WorldWideScience

Sample records for poker flat research

  1. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the PFRR...

  2. 76 FR 20715 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... continuing sounding rocket operations at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... information about NASA's Sounding Rocket Program (SRP) and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks' PFRR may be...

  3. SAM II aerosol profile measurements, Poker Flat, Alaska; July 16-19, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Grams, G. W.; Herman, B. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Russell, P. B.; Swissler, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    SAM II satellite measurements during the July 1979 Poker Flat mission, yielded an aerosol extinction coefficient of 0.0004/km at 1.0 micron wavelength, in the region of the stratospheric aerosol mixing ratio peak (12-16 km). The stratospheric aerosol optical depth for these data, calculated from the tropopause through 30 km, is approximately 0.001. These results are consistent with the average 1979 summertime values found throughout the Arctic.

  4. Occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow observed by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, S.; Lu, J.; Varney, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow events in the auroral ionosphere, using a full 3-year (2011-2013) dataset collected by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) at 65.5° magnetic latitude. Ion upflow and downflow events are defined if there are three consecutive data points larger/smaller than 100/-100 m/s in the ion field-aligned velocity altitude profile. Their occurrence rates have been evaluated as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), season, geomagnetic activity, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We found that the ion upflows are twice more likely to occur on the nightside than the dayside, and have slightly higher occurrence rate near Fall equinox. In contrast, the ion downflow events are more likely to occur in the afternoon sector but also during Fall equinox. In addition, the occurrence rate of ion upflows on the nightside increases when the aurora electrojet index (AE) and planetary K index (Kp) increase, while the downflows measured on the dayside clearly increase as the AE and Kp increase. In general, the occurrence rate of ion upflows increases with enhanced solar wind and IMF drivers. This correlation is particularly strong between the upflows on the nightside and the solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF Bz. The lack of correlation of upflows on the dayside with these parameters is due to the location of PFISR, which is usually equatorward of the dayside auroral zone and within the nightside auroral zone under disturbed conditions. The occurrence rate of downflow at all MLTs does not show strong dependence on the solar wind and IMF conditions. However, it occurs much more frequently on the dayside when the IMF By is strongly positive, i.e., >10 nT and the IMF Bz is strongly negative, i.e., < -10 nT. We suggest that the increased occurrence rate of downflows on the dayside is associated with dayside storm-enhanced density and the plume.

  5. Poker Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole

    2011-01-01

    , it is demonstrated how the three forms emerge and become the most popular form of poker at three different periods in history. It identifies structural homologies between the historical development of poker and key elements in the manifestation of capitalism at different times in history...

  6. Are online poker problem gamblers sensation seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline

    2018-03-31

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and error estimation of stratospheric ozone and ozone-related species over Poker Flat (65° N, 147° W, Alaska observed by a ground-based FTIR spectrometer from 2001 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mizutani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to obtain the year-to-year trend of stratospheric minor species in the context of global changes. An important example is the trend in global ozone depletion. The purpose of this paper is to report the accuracy and precision of measurements of stratospheric chemical species that are made at our Poker Flat site in Alaska (65° N, 147° W. Since 1999, minor atmospheric molecules have been observed using a Fourier-Transform solar-absorption infrared Spectrometer (FTS at Poker Flat. Vertical profiles of the abundances of ozone, HNO3, HCl, and HF for the period from 2001 to 2003 were retrieved from FTS spectra using Rodgers' formulation of the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM. The accuracy and precision of the retrievals were estimated by formal error analysis. Errors for the total column were estimated to be 5.3%, 3.4%, 5.9%, and 5.3% for ozone, HNO3, HCl, and HF, respectively. The ozone vertical profiles were in good agreement with profiles derived from collocated ozonesonde measurements that were smoothed with averaging kernel functions that had been obtained with the retrieval procedure used in the analysis of spectra from the ground-based FTS (gb-FTS. The O3, HCl, and HF columns that were retrieved from the FTS measurements were consistent with Earth Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS and HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE data over Alaska within the error limits of all the respective datasets. This is the first report from the Poker Flat FTS observation site on a number of stratospheric gas profiles including a comprehensive error analysis.

  8. Psychopathology of Online Poker Players: Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Axelle; Chabrol, Henri; Chauchard, Emeline

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Online Texas Hold'em poker has become a spectacular form of entertainment in our society, and the number of people who use this form of gambling is increasing. It seems that online poker activity challenges existing theoretical concepts about problem gambling behaviors. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a current overview about the population of online poker players. Methods To be selected, articles had to focus on psychopathology in a sample of online poker players, be written in English or French, and be published before November 2015. A total of 17 relevant studies were identified. Results In this population, the proportion of problematic gamblers was higher than in other forms of gambling. Several factors predicting excessive gambling were identified such as stress, internal attribution, dissociation, boredom, negative emotions, irrational beliefs, anxiety, and impulsivity. The population of online poker players is largely heterogeneous, with experimental players forming a specific group. Finally, the validity of the tools used to measure excessive or problematic gambling and irrational beliefs are not suitable for assessing online poker activity. Discussion and conclusions Future studies need to confirm previous findings in the literature of online poker games. Given that skills are important in poker playing, skill development in the frames of excessive use of online poker should be explored more in depth, particularly regarding poker experience and loss chasing. Future research should focus on skills, self-regulation, and psychopathology of online poker players.

  9. Internet poker websites and pathological gambling prevention policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Bouvard, Audrey; Khiari, Hiba; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widespread increase in online poker playing and the risk related to excessive poker playing, research on online poker websites is still lacking with regard to pathological gambling prevention strategies offered by the websites. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathological gambling-related prevention strategies of online poker websites. Two keywords ("poker" and "poker help") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. The first 20 links related to French and English online poker websites were assessed. Seventy-four websites were assessed with a standardized tool designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, interactivity, prevention strategies, marketing, and messages related to poker strategies. Prevention strategies appeared to be lacking. Whereas a substantial proportion of the websites offered incitation to gambling such as betting "tips," few sites offered strategies to prevent or address problem gambling. Furthermore, strategies related to poker, such as probability estimation, were mostly reported without acknowledging their limitations. Results of this study suggest that more adequate prevention strategies for risky gambling should be developed for online poker.

  10. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... the sun-earth connection. Related Environmental Documents In recent years, concerns raised by agencies... these lands. BLM and USFWS are currently considering if and how future authorizations for rocket landing...

  11. Opponent Classification in Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Aurangzeb; Elidrisi, Mohamed

    Modeling games has a long history in the Artificial Intelligence community. Most of the games that have been considered solved in AI are perfect information games. Imperfect information games like Poker and Bridge represent a domain where there is a great deal of uncertainty involved and additional challenges with respect to modeling the behavior of the opponent etc. Techniques developed for playing imperfect games also have many real world applications like repeated online auctions, human computer interaction, opponent modeling for military applications etc. In this paper we explore different techniques for playing poker, the core of these techniques is opponent modeling via classifying the behavior of opponent according to classes provided by domain experts. We utilize windows of full observation in the game to classify the opponent. In Poker, the behavior of an opponent is classified into four standard poker-playing styles based on a subjective function.

  12. Online Poker Gambling in University Students: Further Findings from an Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Parke, Jonathan; Wood, Richard; Rigbye, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Online poker is one of the fastest growing forms of online gambling yet there has been relatively little research to date. This study comprised 422 online poker players (362 males and 60 females) and investigated some of the predicting factors of online poker success and problem gambling using an online questionnaire. Results showed that length of…

  13. The Poker-Litigation Game

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Pujol, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Is litigation a serious search for truth or simply a game of skill or luck? Although the process of litigation has been modeled as a Prisoner's Dilemma, as a War of Attrition, as a Game of Chicken and even as a simple coin toss, no one has formally modeled litigation as a game of poker. This paper is the first to do so. We present a simple "poker-litigation game" and find the optimal strategy for playing this game.

  14. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  15. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  16. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players. PMID:28092187

  17. Judgments under competition and uncertainty : empirical evidence from online poker

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbergs, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Playing poker has many aspects in common with the making of business decisions. Agents act in a strategically rich, dynamic environment, where they are repeatedly facing competition under uncertain prospects. Their main goal is to maximize their resources. However simple this goal is put down, it is difficult to fulfill. As vast and rich research has shown, heuristics and biases affect human decision-making. This work adds to these findings by providing empirical evidence for behavioral patte...

  18. Profiling Online Poker Players: Are Executive Functions Correlated with Poker Ability and Problem Gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavella, Mauro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Westin, Jerker; Lepore, Gabriele; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-12

    Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong(er) poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers (PGSI and SOGS) and the one of the cognitions related to gambling (GRCS). Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS, we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences (Emotional Quotient inventory Short) and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale (emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization).

  19. Synergistic Information Processing Encrypts Strategic Reasoning in Poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Seth; Albino, Dominic K; Williams, Paul L

    2018-06-14

    There is a tendency in decision-making research to treat uncertainty only as a problem to be overcome. But it is also a feature that can be leveraged, particularly in social interaction. Comparing the behavior of profitable and unprofitable poker players, we reveal a strategic use of information processing that keeps decision makers unpredictable. To win at poker, a player must exploit public signals from others. But using public inputs makes it easier for an observer to reconstruct that player's strategy and predict his or her behavior. How should players trade off between exploiting profitable opportunities and remaining unexploitable themselves? Using a recent multivariate approach to information theoretic data analysis and 1.75 million hands of online two-player No-Limit Texas Hold'em, we find that the important difference between winning and losing players is not in the amount of information they process, but how they process it. In particular, winning players are better at integrative information processing-creating new information from the interaction between their cards and their opponents' signals. We argue that integrative information processing does not just produce better decisions, it makes decision-making harder for others to reverse engineer, as an expert poker player's cards act like the private key in public-key cryptography. Poker players encrypt their reasoning with the way they process information. The encryption function of integrative information processing makes it possible for players to exploit others while remaining unexploitable. By recognizing the act of information processing as a strategic behavior in its own right, we offer a detailed account of how experts use endemic uncertainty to conceal their intentions in high-stakes competitive environments, and we highlight new opportunities between cognitive science, information theory, and game theory. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Strategic Style in Pared-Down Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin

    This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.

  1. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  2. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  3. Measuring Consumer Preferences Using Conjoint Poker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Toubia; M.G. de Jong (Martijn); D. Stieger; J.H. Fuller (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe develop and test an incentive-compatible Conjoint Poker (CP) game. The preference data collected in the context of this game are comparable to incentive-compatible choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis data. We develop a statistical efficiency measure and an algorithm to construct

  4. "Don't worry, it's just poker!"--experience, self-rumination and self-reflection as determinants of decision-making in on-line poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Laakasuo, Michael; Salmela, Mikko

    2013-09-01

    On-line poker is a game of chance and skill. The construct of poker playing skill has both a technical (game strategy-related) and an emotional (emotion regulation-related) aspect. A correlational on-line study (N = 354) was conducted to assess differences in technical skills and emotional characteristics related to poker playing style between experienced and inexperienced poker players. Results suggest that, with respect to emotional characteristics, experienced poker players engage in less self-rumination and more self-reflection, as compared to inexperienced players. Experienced poker players are also able to make better decisions, by mathematical standards, in a poker decision-making environment, as assessed by two fictitious on-line poker decision-making scenarios. Furthermore, this study provides supportive evidence that experienced poker players conceptualize the construct of "luck" differently from inexperienced players. A new poker playing experience scale (PES) for accurately measuring poker playing experience is presented in this paper.

  5. Effect on the Grain Size Distribution when Preparing Sand Using Poker Vibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    2017-01-01

    At Aalborg University and other research institutions, model tests are performed on small -scale foundations. These foundations are often installed in sand which has to be prepared in a reproductive way. At Aalborg University the preparation is done by using poker vibrators. This paper investigat...

  6. Is poker a game of skill or chance? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gerhard; von Meduna, Marc; Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Due to intensive marketing and the rapid growth of online gambling, poker currently enjoys great popularity among large sections of the population. Although poker is legally a game of chance in most countries, some (particularly operators of private poker web sites) argue that it should be regarded as a game of skill or sport because the outcome of the game primarily depends on individual aptitude and skill. The available findings indicate that skill plays a meaningful role; however, serious methodological weaknesses and the absence of reliable information regarding the relative importance of chance and skill considerably limit the validity of extant research. Adopting a quasi-experimental approach, the present study examined the extent to which the influence of poker playing skill was more important than card distribution. Three average players and three experts sat down at a six-player table and played 60 computer-based hands of the poker variant "Texas Hold'em" for money. In each hand, one of the average players and one expert received (a) better-than-average cards (winner's box), (b) average cards (neutral box) and (c) worse-than-average cards (loser's box). The standardized manipulation of the card distribution controlled the factor of chance to determine differences in performance between the average and expert groups. Overall, 150 individuals participated in a "fixed-limit" game variant, and 150 individuals participated in a "no-limit" game variant. ANOVA results showed that experts did not outperform average players in terms of final cash balance. Rather, card distribution was the decisive factor for successful poker playing. However, expert players were better able to minimize losses when confronted with disadvantageous conditions (i.e., worse-than-average cards). No significant differences were observed between the game variants. Furthermore, supplementary analyses confirm differential game-related actions dependent on the card distribution, player status

  7. Social and psychological challenges of poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Kyle

    2010-09-01

    Poker is a competitive, social game of skill and luck, which presents players with numerous challenging strategic and interpersonal decisions. The adaptation of poker into a game played over the internet provides the unprecedented opportunity to quantitatively analyze extremely large numbers of hands and players. This paper analyzes roughly twenty-seven million hands played online in small-stakes, medium-stakes and high-stakes games. Using PokerTracker software, statistics are generated to (a) gauge the types of strategies utilized by players (i.e. the 'strategic demography') at each level and (b) examine the various payoffs associated with different strategies at varying levels of play. The results show that competitive edges attenuate as one moves up levels, and tight-aggressive strategies--which tend to be the most remunerative--become more prevalent. Further, payoffs for different combinations of cards, varies between levels, showing how strategic payoffs are derived from competitive interactions. Smaller-stakes players also have more difficulty appropriately weighting incentive structures with frequent small gains and occasional large losses. Consequently, the relationship between winning a large proportion of hands and profitability is negative, and is strongest in small-stakes games. These variations reveal a meta-game of rationality and psychology which underlies the card game. Adopting risk-neutrality to maximize expected value, aggression and appropriate mental accounting, are cognitive burdens on players, and underpin the rationality work--reconfiguring of personal preferences and goals--players engage into be competitive, and maximize their winning and profit chances.

  8. HoldemML: A framework to generate No Limit Hold'em Poker agents from human player strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Filipe Teófilo; Luís Paulo Reis

    2011-01-01

    Developing computer programs that play Poker at human level is considered to be challenge to the A.I research community, due to its incomplete information and stochastic nature. Due to these characteristics of the game, a competitive agent must manage luck and use opponent modeling to be successful at short term and therefore be profitable. In this paper we propose the creation of No Limit Hold'em Poker agents by copying strategies of the best human players, by analyzing past games between th...

  9. Is poker a skill game? New insights from statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-06-01

    During last years poker has gained a lot of prestige in several countries and, besides being one of the most famous card games, it represents a modern challenge for scientists belonging to different communities, spanning from artificial intelligence to physics and from psychology to mathematics. Unlike games like chess, the task of classifying the nature of poker (i.e., as “skill game” or gambling) seems really hard and it also constitutes a current problem, whose solution has several implications. In general, gambling offers equal winning probabilities both to rational players (i.e., those that use a strategy) and to irrational ones (i.e., those without a strategy). Therefore, in order to uncover the nature of poker, a viable way is comparing performances of rational vs. irrational players during a series of challenges. Recently, a work on this topic revealed that rationality is a fundamental ingredient to succeed in poker tournaments. In this study we analyze a simple model of poker challenges by a statistical physics approach, with the aim to uncover the nature of this game. As main result we found that, under particular conditions, few irrational players can turn poker into gambling. Therefore, although rationality is a key ingredient to succeed in poker, also the format of challenges has an important role in these dynamics, as it can strongly influence the underlying nature of the game. The importance of our results lies on the related implications, as for instance in identifying the limits within which poker can be considered as a “skill game” and, as a consequence, which kind of format must be chosen to devise algorithms able to face humans.

  10. Experimental research of inclined-micro-fin flat tube on single phase convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Wang Meng

    2011-01-01

    The experimental research of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in four inclined-micro-fin flat tubes with different physical dimensions was conducted. At the same time,suitable criteria were selected to evaluate the efficiency of inclined-micro-fin flat tubes within the experimental scope and the optimal working region was determined. The results indicate that inclined-micro-fin flat tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow and the maximum heat transfer coefficient attains to 5.9 times of that in smooth tube. The quantities of heat transfer for inclined-micro-fin flat tubes are three times higher than that of smooth tube with the same of heat exchange area and pump power. (authors)

  11. Anxiety, Depression and Emotion Regulation Among Regular Online Poker Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Bonnaire, Céline; Herrmann, Florian

    2017-12-01

    Poker is a type of gambling that has specific features, including the need to regulate one's emotion to be successful. The aim of the present study is to assess emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in a sample of regular poker players, and to compare the results of problem and non-problem gamblers. 416 regular online poker players completed online questionnaires including sociodemographic data, measures of problem gambling (CPGI), anxiety and depression (HAD scale), and emotion regulation (ERQ). The CPGI was used to divide participants into four groups according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers). Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among severe-problem gamblers than among the other groups. Both significantly predicted problem gambling. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups in emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), which was linked neither to problem gambling nor to anxiety and depression (except for cognitive reappraisal, which was significantly correlated to anxiety). Our results underline the links between anxiety, depression and problem gambling among poker players. If emotion regulation is involved in problem gambling among poker players, as strongly suggested by data from the literature, the emotion regulation strategies we assessed (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) may not be those involved. Further studies are thus needed to investigate the involvement of other emotion regulation strategies.

  12. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  13. Beyond chance? The persistence of performance in online poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier J D Potter van Loon

    Full Text Available A major issue in the widespread controversy about the legality of poker and the appropriate taxation of winnings is whether poker should be considered a game of skill or a game of chance. To inform this debate we present an analysis into the role of skill in the performance of online poker players, using a large database with hundreds of millions of player-hand observations from real money ring games at three different stakes levels. We find that players whose earlier profitability was in the top (bottom deciles perform better (worse and are substantially more likely to end up in the top (bottom performance deciles of the following time period. Regression analyses of performance on historical performance and other skill-related proxies provide further evidence for persistence and predictability. Simulations point out that skill dominates chance when performance is measured over 1,500 or more hands of play.

  14. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  15. Clausewitz: On Poker, How Today’s Leaders Can Use Poker to Better Prepare Tomorrow’s Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    thing applies to combat leaders, and that is why the military could benefit by teaching poker. Rocks, Maniacs, Calling Stations and TA’s Clausewitz...much like churches around the world have done with bingo . Instead of playing for money, perhaps contestants could compete for a 3-day pass, or free

  16. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  17. Umelá inteligencia pre hru Texas Holdem poker

    OpenAIRE

    Moravčík, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a great expansion of poker. This includes live games, as well as games on the internet. For beginners, it may be difficult to find opponents skilled enough and thus improve their gaming performance without deposit of their own funds. Using of artificial intelligence seems as good solution for the problem, but there are only few suitable programs available. This thesis describes the overall design and development of such an application, specially designed for tournament...

  18. Gambling Motives: Do They Explain Cognitive Distortions in Male Poker Gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sasha; Barrault, Servane; Brunault, Paul; Varescon, Isabelle

    2018-03-01

    Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players. The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial and the Gambling-Related Cognition Scale. This study was conducted on 259 male poker gamblers (aged 18-69 years, 14.3% probable pathological gamblers). Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives (34.8%) and problem gambling (22.4%) (p gambling problems, showing a close inter-relationship between gambling motives, cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling. These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling. This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. For example, a coupled motivational and cognitive intervention focused on gambling motives/cognitive distortions could be beneficial for individuals with gambling problems.

  19. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-04

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone's primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players' bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one's reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players' bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous.

  20. Insights gained from NRC research investigations at the Maxey Flats LLW SLB facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC funded program of research at Maxey Flats was done to assist an Agreement State in assessing the performance of the site. That program has yielded both site specific insights and generic insights which are likely to be useful in licensing future sites. They are as follows: Site Specific Insights: (1) The principal pathway of water entry into burial trenches at Maxey Flats is through the trench caps. (2) Sampling of vegetation, soils, and streams adjoining the site indicates that the small but measureable amounts of radionuclides found offsite were from surface runoff or the site evaporator. (3) There is limited onsite subsurface movement of radionuclides where open fractures intersect burial trenches. Generic Insights: (1) Tritium in the plant transpiration stream appears useful for mapping trench boundaries. (2) Trees offer a promising means of monitoring subsurface radionuclide movement in fractured rocks of low permeability. (3) Complexing with EDTA appears to be a potentially important mechanism that increases mobility of such radionuclides as Co-60, Pu-238, Am-241, and Sr-90. (4) Changes in soil solution chemistry encountered as leachate moves from trenches generally reduce the solubility of migrating radionuclides. (5) Agronomic management techniques appear promising as a means to control deep water percolation through waste burial trench caps. 18 references

  1. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  2. Poker Player Behavior After Big Wins and Big Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Smith; Michael Levere; Robert Kurtzman

    2009-01-01

    We find that experienced poker players typically change their style of play after winning or losing a big pot--most notably, playing less cautiously after a big loss, evidently hoping for lucky cards that will erase their loss. This finding is consistent with Kahneman and Tversky's (Kahneman, D., A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2) 263-292) break-even hypothesis and suggests that when investors incur a large loss, it might be time to take ...

  3. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several clinical and radiological methods available to classify foot posture in research, however there is no clear strategy for selecting the most appropriate measurements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a foot screening protocol to distinguish between participants with normal- and flat-arched feet who would then subsequently be recruited into a series of laboratory-based gait studies. Methods The foot posture of ninety-one asymptomatic young adults was assessed using two clinical measurements (normalised navicular height and arch index and four radiological measurements taken from antero-posterior and lateral x-rays (talus-second metatarsal angle, talo-navicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle. Normative foot posture values were taken from the literature and used to recruit participants with normal-arched feet. Data from these participants were subsequently used to define the boundary between normal- and flat-arched feet. This information was then used to recruit participants with flat-arched feet. The relationship between the clinical and radiographic measures of foot posture was also explored. Results Thirty-two participants were recruited to the normal-arched study, 31 qualified for the flat-arched study and 28 participants were classified as having neither normal- or flat-arched feet and were not suitable for either study. The values obtained from the two clinical and four radiological measurements established two clearly defined foot posture groups. Correlations among clinical and radiological measures were significant (p r = 0.24 to 0.70. Interestingly, the clinical measures were more strongly associated with the radiographic angles obtained from the lateral view. Conclusion This foot screening protocol provides a coherent strategy for researchers planning to recruit participants with normal- and flat-arched feet. However, further research is

  4. Effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behavior using a video poker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Cronce, Jessica M

    2017-06-01

    Drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, and concurrent gambling and drinking may lead to greater negative consequences than either behavior alone. Building on prior research on the effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behaviors using a chance-based (nonstrategic) slot-machine task, the current study explored the impact of these factors on a skill-based (strategic) video poker task. We anticipated larger average bets and greater gambling persistence under alcohol relative to placebo, and expected alcohol effects to be moderated by initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions. Participants (N = 162; 25.9% female) were randomly assigned to alcohol (target BrAC = .08g%) or placebo and were given $10 to wager on a simulated video poker task, which was programmed to produce 1 of 3 initial outcomes (win, breakeven, or lose) before beginning a progressive loss schedule. Despite evidence for validity of the video poker task and alcohol administration paradigm, primary hypotheses were not supported. Individuals who received alcohol placed smaller wagers than participants in the placebo condition, though this effect was not statistically significant, and the direction of effects was reversed in at-risk gamblers (n = 41). These findings contradict prior research and suggest that alcohol effects on gambling behavior may differ by gambling type (nonstrategic vs. strategic games). Interventions that suggest alcohol is universally disinhibiting may be at odds with young adults' lived experience and thus be less effective than those that recognize the greater complexity of alcohol effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. One-Year Prospective Study on Passion and Gambling Problems in Poker Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Adèle; Dufour, Magali; Brunelle, Natacha; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2018-06-01

    The concept of passion is relevant to understanding gambling behaviours and gambling problems. Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the absence and development of gambling problems; however, only one study has specifically considered poker players. Using a longitudinal design, this study aims to determine the influence, 1 year later, of two forms of passion-harmonious and obsessive-on gambling problems in poker players. A total of 116 poker players was recruited from across Quebec, Canada. The outcome variable of interest was participants' category on the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, and the predictive variable was the Gambling Passion Scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors of at-risk poker players 1 year later. Obsessive passion at baseline doubled the risk of gambling problems 1 year later (p passion, there was no association. Number of gambling activities, drug problems, and impulsivity were also associated with at-risk gambling. This study highlights the links between obsessive passion and at-risk behaviours among poker players. It is therefore important to prevent the development of obsessive passion among poker players.

  6. Clausewitz: On Poker (Clausewitz was a TA). How Today’s Leaders Can Use Poker to Better Prepare Tomorrow’s Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    thing applies to combat leaders, and that is why the military could benefit by teaching poker. Rocks, Maniacs, Calling Stations and TA’s Clausewitz...much like churches around the world have done with bingo . Instead of playing for money, perhaps contestants could compete for a 3-day pass, or free

  7. HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS DECISION MAKING IN ONLINE POKER: PERSPECTIVES ON EMOTIONAL STABILITY AND WELLBEING

    OpenAIRE

    Laakasuo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies it has been found that a phenomenon labeled tilting is a form of moral anger. When players are in tilt they make a series of bad decisions, chase their losses and express anger by cursing their opponents. In the context of tilting, the players also report episodes of memory loss. Additionally, we also developed a scale that measures the level of a player's poker experience, and we found evidence to suggest that poker experience is associated with mature self-reflec...

  8. Purification and Characterization of Hemagglutinating Proteins from Poker-Chip Venus (Meretrix lusoria and Corbicula Clam (Corbicula fluminea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fu Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating proteins (HAPs were purified from Poker-chip Venus (Meretrix lusoria and Corbicula clam (Corbicula fluminea using gel-filtration chromatography on a Sephacryl S-300 column. The molecular weights of the HAPs obtained from Poker-chip Venus and Corbicula clam were 358 kDa and 380 kDa, respectively. Purified HAP from Poker-chip Venus yielded two subunits with molecular weights of 26 kDa and 29 kDa. However, only one HAP subunit was purified from Corbicula clam, and its molecular weight was 32 kDa. The two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed hemagglutinating ability (HAA for erythrocytes of some vertebrate animal species, especially tilapia. Moreover, HAA of the HAP purified from Poker-chip Venus was higher than that of the HAP of Corbicula clam. Furthermore, Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA at a pH higher than 7.0. When the temperature was at 4°C–10°C or the salinity was less than 0.5‰, the two Poker-chip Venus HAPs possessed better HAA compared with that of Corbicula clam.

  9. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  10. Selling Internet Gambling: Advertising, New Media and the Content of Poker Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, John L.; Kervin, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the web design and engineering, advertising and marketing, and pedagogical features present at a random sample of 71 international poker sites obtained from the Casino City directory in the summer of 2009. We coded for 22 variables related to access, appeal, player protection, customer services, on-site security, use of images,…

  11. Strategic Alliance Poker: Demonstrating the Importance of Complementary Resources and Trust in Strategic Alliance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, Christopher R.; Worthington, William J.; Collins, Jamie D.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Alliance Poker (SAP) provides instructors with an opportunity to integrate the resource based view with their discussion of strategic alliances in undergraduate Strategic Management courses. Specifically, SAP provides Strategic Management instructors with an experiential exercise that can be used to illustrate the value creation…

  12. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records

  13. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume 5: Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 5 is to describe record series pertaining to waste management activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of waste management practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to waste management policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records

  14. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  15. Tracking online poker problem gamblers with player account-based gambling data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquiens, Amandine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Benyamina, Amine; Lagadec, Marthylle; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to track online problem poker gamblers with player account-based gambling data (PABGD). We emailed an invitation to all active poker gamblers on the online gambling service provider Winamax. The 14,261 participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). PGSI served as a gold standard to track problem gamblers (i.e., PGSI ≥ 5). We used a stepwise logistic regression to build a predictive model of problem gambling with PABGD, and validated it. Of the sample 18% was composed of online poker problem gamblers. The risk factors of problem gambling included in the predictive model were being male, compulsive, younger than 28 years, making a total deposit > 0 euros, having a mean loss per gambling session > 1.7 euros, losing a total of > 45 euros in the last 30 days, having a total stake > 298 euros, having > 60 gambling sessions in the last 30 days, and multi-tabling. The tracking instrument had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 50%. The quality of the instrument was good. This study illustrates the feasibility of a method to develop and validate instruments to track online problem gamblers with PABGD only. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Trait Mindfulness, Problem-Gambling Severity, Altered State of Awareness and Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, Charles F A; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2017-06-01

    In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.

  17. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of poker hands: An adaptive data framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorawski Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In online gambling, poker hands are one of the most popular and fundamental units of the game state and can be considered objects comprising all the events that pertain to the single hand played. In a situation where tens of millions of poker hands are produced daily and need to be stored and analysed quickly, the use of relational databases no longer provides high scalability and performance stability. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient way of storing and retrieving poker hands in a big data environment. We propose a new, read-optimised storage model that offers significant data access improvements over traditional database systems as well as the existing Hadoop file formats such as ORC, RCFile or SequenceFile. Through index-oriented partition elimination, our file format allows reducing the number of file splits that needs to be accessed, and improves query response time up to three orders of magnitude in comparison with other approaches. In addition, our file format supports a range of new indexing structures to facilitate fast row retrieval at a split level. Both index types operate independently of the Hive execution context and allow other big data computational frameworks such as MapReduce or Spark to benefit from the optimized data access path to the hand information. Moreover, we present a detailed analysis of our storage model and its supporting index structures, and how they are organised in the overall data framework. We also describe in detail how predicate based expression trees are used to build effective file-level execution plans. Our experimental tests conducted on a production cluster, holding nearly 40 billion hands which span over 4000 partitions, show that multi-way partition pruning outperforms other existing file formats, resulting in faster query execution times and better cluster utilisation.

  19. Investigating the illusion of control in mildly depressed and nondepressed individuals during video-poker play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannewitz, Holly; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2007-05-01

    Cognitive fallacies, such as the illusion of control, and psychological disorders, such as depression, may perpetuate gambling and thus contribute to problem gambling (e.g., R. Ladouceur, C. Sylvan, C. Boutin, & C. Doucet, 2002). Gender differences may exist across these variables (e.g., N. M. Petry, 2005). The authors investigated these possibilities by recruiting mildly depressed and nondepressed individuals to play jacks or better, 5-card draw, video poker. Across three poker sessions, participants were given (a) no choice of which cards to play, (b) information on the best cards to play but control over which cards were played, or (c) no information and complete control over which cards were played. The total amount of money gambled increased as control over the game decreased, but this result correlated with an increase in the rate of play. Depressed and nondepressed participants did not differ in how they gambled, but men gambled significantly more and sometimes made more mistakes during play than did women. These results question the role of the illusion of control and depression in perpetuating gambling. They also suggest that providing players information about which cards to play may indirectly promote gambling and provide insight as to why men are more prone to suffer from gambling problems than are women.

  20. Superhuman AI for heads-up no-limit poker: Libratus beats top professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Noam; Sandholm, Tuomas

    2018-01-26

    No-limit Texas hold'em is the most popular form of poker. Despite artificial intelligence (AI) successes in perfect-information games, the private information and massive game tree have made no-limit poker difficult to tackle. We present Libratus, an AI that, in a 120,000-hand competition, defeated four top human specialist professionals in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em, the leading benchmark and long-standing challenge problem in imperfect-information game solving. Our game-theoretic approach features application-independent techniques: an algorithm for computing a blueprint for the overall strategy, an algorithm that fleshes out the details of the strategy for subgames that are reached during play, and a self-improver algorithm that fixes potential weaknesses that opponents have identified in the blueprint strategy. Copyright © 2018, The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Owhership of flats

    OpenAIRE

    Přibil, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ownership of Flats Summary In his diploma thesis "Ownership of Flats", the author focuses on applicable law of flat ownership in the Czech Republic, especially the Flat Ownership Act 72/1994 Sb. The author puts the contemporary regulation in historical context; he describes the theoretical principles underlining the current applicable law and defines in detail the basic legal terms used by the Flat Ownership Act. Original and derivative forms of flat ownership acquisition are explained, namel...

  2. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold'em poker is solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Michael; Burch, Neil; Johanson, Michael; Tammelin, Oskari

    2015-01-09

    Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect-information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect-information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas hold'em is now essentially weakly solved. Furthermore, this computation formally proves the common wisdom that the dealer in the game holds a substantial advantage. This result was enabled by a new algorithm, CFR(+), which is capable of solving extensive-form games orders of magnitude larger than previously possible. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  4. Research Paper: Effect of Custom-Molded Insole With New Technique on Pain and Function in Females With Flexible Flat Foot: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Bahramian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion According to our findings, there was a significant difference in pain and function in patients with a flat foot through medial heel skive technique. Therefore, it seems that the insoles can be an effective prescription for subjects with a flat foot.

  5. The earth is flat (p > 0.05): significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Valentin; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Roth, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of 'statistical significance' as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association). We review why degrading p -values into 'significant' and 'nonsignificant' contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p -values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p -values. In either case, p -values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance ( p  ≤ 0.05) is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be 'conflicting', meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p -hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p -values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis

  6. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  7. The earth is flat (p > 0.05: significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Amrhein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of ‘statistical significance’ as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association. We review why degrading p-values into ‘significant’ and ‘nonsignificant’ contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p-values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p-values. In either case, p-values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance (p ≤ 0.05 is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be ‘conflicting’, meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p-hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p-values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence

  8. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Erleen F. [Univ. of Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  9. Poker-camp: a program for calculating detector responses and phantom organ doses in environmental gamma fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblinger, L.

    1981-09-01

    A general description, user's manual and a sample problem are given in this report on the POKER-CAMP adjoint Monte Carlo photon transport program. Gamma fields of different environmental sources which are uniformly or exponentially distributed sources or plane sources in the air, in the soil or in an intermediate layer placed between them are simulated in the code. Calculations can be made on flux, kerma and spectra of photons at any point; and on responses of point-like, cylindrical, or spherical detectors; and on doses absorbed in anthropomorphic phantoms. (author)

  10. Morphodynamic Modeling of Tidal Mud Flats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterwerp, Johan C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current research proposal is to develop and test a numerical model to simulate and predict the seasonal morphodynamic evolution of intertidal mud flats in macrotidal environments...

  11. Research Experience for Undergraduates: Understanding the Arctic as a System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Arp, C. D.; Hock, R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kaden, U.; Polyakov, I.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to understand and explain changes in the Arctic and the implications of those changes. Responding to needs in innovative research and education for understanding high-latitude rapid climate change, scientists at the International Arctic research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) established a new REU (=Research Experience for Undergraduates) NSF-funded site, aiming to attract more undergraduates to arctic sciences. The science focus of this program, building upon the research strengths of UAF, is on understanding the Arctic as a system with emphasis on its physical component. The goals, which were to disseminate new knowledge at the frontiers of polar science and to ignite the enthusiasm of the undergraduates about the Arctic, are pursued by involving undergraduate students in research and educational projects with their mentors using the available diverse on-campus capabilities. IARC hosted the first group of eight students this past summer, focusing on a variety of different disciplines of the Arctic System Science. Students visited research sites around Fairbanks and in remote parts of Alaska (Toolik Lake Field Station, Gulkana glacier, Bonanza Creek, Poker Flats, the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel and others) to see and experience first-hand how the arctic science is done. Each student worked on a research project guided by an experienced instructor. The summer program culminated with a workshop that consisted of reports from the students about their experiences and the results of their projects.

  12. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  13. Flat-space singletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-01-01

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED

  14. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  16. Research on mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration of a flexible flat plate in the rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Building 1, Compound No. 29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration experiment was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The added mass theory was used to analyze the test plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurring condition of the large amplitude and narrow band vibration was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration mechanism was investigated. - Abstract: Further experiments and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration behavior of a flexible flat plate in a rectangular channel. Test plates with different thicknesses were adopted in the FIV experiments. The natural vibration characteristics of the flexible flat plates in air were tested, and the added mass theory of column was used to analyze the flexible flat plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. It was found that the natural vibration frequency of a certain test plate in static water is approximately within the main vibration frequency band of the plate when it was induced to vibrate with the large-amplitude and narrow-band in the rectangular channel. It can be concluded that the harmonic between the flowing fluid and the vibrating plate is one of the key reasons to induce the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon. The occurring condition of the phenomenon and some important narrow-band vibration characteristics of a foursquare fix-supported flexible flat plate were investigated.

  17. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. Annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1982-07-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic systems with high alkalinity and high concentrations of dissolved ferrous ion. Americium and cobalt in these trench waters are made more soluble by the presence of EDTA, while strontium and cesium are unaffected under the same conditions. EDTA is the major organic complexing component in waste trench 27 leachate, but other polar, water-soluble organics are also present. Evidence points to the migration of plutonium between waste trench 27 and inert atmosphere wells as an EDTA complex. Polar organic compounds may influence the migration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The primary pathway of water entry into the waste burial trenches is through the trench caps, but major increases in water level have occurred in an experimental trench by subsurface flow. The areal distribution of radionuclides at Maxey Flats has been influenced by surface runoff, deposition from the evaporator plume, subsurface flow and the actions of burrowing animals or deep-rooted trees. Vegetal and surface contamination on site and near site are quite low, and only 60 Co exceeds commonly observed fallout levels. Radionuclide concentrations in surface soil at Maxey Flats are comparable to concentrations resulting from normal fallout in other areas of high rainfall

  18. Deceit and facial expression in children: the enabling role of the poker face child and the dependent personality of the detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien eGadea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the relation between the facial expression of a group of children when they told a lie and the accuracy in detecting the lie by a sample of adults. To evaluate the intensity and type of emotional content of the children’s faces, we applied an automated method capable of analysing the facial information from the video recordings (FaceReader 5.0 software. The program classified videos as showing a neutral facial expression or an emotional one. There was a significant higher mean of hits for the emotional than for the neutral videos, and a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the neutral expression and the number of hits from the judges. The lies expressed with emotional facial expression were more easily recognized by adults than the lies expressed with a poker face; thus, the less expressive was the child the harder was to guess. The accuracy of the lie detectors was then correlated with their subclinical traits of personality disorders, to find that participants scoring higher in the dependent personality were significantly better lie detectors. A non-significant tendency for women to discriminate better was also found, whereas men tending to be more suspicious than women when judging the children’s veracity. This study is the first to automatically decoding the facial information of the liar child and relating the results with personality characteristics of the lie detectors in the context of deceptive behavior research. Implications for forensic psychology were suggested: to explore whether the induction of an emotion in a child during an interview could be useful to evaluate the testimony during legal trials.

  19. Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 1: Decision making under physical performance pressure in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Beth L; Warriner, Katie; Walsh, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate. A number of studies have shown that conditions of elevated pressure influence athletes' decision quality (Kinrade et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2016), response times (Hepler, 2015; Smith et al., 2016) and risk taking (Pighin et al., 2015). However, almost all of this work has been undertaken in nonelite athletes and participants who do not routinely operate under conditions of high stress. Thus, there is very little known about the influence of pressure on decision making in elite athletes. This study investigated the influence of physical performance pressure on decision making in a sample of world-class elite athletes. This allowed an examination of whether findings from the previous work in nonelite athletes extend to those who routinely operate under conditions of high stress. How this work could be applied to improve insight and understanding of decision making among sport professionals is examined. We sought to introduce a categorization of decision making useful to practitioners in sport: gunslingers, poker players, and chickens. Twenty-three elite athletes who compete and have frequent success at an international level (including six Olympic medal winners) performed tasks relating to three categories of decision making under conditions of low and high physical pressure. Decision making under risk was measured with performance on the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under

  20. Calculating ellipse area by the Monte Carlo method and analysing dice poker with Excel at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on lessons in which 18-19 years old high school students modelled random processes with Excel. In the first lesson, 26 students formulated a hypothesis on the area of ellipse by using the analogy between the areas of circle, square and rectangle. They verified the hypothesis by the Monte Carlo method with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. In the second lesson, 27 students analysed the dice poker game. First, they calculated the probability of the hands by combinatorial formulae. Then, they verified the result with a spreadsheet model developed in the lesson. The students were given a questionnaire to find out if they found the lesson interesting and contributing to their mathematical and technological knowledge.

  1. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot

  2. Piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by ’t Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy–momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy–momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy

  3. Flat out and bluesome

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mark; Snaebjornsdottir, Bryndis; Byatt, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    ‘Nanoq: flat out and bluesome’ is the story of polar bears, the largest land predators on earth, and their journey from the arctic wilderness to the museums and stately homes of the UK. The work documents the histories of each of these bears, the legacies of the hunters who shot them and the skills and expertise of the taxidermists who stuffed them.

  4. National construction, Denmark. Flat roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, C

    1995-04-01

    The Paris meeting of IEA Annex 24 (held in the spring of 1991) declared a set of typical building constructions, the Heat, Air and Moisture characteristics of which should be dealt with as part of the Annex work. Each type of construction was assigned to one or more countries as their National Construction, and it has been the responsibility of each country to prepare a report on what may be regarded as common knowledge in the country on the hygrothermal behaviour of their construction. This knowledge is in part due to experimental work carried out by research bodies in the countries, and due to experience form practice. This report has two main sections: Section 2 gives a general overview of the design of the most common variants of flat roofs and common knowledge reported for such roofs. Section 3 gives an account of research projects carried out in Denmark on flat roofs to analyze their hygrothermal performance. Whenever possible, an emphasis will be put on the hygrothermal consequences of thermally insulating such constructions. (EG) 19 refs.

  5. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  6. Results of convective heating tests of a longitudinal gap on the Rockwell flat plate model (15-0, insert 7) in the NASA/Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, M.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from tests in a hypersonic wind tunnel to determine aerodynamic heating rates in a gap running parallel or slightly askew to the flow direction. The model used was a flat plate instrumented in thin-skin sections with chromelconstantan thermocouples. Heating rate profiles lengthwise along and down into the gap were obtained, and additional data were obtained from a total temperature probe and rake fabricated during the test to investigate an apparent aerodynamic cooling trend in the gap. Model variables were width, depth, length, and orientation of the gap relative to the flow direction. The tests were conducted at Mach 5.1 and Reynolds numbers per foot of 500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000.

  7. Flat feet in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe flatfoot, as one of very frequent deformities in everyday medical practice. A special condition of the deformity associated with a calcaneal valgus position and complicated by a knee valgus position (as a consequence of non-treatment is described. Also, the precise anatomy of the longitudinal foot arches (medial and lateral, definition and classification of the deformity, clinical findings and therapeutic protocols are proposed. The authors especially emphasise that the need for having extensive knowledge on the differences between a flexible and rigid flatfoot, having in mind that the treatment of flexible flat foot is usually not necessary, while the treatment of rigid flatfoot is usually unavoidable.

  8. Ricci-flat branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, D.; Perry, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Up to overall harmonic factors, the D8-brane solution of the massive type IIA supergravity theory is the product of nine-dimensional Minkowski space (the world-volume) with the real line (the transverse space). We show that the equations of motion allow for the world-volume metric to be generalised to an arbitrary Ricci-flat one. If this nine-dimensional Ricci-flat manifold admits Killing spinors, then the resulting solutions are supersymmetric and satisfy the usual Bogomol'nyi bound, although they preserve fewer than the usual one half of the supersymmetries. We describe the possible choices of such manifolds, elaborating on the connection between the existence of Killing spinors and the self-duality condition on the curvature two-form. Since the D8-brane is a domain wall in ten dimensions, we are led to consider the general case: domain walls in any supergravity theory. Similar considerations hold here also. Moreover, it is shown that the world-volume of any magnetic brane - of which the domain walls are a specific example - can be generalised in precisely the same way. The general class of supersymmetric solutions have gravitational instantons as their spatial sections. Some mention is made of the world-volume solitons of such branes

  9. Flat Engineered Multichannel Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Asadchy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here, we introduce a concept of multichannel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions simultaneously. In particular, we reveal a possibility to engineer multichannel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three basic functionalities of such reflectors: specular, anomalous, and retroreflections. Multichannel response of a general flat reflector can be described by a combination of these functionalities. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test three different multichannel reflectors: three- and five-channel retroreflectors and a three-channel power splitter. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors supporting higher-order Floquet harmonics, we forecast the emergence of other multichannel flat devices, such as isolating mirrors, complex splitters, and multi-functional gratings.

  10. Flat Engineered Multichannel Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadchy, V. S.; Díaz-Rubio, A.; Tcvetkova, S. N.; Kwon, D.-H.; Elsakka, A.; Albooyeh, M.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here, we introduce a concept of multichannel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions simultaneously. In particular, we reveal a possibility to engineer multichannel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three basic functionalities of such reflectors: specular, anomalous, and retroreflections. Multichannel response of a general flat reflector can be described by a combination of these functionalities. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test three different multichannel reflectors: three- and five-channel retroreflectors and a three-channel power splitter. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors supporting higher-order Floquet harmonics, we forecast the emergence of other multichannel flat devices, such as isolating mirrors, complex splitters, and multi-functional gratings.

  11. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites. 1982 annual report of research investigations on the distribution, migration and containment of radionuclides at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.

    1984-02-01

    Subsurface waters at Maxey Flats are anoxic, have a high alkalinity and contain high concentrations of ferrous, sulfide and ammonium ions and organic carbon. The trench leachates are extremely variable in composition. Prominent radionuclides include 3 H, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 239 240 Pu and 241 Am. A wide spectrum of dissolved organic compounds is present in the leachates, including EDTA, polar organics and decomposition products from the waste forms. Cobalt-60 and plutonium are present as EDTA complexes and 90 Sr and 137 Cs are associated with carboxylic acid type compounds. The chemistry of these waters changes drastically as they become oxic and plutonium becomes less mobile under these new conditions. Water enters the trenches by infiltration through the trench caps, through subsidence areas, and through interfaces between new landfill and the original soil. Lateral flow is very complex and slow, and apparently occurs mainly by fracture flow. The plastic infiltration barrier installed in 1981 to 1982 has been effective in reducing soil moisture if cracks and leaks are eliminated. To date, no direct evidence of radionuclide transport to offsite locations by subsurface flow has been confirmed. The offsite distribution of radionuclides, except for tritium, is comparable to the ambient fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Tritium concentrations in water offsite are orders of magnitude below MPC levels. 24 figures, 31 tables

  12. UVIS Flat Field Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jessica Kim

    2009-07-01

    The stability and uniformity of the low-frequency flat fields {L-flat} of the UVIS detector will be assessed by using multiple-pointing observations of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae {NGC104} and Omega Centauri {NGC5139}, thus imaging moderately dense stellar fields. By placing the same star over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine local variations in the response of the UVIS detector. Based on previous experience with STIS and ACS, it is deemed that a total of 9 different pointings will suffice to provide adequate characterization of the flat field stability in any given band. For each filter to be tested, the baseline consists of 9 pointings in a 3X3 box pattern with dither steps of about 25% of the FOV, or 40.5", in either the x or y direction {useful also for CTE measurements, if needed in the future}. During SMOV, the complement of filters to be tested is limited to the following 6 filters: F225W, F275W, F336W, for Omega Cen, and F438W, F606W, and F814W for 47 Tuc. Three long exposures for each target are arranged such that the initial dither position is observed with the appropriate filters for that target within one orbit at a single pointing, so that filter-to-filter differences in the observed star positions can be checked. In addition to the 9 baseline exposures, two sets of short exposures will be taken:a} one short exposure will be taken of OmegaCen with each of the visible filters {F438W, F606W and F814W} in order to check the geometric distortion solution to be obtained with the data from proposal 11444;b} for each target, a single short exposure will be taken with each filter to facilitate the study of the PSF as a function of position on the detector by providing unsaturated images of sparsely-spaced bright stars.This proposal corresponds to Activity Description ID WF39. It should execute only after the following proposal has executed:WF21 - 11434

  13. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  14. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  15. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    choices in the game. Second, we employ potential-aware automated abstraction algorithms for identifying strategically similar situations in order to decrease the size of the game tree. Third, we develop a new technique for automatically generating the source code of an equilibrium-finding algorithm from...... an XML-based description of a game. This automatically generated program is more efficient than what would be possible with a general-purpose equilibrium-finding program. Finally, we present results from the AAAI-07 Computer Poker Competition, in which Tartanian placed second out of ten entries....

  16. Computational Design of Flat-Band Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics states that hopping integral between local orbitals makes the energy band dispersive. However, in some special cases, there are bands with no dispersion due to quantum interference. These bands are called as flat band. Many models having flat band have been proposed, and many interesting physical properties are predicted. However, no real compound having flat band has been found yet despite the 25 years of vigorous researches. We have found that some pyrochlore oxides have quasi-flat band just below the Fermi level by first principles calculation. Moreover, their valence bands are well described by a tight-binding model of pyrochlore lattice with isotropic nearest neighbor hopping integral. This model belongs to a class of Mielke model, whose ground state is known to be ferromagnetic with appropriate carrier doping and on-site repulsive Coulomb interaction. We have also performed a spin-polarized band calculation for the hole-doped system from first principles and found that the ground state is ferromagnetic for some doping region. Interestingly, these compounds do not include magnetic element, such as transition metal and rare-earth elements.

  17. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  18. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  19. 'Poker' association of weekly alternating 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, bevacizumab and oxaliplatin (FIr-B/FOx) in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruera, Gemma; Ficorella, Corrado; Ricevuto, Enrico; Santomaggio, Alessandra; Cannita, Katia; Baldi, Paola Lanfiuti; Tudini, Marianna; De Galitiis, Federica; Mancini, Maria; Marchetti, Paolo; Antonucci, Adelmo

    2010-01-01

    This phase II study investigated efficacy and safety of weekly alternating Bevacizumab (BEV)/Irinotecan (CPT-11) or Oxaliplatin (OHP) associated to weekly 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma (MCRC). Simon two-step design: delta 20% (p 0 50%, p 1 70%), power 80%, α 5%, β 20%. Projected objective responses (ORR): I step, 8/15 patients (pts); II step 26/43 pts. Schedule: weekly 12 h-timed-flat-infusion/5-FU 900 mg/m 2 , days 1-2, 8-9, 15-16, 22-23; CPT-11 160 mg/m 2 plus BEV 5 mg/kg, days 1,15; OHP at three dose-levels, 60-70-80 mg/m 2 , days 8, 22; every 4 weeks. Fifty consecutive, unselected pts < 75 years were enrolled: median age 63; young-elderly (yE) 24 (48%); liver metastases (LM) 33 pts, 66% Achieved OHP recommended dose, 80 mg/m 2 . ORR 82% intent-to-treat and 84% as-treated analysis. Median progression-free survival 12 months. Equivalent efficacy was obtained in yE pts. Liver metastasectomies were performed in 26% of all pts and in 39% of pts with LM. After a median follow-up of 21 months, median overall survival was 28 months. Cumulative G3-4 toxicities per patient: diarrhea 28%, mucositis 6%, neutropenia 10%, hypertension 2%. They were equivalent in yE pts. Limiting toxicity syndromes (LTS), consisting of the dose-limiting toxicity, associated or not to G2 or limiting toxicities: 44% overall, 46% in yE. Multiple versus single site LTS, respectively: overall, 24% versus 20%; yE pts, 37.5% versus 8%. Poker combination shows high activity and efficacy in first line treatment of MCRC. It increases liver metastasectomies rate and can be safely administered. Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Sperimentazione Clinica dei Medicinali (OsSC) Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA) Numero EudraCT 2007-004946-34

  20. Nadwaga a płaskostopie u dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym – raport z badań = Overweight and flat feet in children of preschool age – research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Srokowska

    2015-04-01

    human anatomy owing to its supporting function. Flat feet is a defect in a posture that is fairly common amongst children and it is shown during health screening. One of the reasons for flat feet is administered load on the bone - joint excess body weight. The main aim of the thesis is to evaluate the relations between elevated BMI and structure of the preschooler's foot. The research spanned children aged between 3 and 6 of non-public nursery ''Tęcza'' and "Ludzikowo" in Bydgoszcz. The experimental group consisted of 95 children (45 girls and 50 boys. The researchers began with measurements of relative body mass index BMI. The next step was to asses the full extent of the children's fallen arches both longitudinal and transverse. The measurement of Clark's and Wejsflog's angles allowed appropriate classification. The research tool included a traditional podoscope and modern device RSscan International Footscan. The percentage of elevated BMI that occurred was six per cent. Flat feet was found in more than one-third of the respondents. Due to the fact that the results concluded small percentage of people with overweight and obesity there is no claim to relate the prevalence of flat feet to an increased BMI.

  1. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  2. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABET I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical and experimental studyof flat platesolar water collector with reflectors.A mathematical model based on energy balance equations saw the thermal behavior of the collector is investigated. The experimental test was made at the unit research applies in renewable energy (URAER located in southern Algeria.An increase of 23% for solar radiation incident on the collector surface with the addition of the planers reflectors in the day of May, this increase causes an improvement of the performance of the collector,the fluid temperature increases with an average of 5%. Thetests conducted on the flat plate solar water collector in open circuit enabled the determination of thermal performance of the collector by estimating the daily output The thermal efficiency of the collector ranges from 1% -63% during the day, a mean value of 36%obtained.

  3. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Hayden, J.A.; Alford, C.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Stevens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  5. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and 1980. Normally, we expect the reduction in energy consumption to be around 20% for a 2 °C lower temperature, but for an inner flat the reduction can be up to 71%. The owners of the adjoining flats get an increase in energy demand of 10 to 20% each. They will not be able to figure out whether...... this is because the neighbour maintains a low temperature or the fact that they maintain a higher temperature. The best solution is to keep your own indoor temperature low. We can also turn the problem around: if you maintain a higher temperature than your neighbours, then you will pay part of their heating bill....

  6. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  7. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogárová Markéta; Stodůlka Jindřich; Šuhajda Karel

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is...

  8. Flat space physics from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational back reaction. Instead, it is protected by - and in this sense, predicts - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  9. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  11. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  12. Flat beams in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hildreth, M.; Himel, T.; Krejcik, P.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that open-quote flat close-quote beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow These beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to open-quote flat close-quote beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following the authors present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC

  13. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  14. Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting ...

  15. Harmonic Manifolds with Minimal Horospheres are Flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting theorem.

  16. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  17. Trajectory Optimization for Differential Flat Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kahina Louadj; Benjamas Panomruttanarug; Alexandre Carlos Brandao Ramos; Felix Mora-Camino

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this communication is to investigate the applicability of Variational Calculus to the optimization of the operation of differentially flat systems. After introducingcharacteristic properties of differentially flat systems, the applicability of variational calculus to the optimization of flat output trajectories is displayed. Two illustrative examples are also presented.

  18. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  19. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  20. Reflections on a flat wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.; Huhtinen, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into whether estimates of attenuation in the flat sidewalls of the tunnel for the MC main ring can be based on a simple point-source/line-of-sight model. Having seen the limitations of such a model, an alternative is proposed where the main radiation source is not the initial object struck by the beam but the plane source provided by the first interactions of secondaries from the target in the shield-wall. This is shown to have a closer relation to reality than the point-source/line-of-sight model. (author)

  1. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a......) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by tanh, (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b)....

  2. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. U.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by \\tanh , (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b).

  3. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN RESOLVING FRAUD AND DISPUTES OF THE FLAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Situmorang P.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The public concern with the housing issues and conditions including flat management becomes current phenomenon in developing countries such as Indonesia. However, less attention has been paid by researchers to discuss the role of government in the flat management. The fact is that fraud and disputes often occur as a result of the management of flats such as management fees and monthly billing invoice becoming the main issue at the court. Through case law approach method with four different cases, this paper therefore captures several issues related to the management of flats. For instance, this paper discusses a case where flat management companies tend to increase maintenance fees without having a consent or agreement, both from owners and tenants. Disputes are also related to transparency of collected management fees by flat management companies, causing dissatisfaction from the owners and tenants. Hence, this paper suggests that there is the need of government’s role in the flat management issues. This suggestion is relevant to the idea of exercising government’s power through monitoring flat management companies in order to comply with flat legislation. This paper argues that the use of government’s authority could be practised through monitoring system and setting up administrative procedure on the management of flats.

  4. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  5. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead

  6. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  7. The removal of plutonium contaminants from Rocky Flats Plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if the TRUclean process could effectively remove radioactive elements from soils other than derived coral. This is an interim report prior to the project report and discusses the outcome of the tests of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) soil. The soil tested contained plutonium particulates in the micron and submicron range. Volume reduction and activity removal were accomplished with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%. The TRUclean process is a very practical and economical solution to soil contamination problems at the Rocky Flats Plant

  8. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.

    1978-01-01

    Three areas of research in the development of flat solar panels are described. (1) A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces was developed. The reflectometer has a phase locked detection system. (2) A coating composed of strongly bound copper oxide that is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content was also developed. Because of this one step fabrication process, fabrication costs are expected to be small. (3) A literature search was conducted and conclusions on the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are presented.

  9. Possibilities of Obtaining Flat Static Characteristic of DC Ferromagnetic Actuator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Dvořák, P.; Mach, M.; Ulrych, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 220, č. 1 (2005), s. 29-39 ISSN 0032-6216 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : flat static characteristic * DC ferromagnetic actuator Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the ...

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of column - flat slab joint ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Shah, A.

    2009-01-01

    Most modern seismic codes use ductility as one of the basic design parameters. Actually, ductility defines the ability of a structure or its elements to absorb energy by plastic deformations. Until the end of the previous century ductility was defined qualitatively. Most research works related to ductility are focused on structural elements' sections. This study was aimed at complex experimental and theoretical investigation of flat slab-column joints ductility. It is one of the first attempts to obtain quantitative values of joint's ductility for the case of high strength concrete columns and normal strength concrete slabs. It was shown that the flat slab-column joint is a three-dimension (3D) element and its ductility in horizontal and vertical directions are different. This is the main difference between ductility of elements and joint ductility. In case of flat slab-column joints, essential contribution to joint's ductility can be obtained due to the slab's confining effect. Based on experimental data, the authors demonstrate that flat slab-column joint's ductility depends on the joint's confining effect in two horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the influence of slab load intensity and slab reinforcement ratio on the joint's ductility is performed in this study. It is also demonstrated that the effect of the ratio between the slab thickness and the column's section dimension on the ductility parameter is significant. Equations for obtaining a quantitative value of a flat slab-column joint's ductility parameter were developed.

  12. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  13. Management system of simple rental flats study based on technical aspect and health in Medan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novrial; Indra Cahaya, S.

    2018-03-01

    Medan city is a metropolis city in Sumatera that has slums area. Simple rental flats have been built to overcome the problem. However the preliminary survey result showed that the physical and non-physical environment management of simple rent flats is very bad. This study conducted in 3 simple rent flats. It has observed the simple rent flats environment and has interviewed occupants and related agencies. Results of conducted research showed the occupant’s characteristics based on the largest percentage are Javanese; last education is senior high with self-employed work with average income Rp 1,000,000 – Rp 2,500,000. Waste retribution submitted to their cleanliness except for Amplas simple rent flats, their waste management system does not manage properly and the garbage littered. The number of family members of Wisma Labuhan and Amplas simple rent flats exceeds the regulation number of occupants, so it is crowded and noisy. Physical conditions of Amplas simple rent flats are bad, septic tank is full and are not vacuumed. Clean water sources derived from wells and artesian wll are vulnerable to be contaminated by pollutants such as leachate and bad quality water. It is necessary to improve the physical, basic sanitation, and guidance for the simple rent flats occupants to the management system of Simple Rent Flats.

  14. Laser Doppler thermometry in flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, van A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are performed in flat flames, stabilized on a newly developed flat-flame burner. It is shown that the velocity component perpendicular to the main flow direction, induced by expansion in the reaction zone and buoyancy in the burnt gas, is significant. A method

  15. Radiation monitor training program at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.C.; Kittinger, W.D.; Vogel, R.M.

    The Rocky Flats Radiation Monitor Training Program is tailored to train new health physics personnel in the field of radiation monitoring. The purpose of the prescribed materials and media is to be consistent in training in all areas of Rocky Flats radiation monitoring job involvement

  16. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  17. Present and future of flat panel detectors in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    Present status of development of flat panel detectors and their clinical application in the world have been surveyed, and future trends are also explored especially in the field of material researches and methods of manufacturing. Also the importance of role of medical physicists on user side is described because characteristic physics measurement of a detector assembly is unavoidable and essential in quality assurance in clinical routine and acceptance test in hospitals. Even though physics measurements and clinical evaluations on flat panel detectors have shown remarkable progress and advances in these several years, future problems of cost down in manufacturing and quality assurance to prevent individual differences between detector assemblies must be resolved. Results of evaluation in mammography, chest radiography, fluoroscopy for cardiovascular examination, bone tumor examination and radiotherapy application indicate that flat panel detectors are future promising materials. Their systematic operation is contributing to heighten accuracy of image examinations and preciseness of radiation therapy. Encouragement to medical physicists relevant to flat panel detectors is also raised in this paper. (author)

  18. Flat tori in three-dimensional space and convex integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Vincent; Jabrane, Saïd; Lazarus, Francis; Thibert, Boris

    2012-05-08

    It is well-known that the curvature tensor is an isometric invariant of C(2) Riemannian manifolds. This invariant is at the origin of the rigidity observed in Riemannian geometry. In the mid 1950s, Nash amazed the world mathematical community by showing that this rigidity breaks down in regularity C(1). This unexpected flexibility has many paradoxical consequences, one of them is the existence of C(1) isometric embeddings of flat tori into Euclidean three-dimensional space. In the 1970s and 1980s, M. Gromov, revisiting Nash's results introduced convex integration theory offering a general framework to solve this type of geometric problems. In this research, we convert convex integration theory into an algorithm that produces isometric maps of flat tori. We provide an implementation of a convex integration process leading to images of an embedding of a flat torus. The resulting surface reveals a C(1) fractal structure: Although the tangent plane is defined everywhere, the normal vector exhibits a fractal behavior. Isometric embeddings of flat tori may thus appear as a geometric occurrence of a structure that is simultaneously C(1) and fractal. Beyond these results, our implementation demonstrates that convex integration, a theory still confined to specialists, can produce computationally tractable solutions of partial differential relations.

  19. Workpiece Temperature Variations During Flat Peripheral Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitalii A.; Repko, Aleksandr V.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results of researches of temperature variations during flat peripheral grinding. It is shown that the temperature variations of the workpiece can reach 25...30% of the average values, which can lead to some thermal defects. A nonlinear two-dimensional thermophysical grinding model is suggested. It takes into account local changes in the cutting conditions: the fluctuation of the cut layer and the cutting force, the thermal impact of the cutting grains, and the presence of surface cavities in the intermittent wheel. For the numerical solution of the problem, the method of finite differences is adapted. Researches of the method stability and convergence are made, taking into account the specific nature of the problem. A high accuracy of the approximation of the boundary conditions and the nonlinear heat equation is provided. An experimental verification of the proposed thermophysical model was carried out with the use of installation for simultaneous measurement of the grinding force and temperature. It is shown that the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values of the grinding temperature does not exceed 5%. The proposed thermophysical model makes it possible to predict with high accuracy the temperature variations during grinding by the wheel periphery.

  20. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  1. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  2. Friendly vertical housing: case of walk-up flat housing development in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosterharoldas Swasto, Deva

    2018-03-01

    In Yogyakarta Province, the local government have developed walk-up flats housing for more than ten years since the mid of the 2000s. Yogyakarta City and Sleman Regency was pioneering the construction with some blocks of flats in several locations. However, after this period, there is limited evaluation about the effectiveness of the occupancy. One of the issues is related to the sustainable housing development. Concerning this situation, it is proposed to examine how the development of walk-up flats housing in Yogyakarta City and Sleman Regency can be evaluated based on specific housing indicator, as a part of sustainable housing development concept. This paper would like to explore the phenomenon on how ‘friendly’ the flats is. The researcher will qualitatively asses variables from the walk-up flat cases in Yogyakarta City and Sleman Regency. The results suggested that the physical quality of the vertical housing situation could be enhanced to meet residents’ satisfaction.

  3. Chaotic inflation in models with flat directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, F.; Olive, K.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the chaotic inflationary scenario in models with flat directions. We find that unless the scalars along the flat directions have vacuum expectation values p or 10 14 M p 15 M p depending on the expectation values of the chaotic inflator, Ψ, one or two or more periods of inflation occur but with a resulting energy density perturbation δρ/ρ ≅ 10 -16 , far too small to be of any consequence for galaxy formation. Even with p only limited initial values of ≅ (3-200) M p result in inflation with reasonable density perturbations. Thus chaotic inflation in models with flat directions require rather special initial conditions. (orig.)

  4. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  5. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  6. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  7. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  8. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, .... sequence for complex analytic bundles, Appendix to Topological Methods ... Society of Japan 15 (1987) (Iwanami Shoten Publishers and Princeton ...

  9. Accessibility of low-income family flats in North Jakarta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feminin, T. A.; Wiranegara, H. W.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of relocated, low-income families in North Jakarta city who residing the flats, complained at decreasing their accessibility to the workplaces and to the social facilities. The aim of this research was to identify the changing of their accessibility before and after relocated, viewed from three dimensions: distance, travel time, and travel cost to the workplaces, educational facilities, and shopping areas. The research design was questionnaire survey containing the degree of accessibility before and after resided the flats. Five flats were chosen as cases. Their inhabitants were chosen as respondents which used simple random sampling. The result showed that their flats accessibility to the workplaces in all three dimensions was lower than when they resided in the slum area. Also, in distance and travel time accessibility to shopping areas was lower. Only accessibility to educational facilities measured in those three dimensions was higher after they moved. Supply for affordable public transport from their flats to reach their workplaces is needed to raise their accessibility. Also, they need subsidizeto rent of their flats so the burden to their income lesser.Using the ground space of their flats for retail activities was to make more accessible for their shopping activities.

  10. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  11. Flat detectors and their clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic and interventional flat detector X-ray systems are penetrating the market in all application segments. First introduced in radiography and mammography, they have conquered cardiac and general angiography and are getting increasing attention in fluoroscopy. Two flat detector technologies prevail. The dominating method is based on an indirect X-ray conversion process, using cesium iodide scintillators. It offers considerable advantages in radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy. The other method employs a direct converter such as selenium which is particularly suitable for mammography. Both flat detector technologies are based on amorphous silicon active pixel matrices. Flat detectors facilitate the clinical workflow in radiographic rooms, foster improved image quality and provide the potential to reduce dose. This added value is based on their large dynamic range, their high sensitivity to X-rays and the instant availability of the image. Advanced image processing is instrumental in these improvements and expand the range of conventional diagnostic methods. In angiography and fluoroscopy the transition from image intensifiers to flat detectors is facilitated by ample advantages they offer, such as distortion-free images, excellent coarse contrast, large dynamic range and high X-ray sensitivity. These characteristics and their compatibility with strong magnetic fields are the basis for improved diagnostic methods and innovative interventional applications. (orig.)

  12. Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature

  13. Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab

    2017-05-22

    A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.

  14. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  15. Holography and Entanglement in Flat Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a holographic correspondence of the flat spacetime based on the behavior of the entanglement entropy and the correlation functions. The holographic dual theory turns out to be highly nonlocal. We argue that after most part of the space is traced out, the reduced density matrix gives the maximal entropy and the correlation functions become trivial. We present a toy model for this holographic dual using a nonlocal scalar field theory that reproduces the same property of the entanglement entropy. Our conjecture is consistent with the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  16. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  17. Status of flat electron beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Last year at LINAC2000 [1] the authors reported their initial verification of the round beam (comparable transverse emittances) to flat beam (high transverse emittance ratio) transformation described by Brinkmann, Derbenev, and Floettmann [2]. Further analysis of the data has confirmed that a transverse emittance ratio of approximately 50 was observed. Graphics representing observational detail are included here, and future plans outlined

  18. Flat deformation theorem and symmetries in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The flat deformation theorem states that given a semi-Riemannian analytic metric g on a manifold, locally there always exists a two-form F, a scalar function c, and an arbitrarily prescribed scalar constraint depending on the point x of the manifold and on F and c, say Ψ(c, F, x) = 0, such that the deformed metric η = cg - εF 2 is semi-Riemannian and flat. In this paper we first show that the above result implies that every (Lorentzian analytic) metric g may be written in the extended Kerr-Schild form, namely η ab := ag ab - 2bk (a l b) where η is flat and k a , l a are two null covectors such that k a l a = -1; next we show how the symmetries of g are connected to those of η, more precisely; we show that if the original metric g admits a conformal Killing vector (including Killing vectors and homotheties), then the deformation may be carried out in a way such that the flat deformed metric η 'inherits' that symmetry.

  19. Flat roofs, a grey area; Grauzone Flachdach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Anja

    2012-11-01

    The boom of low-ballast assembly systems for flat roofs is going on. Solar assembly racks are set up directly on the sealing foil without fastening bolts. But what happens in case of water ingress? And what should be done to prevent damage to the roof cover? (orig.)

  20. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the

  1. Nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes on flat surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starov, Victor M

    2004-01-15

    The hydrostatic pressure in thin liquid layers differs from the pressure in the ambient air. This difference is caused by the actions of surface forces and capillary pressure. The manifestation of the surface force action is the disjoining pressure, which has a very special S-shaped form in the case of partial wetting (aqueous thin films and thin films of aqueous electrolyte and surfactant solutions, both free films and films on solid substrates). In thin flat liquid films the disjoining pressure acts alone and determines their thickness. However, if the film surface is curved then both the disjoining and the capillary pressures act simultaneously. In the case of partial wetting their simultaneous action results in the existence of nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that in the case of S-shaped disjoining pressure isotherm microdrops, microdepressions, and equilibrium periodic films exist on flat solid substrates. Criteria are found for both the existence and the stability of these nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that a transition from thick films to thinner films can go via intermediate nonflat states, microdepressions and periodic films, which both can be more stable than flat films within some range of hydrostatic pressure. Experimental investigations of shapes of the predicted nonflat layers can open new possibilities of determination of disjoining pressure in the range of thickness in which flat films are unstable.

  2. 8. Asymptotically Flat and Regular Cauchy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Sergio

    I describe the construction of a large class of asymptotically flat initial data with non-vanishing mass and angular momentum for which the metric and the extrinsic curvature have asymptotic expansions at space-like infinity in terms of powers of a radial coordinate. I emphasize the motivations and the main ideas behind the proofs.

  3. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  4. Completeness for flat modal fixpoint logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santocanale, L.; Venema, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper exhibits a general and uniform method to prove axiomatic completeness for certain modal fixpoint logics. Given a set Γ of modal formulas of the form γ(x,p1,…,pn), where x occurs only positively in γ, we obtain the flat modal fixpoint language L♯(Γ) by adding to the language of polymodal

  5. Hangingwall accomodation styles in flat ramp trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, G.; Sokoutis, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamic and rheologic control of hanging wall accommodation in ramp-flat thrust models. In particular we vary the dimensionless ratio of shear strength to gravity stress to model hanging wall accommodation styles in different materials. In all models we require that the

  6. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  7. Exact Riemann solutions of the Ripa model for flat and non-flat bottom topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Asad; Ali, Ishtiaq; Qamar, Shamsul

    2018-03-01

    This article is concerned with the derivation of exact Riemann solutions for Ripa model considering flat and non-flat bottom topographies. The Ripa model is a system of shallow water equations accounting for horizontal temperature gradients. In the case of non-flat bottom topography, the mass, momentum and energy conservation principles are utilized to relate the left and right states across the step-type bottom topography. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Different numerical case studies of physical interest are considered. The solutions obtained from developed exact Riemann solvers are compared with the approximate solutions of central upwind scheme.

  8. Three gradients and the perception of flat and curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J E; Millard, R T

    1984-06-01

    Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as one looks from one's feet upward to the horizon. The present article explores three gradients--perspective, compression, and density--and the phenomenal impression of flat and curved surfaces. The perspective gradient is measured at right angles to the axis of tilt at any point in the optic array; that is, when looking down a hallway at the tiles of a floor receding in the distance, perspective is measured by the x-axis width of each tile projected on the image plane orthogonal to the line of sight. The compression gradient is the ratio of y/x axis measures on the projected plane. The density gradient is measured by the number of tiles per unit solid visual angle. For flat surfaces and many others, perspective and compression gradients decrease with distance, and the density gradient increases. We discuss the manner in which these gradients change for various types of surfaces. Each gradient is founded on a different assumption about textures on the surfaces around us. In Experiment 1, viewers assessed the three-dimensional character of projections of flat and curved surfaces receding in the distance. They made pairwise judgments of preference and of dissimilarity among eight stimuli in each of four sets. The presence of each gradient was manipulated orthogonally such that each stimulus had zero, one, two, or three gradients appropriate for either a flat surface or a curved surface. Judgments were made were made for surfaces with both regularly shaped and irregularly shaped textures scattered on them. All viewer assessment were then scaled in one dimension. Multiple correlation and regression on the scale values

  9. General classification of a normally flat Ric- semi symmetric submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proved that a normally flat submanifold M in Euclidean space En satisfies the condition R(X,Y)Ricci =0 if and only if it is the open part of one of the following submanifolds: (1) normally flat two-dimensional submanifold, (2) normally flat Einstein submanifold (in particular Ricci-flat or locally Euclidean), (3) normally flat semi- Einstein submanifold, (4) normally flat interlacing product of semi-Einstein submanifolds and locally Euclidean submanifold (may be of zero dimension), (5) direct product of the above enumerated classes of submanifolds

  10. Software Simulates Sight: Flat Panel Mura Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In the increasingly sophisticated world of high-definition flat screen monitors and television screens, image clarity and the elimination of distortion are paramount concerns. As the devices that reproduce images become more and more sophisticated, so do the technologies that verify their accuracy. By simulating the manner in which a human eye perceives and interprets a visual stimulus, NASA scientists have found ways to automatically and accurately test new monitors and displays. The Spatial Standard Observer (SSO) software metric, developed by Dr. Andrew B. Watson at Ames Research Center, measures visibility and defects in screens, displays, and interfaces. In the design of such a software tool, a central challenge is determining which aspects of visual function to include while accuracy and generality are important, relative simplicity of the software module is also a key virtue. Based on data collected in ModelFest, a large cooperative multi-lab project hosted by the Optical Society of America, the SSO simulates a simplified model of human spatial vision, operating on a pair of images that are viewed at a specific viewing distance with pixels having a known relation to luminance. The SSO measures the visibility of foveal spatial patterns, or the discriminability of two patterns, by incorporating only a few essential components of vision. These components include local contrast transformation, a contrast sensitivity function, local masking, and local pooling. By this construction, the SSO provides output in units of "just noticeable differences" (JND) a unit of measure based on the assumed smallest difference of sensory input detectable by a human being. Herein is the truly amazing ability of the SSO, while conventional methods can manipulate images, the SSO models human perception. This set of equations actually defines a mathematical way of working with an image that accurately reflects the way in which the human eye and mind behold a stimulus. The SSO is

  11. The paediatric flat foot proforma (p-FFP: improved and abridged following a reproducibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Hollie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about a child's flat foot posture is a common reason for frequent clinical consultations for an array of health care and medical professionals. The recently developed paediatric flatfoot clinical-care pathway (FFP has provided an evidence based approach to diagnosis and management. The intra and inter-rater/measurer reliability of the FFP has been investigated in this study. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample with flat feet was identified by screening with the Foot posture index (FPI-6. Subjects who scored ≥ 6 on the FPI-6 for both feet became the study's flat foot sample. A same subject, repeated measure research design was used for this study which examined the reliability of the FFP in 31 children aged seven to 10 years, as rated by three examiners. Results Approximately half of the items of the FFP showed less-than-desirable inter-rater reliability, arbitrarily set at the conventional 0.7 level (intra-class correlations. Removal of the unreliable items has produced a shorter; more relevant instrument designated the paediatric flat foot proforma (p-FFP. Conclusion The p-FFP is a reliable instrument for the assessment and resulting treatment actions for children with flat feet. Findings indicate that the simplified p-FFP is a reproducible instrument for the clinical assessment of flat foot in mid-childhood.

  12. A Flat World with Deep Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Constantinescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct connection between layers with different characteristics. The elites are moving across information avenues with targets set in the future; at the same time, in many parts of our planet, there are people organizing their lives in pre-modern agrarian cycles. Diversity in ways of living and in social organization is a sign of human freedom, not a sign of error, so, having different alternatives to achieving prosperity and happiness should be good news. Holding dear to a society’s lifestyle should not push for the destruction of societies with different sets of values.

  13. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén, E-mail: rmohedano@lpi-europe.com; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  14. Release fractions for Rocky Flats specific accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    As Rocky Flats and other DOE facilities begin the transition process towards decommissioning, the nature of the scenarios to be studied in safety analysis will change. Whereas the previous emphasis in safety accidents related to production, now the emphasis is shifting to accidents related tc decommissioning and waste management. Accident scenarios of concern at Rocky Flats now include situations of a different nature and different scale than are represented by most of the existing experimental accident data. This presentation will discuss approaches at sign to use for applying the existing body of release fraction data to this new emphasis. Mention will also be made of ongoing efforts to produce new data and improve the understanding of physical mechanisms involved

  15. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  16. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  17. Infiltration barrier demonstration at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1983-01-01

    At the 1982 DOE LLWMP meeting, the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet presented a history of the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Facility, its status, and current Commonwealth activities leading toward stabilization and decommissioning. Information was presented at that time on the purpose of the DOE Trench Moisture Barrier Demonstration Grant and the early phases of construction and implementation. In this paper, final construction and implementation of the trench moisture barrier demonstration are discussed. Data including trench water level measurements, lateral liquid flow in experimental sections, and soil moisture measurements are presented and discussed. The Paper is completed with a brief discussion of remediation activities currently being implemented at Maxey Flats. 9 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  18. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  19. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.; NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references

  20. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations

  1. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  2. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  3. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called CCS 4 FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... Key words: Nurses, ergonomics, premature aging, shift work, work capacity evaluation, physical tests ... shift-work to cater for the needs of the sick people and are ... postural control on one leg without support on a flat surface.

  5. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  6. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  7. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  8. Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons. ... in understanding the performance characteristics optioned between flat head and dome head pistons in engine design. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. How flat is our Universe really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okouma, P.M.; Fantaye, Y.; Bassett, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H 0 , the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12 k 0 prior, this tightens significantly to Ω k =0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω k =0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n s =1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints

  10. Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)

  11. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  12. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  13. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, G. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel photobioreactors using the interaction between light and algae growth for the algae species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. The effect of location, variable sunlight and reactor layout on biomass production in single standing and parallel positioned flat panels was considered. Three latitudes were studied representing the Netherlands, France and Algeria. In single standing reactors the highest yearly biomass production is achieved in Algeria. During the year biomass production fluctuates the most in the Netherlands, while it is almost constant in Algeria. Several combinations of path lengths and biomass concentrations can result in the same optimal biomass production. The productivity in parallel place flat panels is strongly influenced by shading and diffuse light penetration between the panels. Panel orientation has a large effect on productivity and at higher latitudes the difference between north-south and east-west orientation may go up to 50%.

  14. First results of the Auroral Turbulance II rocket experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielides, M.A.; Ranta, A.; Ivchenco, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Auroral Turbulance II sounding rocket was launched on February 11, 1997 into moderately active nightside aurora from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, US. The experiment consisted of three independent, completely instrumented payloads launched by a single vehicle. The aim of the experiment...

  15. Development of a Surface Micromachined On-Chip Flat Disk Micropump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. KILANI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research progress in the development of a surface micromachined flat disk micropump which employs the viscous and centrifugal effects acting on a layer of fluid sandwiched between a rotating flat disk and a stationary plate. The pump is fabricated monolithically on-chip using Sandia’s Ultraplanar Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT™ where an electrostatic comb-drive Torsional Ratcheting Actuator (TRA drives the flat disk through a geared transmission. The paper reviews available analytical models for flow geometries similar to that of the described pump, and presents a set of experiments which depict its performance and possible failure modes. Those experiments highlight future research directions in the development of electrostatically-actuated, CMOS-compatible, surface micromachined pumps.

  16. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  17. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W.; Mcdonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Lab. to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were to achieve widespread commercial use of PV modules and arrays through the development of technology that would allow them to be profitably sold for $1.07/peak watts (1985 dollars). A 10% module conversion efficiency and a 20 year lifetime were also goals. It is intended that the executive summary provide the means by which one can gain a perspective on 11 years of terrestrial photovoltaic research and development conducted by the FSA Project.

  18. How flat is our Universe really?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okouma, P.M., E-mail: okouma@saao.ac.za [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Fantaye, Y. [Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315, Oslo (Norway); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-02-12

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12<Ω{sub k}<0.01 (2σ). If we add an H{sub 0} prior, this tightens significantly to Ω{sub k}=0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω{sub k}=0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n{sub s}=1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints.

  19. Rigidity of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gabjin; Hwang, Seungsu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the structure of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces. Generalized Bach-flat metrics are considered as extensions of both Einstein and Bach-flat metrics. First, we prove that a compact Riemannian n-manifold with n ≥ 4 which is a generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space is Einstein. A generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space with the potential function f having compact level sets is either Ricci-flat or a warped product with zero scalar curvature when n ≥ 5, and when n = 4, it is Einstein if f has its minimum. Secondly, we consider critical metrics for another quadratic curvature functional involving the Ricci tensor, and prove similar results. Lastly, by applying the technique developed above, we prove Besse conjecture when the manifold is generalized Bach-flat.

  20. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  1. Float glass innovation in the flat glass industry

    CERN Document Server

    Uusitalo, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    A thorough industry analysis is of utmost importance for a study on the impact of technological changes on industry structure. This book evaluates the consequences of a vaguely chosen level of an industry analysis. Too broad a definition of the industry may disaggregate sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This is illustrated by revisiting an industry study upon which the dominant design model was based. Readers will see and understand the consequences of too broadly defined industries together with quantitative research approach can have. The book argues that the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis. This is done by revisiting the flat glass industry study, on which Anderson and Tushman’s (1990) dominant design model is partly based. In their study Anderson and Tushman defined the flat glass industry based on four-digit SIC codes. It is argued that this definition was too broad and it disaggregated important sub-industries, processing industries and int...

  2. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  3. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  4. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  5. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  6. Q-balls in flat potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Tsumagari, Mitsuo I.

    2009-01-01

    We study the classical and absolute stability of Q-balls in scalar field theories with flat potentials arising in both gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated models. We show that the associated Q-matter formed in gravity-mediated potentials can be stable against decay into their own free particles as long as the coupling constant of the nonrenormalizable term is small, and that all of the possible three-dimensional Q-ball configurations are classically stable against linear fluctuations. Three-dimensional gauge-mediated Q-balls can be absolutely stable in the thin-wall limit, but are completely unstable in the thick-wall limit.

  7. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  8. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy's Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation's nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989

  9. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  10. Analysis of Solar Energy Use for Multi-Flat Buildings Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the energy and financial possibilities to install renewable energy sources (solar energy generating systems when renovating multi-flat buildings. The aim is to analyse solar energy system possibilities for modernization of multi-flat buildings (5-storey, 9-storey and 16-storey, providing detailed conclusions about the appropriateness of the energy systems and financial aspects. It is also intended to determine the optimal technological combinations and solutions to reach the maximum energy benefits. For the research computer simulation tools “EnergyPRO” and “PV*SOL Premium” are chosen. Also actual collected heat and electricity consumption data is used for the analysis.

  11. Modeling of Three Flat Coal Seams Strata Developing at Open Pit Miming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, Tatiana; Markov, Sergey; Demirel, Nuray; Anyona, Serony

    2017-11-01

    The use of low-cost direct dumpling technology, as is well known, has a relatively limited field of application: flat coal seams, and the higher the dip angle of the seam, the more difficult it is to place the necessary volume of overburden rock in the dumping layers. For this, we have to pour four-tier dumps. In this article, four possible options for piling the dump have been studied and prerequisites have been made for further research aimed at improving the efficiency of the use of direct dumpling technology in the development of flat coal seams.

  12. Flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia: carcinoma underestimation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Anna; d'Aloia, Cecilia; Frattaruolo, Antonia; Pallavera, Lara; Martella, Eugenia; Crisi, Girolamo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the underestimation rate of carcinoma upon surgical biopsy after a diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. A retrospective review was conducted of 476 vacuum-assisted breast biopsy performed from May 2005 to January 2007 and a total of 70 cases of atypia were identified. Fifty cases (71%) were categorized as pure atypical ductal hyperplasia, 18 (26%) as pure flat epithelial atypia and two (3%) as concomitant flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Each group were compared with the subsequent open surgical specimens. Surgical biopsy was performed in 44 patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 15 patients with flat epithelial atypia, and two patients with flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Five cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ, three cases of flat epithelial atypia yielded one ductal carcinoma in situ and two cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia had invasive ductal carcinoma. The overall rate of malignancy was 16% for atypical ductal hyperplasia (including flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia patients) and 20% for flat epithelial atypia. The presence of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia at biopsy requires careful consideration, and surgical excision should be suggested.

  13. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  14. The Development of the Flat-Knitted Shaped Uppers based on Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhiwen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the efficiency and specification of the flat-knitted uppers design, the basic patterns of uppers are made from shoe lasts based on the research on the characteristics of human’s feet and wearability requirements on uppers. The knitting technology for half-shaped and fully shaped uppers was formed after the shear deformation of basic pattern and combination with flat knitting technology. As regards to the functional requirements on key parts of uppers, the structures of flat-knitted shaped uppers were intensively analysed and studied, dividing them into two categories (functional structure and decorative structure, discussing the knitting methods and advantages of different structure, and finally experimentally proving that the planar pattern of flat knitted uppers can apply to the design of flat-knitted uppers and achieve the combination of functionality and artistry of sneakers after combining with structural changes, with a great significance on the achievement of the efficient production of uppers and the enhancement of its commercial value.

  15. Rapid Simulation of Flat Knitting Loops Based On the Yarn Texture and Loop Geometrical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhiwen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the fast computer-aided design (CAD of the flat knitted fabric, we have a research on the geometric model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. Establish the texture variation model based on the changing process from the normal yarn to loop that provides the realistic texture of the simulative loop. Then optimize the simulative loop based on illumination variation. This paper develops the computer program with the optimization algorithm and achieves the loop simulation of different yarns to verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a fast CAD of the flat knitted fabric with loop simulation, and it is not only more realistic but also material adjustable. Meanwhile it also provides theoretical value for the flat knitted fabric computer simulation.

  16. Observation of Flat Electron Temperature Profiles in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D. P.; Majeski, R.; Schmitt, J. C.; Auburn University, AL; Hansen, C.

    2017-01-01

    It has been predicted for over a decade that low-recycling plasma-facing components in fusion devices would allow high edge temperatures and flat or nearly flat temperature profiles. In recent experiments with lithium wall coatings in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX), a hot edge (> 200 eV) and flat electron temperature profiles have been measured following the termination of external fueling. In this work, reduced recycling was demonstrated by retention of ~ 60% of the injected hydrogen in the walls following the discharge. Electron energy confinement followed typical Ohmic confinement scaling during fueling, but did not decrease with density after fueling terminated, ultimately exceeding the scaling by ~ 200% . Lastly, achievement of the low-recycling, hot edge regime has been an important goal of LTX and lithium plasma-facing component research in general, as it has potentially significant implications for the operation, design, and cost of fusion devices.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors for Flat Panel Display Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuelei; Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for both high performance transistors for high speed computing and thin film transistors for macroelectronics, which can provide more functions at low cost. Among macroelectronics applications, carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFT) are expected to be used soon for backplanes in flat panel displays (FPDs) due to their superior performance. In this paper, we review the challenges of CNT-TFT technology for FPD applications. The device performance of state-of-the-art CNT-TFTs are compared with the requirements of TFTs for FPDs. Compatibility of the fabrication processes of CNT-TFTs and current TFT technologies are critically examined. Though CNT-TFT technology is not yet ready for backplane production line of FPDs, the challenges can be overcome by close collaboration between research institutes and FPD manufacturers in the short term.

  18. An efficient direct method for image registration of flat objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Dmitry; Tihonkih, Dmitrii; Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Image alignment of rigid surfaces is a rapidly developing area of research and has many practical applications. Alignment methods can be roughly divided into two types: feature-based methods and direct methods. Known SURF and SIFT algorithms are examples of the feature-based methods. Direct methods refer to those that exploit the pixel intensities without resorting to image features and image-based deformations are general direct method to align images of deformable objects in 3D space. Nevertheless, it is not good for the registration of images of 3D rigid objects since the underlying structure cannot be directly evaluated. In the article, we propose a model that is suitable for image alignment of rigid flat objects under various illumination models. The brightness consistency assumptions used for reconstruction of optimal geometrical transformation. Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for computing of an accordance between pixels of two images.

  19. Development of electromagnetic welding facility of flat plates for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, Subhanarayan; Sarkar, Biswanath; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse welding (EMPW) process, one of high speed welding process uses electromagnetic force from discharged current through working coil, which develops a repulsive force between the induced current flowing parallel and in opposite direction. For achieving the successful weldment using this process the design of working coil is the most important factor due to high magnetic field on surface of work piece. In case of high quality flat plate welding factors such as impact velocity, angle of impact standoff distance, thickness of flyer and overlap length have to be chosen carefully. All the parameters should be optimized because above or below the optimized value, it is impossible to get high quality welding of flat components. Electromagnetic pulse welding of flat components has been studied in detail by many researches due to its advantages of increased formability and reduced spring back than other welding methods. The feasibility of electromagnetic welding of sheets has been established, but the effect of process parameters on the weld quality has not been justified properly. The present study investigates the effect of parameters on welding quality of flat sheets, which has wide applications in nuclear industry, automotive industry, aerospace, electrical industries. However formability and weld ability still remain major issues. The EMPW process for flat sheets and axi-symmetric components has been studied in details by many researchers. Due to ease in controlling the magnetic field enveloped inside tubes, the EMPW has been widely used for tube welding. In case of flat components control of magnetic field is difficult. Hence the application of EMPW gets restricted. The present work attempts to make a novel contribution by investigating the effect of process parameters on welding quality. The work emphasizes the approaches and engineering calculations required to effectively use of actuator in EMPW. (author)

  20. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  1. Majorana flat bands in anisotropic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, Daniel; Kotetes, Panagiotis; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    It has been recently proposed that topologically protected Majorana flat bands (MFBs) emerge in superconductors with nodal energy spectrum. In this work we introduce a new class of gapful superconductors, in which MFBs can occur due to strong anisotropy. The prototype system exhibiting this kind of behavior is the nematic p{sub x}+p{sub y} spinless superconductor, which supports an edge MFB with controllable bandwidth. Our proposal can be for instance experimentally implemented in topological superconductors engineered from i. semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling or ii. topological insulator surfaces with intrinsic magnetic order in proximity to a conventional SC. By investigating the topological properties of both setups, we show that their unique features render them feasible platforms for manipulating the Majorana fermion bandstructure and realizing MFBs.

  2. The bifurcations of nearly flat origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Christian

    Self-folding origami structures provide one means of fabricating complex, three-dimensional structures from a flat, two-dimensional sheet. Self-folding origami structures have been fabricated on scales ranging from macroscopic to microscopic and can have quite complicated structures with hundreds of folds arranged in complex patterns. I will describe our efforts to understand the mechanics and energetics of self-folding origami structures. Though the dimension of the configuration space of an origami structure scales with the size of the boundary and not with the number of vertices in the interior of the structure, a typical origami structure is also floppy in the sense that there are many possible ways to assign fold angles consistently. I will discuss our theoretical progress in understanding the geometry of the configuration space of origami. For random origami, the number of possible bifurcations grows surprisingly quickly even when the dimension of the configuration space is small. EFRI ODISSEI-1240441, DMR-0846582.

  3. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  4. Theory of Fermi Liquid with Flat Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodel, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    A self-consistent theory of Fermi systems hosting flat bands is developed. Compared with an original model of fermion condensation, its key point consists in proper accounting for mixing between condensate and non-condensate degrees of freedom that leads to formation of a non-BCS gap Υ (p) in the single-particle spectrum. The results obtained explain: (1) the two-gap structure of spectra of single-particle excitations of electron systems of copper oxides, revealed in ARPES studies, (2) the role of violation of the topological stability of the Landau state in the arrangement of the T-x phase diagram of this family of high-T_c superconductors, (3) the topological nature of a metal-insulator transition, discovered in homogeneous two-dimensional low-density electron liquid of MOSFETs more than 20 years ago.

  5. NEPA/CERCLA integration at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of two laws, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was mandated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with issuance of DOE Order 5400.4 in October 6, 1989. NEPA documentation is required for all federal actions to thereby consider the impacts of such actions prior to the action taking place. On the other hand, CERCLA actions taken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at non-federal and federal sites do not normally take NEPA into consideration, although it is not exempted at federal sites. EPA claims that CERCLA is functionally equivalent to N-EPA and therefore NEPA is not required. Although EPA maintains the functional equivalency of the two laws and formerly resisted to recognize NEPA even in Inter-Agency Agreements (IAGs), Rocky Flats has been integrating the two laws within documents to avoid duplication of information and effort

  6. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  7. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  8. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  9. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL 2 invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs

  10. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities

  11. 3D flat holography: entropy and logarithmic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil

    2014-01-01

    We compute the leading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Flat Space Cosmological (FSC) solutions in 3D flat spacetimes, which are the flat analogues of the BTZ black holes in AdS 3 . The analysis is done by a computation of density of states in the dual 2D Galilean Conformal Field Theory and the answer obtained by this matches with the limiting value of the expected result for the BTZ inner horizon entropy as well as what is expected for a generic thermodynamic system. Along the way, we also develop other aspects of holography of 3D flat spacetimes

  12. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  13. Flat synchronizations in spherically symmetric space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Schwarzschild space-time admits a spacelike slicing by flat instants and that the metric is regular at the horizon in the associated adapted coordinates (Painleve-Gullstrand metric form). We consider this type of flat slicings in an arbitrary spherically symmetric space-time. The condition ensuring its existence is analyzed, and then, we prove that, for any spherically symmetric flat slicing, the densities of the Weinberg momenta vanish. Finally, we deduce the Schwarzschild solution in the extended Painleve-Gullstrand-LemaItre metric form by considering the coordinate decomposition of the vacuum Einstein equations with respect to a flat spacelike slicing.

  14. The ecology, behaviour and physiology of fishes on coral reef flats, and the potential impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R

    2013-09-01

    Reef flats, typically a low-relief carbonate and sand habitat in shallow water leeward of the reef crest, are one of the most extensive zones on Pacific coral reefs. This shallow zone often supports an abundant and diverse fish assemblage that is exposed to more significant variations in physical factors, such as water depth and movement, temperature and ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels, than most other reef fishes. This review examines the characteristics of reef flat fish assemblages, and then investigates what is known about how they respond to their biophysical environment. Because of the challenges of living in shallow, wave-exposed water, reef flats typically support a distinct fish assemblage compared to other reef habitats. This assemblage clearly changes across tidal cycles as some larger species migrate to deeper water at low tide and other species modify their behaviour, but quantitative data are generally lacking. At least some reef flat fish species are well-adapted to high temperatures, low oxygen concentrations and high levels of UV radiation. These behavioural and physiological adaptations suggest that there may be differences in the demographic processes between reef flat assemblages and those in deeper water. Indeed, there is some evidence that reef flats may act as nurseries for some species, but more research is required. Further studies are also required to predict the effects of climate change, which is likely to have multifaceted impacts on reef flats by increasing temperature, water motion and sediment load. Sea-level rise may also affect reef flat fish assemblages and food webs by increasing the amount of time that larger species are able to forage in this zone. The lack of data on reef flats is surprising given their size and relative ease of access, and a better understanding of their functional role within tropical marine seascapes is urgently required. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Review of flat panel display programs and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnade, Bruce; Schulze, Raymond; Henderson, Girardeau L.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    Flat panel display research has comprised a substantial portion of the national investment in new technology for economic and national security for the past nine years. These investments have ben made principally via several Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the continuing High Definition Systems Program, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Production Act Title III Program. Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These research programs are reviewed and opportunities for applications are described. Future technology development, transfer, and transition requirements are identified. Strategy and vision are documented to assist the identification of areas meriting further consideration.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weigao; Ling, Xi; Xiao, Jiaqi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Xu, Hongxing; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive analytical technique, which enables single-molecule sensitive detection and provides its special chemical fingerprints. During the past decades, researchers have made great efforts towards an ideal SERS substrate, mainly including pioneering works on the preparation of uniform metal nanostructure arrays by various nanoassembly and nanotailoring methods, which give better uniformity and reproducibility. Recently, nanoparticles coated with an inert shell were used to make the enhanced Raman signals cleaner. By depositing SERS-active metal nanoislands on an atomically flat graphene layer, here we designed a new kind of SERS substrate referred to as a graphene-mediated SERS (G-SERS) substrate. In the graphene/metal combined structure, the electromagnetic “hot” spots (which is the origin of a huge SERS enhancement) created by the gapped metal nanoislands through the localized surface plasmon resonance effect are supposed to pass through the monolayer graphene, resulting in an atomically flat hot surface for Raman enhancement. Signals from a G-SERS substrate were also demonstrated to have interesting advantages over normal SERS, in terms of cleaner vibrational information free from various metal-molecule interactions and being more stable against photo-induced damage, but with a comparable enhancement factor. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a freestanding, transparent and flexible “G-SERS tape” (consisting of a polymer-layer-supported monolayer graphene with sandwiched metal nanoislands) to enable direct, real time and reliable detection of trace amounts of analytes in various systems, which imparts high efficiency and universality of analyses with G-SERS substrates. PMID:22623525

  17. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-09-01

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  18. Fuzzy topological digital space and their properties of flat electroencephalography in epilepsy disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzafar Shah, Mazlina; Fatah Wahab, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    There are an abnormal electric activities or irregular interference in brain of epilepsy patient. Then a sensor will be put in patient’s scalp to measure and records all electric activities in brain. The result of the records known as Electroencephalography (EEG). The EEG has been transfer to flat EEG because it’s easier to analyze. In this study, the uncertainty in flat EEG data will be considered as fuzzy digital space. The purpose of this research is to show that the flat EEG is fuzzy topological digital space. Therefore, the main focus for this research is to introduce fuzzy topological digital space concepts with their properties such as neighbourhood, interior and closure by using fuzzy set digital concept and Chang’s fuzzy topology approach. The product fuzzy topology digital also will be shown. By introduce this concept, the data in flat EEG can considering having fuzzy topology digital properties and can identify the area in fuzzy digital space that has been affected by epilepsy seizure in epileptic patient’s brain.

  19. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  20. Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Data file File name: jsnp_flat_files File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Janbaz, S.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape-shifting of flat materials into the desired 3D configuration is an alternative design route for fabrication of complex 3D shapes, which provides many benefits such as access to the flat material surface and the ability to produce well-described motions. The advanced production techniques

  2. Flat oysters in the Eierlandse Gat, Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Kamermans, P.; Zee, van der E.M.

    2018-01-01

    This report presents the results of a short survey of flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Western Wadden Sea. Ten sites were visited and flat oysters were found on nine locations in the Eijerlandse gat. Empty cockleshells and live and dead Pacific oysters provided the main settlement substrate. The

  3. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  4. Detecting areal changes in tidal flats after sea dike construction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of this study was to estimate changes in the area of tidal flats that occurred after sea dike construction on the western coast of South Korea using Landsat-TM images. Applying the ISODATA method of unsupervised classification for Landsat-TM images, the tidal flats were identified, and the resulting areas ...

  5. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat-size mail except saturation and high-density...[supreg] pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that are prepared to be part of full-service IMb... compliance, but at additional cost; and quarter-folding would not work well with any inserts. Also, there was...

  6. Temporal bed level variations in the Yangtze tidal flats (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.; Van Prooijen, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River is one of the largest rivers in the world and the longest one in Asia. Its estuary forms an important entrance for shipping, but is also a key ecological system. Especially the inter-tidal flats are valuable habitats. The health and integrity of the estuarine tidal flat are however

  7. Generation of shape-invariant flat-top laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ait-Ameur, K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A great number of laser applications need in place of the usual Gaussian beam a flat-top intensity profile in the focal plane of a focusing lens. In general the transformation of the laser beam from the Gaussian to the flat-top shape is made by a...

  8. Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT): rapid assessment for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Ciecko; David Kimmett; Jesse Saunders; Rachael Katz; Kathleen L. Wolf; Oliver Bazinet; Jeffrey Richardson; Weston Brinkley; Dale J. Blahna

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT) is a set of procedures and tools used to rapidly determine forest ecological conditions and potential threats. FLAT enables planners and managers to understand baseline conditions, determine and prioritize restoration needs across a landscape system, and conduct ongoing monitoring to achieve land management goals. The rapid...

  9. 75 FR 29582 - Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... from climate change. Fourth, infrastructure associated with access corridors from the proposed exchange... statement (EIS) for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge). We... this notice, we finalize the EIS process for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats NWR. In...

  10. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches

  11. Environmental change on tidal flat induced by anthropogenic effect around west coast of Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Eom, Jinah

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats are valuable ecosystem by a productive flora and fauna which support large populations of birds, form nursery and feeding areas for coastal fisheries, provide intrinsic values such as aesthetics and education (Costanza et al., 1997; Goodwin et al., 2001). The half of the world's coastal wetlands will submerge during this century in response to sea level rise although salt marsh has a capacity to adjust to sea level rise change. However, tidal flats have been changed because of several coastal construction projects that had not been considered sustainable over the last 30 years in Korean Peninsula. The total area of tidal flats decreased from approximately 2,800 km2 in 1990 to 2,393 km2 in 2005 due to the land reclamations and dredging in South Korea. Many researchers investigated topography, sedimentation changes and local hydrodynamics for this area in the early 1990s. However, they are limited to the temporal and spatial scale because field surveys in the tidal flats are restricted due to the difficulties in accessing. The aim of this study was to examine environmental change in tidal flat in a large scale for long-term based on the remotely sensed data as well as in situ measurements. This study focused on the tidal flat that not only had been affected by reclamations on a large scale such as Ganghwa and Saemangeum but also had been indirectly affected by reclamations such as Hwang-do and Gomso-bay. In this study, changes in morphology and sedimentary facies in tidal flats were estimated. Digital elevation models (DEMs) in early 2000 and 2010 were generated based on the Landsat TM/ETM+ images using a waterline method. Morphological change was estimated based on the differences of DEMs and sedimentary facies was investigated based on the calculation of image-derived PCA coefficient. Results of the morphological change in tidal flats interestingly showed that large amount of areas had been deposited whereas the other areas were eroded. Area with

  12. Design of flat pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirekoh, Jackson; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-03-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have gained wide use in the field of robotics due to their ability to generate linear forces and motions with a simple mechanism, while remaining lightweight and compact. However, PAMs are limited by their traditional cylindrical form factors, which must increase radially to improve contraction force generation. Additionally, this form factor results in overly complicated fabrication processes when embedded fibers and sensor elements are required to provide efficient actuation and control of the PAMs while minimizing the bulkiness of the overall robotic system. In order to overcome these limitations, a flat two-dimensional PAM capable of being fabricated using a simple layered manufacturing process was created. Furthermore, a theoretical model was developed using Von Karman’s formulation for large deformations and the energy methods. Experimental characterizations of two different types of PAMs, a single-cell unit and a multi-cell unit, were performed to measure the maximum contraction lengths and forces at input pressures ranging from 0 to 150 kPa. Experimental data were then used to verify the fidelity of the theoretical model.

  13. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  14. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  15. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  16. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy

  17. Electromagnetic NDT to characterize usage properties of flat steel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, I.; Dobmann, G.; Szielasko, K., E-mail: iab.altlau@t-online.de, E-mail: gerd.dobmann@t-online.de, E-mail: klaus.szielasko@izfp.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Inst. - IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP) in Saarbruecken, Germany, started its activities in materials characterization of flat steel products in the eighties of the last century in the basic program of the European Community of Coal and Steel (ECCS). Throughout the years, continuous research and development were performed. The objective of the work, presented within this three-part series of reports, is to discuss the history of an innovation which began in 1988 with R&D in the area of texture characterization in steel sheets produced for car-body manufacturing (Part 1). In the following years the activities were to automate online property determination in terms of yield strength, tensile strength, planar, and vertical-anisotropy-factors. Again, steel sheets were the focus of the developments and the first NDT systems that came into industrial application for this project. Parallel research was performed to characterize the mechanical properties and hardness of heavy steel plates, mainly produced for pipeline manufacturing and off-shore applications (Part 2) The final report in the series (Part 3) will discuss steel sheet characterization and presents the successful development of a combination-transducer which combines ultrasonics with electromagnetic NDT. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic NDT to characterize usage properties of flat steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altpeter, I.; Dobmann, G.; Szielasko, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing (IZFP) in Saarbruecken, Germany, started its activities in materials characterization of flat steel products in the eighties of the last century in the basic program of the European Community of Coal and Steel (ECCS). Throughout the years, continuous research and development were performed. The objective of the work, presented within this three-part series of reports, is to discuss the history of an innovation which began in 1988 with R&D in the area of texture characterization in steel sheets produced for car-body manufacturing (Part 1). In the following years the activities were to automate online property determination in terms of yield strength, tensile strength, planar, and vertical-anisotropy-factors. Again, steel sheets were the focus of the developments and the first NDT systems that came into industrial application for this project. Parallel research was performed to characterize the mechanical properties and hardness of heavy steel plates, mainly produced for pipeline manufacturing and off-shore applications (Part 2) The final report in the series (Part 3) will discuss steel sheet characterization and presents the successful development of a combination-transducer which combines ultrasonics with electromagnetic NDT. (author)

  19. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  20. A quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2015-07-01

    We construct a quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat gravity based on the Koslowski-Sahlmann (KS) representation. The KS representation is a generalization of the representation underlying loop quantum gravity (LQG) which supports, in addition to the usual LQG operators, the action of ‘background exponential operators’, which are connection dependent operators labelled by ‘background’ su(2) electric fields. KS states have, in addition to the LQG state label corresponding to one dimensional excitations of the triad, a label corresponding to a ‘background’ electric field that describes three dimensional excitations of the triad. Asymptotic behaviour in quantum theory is controlled through asymptotic conditions on the background electric fields that label the states and the background electric fields that label the operators. Asymptotic conditions on the triad are imposed as conditions on the background electric field state label while confining the LQG spin net graph labels to compact sets. We show that KS states can be realised as wave functions on a quantum configuration space of generalized connections and that the asymptotic behaviour of each such generalized connection is determined by that of the background electric fields which label the background exponential operators. Similar to the spatially compact case, the Gauss law and diffeomorphism constraints are then imposed through group averaging techniques to obtain a large sector of gauge invariant states. It is shown that this sector supports a unitary action of the group of asymptotic rotations and translations and that, as anticipated by Friedman and Sorkin, for appropriate spatial topology, this sector contains states that display fermionic behaviour under 2π rotations.

  1. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  2. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Usamentiaga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.

  3. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Garcίa, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  4. Observations of ebb flows on tidal flats: Evidence of dewatering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehimer, J. P.; Thomson, J. M.; Chickadel, C.

    2010-12-01

    Incised channels are a common morphological feature of tidal flats. When the flats are inundated, flows are generally forced by the tidally varying sea surface height. During low tide, however, these channels continue to drain throughout flat exposure even without an upstream source of water. While the role of porewater is generally overlooked due to the low permeability of marine muds, it remains the only potential source of flows through the channels during low tide. In situ and remotely sensed observations (Figure 1) at an incised channel on a tidal flat in Willapa Bay from Spring 2010 indicate that dewatering of the flats may be driving these low tide flows. High resolution Aquadopp ADCP velocity profiles are combined with observations from tower-based infrared (IR) video to produce a complete time series of surface velocity measurements throughout low tide. The IR video observations provide a measurement of surface currents even when the channel depth is below the blanking distance of the ADCP (10 cm). As the depth within the channel drops from 50 cm to 10 cm surface velocities increase from 10 cm/s to 60 cm/s even as the tide level drops below the channel flanks and the flats are dry. As the drainage continues, the temperature of the flow rises throughout low tide, mirroring temperatures within the sediment bed on the tidal flat. Drainage salinity falls despite the lack of any freshwater input to the flat indicating that less saline porewater may be the source. The likely source of the drainage water is from the channel flanks where time-lapse video shows slumping and compaction of channel sediments. Velocity profiles, in situ temperatures, and IR observations also are consistent with the presence of fluid muds and a hyperpycnal, density driven outflow at the channel mouth highlighting a possible pathway for sediment delivery from the flats to the main distributary channels of the bay. Figure 1: Time series of tidal flat channel velocities and temperatures

  5. A New Triangular Flat Shell Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A new flat triangular shell element has been developed based on a newly developed triangular plate bending element by the author and a new triangular membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom. The advantage of the drilling degree of freedom is that no special precautions have to be made...... in connecting with assembly of elements. Due to the drilling rotations all nodal degrees of freedom have stiffness, and therefore no artificial suppression of degrees of freedom are needed for flat or almost flat parts of the shell structure....

  6. Flat directions in left-right symmetric string derived models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, Gerald B.; Clements, David J.; Faraggi, Alon E.

    2002-01-01

    The only string models known to reproduce the minimal supersymmetric standard model in the low energy effective field theory are those constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We demonstrate the existence of quasirealistic free fermionic heterotic string models in which supersymmetric singlet flat directions do not exist. This raises the possibility that supersymmetry is broken perturbatively in such models by the one-loop Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We show, however, that supersymmetric flat directions that utilize vacuum expectation values of some non-Abelian fields in the massless string spectrum do exist in the model. We argue that hidden sector condensates lift the flat directions and break supersymmetry hierarchically

  7. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  8. Loop quantum gravity in asymptotically flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsdorf, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes applications and extensions of the loop variable approach to non-perturbative quantum gravity. The common theme of the work presented, is the need to generalise loop quantum gravity to be applicable in cases where space is asymptotically flat, and no longer compact as is usually assumed. This is important for the study of isolated gravitational systems. It also presents a natural context in which to search for the semi-classical limit, one of the main outstanding problems in loop quantum gravity. In the first part of the thesis we study how isolated gravitational systems can be attributed particle-like properties. In particular, we show how spinorial states can arise in pure loop quantum gravity if spatial topology is non-trivial, thus confirming an old conjecture of Friedman and Sorkin. Heuristically, this corresponds to the idea that we can rotate isolated regions of spatial topology relative to the environment at infinity, and that only a 4π-rotation will take us back to the original configuration. To do this we extend the standard loop quantum gravity formalism by introducing a compactification of our non-compact spatial manifold, and study the knotting of embedded graphs. The second part of the thesis takes a more systematic approach to the study of loop quantum gravity on non-compact spaces. We look for new representations of the loop algebra, which give rise to quantum theories that are inequivalent to the standard one. These theories naturally describe excitations of a fiducial background state, which is specified via the choice of its vacuum expectation values. In particular, we can choose background states that describe the geometries of non-compact manifolds. We also discuss how suitable background states can be constructed that can approximate classical phase space data, in our case holonomies along embedded paths and geometrical quantities related to areas and volumes. These states extend the notion of the weave and provide a

  9. Evaluation of sustainable walk-up flats in terms of urban housing renewal in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septanti, D.; Kisnarini, R.; Setyawan, W.; Utami, ASPR

    2018-03-01

    Urban housing renewal aims to get added value while maintaining the sustainability of its environmental function and quality [4]. This research discusses the urban renewal which is done by rebuilding the affected area with walk-up flats. There are four aspects to be considered in achieving sustainability, namely: environmental, social, economic, and cultural [14]. This study is focused on cultural aspect. Sustainable walk-up flats, viewed from the micro context perspective, can later be used as one of the terms of reference in assessing the success of urban renewal projects in Indonesia. Especially in coastal areas, it becomes more challenging because coastal communities have different characteristics and the existing urban renewal flats are not necessarily appropriate for the coastal community. The methods used in this study are explorative, descriptive, ex- post, cross-sectional and synchronic evaluation. This research describes the characteristics of citizens, activities at home and the environment. Thus, the conclusions which are drawn by deductive reasoning are done using frequency, mean, etc. A mixed research method is applied combining with the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collection and interpretation, including determining quantitative indicators and space design attributes, and qualitative user needs. This research is located in Surabaya as a sample of coastal cities with urban and environmental problems. The results of this study are the findings of indicators, directions, and concepts for Sustainable Housing Development in Coastal Areas which further can be made as scientific recommendation (to support the Housing Theory and Urban Renewal) and contribute to practical guidelines for sustainable low-cost walk-up flats in coastal areas.

  10. Driver-Array Based Flat-Panel Loudspeakers: Theoretical Background and Design Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David Allan

    This thesis relates to the simulation and design of flat-panel loudspeakers using moving-coil driver elements. A brief history of the industry is given, including a collection of products and patents from 1925 until the present, an overview of research papers, and a discussion of current products available. The mechanics of bending flat panels are developed with respect to localized driving forces, both in the frequency domain and the time domain as an impulse response. These simulations are compared to measurements on prototype panels. Additional resonant elements influence the behavior of the system: an optional ported rear enclosure and the resonant characteristics of the drivers. The governing equations for these systems are derived and solutions are implemented using equivalent mechanical circuits and numerical methods. The idea of using driver arrays to independently actuate modes of the panel is discussed at length with respect to modal addressability, modal spillover, and experimental validation. The numerical approach to determining the optimal driver placement for a given set of modes is derived and experimentally validated. An investigation of the acoustic behavior of flat panel loudspeakers is presented, using mechanical simulation results to predict the acoustic radiation. The simulations are compared to measurements and found to accurately predict important mechanical and acoustical behaviors. It is demonstrated that a driver array, with the proper biasing, is capable of creating a flat panel loudspeaker which acts more like a piston than a "diffuse radiator" flat panel loudspeaker. The techniques of "Modal Crossover Networks" are introduced, which use multi-band filters to bias the driver array differently for different frequency bands, optimized for audio reproduction. The question of how many drivers are necessary for a modal crossover network is addressed and found to be dependent on the estimated quality factor (Q) of the panel material and edge

  11. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children's Learning and Retention of a Social Robot's Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M; Jeong, Sooyeon; Park, Hae W; Ronfard, Samuel; Adhikari, Aradhana; Harris, Paul L; DeSteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion ( Expressive ). For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range ( Flat ). The robot's movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL), bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4-6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot's story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling. Furthermore, children who

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  13. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes how stakeholder involvement processes led to the successful resolution of a dispute over radionuclide soil action levels at the Rocky Flats Site near Denver, Colorado. During the Cold War Era, Rocky Flats, a plutonium fabrication plant, was part of the American government's multi-site nuclear weapons production facilities. Although the Rocky Flats plant had significant positive effects on the local economy, it became a target of public protest due to concerns over both public safety in the area surrounding the site and global nuclear proliferation. In the late 1980's, local safety concerns led to investigations by state and federal agencies. In 1992, with the Cold War ended, the Department of Energy decided to decommission the Rocky Flats site and to begin the long process of decontamination. (author)

  14. Unitarity in three-dimensional flat space higher spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumiller, D.; Riegler, M.; Rosseel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate generic flat-space higher spin theories in three dimensions and find a no-go result, given certain assumptions that we spell out. Namely, it is only possible to have at most two out of the following three properties: unitarity, flat space, non-trivial higher spin states. Interestingly, unitarity provides an (algebra-dependent) upper bound on the central charge, like c=42 for the Galilean W_4"("2"−"1"−"1") algebra. We extend this no-go result to rule out unitary “multi-graviton” theories in flat space. We also provide an example circumventing the no-go result: Vasiliev-type flat space higher spin theory based on hs(1) can be unitary and simultaneously allow for non-trivial higher-spin states in the dual field theory.

  15. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  16. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  17. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  18. Theoretical study of a flat eddy current probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Dumont-Fillon, J.; Labbe, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the computation of the impedance of an eddy current probe has been determined in the case of flat product testing. Various applications are discussed with particular emphasis on ferromagnetic materials [fr

  19. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  20. Array elements for a DBS flat-plate antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, M. C. D.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of a direct broadcast by satellite (DBS) television service requires suitable receiving antennas to be available. An alternative to the parabolic dish antenna is a flat-plate antenna. The overall design of a circularly-polarized flat-plate antenna which can be mounted flat on the wall of a building has been considered in a companion Report. In this Report various types of elements are investigated and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. The most suitable element for use in a flat-plate array is identified as a linearly-polarized folded-dipole element; its performance is reported here. Linearly-polarized elements are found to perform better than circularly-polarized elements and could be used with a polarization converter to receive the circularly-polarized radiation that would be transmitted by DBS.

  1. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  2. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes

  3. A flat spectral Faraday filter for sodium lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan; Hu, Xiong; Lin, Xin; Gong, Shunsheng

    2011-04-01

    We report a flat spectral Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FS-FADOF) for sodium lidar. The physical and technical considerations for obtaining a FS-FADOF with a 3.5 GHz flat spectral transmission function are presented. It was found that the effective transmission of this filter was much higher (>94%) and more uniform than that of the ultranarrowband FADOF, and therefore were less sensitive to laser-frequency drift. Thus, the FS-FADOF can improve lidar efficiency and precision.

  4. Flat beams in a 50 TeV hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Harrison, M.; Pilat, F.; Syphers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The basic beam dynamics of a next generation 50 x 50 TeV hadron collider based on a high field magnet approach have been outlined over the past several years. Radiation damping not only produces small emittances, but also flat beams, just as in electron machines. Based on open-quotes Snowmass 96close quotes parameters, we investigate the issues associated with flat beams in very high energy hadron colliders

  5. Simulation of DIII-D Flat q Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Garofalo, A.; Terpstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak plasma configuration has significant potential for the economical production of fusion power. Research on various tokamak experiments are pursuing these plasmas to establish high β, high bootstrap current fraction, 100% noninductive current, and good energy confinement, in a quasi-stationary state. One candidate is the flat q discharge produced in DIII-D, where the safety factor varies from 2.0 on axis, to slightly below 2.0 at the minimum, and then rises to about 3.5 at the 95% surface. This plasma is prototypical of those studied for power plants in the ARIES tokamak studies. The plasma is produced by ramping up the plasma current and ramping down the toroidal field throughout the discharge. The plasma current reaches 1.65 MA, and the toroidal field goes from 2.25 to 1.6 T. The q min remains high and at large radius, ρ ∼ 0.6. The plasma establishes an internal transport barrier in the ion channel, and transitions to H-mode. The free-boundary Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) is being used to model the discharge and project the impact of changes in the plasma current, toroidal field, and injected power programming

  6. Approximate stresses in 2-D flat elastic contact fretting problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael Rene

    Fatigue results from the cyclic loading of a solid body. If the body subject to fatigue is in contact with another body and relative sliding motion occurs between these two bodies, then rubbing surface damage can accelerate fatigue failure. The acceleration of fatigue failure is especially important if the relative motion between the two bodies results in surface damage without excessive surface removal via wear. The situation just described is referred to as fretting fatigue. Understanding of fretting fatigue is greatly enhanced if the stress state associated with fretting can be characterized. For Hertzian contact, this can readily be done. Unfortunately, simple stress formulae are not available for flat body contact. The primary result of the present research is the development of a new, reasonably accurate, approximate closed form expression for 2-dimensional contact stresses which has been verified using finite element modeling. This expression is also combined with fracture mechanics to provide a simple method of determining when a crack is long enough to no longer be affected by the contact stress field. Lower bounds on fatigue life can then easily be calculated using fracture mechanics. This closed form expression can also be used to calculate crack propagation within the contact stress field. The problem of determining the cycles required to generate an initial crack and what to choose as an initial crack size is unresolved as it is in non-fretting fatigue.

  7. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  8. Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gaoming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.

  9. Characteristics and applications of a flat panel computer tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knollmann, F.; Valencia, R.; Obenauer, S.; Buhk, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to assess a new flat panel volume computed tomography (FP-VCT) with very high isotropic spatial resolution as well as high Z-axis coverage. Materials and Methods: The prototype of an FP-VCT scanner with a detector cell size of 0.2 mm was used for numerous phantom studies, specimen examinations, and animal research projects. Results: The high spatial resolution of the new system can be used to accurately determine solid tumor volume, thus allowing for earlier assessment of the therapeutic response. In animal experimentation, whole-body perfusion mapping of mice is feasible. The high spatial resolution also improves the classification of coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques in the isolated post mortem human heart. With the depiction of intramyocardial segments of the coronary arteries, investigations of myocardial collateral circulation are feasible. In skeletal applications, an accurate analysis of the smallest bony structures, e.g., petrous bone and dental preparations, can be successfully performed, as well as investigations of repetitive studies of fracture healing and the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion: The introduction of FP-VCT opens up new applications for CT, including the field of molecular imaging, which are highly attractive for future clinical applications. Present limitations include limited temporal resolution and necessitate further improvement of the system. (orig.)

  10. Numerical Investigation of an Oscillating Flat Plate Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Fazlolah; Janechek, Matthew; Buchholz, James; Udaykumar, Hs

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the vortex dynamics of a plunging flat plate airfoil by analyzing the vorticity transport in 2D simulations. A horizontal airfoil is subject to a freestream flow at Re =10000. A prescribed vertical sinusoidal motion is applied to the airfoil. Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) models the fluid-structure interaction. SPM as a diffuse interface model considers a thickness for the interface and applies a smooth transition from solid to fluid. As the forces on the airfoil are highly affected by the interaction of the generated vortices from the surface, it is very important to find out whether a diffuse interface solver can model a flow dominated by vorticities. The results show that variation of lift coefficient with time agrees well with the experiment. Study of vortex evolution shows that similar to experiments, when the plate starts moving downward from top, the boundary layer is attached to the surface and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) is very small. By time, LEV grows and rolls up and a secondary vortex emerges. Meanwhile, the boundary layer starts to separate and finally LEV detaches from the surface. In overall, SPM as a diffuse interface model can predict the lift force and vortex pattern accurately.

  11. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  12. Flat Top Barge 300 feet Using Portable Dynamic Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoes Santoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Portable Dynamic Positioning System has not commonly applied to the ship, especially on barge. Besides for Dynamic Positioning function, the system can be used as ship's main propulsion. By using this system, the ship able to not using anchors because the functions can be performed by the Portable Dynamic System. Therefore, research about the application of Portable Dynamic Positioning System on the ship is conducted. This research aims to design a Flat Top Barge 300feet ship, to determine the specifications of Portable Dynamic Positioning System which is used, and to find out the ship stability which is designed on the empty payload condition and maximum payload. This research designed the ships with main dimensions LWL 90.1 meters, 25 meters wide, 5.5 meters high and 4.2 meters draught. To generate the ship with a maximum speed of 8 knots, it takes four thruster supplied with power 225 kW each, so that the total generated power is 1100 kW. This study analyzes three conditions of the ship stability, there are the condition of full payload, empty payload, and maximum payload. Each payload conditions will be analyzed regarding the large payload and draught water produced. The first is full payload conditions resulting payload in the amount of 5650 ton with a draught on the LCF at 4,181 meters. The second is the large empty payload condition displacement is 2809 ton and water draught on the LCF at 1,591. And the last is maximum payload conditions, resulting payload in the amount of 7450 ton with a draught on the LCF at 4,994 meters.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core HCLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Murao, Yoshio

    1989-02-01

    A thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR) is described. The concept of flat core proposed by Ishiguro et al. is to achieve negative void reactivity coefficient in tight lattice core, and at the same time, high conversion ratio and high burnup can be obtainable. The proposed double flat core HCLWR, based on these physical advantages and the consideration of safety assurance, aims at efficient use of the pressure vessel space to produce comparable thermal output as current 3-loop PWRs. The present work revealed the following items concerning the thermalhydraulic feasibility of the double flat core HCLWR: (1) Main thermal-hydraulic parameters of the plant can be almost the same as current PWRs, showing the use of PWR standard components without major modifications except in core region. (2) Heat removal from the fuel rod in a steady operational condition has enough margin to the critical heat flux (CHF) limit, which is evaluated with the existing CHF correlations. (3) The calculation by REFLA code shows that the maximum cladding temperature in LOCA-reflood is estimated to be far lower than the licensing criteria. It is therefore considered that the proposed double flat core HCLWR is feasible from the point of thermal-hydraulics. Since the available data base has certain applicational limit to the very short core as the present double flat core HCLWR, further detailed assessment is required. (author)

  14. Flat-panel detectors in x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, M.; Heer, V.; Freytag, R.

    2003-01-01

    For all application segments X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors increasingly enter the market. In digital radiography, mammography and cardiologic angiography flat-panel detectors are already well established while they are made ready for market introduction in general angiography and fluoroscopy. Two flat-panel detector technologies are available. One technology is based on an indirect conversion process of X-rays while the other one uses a direct conversion method.For radiography and dynamic applications the indirect method provides substantial advantages, while the direct method has some benefits for mammography. In radiography and mammography flat-panel detectors lead to clear improvements with respect to workflow, image quality and dose reduction potentials. These improvements are fostered by the immediate availability of the image, the large dynamic range and the high sensitivity to X-rays. New applications and the use of complex image processing algorithms have the potential to enlarge the present diagnostic range of applications.Up to now, image intensifiers are still the well-established technology for angiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless flat-panel detectors begin to enter this field, especially in cardiologic angiography.Characteristics of flat-panel detectors such as the availability of distortion-free images, the excellent contrast resolution, the large dynamic range, the high sensitivity to X-rays and the usability in magnetic fields provide the basis for improved and new diagnostic and interventional methods. (orig.) [de

  15. New edge-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new class of edge-centered photonic square lattices with multiple flat bands, and consider in detail two examples: the Lieb-5 and Lieb-7 lattices. In these lattices, there are 5 and 7 sites in the unit cell and in general, the number is restricted to odd integers. The number of flat bands m in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites N in the unit cell by a simple formula m =(N - 1) / 2. The flat bands reported here are independent of the pseudomagnetic field. The properties of lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We consider the localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong mode localization. In the Lieb-7 lattice, the beam will also oscillate during propagation and still not diffract. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for investigating light trapping, photonic topological insulators, and pseudospin-mediated vortex generation.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  18. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; D'Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  19. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); D' Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: {yields} Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. {yields} Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. {yields} Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.{yields} Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. {yields} Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  20. FROM ANDONI FLATS, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nigeria. 2African Regional Aquaculture Centre/Nigeria Institute for. Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M. B. 5122, Port .... dimension due to the increasing emphasis on aquaculture and greater awareness of the pollution of natural ..... Principles and procedure (3rd edn.) Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia. Chaudhuri, S. H. ...

  1. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  2. Flexible flat feet in children: a real problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, A; Martín-Jiménez, F; Carnero-Varo, M; Gómez-Gracia, E; Gómez-Aracena, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J

    1999-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of flexible flat feet in the provincial population of 4- to 13-year-old schoolchildren and the incidence of treatments considered unnecessary. Province of Málaga, Spain. We examined and graded by severity a sample of 1181 pupils taken from a total population of 198 858 primary schoolchildren (CI: 95%; margin of error: 5%). The sample group was separated into three 2-year age groups: 4 and 5 years, 8 and 9 years, and 12 and 13 years. The plantar footprint was classified according to Denis1 into three grades of flat feet: grade 1 in which support of the lateral edge of the foot is half that of the metatarsal support; grade 2 in which the support of the central zone and forefoot are equal; and grade 3 in which the support in the central zone of the foot is greater than the width of the metatarsal support. The statistical analysis for the evaluation of the differences between the groups was performed with Student's t and chi2 tests as appropriate. The prevalence of flat feet was 2.7%. Of the 1181 children sampled, 168 children (14.2%) were receiving orthopedic treatment, but only 2.7% had diagnostic criteria of flat feet. When we inspected the sample, we found that a number of children were being treated for flat feet with boots and arch supports. Most of them did not have a flat plantar footprint according to the criteria that we used for this work. Furthermore, in the group of children that we diagnosed as having flat feet, only 28.1% were being treated. We found no significant differences between the number of children receiving orthopedic treatments and the presence or absence of a flat plantar footprint. Children who were overweight in the 4- and 5-year-old group showed an increased prevalence for flat feet as diagnosed by us. The data suggest that an excessive number of orthopedic treatments had been prescribed in the province. When extrapolated to the 1997 population of schoolchildren within the age groups studied the figures

  3. Relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León Samper, M C; Herrera Ortiz, G; Castellanos Mendoza, C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs. 12% in the healthy group. The statistical analysis shows that the chances of suffering from flexible flat foot, are five times greater in the hip dysplasia or hip dislocation group, than in the healthy group. There is no evidence in the literature showing a relationship between these two conditions, even though they have a common etiology. This study shows a potential measurable relation between this two conditions. Patients with hip dysplasia or dislocation may have a higher chance of presenting flexible flat foot during late childhood, adolescence and adulthood, a fact that suggests a relationship between these two pathologies. Also, patients who seek assistance for the first time because of a flexible flat foot condition without having been evaluated during the first year of life for hip dysplasia, would be better off if evaluated for residual hip dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. ACS/WFC Sky Flats from Frontier Fields Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J.; Lucas, R. A.; Grogin, N. A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Parallel imaging data from the HST Frontier Fields campaign (Lotz et al. 2017) have been used to compute sky flats for the ACS/WFC detector in order to verify the accuracy of the current set of flat field reference files. By masking sources and then co-adding many deep frames, the F606W and F814W filters have enough combined background signal that from Poisson statistics are efficiency tracks the thickness of the two WFC chips. Observations of blue and red calibration standards measured at various positions on the detector (Bohlin et al. 2017) confirm the fidelity of the F814W flat, with aperture photometry consistent to 1% across the FOV, regardless of spectral type. At bluer wavelengths, the total sky background is substantially lower, and the F435W sky flat shows a combination of both flat errors and detector artifacts. Aperture photometry of the red standard star shows a maximum deviation of 1.4% across the array in this filter. Larger residuals up to 2.5% are found for the blue standard, suggesting that the spatial sensitivity in F435W depends on spectral type.

  5. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  9. DIFFICULTIES IN WORK SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN A COMPANY PRODUCING STEEL FLAT BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niciejewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to research, metal processing industry has the highest risk of accidents at work, due to the necessity for personal protective equipment use and strict execution of safety rules and procedures. The paper presents the individual characteristics of health and safety management in the company producing steel flat bars. Special attention has been paid to the safety aspect of the use of automated logistical equipment (gantries, automatics that increase the risk of work-related accidents. The results of research on the difficulties resulting from the specifics of production (metallurgical industry has been presented.

  10. Evaluation of the deformation value of an optical flat under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yohan; Bitou, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    The flatness of an optical surface can be evaluated using a Fizeau interferometer. There is strong demand for ensuring that the measurement uncertainty of flatness is of nanometer order over a measurement range of 300 mm or more; however, the measurement range and measurement uncertainty of flatness at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) are 300 mm and 10 nm, respectively. In a Fizeau flatness interferometer, the gap distance between the reference flat and the specimen is measured. To obtain the absolute profile of the specimen, the absolute profile of the reference flat should be measured in advance. The three-flat test is one of the methods used to measure the absolute profile of a reference flat. The reference flat, however, deforms under the force of gravity, and its absolute deformation value cannot be determined by the three-flat test. The deformation value of the reference flat can be corrected by the finite element method (FEM) analysis; however, it is difficult to ensure the validity of the analysis and there is a large uncertainty component of the Fizeau flatness interferometer. To verify the FEM analysis, we developed a scanning deflectometric profiler (SDP) that does not require a reference flat and can directly measure a profile. We calibrated an optical flat using a Fizeau flatness interferometer and the SDP. Finally, the deformation value of the reference flat under the force of gravity was evaluated by comparing the measurement results. (paper)

  11. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  12. Boundary layer on a flat plate with suction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Dumas, R.; Verollet, E.

    1961-01-01

    This research done in wind tunnel concerns the turbulent boundary layer of a porous flat plate with suction. The porous wall is 1 m long and begins 1 m downstream of the leading edge. The Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness is of the order of 16.300. The suction rate defined as the ratio of the velocity perpendicular to the wall to the external flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2 per cent. The pressure gradient can be controlled. The mean velocity profiles have been determined for various positions and suction rates by means of total pressure probes together with the intensities of the turbulent velocity fluctuations components, energy spectra and correlations by means of hot wire anemometers, spectral analyser and correlator. The stream lines, the values of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses, of the local wall friction, of the turbulent energy production term, with some information on the dissipation of the energy have been derived from these measurements. For these data the integral of equation of continuity in boundary layer have been drawn. The suction effects on the boundary layer are important. The suction thoroughly alters the mean velocity profiles by increasing the viscous shear stresses near the wall and decreasing them far from the wall, it diminishes the longitudinal and transversal turbulence intensities, the turbulent shear stresses, and the production of energy of turbulence. These effects are much stressed in the inner part of the boundary layer. On the other hand the energy spectra show that the turbulence scale is little modified, the boundary layer thickness being not much diminished by the suction. The suction effects can be appreciated by comparing twice the suction rate to the wall friction coefficient (assumed airtight), quite noticeable as soon as the rate is about unity, they become very important when it reaches ten. (author) [fr

  13. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  14. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  15. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, H.C.

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted

  16. Higher-spin flat space cosmologies with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC,Santo André, S.P. (Brazil); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Riegler, Max [Université libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, Campus de la Plaine,1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Wutte, Raphaela [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-08

    We present and discuss near horizon boundary conditions for flat space higher-spin gravity in three dimensions. As in related work our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the solutions independently of the charges. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is given by a set of û(1) current algebras. The associated charges generate higher-spin soft hair. We derive the entropy for solutions that are continuously connected to flat space cosmologies and find the same result as in the spin-2 case: the entropy is linear in the spin-2 zero-mode charges and independent from the spin-3 charges. Using twisted Sugawara-like constructions of higher-spin currents we show that our simple result for entropy of higher-spin flat space cosmologies coincides precisely with the complicated earlier results expressed in terms of higher-spin zero mode charges.

  17. Disruption effects from the collision of quasi-flat beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1993-04-01

    The disruption effects from the collision of round beams and flat beams in linear colliders have been studied in the past, and has by now been well understood. In practice, however, in the current SLC running condition and in several designs of the next generation linear colliders, the quasi-flat beam geometries are expected. Namely, the beam aspect ratio R ≡ σ x /σ y > 1, but not infinitely large. In this regime the disruption effects in both x and y dimensions should be carefully included in order to properly describe the beam-beam interaction phenomena. In this paper we investigate two major disruption effects for the quasi-flat beam regime: The luminosity enhancement factor and the effective beamstrahlung. Computer simulations are employed and simple scaling laws are deduced

  18. Projective flatness in the quantisation of bosons and fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siye

    2015-07-01

    We compare the quantisation of linear systems of bosons and fermions. We recall the appearance of projectively flat connection and results on parallel transport in the quantisation of bosons. We then discuss pre-quantisation and quantisation of fermions using the calculus of fermionic variables. We define a natural connection on the bundle of Hilbert spaces and show that it is projectively flat. This identifies, up to a phase, equivalent spinor representations constructed by various polarisations. We introduce the concept of metaplectic correction for fermions and show that the bundle of corrected Hilbert spaces is naturally flat. We then show that the parallel transport in the bundle of Hilbert spaces along a geodesic is a rescaled projection provided that the geodesic lies within the complement of a cut locus. Finally, we study the bundle of Hilbert spaces when there is a symmetry.

  19. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  20. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  1. Weyl-Euler-Lagrange Equations of Motion on Flat Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kasap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations of motion on flat manifold. It is well known that a Riemannian manifold is said to be flat if its curvature is everywhere zero. Furthermore, a flat manifold is one Euclidean space in terms of distances. Weyl introduced a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory in 1918. Classical mechanics is one of the major subfields of mechanics. Also, one way of solving problems in classical mechanics occurs with the help of the Euler-Lagrange equations. In this study, partial differential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the symbolic Algebra software. Additionally, the improvements, obtained in this study, will be presented.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  7. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  9. Characterization of sediment trapped by macroalgae on a Hawaiian reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamski, Rebecca E.; Field, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Reef researchers studying community shifts in the balance between corals and fleshy macroalgae have noted that algae are often covered with sediment. This study characterizes sediment trapping by macroalgae within a Hawaiian reef habitat and constrains the controls on this process. Sediment-laden macroalgae were sampled and macroalgal cover was assessed on a wide (˜1 km) reef flat off south-central Molokai. Macroalgae trapped a mean of 1.26 (±0.91 SD) grams of sediment per gram of dry weight biomass and that sediment was dominantly terrigenous mud (59% by weight). It was determined that biomass, as a proxy for algal size, and morphology were not strict controls on the sediment trapping process. Over 300 metric tons of sediment were estimated to be retained by macroalgae across 5.75 km 2 of reef flat (54 g m -2), suggesting that this process is an important component of sediment budgets. In addition, understanding the character of sediment trapped by macroalgae may help constrain suspended sediment flux and has implications for nutrient dynamics in reef flat environments.

  10. Evaluation of a tracking flat-plate solar collector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Cristiana B.; Ferreira, André G.; Hanriot, Sérgio M.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing research for an alternative power source due to the perceived scarcity of fuel fossils has, in recent years, given solar energy a remarkable edge. Nevertheless, the Earth's daily and seasonal movement affects the intensity of the incident solar radiation. Devices can track the sun in order to ensure optimum positions with regard to incident solar radiation, maximizing the absorbed solar energy, and the useful energy gain. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to estimate the solar radiation absorbed, the useful energy gain, and the efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector in Brazil. The results for a sun tracking flat-plate solar collector were compared to fixed devices. The full tracking system with rotation about two axes presented higher absorbed energy, when compared to the rotation about a single axe and to a fixed collector. Also, it was shown that the tilt angle for a fixed solar collector does not cause significant variations in the useful energy gain or in the absorbed solar radiation, for the same azimuth angle. - Highlights: • A model was developed for solar radiation based on experimental data for K T . • Useful energy gain and efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector were evaluated for a one-year period. • Several sun tracking systems were compared to fixed devices. • Tilt angle for a fixed device does not significantly affect the useful energy gain

  11. Hot air impingement on a flat plate using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengsa-ard, C.; Kaewbumrung, M.

    2018-01-01

    Impinging hot gas jets to a flat plate generate very high heat transfer coefficients in the impingement zone. The magnitude of heat transfer prediction near the stagnation point is important and accurate heat flux distribution are needed. This research studies on heat transfer and flow field resulting from a single hot air impinging wall. The simulation is carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial code FLUENT. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach with a subgrid-scale Smagorinsky-Lilly model is present. The classical Werner-Wengle wall model is used to compute the predicted results of velocity and temperature near walls. The Smagorinsky constant in the turbulence model is set to 0.1 and is kept constant throughout the investigation. The hot gas jet impingement on the flat plate with a constant surface temperature is chosen to validate the predicted heat flux results with experimental data. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 20,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. Nusselt number on the impingement surface is calculated. As predicted by the wall model, the instantaneous computed Nusselt number agree fairly well with experimental data. The largest values of calculated Nusselt number are near the stagnation point and decrease monotonically in the wall jet region. Also, the contour plots of instantaneous values of wall heat flux on a flat plate are captured by LES simulation.

  12. Review of Punching Shear Behaviour of Flat Slabs Reinforced with FRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania

    2017-10-01

    Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars to reinforce two-way concrete slabs can extend the service life, reduce maintenance cost and improve-life cycle cost efficiency. FRP reinforcing bars are more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional reinforcing steel. Shear behaviour of reinforced concrete structural members is a complex phenomenon that relies on the development of internal load-carrying mechanisms, the magnitude and combination of which is still a subject of research. Many building codes and design standards provide design formulas for estimation of punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced flat slabs. Building code formulas take into account the effects of the axial stiffness of main reinforcement bars, the ratio of the perimeter of the critical section to the slab effective depth, and the slab thickness on the punching shear capacity of two-way slabs reinforced with FRP bars or grids. The goal of this paper is to compare experimental data published in the literature to the equations offered by building codes for the estimation of punching shear capacity of concrete flat slabs reinforced with FRP bars. Emphasis in this paper is on two North American codes, namely, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12. The experimental data covered in this paper include flat slabs reinforced with GFRP, BFRP, and CFRP bars. Both ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are shown to be in good agreement with test results in terms of predicting the punching shear capacity.

  13. Benthic microalgae community response to flooding in a tropical salt flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. M. Masuda

    Full Text Available Abstract This research evaluated the effect of flooding on the microphytobenthos community structure in a microbial mat from a tropical salt flat. Field samples were collected during four consecutive days: on the first three days the salt flat was dry, on the fourth day it was flooded by rain. In order to evaluate the community maintained in flood conditions, samples from this area were collected and kept in the laboratory for 10 days with sea water. The results of total abundance of microphytobenthos varied from 4.2 × 108 to 2.9 × 109 organisms L–1, total density increased one order of magnitude under the effect of water for both situations of precipitation in the salt flat and in experimental conditions, an increase due to the high abundance of Microcoleus spp. Shannon index (H’ was higher during the desiccation period. Our data suggest that changes in the abundance of organisms were due to the effect of water. The dominance of the most abundant taxa remained the same under conditions of desiccation and influence of water, and there is probably a consortium of microorganisms in the microbial mat that helps to maintain these dominances.

  14. On beam quality and flatness of radiotherapy megavoltage photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Murshed; Rhoades, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Ratio of percentage depth dose (PDD) at two depths, PDD at a depth of 10 cm (PDD 10 ), and beam flatness are monitored regularly for radiotherapy beams for quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of changes in one of these parameters on the other. Is it possible to monitor only the beam flatness and not PDD? The investigation has two components. Naturally occurring i.e., unintended changes in PDD ratio and in-plane flatness for 6 and 10 MV photon beams for one particular Siemens Artiste Linac are monitored for a period of about 4 years. Secondly, deliberate changes in the beam parameters are induced by changing the bending magnet current (BMI). Relationships between various beam parameters for unintended changes as well as deliberate changes are characterized. Long term unintentional changes of PDD ratio are found to have no systematic trend. The flatness in the in plane direction for 6 and 10 MV beams show slow increase of 0.43 and 0.75 % respectively in about 4 years while the changes in the PDD ratio show no such trend. Over 10 % changes in BMI are required to induce changes in the beam quality indices at 2 % level. PDD ratio for the 10 MV beam is found to be less sensitive, while the depth of maximum dose, d max , is more sensitive to the changes in BMI compared to the 6 MV beam. Tolerances are more stringent for PDD 10 than PDD ratio for the 10 MV beam. PDD ratio, PDD 10 , and flatness must be monitored independently. Furthermore, off axis ratio alone cannot be used to monitor flatness. The effect of beam quality change in the absolute dose is clinically insignificant.

  15. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  16. Flat-panel electronic displays: a triumph of physics, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsum, Cyril

    2010-03-13

    This paper describes the history and science behind the development of modern flat-panel displays, and assesses future trends. Electronic displays are an important feature of modern life. For many years the cathode ray tube, an engineering marvel, was universal, but its shape was cumbersome and its operating voltage too high. The need for a flat-panel display, working at a low voltage, became imperative, and much research has been applied to this need. Any versatile flat-panel display will exploit an electro-optical effect, a transparent conductor and an addressing system to deliver data locally. The first need is to convert an electrical signal into a visible change. Two methods are available, the first giving emission of light, the second modulating ambient illumination. The most useful light-emitting media are semiconductors, historically exploiting III-V or II-VI compounds, but more recently organic or polymer semiconductors. Another possible effect uses gas plasma discharges. The modulating, or subtractive, effects that have been studied include liquid crystals, electrophoresis, electrowetting and electrochromism. A transparent conductor makes it possible to apply a voltage to an extended area while observing the results. The design is a compromise, since the free electrons that carry current also absorb light. The first materials used were metals, but some semiconductors, when heavily doped, give a better balance, with high transmission for a low resistance. Delivering data unambiguously to a million or so picture elements across the display area is no easy task. The preferred solution is an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor deposited at each cross-point in an X-Y matrix. Success in these endeavours has led to many applications for flat-panel displays, including television, flexible displays, electronic paper, electronic books and advertising signs.

  17. Blackbody radiation from light cone in flat space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1983-01-01

    Blackbody radiation in flat space-time is not necessarily associated with the flat event horizon of a single accelerated observer. The author considers a spherical bubble which expands in a uniformly accelerating fashion. Its history traces out a time-like hyperboloid. Suppose the bubble membrane has a spatially isotropic and homogeneous (surface) stress energy tensor i.e. the membrane is made out of the stiffest possible material permitted by causality considerations. It follows that this bubble membrane is in equilibrium even though it is expanding. Such an expanding bubble membrane may serve as a detector of electromagnetic radiation if the membrane can interact with the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  18. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  19. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis

  20. Flat rotation curves using scalar-tensor theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); Nunez, Dario [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We computed flat rotation curves from scalar-tensor theories in their weak field limit. Our model, by construction, fits a flat rotation profile for velocities of stars. As a result, the form of the scalar field potential and DM distribution in a galaxy are determined. By taking into account the constraints for the fundamental parameters of the theory ({lambda}, {alpha}), it is possible to obtain analytical results for the density profiles. For positive and negative values of {alpha}, the DM matter profile is as cuspy as NFW's.

  1. A flat triangular shell element with Loof nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    In the formulation of flat shell elements it is difficult to achieve inter-element compatibility between membrane and transverse displacements for non-coplanar elements. Many elements lack proper nodal degrees of freedom to model intersections making the assembly of elements troublesome. A flat...... triangular shell element is established by a combination of a new plate bending element DKTL and the well-known linear membrane strain element LST, and for this element the above-mentioned deficiences are avoided. The plate bending element DKTL is based on Discrete Kirchhoff Theory and Loof nodes. The nodal...

  2. Interacting agegraphic dark energy models in non-flat universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    A so-called 'agegraphic dark energy' was recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. In this Letter, we generalize the agegraphic dark energy models to the universe with spatial curvature in the presence of interaction between dark matter and dark energy. We show that these models can accommodate w D =-1 crossing for the equation of state of dark energy. In the limiting case of a flat universe, i.e. k=0, all previous results of agegraphic dark energy in flat universe are restored.

  3. Color quality management in advanced flat panel display engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowsky, Fritz; Neugebauer, Charles F.; Marnatti, David M.

    2003-01-01

    During recent years color reproduction systems for consumer needs have experienced various difficulties. In particular, flat panels and printers could not reach a satisfactory color match. The RGB image stored on an Internet server of a retailer did not show the desired colors on a consumer display device or printer device. STMicroelectronics addresses this important color reproduction issue inside their advanced display engines using novel algorithms targeted for low cost consumer flat panels. Using a new and genuine RGB color space transformation, which combines a gamma correction Look-Up-Table, tetrahedrization, and linear interpolation, we satisfy market demands.

  4. Study of conformally flat polytropes with tilted congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia

    This paper is aimed to study the modeling of spherically symmetric spacetime in the presence of anisotropic dissipative fluid configuration. This is accomplished for an observer moving relative to matter content using two cases of polytropic equation-of-state under conformally flat condition. We formulate the corresponding generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, mass equation, as well as energy conditions for both cases. The conformally flat condition is imposed to find an expression for anisotropy which helps to study spherically symmetric polytropes. Finally, Tolman mass is used to analyze stability of the resulting models.

  5. Two theorems on flat space-time gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.; Chimento, L.

    1980-01-01

    The first theorem states that all flat space-time gravitational theories must have a Lagrangian with a first term that is an homogeneous (degree-1) function of the 4-velocity usup(i), plus a functional of nsub(ij)usup(i)usup(j). The second theorem states that all gravitational theories that satisfy the strong equivalence principle have a Lagrangian with a first term gsub(ij)(x)usup(i)usup(j) plus an irrelevant term. In both cases the theories must issue from a unique variational principle. Therefore, under this condition it is impossible to find a flat space-time theory that satisfies the strong equivalence principle. (author)

  6. Prescribed curvature tensor in locally conformally flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Romildo; Pieterzack, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    A global existence theorem for the prescribed curvature tensor problem in locally conformally flat manifolds is proved for a special class of tensors R. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a metric g ¯ , conformal to Euclidean g, are determined such that R ¯ = R, where R ¯ is the Riemannian curvature tensor of the metric g ¯ . The solution to this problem is given explicitly for special cases of the tensor R, including the case where the metric g ¯ is complete on Rn. Similar problems are considered for locally conformally flat manifolds.

  7. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, Olivera, E-mail: olivera.miskovic@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Olea, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.olea@unab.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Sazié 2212, Piso 7, Santiago (Chile); Roy, Debraj, E-mail: roy.debraj@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-04-10

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  8. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo; Roy, Debraj

    2017-01-01

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  9. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-15

    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  10. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  11. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  12. Stationary closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Nishiwaki, Keisuke

    2012-11-01

    We investigate stationary rotating closed Nambu-Goto strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. The stationary string is defined as a world sheet that is tangent to a timelike Killing vector. The Nambu-Goto equation of motion for the stationary string is reduced to the geodesic equation on the orbit space of the isometry group action generated by the Killing vector. We take a linear combination of a time-translation vector and space-rotation vectors as the Killing vector, and explicitly construct general solutions of stationary rotating closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. We show a variety of their configurations and properties.

  13. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  8. Efforts of the occupant to change physical quality of residential unit through the change of building material at low cost flats in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdiani, N.

    2018-03-01

    Low cost flats in Jakarta – Indonesia is provided by the government for low-income people in urban areas, in line with the program to redevelop or renew slum areas. Low cost flat is built with the minimum standard of building materials. The purpose of this study is to know efforts of the occupants to change of building materials at residential unit of low cost flats. The research was conducted by descriptive method at four of low cost housing in Jakarta: Rusuna Bendungan Hilir 1, Rusuna Tambora IIIA, Rusuna Bidara Cina, and Rusuna Sukapura. The results showed that physical changes which happened in low cost flats are aesthetic (residence paint color change), or improvement of physical quality of residential unit (change of building material), become dominant aspects done by residents in four rusuna.

  9. EMG analysis and modelling of flat bench press using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can ...

  10. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  11. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in multiconnected flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuelo, Alain; Weeks, Jeffrey; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Lehoucq, Roland; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the signature of the seventeen multiconnected flat spaces in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. For each such space it recalls a fundamental domain and a set of generating matrices, and then goes on to find an orthonormal basis for the set of eigenmodes of the Laplace operator on that space. The basis eigenmodes are expressed as linear combinations of eigenmodes of the simply connected Euclidean space. A preceding work, which provides a general method for implementing multiconnected topologies in standard CMB codes, is then applied to simulate CMB maps and angular power spectra for each space. Unlike in the 3-torus, the results in most multiconnected flat spaces depend on the location of the observer. This effect is discussed in detail. In particular, it is shown that the correlated circles on a CMB map are generically not back to back, so that negative search of back-to-back circles in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data does not exclude a vast majority of flat or nearly flat topologies

  12. UPPER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF FLAT SERVE IN TENNIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 .... For field calibration, a Direct Linear Transformation technique, developed by ...

  13. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.

    1998-01-01

    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  14. 19 CFR 148.102 - Flat rate of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.102 Flat... fair retail value in the country of acquisition. (b) American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands..., effective January 1, 2001, and 1.5 percent, effective January 1, 2002, of the fair retail value in the...

  15. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  16. Inevitable ambiguity in perturbation around flat space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, S.; Kaminaga, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Perturbation of general-relativistic predictions around flat geometry, in general, introduces inevitable ambiguity. The ambiguity reflects the geometrical nature of general relativity and is never a difficulty of it. We explain it by taking a concrete example of the radar-echo experiment

  17. Flat-screen detector systems in skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grampp, S.; Czerny, C.; Krestan, C.; Henk, C.; Heiner, L.; Imhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of flat-panel detectors and digital integration of the technique instead of the use of conventional radiographs leads to a shortening of the work process. With flat-panel technology the image production process is shortened by more than 30%. Major advantages in the implementation of integrated RIS, PACS and flat-panel detector system are increases in quality because most mistakes in picture labeling can be avoided, easier handling without the need for cassettes, and the possibility of image post-processing. The diagnostic quality of the images in the field of musculoskeletal radiology is, in comparison to conventional radiographs, at least adequate and in most cases markedly improved with a marked reduction in radiation exposure of around 30-50%. With respect to the numerous advantages of the digital techniques and especially flat-panel technology there is a very high likelihood that conventional radiographs will be substituted in the coming years, even though the cost of the new technology is currently significantly higher compared to conventional systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Asymptotics and Numerics for Laminar Flow over Finite Flat Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Kaper, Hans G.; Garbey, Mare; Pieper, Gail W.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of theoretical results from the literature on the finite flat-plate flow at zero incidence is presented. This includes the Blasius solution, the Triple Deck at the trailing edge, asymptotics in the wake, and properties near the edges of the plate. In addition, new formulas for skin

  19. Higher-spin algebras, holography and flat space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleight, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Taronna, M. [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    In this article we study the higher-spin algebra behind the type-A cubic couplings recently extracted from the free O(N) model in generic dimensions, demonstrating that they coincide with the known structure constants for the unique higher-spin algebra in generic dimensions. This provides an explicit check of the holographic reconstruction and of the duality between higher-spin theories and the free O(N) model in generic dimensions, generalising the result of Giombi and Yin in AdS{sub 4}. For completeness, we also address the same problem in the flat space for the cubic couplings derived by Metsaev in 1991, which are recovered from the flat limit of the AdS type-A cubic couplings. We observe that both flat and AdS{sub 4} higher-spin Lorentz subalgebras coincide, hinting towards the existence of a full higher-spin symmetry behind the flat-space cubic couplings of Metsaev.

  20. Evaluation of two styles of slotted, flat-head screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Johnson, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed to evaluate the relative merits of two different flat-head screws fabricated from a uranium--6% niobium alloy. The screws tested were machined with both normal, straight-through slots in the head and with slots having radiused bottoms. Test results indicate that both designs easily surpass the required 20-inch-pound-proof torque

  1. Engineering flat electronic bands in quasiperiodic and fractal loop geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Atanu, E-mail: atanunandy1989@gmail.com; Chakrabarti, Arunava, E-mail: arunava_chakrabarti@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-06

    Exact construction of one electron eigenstates with flat, non-dispersive bands, and localized over clusters of various sizes is reported for a class of quasi-one-dimensional looped networks. Quasiperiodic Fibonacci and Berker fractal geometries are embedded in the arms of the loop threaded by a uniform magnetic flux. We work out an analytical scheme to unravel the localized single particle states pinned at various atomic sites or over clusters of them. The magnetic field is varied to control, in a subtle way, the extent of localization and the location of the flat band states in energy space. In addition to this we show that an appropriate tuning of the field can lead to a re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of the electron in a band, with a periodic flip in its sign. - Highlights: • Exact construction of eigenstates with flat and dispersive bands is reported. • Competition between translational order and growth of aperiodicity is discussed. • The effect of magnetic field on the location of flat band states is shown. • Flux tunable re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of electron is studied.

  2. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.M.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the

  3. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Yue, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  4. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite)

  5. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  6. Atomically flat platinum films grown on synthetic mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2018-04-01

    Atomically flat platinum thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2] by van der Waals epitaxy. Platinum films deposited on a fluorophlogopite mica substrate by inductively coupled plasma-assisted sputtering with oxygen introduction on a synthetic mica substrate resulted in the growth of twin single-crystalline epitaxial Pt(111) films.

  7. A survey on conformal flatness and quasiumbilicity of submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafindratafa, G.K.

    1989-06-01

    Presently, some confusions are made on the way of understanding the relation and the difference between the conformal flatness and the quasiumbilicity of submanifolds. The purpose of this paper is to make a clarification on these two topics: We review all the up-to-date known main results and the open related problems. (author). 18 refs

  8. Fire-induced reradiation underneath photovoltaic arrays on flat roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Steemann; Merci, Bart; Jomaas, Grunde

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the reflection of fire-induced heat from a gas burner was studied experimentally to gain knowledge on the interaction between photovoltaic (PV) panels and a fire on flat roofs. The heat flux was measured in a total of eight points at the same level as the top of the gas burner. The ...

  9. An Irrotational Flow Field That Approximates Flat Plate Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffa, Anthony A.

    2004-01-01

    An irrotational solution is derived for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations that approximately satisfies the boundary conditions for flow over a finite flat plate. The nature of the flow differs substantially from boundary layer flow, with severe numerical difficulties in some regions.

  10. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Flat Plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical solutions to the dynamic model of an air-heating flat plate solar energy thermal collector were validated by direct measurement from a physical model constructed for that purpose, of the temperatures of the cover and absorber plates, the inlet and outlet fluids, and the ambient air from morning to evening for ...

  12. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4500 m3 of water per day, was constructed at the Cape Flats sewage works and studied over a period of ... In brief, gels were fIxed with methanol 50%, acetic acid 10% for 1 hour, followed by ethanol 10%, acetic acid 0,5% for 1 hour and then ...

  13. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  14. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  15. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  16. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  17. Holographic reconstruction and renormalization in asymptotically Ricci-flat spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldeira Costa, R.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we elaborate on an extension of the AdS/CFT framework to a sub-class of gravitational theories with vanishing cosmological constant. By building on earlier ideas, we construct a correspondence between Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting asymptotically hyperbolic hypersurfaces and a family

  18. Seismic evaluation of large flat-bottomed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Kassawara, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for conservatively evaluating the seismic capacity of flat-bottom fluid storage tanks. The authors know of no case of tank failures at capacity levels less than those predicted by this procedure. Thus, the predicted capacity represents a High Confidence Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity consistent with earthquake experience. (orig.)

  19. Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the complete determination of these quantities, we assume two extra conditions. First we assume that the space-time is conformally flat which leads to. 1008 .... Discussions. The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents.

  20. Strategic flat rolling of Ag/BSCCO-2223 tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgård; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    In the process of single-step flat rolling of multifilament Ag/BSCCO-2223 wire to tape previous work has shown the optimum strategy giving maximum critical current density to be it balance between the length and width strain, so they are of equal size i.e. so, that the logarithmic strain ratio, L...

  1. Nonconformally flat initial data for binary compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Koji; Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Friedman, John L.; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star system in quasiequilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for nonconformally flat data, waveless and near-zone helically symmetric, are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all metric components, including the spatially nonconformally flat potentials, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational binary neutron-stars with matter approximated by parametrized equations of state that use a few segments of polytropic equations of state. The binding energy and total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the conformally flat--Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews--formulation are closer to those of the third post-Newtonian (3PN) two point particles up to the closest orbits, for the more compact stars, whereas sequences resulting from the waveless/near-zone helically symmetric formulations deviate from the 3PN curve even more for the sequences with larger compactness. We think it likely that this correction reflects an overestimation in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation as well as in the 3PN formula, by ∼1 cycle in the gravitational-wave phase during the last several orbits. The work suggests that imposing spatial conformal flatness results in an underestimate of the quadrupole deformation of the components of binary neutron-star systems in the last few orbits prior to merger.

  2. A deletion affecting an LRR-RLK gene co-segregates with the fruit flat shape trait in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Girona, Elena; Zhang, Yu; Eduardo, Iban; Mora, José Ramón Hernández; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Arús, Pere; Aranzana, María José

    2017-07-27

    In peach, the flat phenotype is caused by a partially dominant allele in heterozygosis (Ss), fruits from homozygous trees (SS) abort a few weeks after fruit setting. Previous research has identified a SSR marker (UDP98-412) highly associated with the trait, found suitable for marker assisted selection (MAS). Here we report a ∼10 Kb deletion affecting the gene PRUPE.6G281100, 400 Kb upstream of UDP98-412, co-segregating with the trait. This gene is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) orthologous to the Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) group. PCR markers suitable for MAS confirmed its strong association with the trait in a collection of 246 cultivars. They were used to evaluate the DNA from a round fruit derived from a somatic mutation of the flat variety 'UFO-4', revealing that the mutation affected the flat associated allele (S). Protein BLAST alignment identified significant hits with genes involved in different biological processes. Best protein hit occurred with AtRLP12, which may functionally complement CLAVATA2, a key regulator that controls the stem cell population size. RT-PCR analysis revealed the absence of transcription of the partially deleted allele. The data support PRUPE.6G281100 as a candidate gene for flat shape in peach.

  3. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  4. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  5. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-01-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects. (paper)

  6. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects.

  7. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  8. Implementing DOE guidance for hazards assessments at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hazards Assessments are performed for a variety of activities and facilities at Rocky Flats Plant. Prior to 1991, there was no guidance for performing Hazards Assessments. Each organization that performed Hazards Assessments used its own methodology with no attempt at standardization. In 1991, DOE published guidelines for the performance of Hazards Assessments for Emergency Planning (DOE-EPG-5500.1, ''Guidance for a Hazards Assessment Methodology''). Subsequently, in 1992, DOE published a standard for the performance of Hazards Assessments (DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis, Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''). Although these documents are a step in the direction of standardization, there remains a great deal of interpretation and subjective implementation in the performance of Hazards Assessments. Rocky Flats Plant has initiated efforts to develop a uniform and standard process to be used for Hazards Assessments

  9. Optical identifications of flat-spectrum radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Condon, M.A.; Broderick, J.J.; Davis, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of radio sources with S> or =0.3 Jy at 1400 MHz, +24 0 0 , and low-frequency spectral indices α(408, 1400) or =+0.5 are usually in empty fields. The lower limits that can be assigned to the radio-optical spectral indices α/sub RO/ of these sources are significantly higher than the median α/sub RO/ of the sources with flat high-frequency spectra, so the optical characteristics of the two classes of radio source are intrinsically different. The radio and optical fluxes of flat-spectrum QSO's appear to be correlated, at least when averaged over 10 2 --10 3 yr

  10. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  11. Scalar hairy black holes and solitons in asymptotically flat spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical analysis shows that the Einstein field equations allow static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions with scalar-field hair in asymptotically flat spacetimes. When regularity at the origin is imposed (i.e., in the absence of a horizon) globally regular scalar solitons are found. The asymptotically flat solutions are obtained provided that the scalar potential V(φ) of the theory is not positive semidefinite and such that its local minimum is also a zero of the potential, the scalar field settling asymptotically at that minimum. The configurations, although unstable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations, are regular and thus can serve as counterexamples to the no-scalar-hair conjecture

  12. Digital radiography with large-area flat-panel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Large-area flat-panel detectors with active readout mechanisms have been on the market for the past 2 years. This article describes different detector technologies. An important distinction is made between detectors with direct and those with indirect conversion of X-rays into electrical charges. Detectors with indirect conversion are built with unstructured or structured scintillators, the latter resulting in less lateral diffusion of emitted light. Some important qualities of flat-panel detectors are discussed. The first phantom and clinical studies published report an image quality at least comparable to that of screen-film systems and a potential for dose reduction. The available studies are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  13. Pair Formation of Hard Core Bosons in Flat Band Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Hard core bosons in a large class of one or two dimensional flat band systems have an upper critical density, below which the ground states can be described completely. At the critical density, the ground states are Wigner crystals. If one adds a particle to the system at the critical density, the ground state and the low lying multi particle states of the system can be described as a Wigner crystal with an additional pair of particles. The energy band for the pair is separated from the rest of the multi-particle spectrum. The proofs use a Gerschgorin type of argument for block diagonally dominant matrices. In certain one-dimensional or tree-like structures one can show that the pair is localised, for example in the chequerboard chain. For this one-dimensional system with periodic boundary condition the energy band for the pair is flat, the pair is localised.

  14. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-01-01

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses

  15. A preparation of thin flat target for RD lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, A M; Abdel Samie, Sh; Ahmed, A A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Kuroyanagi, T; Morinobu, S [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kyushu University, (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    An extreme flatness for a target surface is the most necessary in recoil distance method (RDM). A suitable technique was used for preparing a La target. The {sup 139} La target of thickness 0.22 mg/cm{sup 2} was evaporated onto a very flat soft Au foil of thickness 2 mg/cm{sup 2}. This target was successively used for lifetime measurements of the excited nuclear states in {sup 145} Sm nucleus through the nuclear reaction {sup 139} La ({sup 10} B, 4 n) {sup 145} Sm. Background {gamma} rays produced by the {sup 10} B irradiation for the Au backing and the Pb stopper without the La target were measured. Besides that, the {gamma} rays from residual activities were also measured. 3 figs.

  16. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  17. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  18. A new method of constructing scalar-flat Kaehler surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsu; Pontecorvo, M.

    1993-10-01

    Building on the work of Donaldson-Friedman we present a geometric way of constructing anti-self-dual hermitian metrics on compact complex surfaces which is based on the relative complex deformations of singular 3-folds with divisors. Some of the consequences are that under a mild condition, fully described by LeBrun-Singer, any blow up of a scalar-flat Kaehler surface admits scalar-flat Kaehler metrics; this is used to prove that such extremal Kaehler metrics exists on an open dense subset of the moduli space of non-minimal ruled surfaces of genus g ≥ 2. Related results have been obtained by LeBrun-Singer. (author). 25 refs

  19. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  20. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  1. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters

  2. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, Jeffrey; Lehoucq, Roland; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else

  3. Detecting topology in a nearly flat hyperbolic universe

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background data shows the observable universe to be nearly flat, but leaves open the question of whether it is simply or multiply connected. Several authors have investigated whether the topology of a multiply connect hyperbolic universe would be detectable when 0.9 < Omega < 1. However, the possibility of detecting a given topology varies depending on the location of the observer within the space. Recent studies have assumed the observer sits at a favorable location. The pre...

  4. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Jeffrey [15 Farmer St, Canton NY 13617-1120 (United States); Lehoucq, Roland [CE-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO, CNRS-FRE 2435, 98 bis, Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2003-04-21

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else.

  5. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  6. Flat panel planar optic display. Revision 4/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic glass sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  7. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  8. Transmission of electrons with flat passbands in finite superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Aguilar, A H; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K A; Martínez-Orozco, J C; Enciso-Muñoz, A; Contreras-Solorio, D A

    2013-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method and the Ben Daniel-Duke equation for variable mass electrons propagation, we calculate the transmittance for symmetric finite superlattices where the width and the height of the potential barriers follow a linear dependence. The width and height of the barriers decreases from the center to the ends of the superlattice. The transmittance presents intervals of stopbands and quite flat passbands.

  9. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  10. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  11. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2016-07-11

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the principles of nonimaging optics, while the thickness of the device is minimized due to the use of total internal reflection.

  12. SUSY Flat Directions - to get a VEV or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basboell, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of SUSY flat directions (FDs). Large FD vacuum expectation values (VEVs) can delay thermalisation and solve the gravitino problem--if FDs decay perturbatively. This depends on how many and which directions get the VEVs. Recently the decay of the FDs have been studied with the VEVs as input. Here we look at how the VEVs come about--statistically and analytically.

  13. Flatness of the universe - Reconciling theoretical prejudices with observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. S.; Steigman, G.; Krauss, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices argue strongly for a flat universe; however, observations do not support this view. It is pointed out that this apparent conflict could be resolved if the mass density of the universe today were dominated by (1) relativistic particles produced by the recent decay of massive, relic particle species, or by (2) a relic cosmological constant. Scenario (1) has several advantages in the context of galaxy formation, but must confront the problem of a young universe.

  14. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report

  15. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  16. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  17. The sharp peak-flat trough pattern and critical speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, B. M.; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    We find empirically a characteristic sharp peak-flat trough pattern in a large set of commodity prices. We argue that the sharp peak structure reflects an endogenous inter-market organization, and that peaks may be seen as local ``singularities'' resulting from imitation and herding. These findings impose a novel stringent constraint on the construction of models. Intermittent amplification is not sufficient and nonlinear effects seem necessary to account for the observations.

  18. DOE awards first economic conversion project at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the first economic conversion project at an Energy Department weapons facility, a Colorado company this week was given permission to refurbish four buildings at DOE's Rocky Flats plant to recycle slightly radioactive scrap metal. DOE, acting in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency and Colorado authorities, announced Tuesday it had given the go-ahead to Manufacturing Sciences Corp. of Golden, Colorado, to proceed with planning for the project

  19. The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.

  20. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  1. Reflection from a flat dielectric film with negative refractive index

    OpenAIRE

    Hillion, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the reflection of a TM electromagnetic field first on a flat dielectric film and second on a Veselago film with negative refractive index, both films being deposited on a metallic substrat acting as a mirror. An incident harmonic plane wave generates inside a conventional dielectric film a refracted propagating wave and an evanescent wave that does not contribute to reflection on the metallic substrat so that part of the information conveyed by the incident field is lost. At the op...

  2. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  3. Epidemiology of Injury Due to Race-Day Jockey Falls in Professional Flat and Jump Horse Racing in Ireland, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Warrington, Giles; McGoldrick, Adrian; Cullen, SarahJane

    2017-12-01

      Professional horse racing is considered a high-risk sport, yet the last analysis of fall and injury incidence in this sport in Ireland was completed between 1999 and 2006.   To provide an updated analysis of the fall and injury incidence in professional flat and jump horse racing in Ireland from 2011 through 2015, compare it with the previous analysis, and detail the specific types and locations of injuries.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   A medical doctor recorded all injuries that occurred at every official flat and jump race meeting for the 2011 through 2015 seasons using standardized injury-report forms.   Injury and fall rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for flat and jump racing. Incidence rate ratios and 95% CIs were calculated between flat and jump racing, between the 1999-2006 analysis and the current results, and between 2011 and 2015. The distribution of injuries for type and location of injury was reported.   Compared with flat racing, jump racing had significantly more falls per 1000 rides (49.5 versus 3.8), injuries per 1000 rides (10.1 versus 1.4), and injuries per 1000 meetings (776.0 versus 94.1). However, the rate of injuries per 1000 falls was significantly higher in flat racing (352.8 versus 203.8). An increase in injuries per 1000 falls between 2011 and 2015 was found in flat racing ( P = .005). Since the previous analysis, a significant increase in injuries per 1000 rides and falls was noted in jump racing. Soft tissue injuries were predominant in flat and jump racing (61.54% and 68.80%, respectively), with fractures the second most common injury (15.38% and 18.06%, respectively). Concussions were more prevalent from flat-racing falls (incidence rate ratio = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.61). The lower limb was the most frequent location of injury (32.89%) in flat racing; however, in jump racing, upper limb injuries (34.97%) were predominant.   An update on professional flat- and jump-racing fall and

  4. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S. H.; Lua, K. B.; Low, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out

  5. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  6. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  7. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  8. The digital flat-panel X-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticj, S. Goran

    2013-01-01

    In a digital imaging system, the incident x-ray image must be sampled both in the spatial and intensity dimensions. In the spatial dimensions, samples are obtained as averages of the intensity over picture elements or pixels. In the intensity dimension, the signal is digitalized into one of a finite number of levels or bits. Two main types of digital flat-panel detectors are based on the direct conversion, which contains the photoconductor, and on indirect conversion, which contains phosphor. The basics of these detectors are given. Coupling traditional x-ray detection material such as photoconductors and phosphors with a large-area active-matrix readout structure forms the basis of flat panel x-ray images. Active matrix technology provides a new, highly efficient, real time method for electronically storing and measuring the product of the x-ray interaction stage whether the product is visible wavelength photons or electrical charges. The direct and indirect detectors, made as the active-matrix flat-panel detectors containing sensing/storage elements, switching elements (diodes or thin film transistors (TFTS)) and image processing module, are described. Strengths and limitations of stimulable phosphors are discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of mentioned x-ray detectors are also analyzed. (Author)

  9. Flat-detector computed tomography in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range than available with film-screen and phosphor luminescence, radiography flat detector technology is now widely accepted for neuroangiographic imaging. Especially flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT), which uses rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology, is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. As ''angiographic CT'' FD-CT may be helpful in many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures, e.g. intracranial stenting for cerebrovascular stenoses, stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and embolization of arteriovenous malformations. By providing morphologic, CT-like images of the brain within the angiography suite FD-CT allows rapid visualization of periprocedural hemorrhaging and may thus improve rapid complication management without the need of patient transfer. In addition, myelography and postmyelographic FD-CT imaging can be carried out using a single modality. Spinal interventions, such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty might also benefit from FD-CT. Imaging of the temporal bone may also develop into an important field of FD-CT. This paper briefly reviews the technical principles of FD technology and the potential applications in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology. (orig.) [de

  10. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  11. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  12. Mortality among plutonium and other workers at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.d.; Voelz, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of mortality and radiation exposure for Rocky Flats workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society in January 1983. Significantly fewer deaths were found than were expected due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and cancer of the digestive organs. No bone cancers were observed and cancers commonly associated with radiation exposure were not more frequent than expected. Significantly more deaths than expected were observed for two causes, cancer of the prostate and benign and unspecified neoplasms. Further investigation revealed that the deaths from benign and unspecified neoplasms all involved intracranial tumors. A case control study found no association between these brain tumors and exposure to radiation, including plutonium depositions or type of occupation. The excess deaths from intracranial tumors remain unexplained but do not appear to be associated with employment at Rocky Flats. Relative risks among Rocky Flats workers with cumulative plutonium depositions of 2 nCi or more did not indicate a significantly greater risk of death among workers exposed to plutonium than among unexposed workers. Similar results were found for workers with cumulative radiation exposure of at least 1 rem. 2 references, 3 tables

  13. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Laura [Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, Iowa (United States); Mazur, Robert E. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Edelson, Martin [Ames Laboratory-USDOE (Retired), Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  14. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  15. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  16. Flat spectrum T Tauri stars: The case for infall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, S. J.; Whitney, B. A.

    1994-01-01

    We show that the mid- to far-infrared fluxes of 'flat spectrum' T Tauri stars can be explained by radiative equilibrium emission from infalling dusty envelopes. Infall eliminates the need for accretion disks with non-standard temperature distributions. The simplicity and power of this explanantion indicates that models employing 'active' disks, in which the temperature distribution is a parameterized power law, should be invoked with caution. Infall also naturally explains the scattered light nebulae detected around many flat spectrum sources. To match the observed spectra, material must fall onto a disk rather than the central star, as expected for collapse of a rotating molecular cloud. It may be necessary to invoke cavities in the envelopes to explain the strength of optical and near-infrared emission; these cavities could be produced by the powerful bipolar outflows commonly observed from young stars. If viewed along the cavity, a source may be lightly extincted at visual wavelengths, while still accreting substantial amounts of material from the envelope. Infall may also be needed to explain the infrared-bright companions of many optical T Tauri stars. This picture suggests that many of the flat spectrum sources are 'protostars'-young stellar objects surrounded by dust infalling envelopes of substantial mass.

  17. Flat-response x-ray-diode-detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, G.

    1982-10-01

    In this report we discuss the design of an improved sub-nanosecond flat response x-ray diode detector needed for ICF diagnostics. This device consists of a high Z cathode and a complex filter tailored to flatten the response so that the total x-ray energy below 1.5 keV can be measured using a single detector. Three major problems have become evident as a result of our work with the original LLNL design including deviation from flatness due to a peak in the response below 200 eV, saturation at relatively low x-ray fluences, and long term gold cathode instability. We are investigating grazing incidence reflection to reduce the response below 200 eV, new high Z cathode materials for long term stability, and a new complex filter for improved flatness. Better saturation performance will require a modified XRD detector under development with reduced anode to cathode spacing and increased anode bias voltage

  18. Living anew - About possibilities of contemporary adaptations of flats carried out in industrialised technologies in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopotowski, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Around the half of Polish population currently live in the buildings constructed in the second half of the twentieth century in industrialized technologies. Economic conditions indicate that this state will not change substantially over the next decade. This situation forces people who deal with shaping housing space to take action that will raise the value of existing, technically and morally degrading, housing substance. As a result of conducted research, the author of this study pointed out that the so-called revitalization of the housing environment is carried out at the level of residents, administrators of buildings and housing estates. Their effects are often not correlated or even contradictory. He also emphasized the importance of comprehensive measures and the need for systemic solutions that integrate legislation, administration and contracting. As an important element of these actions he pointed out the need to develop a catalogue illustrating the possibility of reconstruction of housing. The article will present the results of research aimed at developing a strategy of remodelling flats, considered today unattractive, located in buildings constructed in OW-T technology. The analyses were carried out on a group of flats (about 85 m²) completed at the turn of 70s and 80s. During the construction period they were intended to be settled by families of minimum 6 people and were the largest. Their structure consists of a number of relatively small rooms (including very small bathrooms and kitchens). The author made a critical analysis of this housing offer. He defined contemporary needs of investors who are involved in buying flats of such size - they are families with one or two children. Measurable results of the work carried out are the schemes of housing conversion plans. The article presents four specific design solutions that show the direction of possible actions. According to the author, popularizing the possibility of reconstructing such flats

  19. Role of tidal flat in material cycling in the coastal sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yara, Yumiko; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Montani, Shigeru; Kuninao, Tada

    2007-01-01

    A simple tidal flat model with pelagic and benthic ecosystems was developed in order to analyze the nitrogen cycling in an inter-tidal flat of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. After the verification of calculation results with the observed results in water quality and benthic biomasses, the role of this tidal flat in nitrogen cycling was evaluated from the viewpoint of water quality purification capability. When there is no suspension feeder in the tidal flat, the water quality purification capab...

  20. Homological properties of modules with finite weak injective and weak flat dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define a class of relative derived functors in terms of left or right weak flat resolutions to compute the weak flat dimension of modules. Moreover, we investigate two classes of modules larger than that of weak injective and weak flat modules, study the existence of covers and preenvelopes, and give some applications.

  1. Identification and classification of very low frequency waves on a coral reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Matthijs; van Dongeran, Ap; van Rooijen, Arnold; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia; Reniers, Ad

    2016-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF, 0.001–0.005 Hz) waves are important drivers of flooding of low-lying coral reef-islands. In particular, VLF wave resonance is known to drive large wave runup and subsequent overwash. Using a 5 month data set of water levels and waves collected along a cross-reef transect on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the observed VLF motions were categorized into four different classes: (1) resonant, (2) (nonresonant) standing, (3) progressive-growing, and (4) progressive-dissipative waves. Each VLF class is set by the reef flat water depth and, in the case of resonance, the incident-band offshore wave period. Using an improved method to identify VLF wave resonance, we find that VLF wave resonance caused prolonged (∼0.5–6.0 h), large-amplitude water surface oscillations at the inner reef flat ranging in wave height from 0.14 to 0.83 m. It was induced by relatively long-period, grouped, incident-band waves, and occurred under both storm and nonstorm conditions. Moreover, observed resonant VLF waves had nonlinear, bore-like wave shapes, which likely have a larger impact on the shoreline than regular, sinusoidal waveforms. As an alternative technique to the commonly used Fast Fourier Transformation, we propose the Hilbert-Huang Transformation that is more computationally expensive but can capture the wave shape more accurately. This research demonstrates that understanding VLF waves on reef flats is important for evaluating coastal flooding hazards.

  2. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  3. Identification and classification of very low frequency waves on a coral reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Matthijs; van Dongeren, Ap; van Rooijen, Arnold; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Cheriton, Olivia M.; Reniers, Ad

    2016-10-01

    Very low frequency (VLF, 0.001-0.005 Hz) waves are important drivers of flooding of low-lying coral reef-islands. In particular, VLF wave resonance is known to drive large wave runup and subsequent overwash. Using a 5 month data set of water levels and waves collected along a cross-reef transect on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the observed VLF motions were categorized into four different classes: (1) resonant, (2) (nonresonant) standing, (3) progressive-growing, and (4) progressive-dissipative waves. Each VLF class is set by the reef flat water depth and, in the case of resonance, the incident-band offshore wave period. Using an improved method to identify VLF wave resonance, we find that VLF wave resonance caused prolonged (˜0.5-6.0 h), large-amplitude water surface oscillations at the inner reef flat ranging in wave height from 0.14 to 0.83 m. It was induced by relatively long-period, grouped, incident-band waves, and occurred under both storm and nonstorm conditions. Moreover, observed resonant VLF waves had nonlinear, bore-like wave shapes, which likely have a larger impact on the shoreline than regular, sinusoidal waveforms. As an alternative technique to the commonly used Fast Fourier Transformation, we propose the Hilbert-Huang Transformation that is more computationally expensive but can capture the wave shape more accurately. This research demonstrates that understanding VLF waves on reef flats is important for evaluating coastal flooding hazards.

  4. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final Report. Volume II: Silicon material

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the FSA Project, was to develop and ...

  5. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina N; Li, Yue; Marra, Amanda N; Verdun, Valerie; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-07-17

    The zebrafish embryo is now commonly used for basic and biomedical research to investigate the genetic control of developmental processes and to model congenital abnormalities. During the first day of life, the zebrafish embryo progresses through many developmental stages including fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, segmentation, and the organogenesis of structures such as the kidney, heart, and central nervous system. The anatomy of a young zebrafish embryo presents several challenges for the visualization and analysis of the tissues involved in many of these events because the embryo develops in association with a round yolk mass. Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 somite stage (10 and 19 hours post fertilization (hpf), respectively), such as those stained using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), it is often desirable to remove the embryo from the yolk ball and to position it flat on a glass slide. However, performing a flat mount procedure can be tedious. Therefore, successful and efficient flat mount preparation is greatly facilitated through the visual demonstration of the dissection technique, and also helped by using reagents that assist in optimal tissue handling. Here, we provide our WISH protocol for one or two-color detection of gene expression in the zebrafish embryo, and demonstrate how the flat mounting procedure can be performed on this example of a stained fixed specimen. This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish development, and can be implemented in conjunction with other staining methods performed on fixed embryo samples.

  6. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M.; Jeong, Sooyeon; Park, Hae W.; Ronfard, Samuel; Adhikari, Aradhana; Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia L.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children’s vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot’s active reading was expressive; the robot’s voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive). For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range (Flat). The robot’s movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL), bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4–6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot’s story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling. Furthermore

  7. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Kory Westlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children’s vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot’s active reading was expressive; the robot’s voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive. For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range (Flat. The robot’s movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL, bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4–6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot’s story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling

  8. Development and applications of a flat triangular element for thin laminated shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, P.

    Finite element analysis of thin laminated shells using a three-noded flat triangular shell element is presented. The flat shell element is obtained by combining the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) plate bending element and a membrane element similar to the Allman element, but derived from the Linear Strain Triangular (LST) element. The major drawback of the DKT plate bending element is that the transverse displacement is not explicitly defined within the interior of the element. In the present research, free vibration analysis is performed both by using a lumped mass matrix and a so called consistent mass matrix, obtained by borrowing shape functions from an existing element, in order to compare the performance of the two methods. Several numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the accuracy of the formulation for both small and large rotation analysis of laminated plates and shells. The results are compared with those available in the existing literature and those obtained using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS and are found to be in good agreement. The element is employed for two main applications involving large flexible structures. The first application is the control of thermal deformations of a spherical mirror segment, which is a segment of a multi-segmented primary mirror used in a space telescope. The feasibility of controlling the surface distortions of the mirror segment due to arbitrary thermal fields, using discrete and distributed actuators, is studied. The second application is the analysis of an inflatable structure, being considered by the US Army for housing vehicles and personnel. The updated Lagrangian formulation of the flat shell element has been developed primarily for the nonlinear analysis of the tent structure, since such a structure is expected to undergo large deformations and rotations under the action of environmental loads like the wind and snow loads. The follower effects of the pressure load have been included in the

  9. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  10. Flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control of chaotic finance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Loia, V.; Tommasetti, A.; Troisi, O.

    2017-11-01

    A flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control is applied to the problem of stabilization of the dynamics of a chaotic finance system, describing interaction between the interest rate, the investment demand and the price exponent. By proving that the system is differentially flat and by applying differential flatness diffeomorphisms, its transformation to the linear canonical (Brunovsky) is performed. For the latter description of the system, the design of a stabilizing state feedback controller becomes possible. A first problem in the design of such a controller is that the dynamic model of the finance system is unknown and thus it has to be identified with the use neurofuzzy approximators. The estimated dynamics provided by the approximators is used in the computation of the control input, thus establishing an indirect adaptive control scheme. The learning rate of the approximators is chosen from the requirement the system's Lyapunov function to have always a negative first-order derivative. Another problem that has to be dealt with is that the control loop is implemented only with the use of output feedback. To estimate the non-measurable state vector elements of the finance system, a state observer is implemented in the control loop. The computation of the feedback control signal requires the solution of two algebraic Riccati equations at each iteration of the control algorithm. Lyapunov stability analysis demonstrates first that an H-infinity tracking performance criterion is satisfied. This signifies elevated robustness against modelling errors and external perturbations. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability is proven for the control loop.

  11. Management of flat or inverted nipples with simple rubber bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Kamalendu; Basu, Subhra

    2011-08-01

    Occurrences of flat or inverted nipples are not uncommon problems, and although they should not preclude breastfeeding, they often seriously hamper initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Various therapies including nipple exercise, breast shells, inverted syringes, or surgical corrections have been reported with varying success rates. A new method has been devised by the authors that consisted of tying a rubber band around the base of the nipple, with the help of a syringe applicator, to make it prominent. Latex rubber bands cut from condom rims were used in this study. The band had to be worn only during feeding. This method was tested on 19 mothers with flat, inverted, or otherwise deformed nipples. The babies were born in hospitals and were between 9 and 38 days old, mostly fed by bottle feeding, at the time of presentation. The mothers had been counseled about the importance of good attachment during breastfeeding and shown the new method. They were instructed to use the method at home and attend follow-up on day 3, day 7, and day 28. Sixty-three percent of mothers could achieve latching at the breast with good attachment within 3 days, and all did by the end of the month, as nipples no longer remained a problem. The insufficiency of milk was gradually taken care of by frequent suckling with time. No complications like pain or slipping of the band were reported. This simple method may be a good bedside solution for flat/retracted nipples. The authors strongly believe that if the new method is applied immediately after birth under supervision, no mother with nipple problem will be required to feed nonhuman milk to her baby.

  12. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Flat Foot in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Phua Pau Fung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 primary schools in Kecamatan Jatinangor. There were 259 children of grade 4 to 5 included in this study. Flatfoot screening was based on measurement of footprint and calculation using Chippaux-smirak index (CSI. The height and weight of children were measured to obtain their Body Mass Index (BMI. Nutritional status was classified based on CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: There was significant association between nutritional status and flatfoot with p value<0.001.The prevalence of flatfoot in children grade 4to5is40%. When compared to the normal weight children, the overweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.97(95% CI:1.47 to 2.64 while the underweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.34 (95% CI:1.78 to 2.25.This stated that the risk of developing flat foot was higher in overweight children. Conclusions: There is significant association between nutritional status with children grade4 to 5. Overweight children are more prone to flat foot.

  13. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Dulik, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  14. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  15. Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, P.J.

    1979-04-01

    The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.

  16. Modeling one-dimensional unsaturated flow at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.; Zeiler, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A field investigation characterizing contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site) near Golden, Colorado revealed unexpectedly high moisture contents in the unsaturated soil column (vadose zone) beneath several of the Plant's Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge drying beds. Because these beds were seldom in use, researchers had hypothesized that the water required to maintain the saturated conditions observed beneath several of the sludge drying beds was coming from sources other than the beds themselves. In an effort to substantiate this hypothesis, a one-dimensional physically-based unsaturated flow model was utilized to simulate the vertical movement of moisture from the sludge drying beds into the unsaturated soil column below. The model was run to simulate vertical flow over a two-year period and results indicated that no significant changes from initial conditions were apparent. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the high moisture contents found beneath the sludge drying beds are being fed by sources other than infiltration of sludge applied to the beds themselves. This paper presents the details of the simulation and provides further evidence of the hypothesized flow regime

  17. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  18. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  19. Phase Transitions for Flat Anti - de Sitter Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surya, Sumati; Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine the thermodynamics of anti - de Sitter (adS) black holes with Ricci flat horizons using the adS soliton as the thermal background. We find that there is a phase transition which is dependent not only on the temperature but also on the black hole area, which is an independent parameter. As in the spherical adS black hole, this phase transition is related via the adS/conformal-field-theory correspondence to a confinement-deconfinement transition in the large-N gauge theory on the conformal boundary at infinity

  20. Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 461. = a. ∫. M u2(1+q)+ 2 a f 2 − 2. ∫. M u2q+1f 〈∇f, ∇u〉. − (2q + 1). ∫. M u2qf 2|∇u|2, which gives a .... that depends on n, ϵ and q. We now try to transform (2.15) the right hand side only involved u in the power two. For that, we use Young's inequality: ab ≤ βsas.

  1. Detecting and Applying Thermal Signals in a Tidal Flats Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Guarini et al., 1997]. In addition, the biology can affect the heat content, as in the ventilation of mud flats by manicure crabs [Kim et al., 2009...the values of lf and cf resulting from changes in salinity are negligible. Values of ls = 8.6 W m −1 K−1 and cs = 0.8 kJ kg−1 K−1, based on the...intertidal mudflats of the forth estuary , Scotland, J. Climatol., 5, 472–485. Jackson, D. R., and M. D. Richardson (2002), Seasonal temperature gradi- ents

  2. Quadratic Forms and Semiclassical Eigenfunction Hypothesis for Flat Tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Sardari, Naser

    2018-03-01

    Let Q( X) be any integral primitive positive definite quadratic form in k variables, where {k≥4}, and discriminant D. For any integer n, we give an upper bound on the number of integral solutions of Q( X) = n in terms of n, k, and D. As a corollary, we prove a conjecture of Lester and Rudnick on the small scale equidistribution of almost all functions belonging to any orthonormal basis of a given eigenspace of the Laplacian on the flat torus {T^d} for {d≥ 5}. This conjecture is motivated by the work of Berry [2,3] on the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis.

  3. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  4. Thermodynamics of flat FLRW universe in Rastall theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradpour, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, after referring to the Rastall theory, we address some of its cosmological consequences. Moreover, bearing the Clausius relation in mind, using Friedman equations in Rastall theory and the Cai–Kim temperature, we obtain a relation for the apparent horizon entropy of a flat FLRW universe. In addition, we impose the entropy positivity condition on the obtained relation for the horizon entropy, to find some constraints on the Rastall parameters. Moreover, we investigate the second and generalized second laws of thermodynamics. The results of considering a dominated prefect fluid of constant state parameter are also addressed helping us familiarize with the Rastall theory.

  5. Thermodynamics of flat FLRW universe in Rastall theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradpour, H., E-mail: h.moradpour@riaam.ac.ir

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, after referring to the Rastall theory, we address some of its cosmological consequences. Moreover, bearing the Clausius relation in mind, using Friedman equations in Rastall theory and the Cai–Kim temperature, we obtain a relation for the apparent horizon entropy of a flat FLRW universe. In addition, we impose the entropy positivity condition on the obtained relation for the horizon entropy, to find some constraints on the Rastall parameters. Moreover, we investigate the second and generalized second laws of thermodynamics. The results of considering a dominated prefect fluid of constant state parameter are also addressed helping us familiarize with the Rastall theory.

  6. Analysis of flat rolling of superconducting silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Nielsen, Morten Storgård; Eriksen, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The flat rolling process from wire to tape is presumably the most crucial link in the chain of mechanical processes leading from loose powder and silver tubes to the final superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape. In order to improve the critical current density of the superconducting filaments, one must...... process these to the highest possible density without at the same time introducing failures as large cracks and macroscopic shear bands. In order to analyse and optimise the process, the interaction between the involved materials and their very different mechanical properties must be taken into account...

  7. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  8. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  9. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  10. Spontaneous compactification and Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, B.

    1985-06-01

    The Freund-Rubin mechanism is based on the equation Rsub(ik)=lambdagsub(ik) (where lambda>0), which, via Myers' Theorem, implies ''spontaneous'' compactification. The difficulties connected with the cosmological constant in this approach can be resolved if torsion is introduced and lambda set equal to zero, but then compactification ''by hand'' is necessary, since the equation Rsub(ik)=0 can be satisfied both on compact and on non-compact manifolds. In this paper we discuss the global geometry of Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion, and suggest ways of restoring the ''spontaneity'' of the compactification. (author)

  11. Spectral functions for the flat plasma sheet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhenko, I G

    2006-01-01

    The present work is based on Bordag M et al 2005 (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 11027) where the spectral analysis of the electromagnetic field on the background of an infinitely thin flat plasma layer is carried out. The solutions to Maxwell equations with the appropriate matching conditions at the plasma layer are derived and the spectrum of electromagnetic oscillations is determined. The spectral zeta function and the integrated heat kernel are constructed for different branches of the spectrum in an explicit form. The asymptotic expansion of the integrated heat kernel at small values of the evolution parameter is derived. The local heat kernels are considered also

  12. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson, D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c/ 1 is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model

  13. Three Dimensional Numerical Code for the Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung W. Min

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of galaxies may contain clues to the condition of the universe when the galaxies condensed and to the nature of the subsequent expansion of the universe. The development of this large scale structure can be studied by employing N-body computer simulations. The present paper describes the code developed for this purpose. The computer code calculates the motion of collisionless matter action under the force of gravity in an expanding flat universe. The test run of the code shows the error less than 0.5% in 100 iterations.

  14. Scalar field collapse in a conformally flat spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya; Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India)

    2017-03-15

    The collapse scenario of a scalar field along with a perfect fluid distribution was investigated for a conformally flat spacetime. The theorem for the integrability of an anharmonic oscillator has been utilized. For a pure power-law potential of the form φ{sup n+1}, it was found that a central singularity is formed which is covered by an apparent horizon for n > 0 and n < -3. Some numerical results have also been presented for a combination of two different powers of φ in the potential. (orig.)

  15. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  16. THE STANDARD MILLING TIME OF FLAT SURFACES WITHOUT OUTLINE RESTRICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Skoczylas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the standard operating times of technological operations is essential element in the business operations of every production enterprise. It is the basis for establishing the production capacity, planning the production schedule, or even calculating costs. The article presents a variety of methods used in the calculation of standard worktime of technological operations. An especially important distinction was made between calculating the total machining time and the actual cutting time. Through the examination of various machined flat surfaces, the results of worktime calculations from CATIA and the authored mathematical model are presented.

  17. Flat dielectric metasurface lens array for three dimensional integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Ying; Wu, Xiongxiong

    2018-05-01

    In conventional integral imaging, the singlet refractive lens array limits the imaging performance due to its prominent aberrations. Different from the refractive lens array relying on phase modulation via phase change accumulated along the optical paths, metasurfaces composed of nano-scatters can produce phase abrupt over the scale of wavelength. In this letter, we propose a novel lens array consisting of two neighboring flat dielectric metasurfaces for integral imaging system. The aspherical phase profiles of the metasurfaces are optimized to improve imaging performance. The simulation results show that our designed 5 × 5 metasurface-based lens array exhibits high image quality at designed wavelength 865 nm.

  18. Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series

  19. Two-media boundary layer on a flat plate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Ilyich Klyuev; Asgat Gatyatovich Gimadiev; Yuriy Alekseevich Kryukov

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides a solution to the problem of a flow over a flat semi-infinite plate set at an angle to the horizon, and having a thin liquid film on its surface by external airflow. The film is formed by extrusion of liquid from the porous wall. The paper proposes a mathematical model of a two-media boundary layer flow. The main characteristics of the flow to a zero and a first approximation are determined. A drop of frictional stress is obtained.

  20. Study of the influence of water properties dependency with the temperature in a laminar downward flow between parallel flat plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, Dario F.; Chasseur, A.F.; Garcia, Juan C.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we develop a model that contemplates stationary completely developed laminar downward flow between flat parallel plates with uniform and constant heat fluxes. The Boussinesq approach is used in the momentum equation, taking into account the change of the density with the temperature only in the gravitational term. The system is at atmospheric pressure and the dependencies of the density and the thermal conductivity with the temperature are also considered. The velocity and temperature profiles, the friction factor, the heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt Number are calculated, for different flow rates and heating powers. The results allow to obtain some conclusions that can be of interest in the study of research reactors with forced downward refrigeration and flat plate fuels, although these calculations do not exactly represent the real behavior inside these channels. (author) [es