMCs expressed CD11b and F4/80, but not MHC class II or CD11c. When IFN-gamma was added to the IL-3/SCF-based medium, PU.1 transfectant acquired MHC class II expression, which was abolished by antibody neutralization or in Ifngr(-/-) BMMCs, through the induction of expression of the MHC class II transactivator, CIITA. Real-time PCR detected CIITA mRNA driven by the fourth promoter, pIV, and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated direct binding of PU.1 to pIV in PU.1-over-expressing BMMCs. PU.1-over-expressing cells showed a marked increase in IL-6 production in response to LPS stimulation in both IL-3/SCF and PWM-SCM cultures. These results suggest that PU.1 overproduction alone is sufficient for both expression of CD11b and F4/80 and for amplification of LPS-induced IL-6 production. However, IFN-gamma stimulation is essential for PU.1-mediated transactivation of CIITA pIV. Reduced expression of mast cell-related molecules and transcription factors GATA-1/2 and up-regulation of C/EBPalpha in PU.1 transfectants indicate that enforced PU.1 suppresses mast cell-specific gene expression through these transcription factors.

  10. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 2 - Characterization of lymphoproliferative and immune effector responses by splenic leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in the manufacturing of a wide range of consumer products, including polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin that lines beverage and food cans, and some dental sealants. Consumption of food and beverages containing BPA represents the primary route of human BPA exposure, which is virtually ubiquitous. An increasing number of studies have evaluated the effects of BPA on immune responses in laboratory animals that have reported a variety of effects some of which have been contradictory. To address the divergent findings surrounding BPA exposure, a comprehensive chronic treatment study of BPA was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats, termed the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, our studies evaluated the effects of BPA on a broad range of immune function endpoints using spleen cells isolated from BPA or vehicle treated rats. This comprehensive assessment included measurements of lymphoproliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli, immunoglobulin production by B cells, and cellular activation of T cells, NK cells, monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, 630 different measurements in BPA treated rats were performed of which 35 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls. The most substantive alteration associated with BPA treatment was the augmentation of lymphoproliferation in response to pokeweed mitogen stimulations in 1 year old male rats, which was also observed in the reference estrogen ethinyl estradiol treated groups. With the exception of the aforementioned, the statistically significant changes associated with BPA treatment were mostly sporadic and not dose-dependent with only one out of five BPA dose groups showing a statistical difference. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and showed no persistent trend over the one-year time period

  11. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Clematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Clematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  12. Control of biofilm forming clinically important bacteria by green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and its ecotoxicity on Ceriodaphnia cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Sekar; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Thajuddin, Nooruddin

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Plb-ZnO NPs) and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDS. UV-Visible spectra recorded the absorbance peak of Plb-ZnO NPs at 343 nm. SEM analyses showed the spherical shape of Plb-ZnO NPs with the particle size between 30 and 60 nm. Plb-ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis at all tested concentrations. In contrast, Plb-ZnO NPs showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Proteus vulgaris only at 100 μg/ml. The Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) revealed that Zn 2+ dissolution was 1.87 and 8.8 μg/L at 10 and 160 μg/L of Plb-ZnO NPs respectively. The body accumulation of Zn 2+ was increased from 0.8 μg/g body weight to 3.5 μg/g body weight when C. cornuta exposed to 10 μg/L and 160 μg/L respectively. Plb-ZnO NPs were toxic to Ceriodaphnia cornuta neonates (LC 50 : 28 μg/L). Plb-ZnO NPs caused 100% mortality of C. cornuta at 160 μg/L after 24 h. However, zinc acetate does not cause any mortality of C. cornuta upto 350 μg/L. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic images evidenced the uptake and accumulation of Plb-ZnO NPs on the internal gut regions of C. cornuta at 160 μg/L after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 24 h. Abnormalities in the swimming behaviour such as erratic swimming (ERR), migration to bottom (BOT) and migration to water surface (SUR) of C. cornuta were noticed after treatment with different concentrations of Plb-ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms from the Romanian sector of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Oros, Andra; Plavan, Gabriel; Nicoara, Mircea

    2015-05-25

    The aim of this research was to study the accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium - Cd, lead - Pb, chromium - Cr, nickel - Ni, and copper - Cu) from water and sediments into living tissues of relevant marine species from different trophic levels of a food web, representative for shallow waters of the Romanian Black Sea Coast where the main anthropogenic impacts exist. The heavy metals concentrations were analysed by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer with graphite furnace, the results being further used to calculate the bioconcentration factors for a few key taxa like green and red algae, molluscs and fishes. Seven sampling sites influenced by anthropogenic pollution sources (municipal wastewater treatment plants and diffuse sources) were considered and a total of 300 samples were analysed for the period 2011-2012, this being the first unitary study for the Romanian Black Sea marine ecosystem. In 2011 and 2012 there were no significant differences between the sampling areas considering the heavy metals concentrations in water. For the sediments significant differences were observed between sampling sites for some heavy metals, namely Pb in 2011 and Pb, Cu and Cd in 2012, the highest concentrations being registered in the southern sector of the Romanian Black Sea shore, where the anthropogenic pollution sources are represented by the harbour and wastewater treatment plants. The values of the bioaccumulation factors (BCFsed) shows that algae are good accumulators for Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd, in comparison with BCFwater where the order of heavy metal accumulation was different: Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd>Cu. Molluscs have higher bioconcentration factors for Cu and Cd for sediments and for Cu and Ni for water. Rapana venosa accumulated more Cd and Cu. For fishes, Pb, Cu and Ni had the highest values in the tissues of benthonic species Mullus barbatus. In bivalve molluscs and fishes, in the majority of cases, there were not recorded exceeding mean concentrations as compared to the maximum

  14. O papel terapêutico do Programa Farmácia Viva e das plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. A. PEREIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho realizou um levantamento sobre o uso de plantas medicinais na cidade de Picos-PI, identificou as plantas cultivadas no horto pertencente ao Laboratório Fitoterápico de Picos (LAFIPI, e analisou o uso de fitoterápicos dispensados pelo Programa Farmácia Viva no triênio 2008-2010. Do total dos 750 entrevistados, 37,6% foram homens e 62,4 % mulheres, dentre os quais a maioria não concluiu o segundo grau (69,2% e 77,2% possuíam renda mensal de até dois salários mínimos. Com relação ao consumo de plantas medicinais, 76,3% afirmaram utilizá-las para tratar doenças, principalmente por considerá-las mais saudáveis (84,8%. A indicação do uso foi orientada, sobretudo, por familiares (82,2%, embora a maioria adquira as plantas em feiras livres (32,8%. Das 127 plantas relatadas, as mais citadas foram erva-cidreira, boldo e hortelã, sendo as folhas a parte mais utilizada (42,3%, predominantemente por infusão (39,4%. As aplicações mais lembradas foram para tratar dores em geral (17%, distúrbios respiratórios (16,5% e digestivos (16%. As espécies mais cultivadas no horto são chambá (Justicia pectoralis, alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides, malva santa (Plectranthus barbatus e erva cidreira (Lippia alba. O lambedor de chambá foi o fitoterápico mais procurado pela população entre 2008 e 2010. Esse estudo descreveu, pela primeira vez, o uso tradicional de plantas medicinais no município de Picos e demonstrou, também de forma inédita, a relevância de investimentos do Programa Farmácia Viva no município de Picos e sua inclusão no Programa Saúde da Família como forma de disponibilizar à população de baixa renda fitoterápicos produzidos localmente a custos reduzidos.

  15. Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do município de Lagarto- SE, Brasil – ênfase em pacientes oncológicos

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    N.L.B. CAETANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A utilização de plantas com fins medicinais é uma das mais antigas formas de prática medicinal da humanidade. Entretanto, o conceito de “natural” contribui para o pensamento popular e errôneo de que Plantas Medicinais (PM são sinônimos de produtos seguros, o qual pode ocasionar no desenvolvimento de efeitos adversos ou interações medicamentosas. Neste contexto, foi realizado levantamento etnofarmacológico das Plantas Medicinais (PM utilizadas no município de Lagarto, SE, Brasil, com ênfase de seu uso por pacientes oncológicos. Um total de 706 moradores foram entrevistados. Foram citadas 80 plantas, das quais 57 foram identificadas em nosso laboratório. O uso de plantas medicinais (MP para fins terapêuticos foi relatada por 336 (47,65% entrevistados. As MPs mais utilizados foram: Erva-Cidreira (Lippiaalba (Mill N. E. Brown - 103, 30,8%, Boldo (Plectranthus barbatus Andr. - 53, 15,7%, e Capim-Santo (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf - 49, 14,6%. Dos entrevistados que relataram o uso de MPs, metade (360, 50,95% comunicaram ao médico, mas não receberam orientações específicas. As doenças crônicas mais comuns identificadas foram: hipertensão arterial (144, 20,34%, câncer (55, 7,81% e diabetes (41, 5,89%. Dos pacientes com câncer, cerca de 40% (22 relataram utilizar PMs concomitante com quimioterapia, dado alarmante, visto a possibilidade de interações medicamentosas entre PMs e antineoplásicos. Diante desses dados, foi observado o uso de PM pela população de Lagarto, SE, e por pacientes oncológicos dessa região, porém, sem os mesmos receberem orientações de um profissional qualificado.

  16. Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası (Ege Denizi Kıyı Balıkçılığı ve Sorunları Üzerine Bir Araştırma.

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    Okan Akyol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası’nın kıyı balıkçılık aktiviteleri, hedef balık türleri, balıkçılık sorunları, balıkçı kooperatiflerinin özellikleri, balıkçı tekneleri ve barınakları araştırılmıştır. Örneklemeler iki balıkçı kooperatifi (Datça ve Karaköy ve 8 balıkçılık barınağında 2005-2006 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Bölgede toplam 32 kooperatif üyesi ile yaklaşık 170 balıkçı teknesi kaydedilmiştir. Üye sayılarına göre en büyük balıkçı kooperatifi Datça’dır. Bölgede kıyı balıkçılığı yoğun olarak paragat, sade ve fanyalı uzatma ağlarıyla yürütülmektedir. Uzatma ağı ve paragat balıkçılığında yakalanan balık ve omurgasızlar Ege ve Akdeniz’in yerleşik tipik balıklarıdır. Mullus barbatus, Sphyraena sphyraena, Seriola dumerilii, Pagellus erythrinus, Dentex dentex, Mullus surmuletus, Sarda sarda, Xiphias gladius, Epinephelus aeneus, Loligo vulgaris, Octopus vulgaris vb. ticari avdaki hedef türlerdir. Fakat bölgedeki balıkçılık aktiviteleri kısa balıkçılık sezonu, düşük balıkçılık kapasitesi ve az sayıdaki balıkçı nedeniyle göreceli olarak oldukça zayıf bulunmuştur

  17. Assessment of marine pollution in Izmir Bay: nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuksezgin, F; Kontas, A; Altay, O; Uluturhan, E; Darilmaz, E

    2006-01-01

    Izmir Bay (western Turkey) is one of the great natural bays of the Mediterranean. Izmir is an important industrial and commercial centre and a cultural focal point. The main industries in the region include food processing, oil, soap and paint production, chemical industries, paper and pulp factories, textile industries and metal processing. The mean concentrations showed ranges of 0.01-0.19 and 0.01-10 microM for phosphate, 0.10-1.8 and 0.12-27 microM for nitrate+nitrite, and 0.30-5.8 and 0.43-39 microM for silicate in the outer and middle-inner bays, respectively. The TNO(x)/PO(4) ratio is significantly lower than the Redfield's ratio and nitrogen is the limiting element in the middle-inner bays. Diatoms and dinoflagellates were observed all year around in the bay and are normally nitrogen limited. Metal concentrations ranged between Hg: 0.05-1.3, Cd: 0.005-0.82, Pb: 14-113 and Cr: 29-316 microg g(-1) in the sediments. The results showed significant enrichments during sampling periods from Inner Bay. Outer and middle bays show low levels of heavy metal enrichments except estuary of Gediz River. The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Pb in the outer bay were generally similar to the background levels from the Mediterranean. The levels gradually decreased over the sampling period. Total hydrocarbons concentrations range from 427 to 7800 ng g(-1) of sediments. The highest total hydrocarbon levels were found in the inner bay due to the anthropogenic activities, mainly combustion processes of traffic and industrial activities. The concentrations of heavy metals found in fish varied for Hg: 4.5-520, Cd: 0.10-10 and Pb: 0.10-491 microg kg(-1) in Izmir Bay. There was no significant seasonal variation in metal concentrations. An increase in Hg concentration with increasing length was noted for Mullus barbatus. A person can consume more than 2, 133 and 20 meals per week of fish in human diet would represent the tolerable weekly intake of mercury, cadmium and lead, respectively

  18. Carbon sources and trophic relationships of ice seals during recent environmental shifts in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiway W; Springer, Alan M; Budge, Suzanne M; Horstmann, Lara; Quakenbush, Lori T; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic multiyear fluctuations in water temperature and seasonal sea ice extent and duration across the Bering-Chukchi continental shelf have occurred in this century, raising a pressing ecological question: Do such environmental changes alter marine production processes linking primary producers to upper trophic-level predators? We examined this question by comparing the blubber fatty acid (FA) composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of individual FA (δ¹³CFA) of adult ringed seals (Pusa hispida), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), spotted seals (Phoca largha), and ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata), collectively known as "ice seals," sampled during an anomalously warm, low sea ice period in 2002-2005 in the Bering Sea and a subsequent cold, high sea ice period in 2007-2010. δ¹³C(FA) values, used to estimate the contribution to seals of carbon derived from sea ice algae (sympagic production) relative to that derived from water column phytoplankton (pelagic production), indicated that during the cold period, sympagic production accounted for 62-80% of the FA in the blubber of bearded seals, 51-62% in spotted seals, and 21-60% in ringed seals. Moreover, the δ¹³CFA values of bearded seals indicated a greater incorporation of sympagic FAs during the cold period than the warm period. This result provides the first empirical evidence of an ecosystem-scale effect of a putative change in sympagic production in the Western Arctic. The FA composition of ice seals showed clear evidence of resource partitioning among ringed, bearded, and spotted seals, and little niche separation between spotted and ribbon seals, which is consistent with previous studies. Despite interannual variability, the FA composition of ringed and bearded seals showed little evidence of differences in diet between the warm and cold periods. The findings that sympagic production contributes significantly to food webs supporting ice seals, and that the contribution apparently is less in

  19. Cytotoxicity of South-African medicinal plants towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Meyer, Marion; Hussein, Ahmed; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Traditional medicine plays a major role for primary health care worldwide. Cancer belongs to the leading disease burden in industrialized and developing countries. Successful cancer therapy is hampered by the development of resistance towards established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 29 extracts from 26 medicinal plants of South-Africa against leukemia cell lines, most of which are used traditionally to treat cancer and related symptoms. We have investigated the plant extracts for their cytotoxic activity towards drug-sensitive parental CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000 by means of the resazurin assay. A panel of 60 NCI tumor cell lines have been investigated for correlations between selected phytochemicals from medicinal plants and the expression of resistance-conferring genes (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). Seven extracts inhibited both cell lines (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Hypoestes aristata, Laurus nobilis, Leonotis leonurus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus ciliates, Salvia apiana). CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited a low degree of cross-resistance (3.35-fold) towards the L. leonurus extract, while no cross-resistance was observed to other plant extracts, although CEM/ADR5000 cells were highly resistant to clinically established drugs. The log10IC50 values for two out of 14 selected phytochemicals from these plants (acovenoside A and ouabain) of 60 tumor cell lines were correlated to the expression of ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2), oncogenes (EGFR, RAS) and tumor suppressors (TP53). Sensitivity or resistance of the cell lines were not statistically associated with the expression of these genes, indicating that multidrug-resistant, refractory tumors expressing these genes may still respond to acovenoside A and ouabain. The bioactivity of South African medicinal plants may represent a basis for the development

  20. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  1. a Modified Denitrifying Bacteria Method for Dual Stable Isotopic Analysis of of Soil Nitrate in Kcl Extracts: Identification of Bioindicators of Nitrogen Deposition Along a Gradient in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Allen, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies performing dual isotopic analysis of nitrate in KCl soil extracts using denitrifying bacteria have not incorporated alterations in the method to compensate for the increased N2O blank produced when the bacteria are exposed to KCl in solution. When 1M KCl is used as a blank, the amount of N2O released from the concentrated bacteria solution is more than four times as high as when using a DI water blank. The excess N2O produced is not an artifact of nitrate impurity in the KCl, although the blank increases with the molarity of KCl up to 1M. The introduction of N2O gas is significant enough to alter the values of IAEA USGS standards (3 μg in 3ml KCl) which in turn results in an inaccurate regression for unknown samples. We reduced the size of the KCl blank and its effect on the standards by adding 3ml of KCl to the bacteria solution prior to purging the sample with He gas. This removes the N2O gas which is released by the bacteria when they initially come in contact with the KCl, and allows for standards to be calibrated to a precision of ± 0.1 % δ15N and ± 0.2 % δ18O. Using this new method, we measured δ15N and δ18O of nitrate in 1M KCl soil extracts taken from surface soil (5cm cores) along a nitrogen deposition gradient spanning the Coachella Valley in the western Sonoran Desert during the summer. Early germinating winter annual plant species (Schismus barbatus, Chaenactic fremontii, and Malacothrix glabrata) were collected as seedlings early in the growing season and again in late spring before senescence. Leaves from the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata, were also collected from each site. Soil nitrogen from sites on the eastern edge of the valley had δ18O values between +30 and +41%, indicating an influence of atmospheric nitrate in plant available nitrate. There was an inverse correlation (r2=0.907) between soil δ18O and the δ15N of the C.fremontii leaf tissue, which suggests that in areas of high N deposition, some seedlings are

  2. The fouling serpulids (Polychaeta: Serpulidae from United States coastal waters: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rolando Bastida-Zavala

    2017-08-01

    minutus from Veracruz, Mexico to Pensacola Bay, Florida. The following additional species range extensions are provisional in that they represent only one record or were not found in the most recent surveys (e.g., Hydroides elegans - east coast: H. longispinosa from Marshall Islands to Oahu, Hawaii; Protula balboensis from Florida to Texas; P. longiseta from the Mexican Caribbean to the Indian River, Florida; H. elegans from San Francisco to Humboldt Bay, northern California and on the east coast from the Indian River, Florida, to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Among surveyed bays, Biscayne Bay, Florida and Corpus Christi, Texas (northern Gulf of Mexico had the greatest number of species (14 and 8, respectively; in contrast, almost all sites in Alaska, Washington, Oregon (northwest Pacific, Rhode Island, Virginia and South Carolina (Atlantic had only one or two species each. Hydroides dianthus was, by far, the most abundant serpulid species on fouling plates in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast, while Pseudochitinopoma occidentalis was the most abundant serpulid detected on the west coast. For each species recorded herein, we include the synonyms and some key references, a material studied section, a diagnosis, and updated distributional information. A checklist and identification key to the known shallow-water serpulids sensu stricto of the United States are included.

  3. COMPORTAMENTO DA POPULAÇÃO DE Compsocerus violaceus (WHITE, 1853 (COLEOPTERA, CERAMBYCIDAE EM RELAÇÃO À FAUNA DE CERAMBICÍDEOS COLETADOS EM POMARES DE CITROS THE ANALYSIS OF Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (coleoptera, cerambycidae POPULATION BEHAVIOR RELATED TO CERAMBICIDEOS FAUNA IN CITRIC YARD

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    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho foi estudado o comportamento da população de Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae em relação à fauna de cerambicídeos coletados em pomar de citros misto conservado e abandonado, formado pelas tangerinas cravo e rio, laranjas baianinha e natal, tangor sabará e limão cravo. As coletas foram quinzenais e realizadas através de armadilhas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20%. Quinzenalmente também se procedia à troca da isca. O período de coleta foi de agosto de 1983 a julho de 1985. Foram estudados os parâmetros ecológicos de abundância relativa, constância, freqüência e dominância. Verificou-se também a influência de alguns fatores climáticos sobre a população da espécie. Foram coletados 405 adultos sendo, 180 machos e 225 fêmeas no pomar abandonado e no conservado 253 adultos, sendo 96 machos e 163 fêmeas. Desse total, 39% ocorreram no pomar conservado e 61%, no abandonado. O período de maior ocorrência da espécie foi verificado nos meses de novembro e dezembro, nos dois pomares. Não houve correlação entre os fatores meteorológicos estudados com a flutuação da espécie. Entre os parâmetros ecológicos estudados, C. violaceus foi classificado como ";comum e muito abundante”, “acidental e constante”, apresentou uma freqüência de 10,31% entre as espécies coletadas, e foi considerado “dominante” nos dois pomares, obtendo a mesma classificação das espécies Dorcacerus barbatus, Macropophora accentifer, Acathoderes jaspidea, Chlorida festiva e Trachyderes spp., coleobrocas reconhecidas como pragas de grande importância econômica para as plantas frutíferas no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseto; praga; Compsocerus; citros

  4. Crescimento e tolerância à salinidade em três espécies medicinais do gênero Plectranthus expostas a diferentes níveis de radiação

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    M.A.C. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No cultivo de plantas medicinais as condições de salinidade e de luz podem exercer influência no rendimento e na qualidade final da produção de biomassa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes luminosidades e níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação sobre o crescimento e tolerância de três espécies de plantas do gênero Plectranthus. O ensaio foi conduzido em parcelas subsubdivididas com cinco repetições, sendo as parcelas referente ao fator ambiente (pleno sol e telado, as subparcelas aos níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação - CEa (0,7; 1,9; 3,1; 4,3 e 5,5 dS m-1, e as subsubparcelas às três espécies do gênero Plectranthus (P. amboinicus, P. barbatus e P. grandis. As variáveis de resposta foram: índice relativo de clorofila (IRC, área foliar (AF, razão de área foliar (RAF, área foliar específica (AFE, matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, matéria seca das raízes (MSR, matéria seca total (MST, relação MSR/MSPA, grau de tolerância à salinidade, e teor dos íons Na+ e K+. O estresse salino reduziu o crescimento das plantas, sendo as maiores reduções observadas nas plantas expostas a pleno sol. A salinidade influenciou a partição de matéria seca, sendo as raízes mais afetadas do que a parte aérea. Com o aumento da CEa houve aumento expressivo no teor foliar de Na+, enquanto o teor de K+ e o IRC foram reduzidos. Entretanto, o acúmulo de Na+ foi menor em P. grandis. Considerando-se a MST, verificou-se que as três espécies se mostraram moderadamente tolerantes à salinidade de até 3,1 dS m-1, exceto P. grandis cultivada em telado, classificada como tolerante. Em relação ao grau de redução na produção MSPA (parte de interesse comercial, poderia se recomendar o cultivo de P. grandis quando a água de irrigação contiver CEa de até 3,1 dS m-1.

  5. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems.2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America.3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3·2 g N m−2 year−1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium.4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens.5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among

  6. A stable isotope ( δ13C, δ15N) model for the North Water food web: implications for evaluating trophodynamics and the flow of energy and contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A.; Fisk, Aaron; Karnovsky, Nina; Holst, Meike; Gagnon, Jean-Marc; Fortier, Martin

    The North Water Polynya is an area of high biological activity that supports large numbers of higher trophic-level organisms such as seabirds and marine mammals. An overall objective of the Upper Trophic-Level Group of the International North Water Polynya Study (NOW) was to evaluate carbon and contaminant flux through these high trophic-level (TL) consumers. Crucial to an evaluation of the role of such consumers, however, was the establishment of primary trophic linkages within the North Water food web. We used δ15N values of food web components from particulate organic matter (POM) through polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) to create a trophic-level model based on the assumptions that Calanus hyperboreus occupies TL 2.0 and there is a 2.4‰ trophic enrichment in 15N between birds and their diets, and a 3.8‰ trophic enrichment for all other components. This model placed the planktivorous dovekie ( Alle alle) at TL 3.3, ringed seal ( Phoca hispida) at TL 4.5, and polar bear at TL 5.5. The copepods C. hyperboreus, Chiridius glacialis and Euchaeta glacialis formed a trophic continuum (TL 2.0-3.0) from primary herbivore through omnivore to primary carnivore. Invertebrates were generally sorted according to planktonic, benthic and epibenthic feeding groups. Seabirds formed three trophic groups, with dovekie occupying the lowest, black-legged kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla), northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre ( Uria aalge), and ivory gull ( Pagophilia eburnea) intermediate (TL 3.9-4.0), and glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) the highest (TL 4.6) trophic positions. Among marine mammals, walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) occupied the lowest (TL 3.2) and bearded seal ( Erignathus barbatus), ringed seal, beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal ( Monodon monoceros) intermediate positions (TL 4.1-4.6). In addition to arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida), we suggest that lower trophic-level prey, in particular the amphipod Themisto libellula, contribute

  7. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

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    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    ão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  8. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

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    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  9. Evaluación de técnicas de aplicación de plaguicidas en un cultivo de clavel (dianthuscaryophyllusl. en la sabana de Bogotá.

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    Rodríguez Jairo E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

     

    En el presente trabajo, se evaluó el comportamiento de tres boquillas para la aplicación de plaguicidas (Maruyama C-35. Maruyama D-35 y Albuz APT Lila a tres presiones diferentes en un cultivo de Clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L, bajo condiciones de invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Inicialmente, se realizaron evaluaciones físicas para determinar la calidad de la aplicación, considerando los parámetros de Cobertura (Gotas/cm, Uniformidad en la aplicación y Penetración al interior del follaje, buscando la factibilidad de reducir volúmenes de aplicación L/cama. Para estas evaluaciones, se utilizaron como colectores, tarjetas de Papel Hidrosensible (WSP. El diseño estadístico fué un Cuadrado latino (9X9. Que resulta de la interacción de los factores tres boquillas por tres presiones, con nueve repeticiones. Se hicieron dos tipos de ensayos. Uno en Cobertura Total (Aplicación a los tres tercios del cultivo y otro en Cobertura a Flor (Aplicación dirigida al Tercio Superior. Por tipos de boquillas, los

  10. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    >Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio floriger Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum = Curculio subglobosus Gmelin, 1790, nom. oblitum; Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio barbatus Rossi, 1794; Hylobius abietis (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio tigris Gmelin, 1790; Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio contractus Geoffroy, 1785; Phyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834 = Curculio auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Hylobius transversovittatus (Goeze, 1777 = Curculio fascialis Gmelin, 1790. New combinations are: Leucophyes occidentalis (Dieckmann, 1982 (from Leucosomus and Anisorhynchus scabrosus (Geoffroy, 1785 (from Curculio. The following names have been reinstated (stat. res. as valid: Trachyphloeus spinosus (Goeze, 1777 for the species known as Trachyphloeus olivieri Bedel, 1883, Lixus pulverulentus (Scopoli, 1763 for the species known as Lixus angustatus (Fabricius, 1775. Hypera melancholica (Fabricius, 1793 is confirmed as the valid name for the species hitherto named Hypera fuscocinerea (Marsham, 1802 or Hypera murina (Fabricius, 1793. The following names are considered nomina dubia, since there is no identifiable type material: Curculio pulex Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer minutus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio pulex Gmelin, 1790 (non Goeze, 1777, Rhinomacer striatusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Rhinomacer fulgidusi> Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio transversofasciatus Goeze, 1777, Curculio fasciatus Geoffroy, 1785 (non Scopoli, 1763, nec Ström, 1768, nec Degeer, 1775, nec Mu.ller, 1776, Curculio fuscatus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777: 410 (non Fabricius, 1775, nec Goeze, 1777: 381, Curculio incisus Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio exaratus Gmelin, 1790, Curculio quadratus Goeze, 1777, Curculio quadrilis Geoffroy, 1785, Curculio griseosericeus Goeze, 1777,

  11. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Christian; Assmy, Philipp; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kohler, Jack; Kovacs, Kit M.; Reigstad, Marit; Steen, Harald; Strøm, Hallvard; Sundfjord, Arild; Varpe, Øystein; Walczowski, Waldek; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Zajaczkowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    complete lack of spring sea ice in many of the fjords along the west coast of Spitsbergen. During the spring periods in these years, bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) have replaced their regular sea-ice platform with glacier ice, using it as a solid substrate for both birthing and nursing as well as general resting. The mechanisms that create foraging hotspots at the fronts of tidewater glaciers are related to the massive subsurface plumes of freshwater discharged from the glacier fronts. As these plumes rise towards the surface they entrain large volumes of ambient water, tens to hundreds of times the original discharge volume. This water is drawn from all depth levels as the plume ascends. This entrainment ensures a continuous resupply of intermediate depth waters from the outer parts of the fjords towards the glacier front and greatly amplifies the general estuarine circulation. The intermediate water masses carry plankton from a broad area, including the outer fjord, into the glacier front area, where they get entrained in the plume rising towards the surface, and often become stunned or die from freshwater osmotic shock. These small animals fall as an easy prey to the surface feeding predators. Large, strong swimming marine zooplankton species can sometimes escape by swimming below the inflow of marine water. But, they then become concentrated in a water layer near the bottom, making them of interest and susceptible to predators. The intermediate water masses also bring nutrients towards the glacier fronts where they are transported up to the surface layer where they can subsequently be utilized for post-bloom primary production. However, this tends to have greatest influence some distance away from the glacier front, when much of the outflow sediment has settled out. Currently, the mass balance for Svalbard glaciers is negative and climate change predictions for the future suggest continued warming, and hence continued glacial retreat. This will result in a