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Sample records for poke rate decreased

  1. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  2. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  3. HOKES/POKES : Light-weight resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Herbert; Samwel, Bart

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we explain mechanisms for providing embedded network processors and other low-level programming environments with light-weight support for safe resource sharing. The solution consists of a host part, known as HOKES, and a network processor part, known as POKES. As common operating

  4. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  5. Autoshaped Head Poking in the Mouse: A Quantitative Analysis of the Learning Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Gallistel, C. R.

    2006-01-01

    In autoshaping experiments, we quantified the acquisition of anticipatory head poking in individual mice, using an algorithm that finds changes in the slope of a cumulative record. In most mice, upward changes in the amount of anticipatory poking per trial were abrupt, and tended to occur at session boundaries, suggesting that the session is as…

  6. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  8. Mu and delta opioid receptors oppositely regulate motor impulsivity in the signaled nose poke task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Olmstead

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a primary feature of many psychiatric disorders, most notably attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Impulsivity includes a number of processes such as the inability to delay gratification, the inability to withhold a motor response, or acting before all of the relevant information is available. These processes are mediated by neural systems that include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate and cannabinoids. We examine, for the first time, the role of opioid systems in impulsivity by testing whether inactivation of the mu- (Oprm1 or delta- (Oprd1 opioid receptor gene alters motor impulsivity in mice. Wild-type and knockout mice were examined on either a pure C57BL6/J (BL6 or a hybrid 50% C57Bl/6J-50% 129Sv/pas (HYB background. Mice were trained to respond for sucrose in a signaled nose poke task that provides independent measures of associative learning (responses to the reward-paired cue and motor impulsivity (premature responses. Oprm1 knockout mice displayed a remarkable decrease in motor impulsivity. This was observed on the two genetic backgrounds and did not result from impaired associative learning, as responses to the cue signaling reward did not differ across genotypes. Furthermore, mutant mice were insensitive to the effects of ethanol, which increased disinhibition and decreased conditioned responding in wild-type mice. In sharp contrast, mice lacking the Oprd1 gene were more impulsive than controls. Again, mutant animals showed no deficit in associative learning. Ethanol completely disrupted performance in these animals. Together, our results suggest that mu-opioid receptors enhance, whereas delta-opioid receptors inhibit, motor impulsivity. This reveals an unanticipated contribution of endogenous opioid receptor activity to disinhibition. In a broader context, these data suggest that alterations in mu- or delta-opioid receptor function may contribute to impulse control disorders.

  9. Analyses of Decrease in Reactor Coolant Flow Rate in SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, Suhn

    2011-01-01

    SMART is a small integral reactor, which is under development at KAERI to get the standard design approval by the end of 2011. SMART works like a pressurized light-water reactor in principle though it is more compact than large commercial reactors. SMART houses major components such as steam generators, a pressurizer, and reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. Due to its compact design, SMART adopts a canned-motor type reactor coolant pump which has much smaller rotational inertia than the ones used in commercial reactors. As a consequence, the reactor coolant pump has very short coastdown time and reactor coolant flow rate decreases more severely compared to commercial reactors. The transients initiated by reduction of reactor coolant flow rate have been analyzed to ensure that SMART can be safely shutdown on such transients. The design basis events in this category are complete loss of flow, single pump locked rotor with loss of offsite power, and single pump shaft break with loss of offsite power

  10. Nonlinear bending and collapse analysis of a poked cylinder and other point-loaded cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This paper analyzes the geometrically nonlinear bending and collapse behavior of an elastic, simply supported cylindrical shell subjected to an inward-directed point load applied at midlength. The large displacement analysis results for this thin (R/t = 638) poked cylinder were obtained from the STAGSC-1 finite element computer program. STAGSC-1 results are also presented for two other point-loaded shell problems: a pinched cylinder (R/t = 100), and a venetian blind (R/t = 250)

  11. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  12. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  13. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  14. 75 FR 55944 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California walnut handlers are subject to assessments... assessment rate currently in effect. The quantity of assessable walnuts for the 2010-11 marketing year is... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0060...

  15. PRE-ELECTIONAL DECREASE OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Miličević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic business cycle models test whether the current government has the ability to reduce unemployment in pre-election period. First opportunistic business cycle models tested regressions using unemployment rate as the dependent variable, and for explanatory variables used unemployment rate in the previous two periods and political dummy variable defined as unity several quarters prior to election and zero elsewhere. Such models did not find evidence of opportunistic cycle for unemployment. Haynes and Stone in their model estimated regressions using unemployment as the dependent variable and sixteen dummy variables as explanatory variables (one for each quarter in the Presidential electoral term. Results showed that unemployment has roughly sinusoidal sixteen quarter cycle, where unemployment troughs on average the quarter of the election. Mentioned models are tested with data for the United States for the period from 1948 to 2011 where regressions results coincide with models mentioned in the article.

  16. Adverse trends in male reproductive health and decreasing fertility rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Healthy men produce an enormous number of sperms, far more than necessary for conception. However, several studies suggest that semen samples where the concentration of sperms is below 40 mill/mL may be associated with longer time to pregnancy or even subfertility, and specimens where the concent...... are now so low that we may be close to the crucial tipping point of 40 mill/mL spermatozoa. Consequently, we must face the possibility of more infertile couples and lower fertility rates in the future....... that the first decline in average sperm number of 20-40 mill/mL might not have had much effect on pregnancy rates, as the majority of men would still have had counts far above the threshold value. However, due to the assumed decline in semen quality, the sperm counts of the majority of 20 year old European men...

  17. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  18. [POKING REDUCTION TREATMENT OF DISPLACED SCAPULAR NECK FRACTURE WITH SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY-ASSISTED SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Feng; Yuan, Bangtuo; Qi, Wei; Wang, Junliang; Shen, Xuezhen; Wang, Jiangtao; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Yujie

    2014-07-01

    To discuss the effectiveness of Poking reduction with shoulder arthroscopy-assisted surgery for displaced scapular neck fracture. Between January 2009 and January 2012, 9 cases of displaced scapular neck fracture underwent shoulder arthroscopy-assisted surgery for Poking reduction treatment. Of 9 cases, 6 were men, and 3 were women, aged 21-54 years (mean, 39 years). The causes were traffic accident injury in 7 cases, falling injury from height in 1 case, and hurt injury in 1 case. The shoulder abduction, flexion, and external rotation were obviously limited. X-ray films showed all cases had obvious displaced scapular neck fracture. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT showed a grossly displaced of fracture. The time of injury to surgery was 4-27 days (mean, 11 days). Patients obtained healing of incision by first intension, without infection, neurovascular injury, or other surgery-related complications. All patients were followed up 19- 31 months (mean, 23 months). X-ray films showed scapular neck fractures healed from 7 to 11 weeks (mean, 8 weeks). At last follow-up, the shoulder abduction, flexion, and external rotation activity were improved significantly when compared with ones at preoperation (P shoulder Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgenos (ASES) score, and Rowe score were significantly better than preoperative scores (P shoulder stability and reduce complications.

  19. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  20. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  1. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  2. Lung cancer death rates fall, helping drive decrease in overall cancer death rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, covering the period 1975–2010, showed death rates for lung cancer, which accounts for more than one in four cancer deaths, dropping at a faster pace than in previous years.

  3. Decreasing dialysis catheter rates by creating a multidisciplinary dialysis access program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Patricia M; Niederhaus, Silke V; Schweitzer, Eugene J; Leeser, David B

    2018-03-01

    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have determined that chronic dialysis units should have 45%. A multidisciplinary program was established with goals of decreasing catheter rates in order to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections, decrease mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infection, decrease hospital days, and provide savings to the healthcare system. We collected the catheter rates within three dialysis centers served over a 5-year period. Using published data surrounding the incidence and related costs of central line-associated bloodstream infection and mortality per catheter day, the number of central line-associated bloodstream infection events, the costs, and the related mortality could be determined prior to and after the initiation of the dialysis access program. An organized dialysis access program resulted in a 82% decrease in the number of central venous catheter days which lead to a concurrent reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deaths. As a result of creating an access program, central venous catheter rates decreased from an average rate of 45% to 8%. The cost savings related to the program was calculated to be over US$5 million. The decrease in the number of mortalities is estimated to be between 13 and 27 patients. We conclude that a formalized access program decreases catheter rates, central line-associated bloodstream infection, and the resultant hospitalizations, mortality, and costs. Areas with high hemodialysis catheter rates should develop access programs to better serve their patient population.

  4. Effects of an Activity-Based Anorexia Procedure on Within-Session Changes in Nose-Poke Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of an activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure on within-session changes in responding. In the ABA group (N = 8), rats were given a 60-min feeding session and allowed to run in a running wheel for the remainder of each day. During the daily 60-min feeding session, each nose-poke response was reinforced by a food…

  5. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fordyce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. METHODOLOGY: Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. CONCLUSIONS: The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  6. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A

    2010-07-23

    Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  7. A photo-tunable membrane based on inter-particle crosslinking for decreasing diffusion rates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Moosa, Basem; Chen, Ye; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    %. To prove the applicability of the designed system, the composite membrane was coated on a model drug reservoir tablet. Upon irradiating the tablet with UV light, the original permeability decreased by 57%, and consequently the diffusion rate of the cargo

  8. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios...

  9. 76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  10. 77 FR 71688 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...; FV12-915-1 FIR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.37 to $0.25 per 55-pound bushel container of Florida avocados handled. The...

  11. Decreased Soil Nitrification Rate with Addition of Biochar to Acid Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyu LI; Xiangshu DONG; Dandan LIU; Li LIU; Feifei HE

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed biochar on the nitrification rate in acidic soils. A 15N tracer experiment with (15NH4)2SO4 was conducted to determine the nitrification rates of 4 acidic agricultural soils with pH 4.03-6.02in Yunnan Province, Southern China. The accumulation of 15N-NO3 - and nitrification rates decreased with the addition of biochar at the end of incubation, suggesting that biochar could be a nitrification inhibitor in acidic fertilized soil. Nitrification rates in soil with pH 4.03 were evidently lower than those in soil with pH 4.81 -6.02 with or without biochar. Decreased nitrification rates were detected in the acidic soils with biochar. Soil pH controlled nitrification more than biochar in certain strongly acidic soils.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of decreased ventilation rates and radon exhalation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased ventilation, achieved by weather stripping and other tightening measures, is the most cost effective way to energy conservation. A very low investment can result in a considerable decrease in ventilation rate. For a typical detached house in Sweden this can be equivalent to a decrease in oil consumption of 0.5 m 3 . At present price this corresponds to a saving of SEK 1200, 150 US dollars per annum. The contribution of the building materials to the concentration of radon in indoor air is approximately the inverse to air exchange rate. For a small change in ventilation rate and cost, in SEK/man Sv or US dollar/man Sv, is a function of ventilation rate, exhalation from building materials, the ratio between surface of walls, floor and ceiling to the volume of air. Thus, it is possible to find the specific ventilation rate where the marginal cost for a small increase in ventilation rate and the marginal reduction in radon concentration will give a specific amount of money for each man Sv. Examples are given. Conclusions are that for most building materials in a climate like the Swedish, there are other factors than exhalation of radon from building materials that sets the lower limit of recommendable ventilation rate. (Author)

  13. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  14. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  15. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  16. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  17. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014 fiscal year and all subsequent fiscal periods from $0.003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  18. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  19. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Petravic, Janka; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-04-01

    In malaria holoendemic settings, decreased parasitemia and clinical disease is associated with age and cumulative exposure. The relative contribution of acquired immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle is not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether changes in infection dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages. We use both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detection of parasitemia in order to understand parasite growth rates and infection rates over time. The more sensitive PCR assay detects parasites earlier than microscopy, and demonstrates a higher overall prevalence of infection than microscopy alone. The delay between PCR and microscopy detection is significantly longer in adults compared with children, consistent with slower parasite growth with age. We estimated the parasite multiplication rate from delay to PCR and microscopy detections of parasitemia. We find that both the delay between PCR and microscopy infection as well as the differing reinfection dynamics in different age groups are best explained by a slowing of parasite growth with age.

  20. Community-based primary prevention programs decrease the rate of metabolic syndrome among socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Lauren Gray; Malhotra, Rajeev; Peltier-Saxe, Donna; Slicas, Donna; Pineda, Eliana; Culhane-Hermann, Catherine; Cook, Nakela; Fernandez-Golarz, Carina; Wood, Malissa

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is one of the strongest predictors of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is associated with a 4- to 10-fold increased risk of DM2 and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of CVD. Low income and minority women have some of the highest rates of MetSyn. This study examines the effect of a unique, community based, primary prevention program on the rates of MetSyn and health habits. Sixty-four low income and minority women were enrolled in the HAPPY (Health Awareness and Primary Prevention in Your neighborhood) Heart Program in an eastern suburb of Boston. Over these 2 years, patients were evaluated by an interdisciplinary medical team: their primary physician, cardiologist, nutritionist, physical therapist, and health coach. The rate of MetSyn was measured at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Comparisons were made either using the paired t test for normally distributed variables or the Wilcoxon Sign test for non-normal variables. The rate of MetSyn fell from 64.7% at baseline to 34.9% at year 1 (p=0.01) and 28.2% at year 2 (p<0.001). This was driven by increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p<0.001) and decreases in blood pressure (p=0.05). Fasting blood glucose trended down, but the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reached significance (decreasing from 6 to 5.8, p<0.01). Nutrition and exercise habits trended toward improvement. There were significant decreases in anxiety (p<0.001), depression (p=0.006) and stress (p=0.002). This lifestyle intervention program is effective at decreasing MetSyn in a socioeconomically disadvantaged, largely minority, female population. This program also decreases anxiety, stress, and depression among participants.

  1. Growth hormone increases and maturation decreases glutamine synthetase turnover rate in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone (GH) replacement regimen (1 mg/100 g twice daily for 30 days); and maturation (from 25 up to 90 days) on the liver and brain glutamine synthetase (GS) mass and turnover rates in rats. The first order decay rate of enzyme 14 C radioactivity was determined between 1 and 4 days to obtain the half-life (T/sub 1/2/) of GS. The hepatic GS mass was determined by immunoassay. GS turnover (GS/sub s/) was calculated from T/sub 1/2/ and the GS mass (i.e., K = 0.693/T/sub 1/2/; GS/sub s/ = K x GS mass). It was concluded that: (1) GS specific activity is not decreased by hypophysectomy or increased by GH. These results suggested that observed endocrine induced changes in GS are due to changes in GS mass. (2) The liver GS turnover rate is significantly reduced by hypophysectomy and increased by GH replacement. It was proposed that GH specifically enhances synthesis of GS in the liver. (3) Maturation (25, 40, 60, and 90 days) decreases GS turnover rate in both liver and brain of normal rats. This similar effect of maturation suggests that the observed age induced decline in GS turnover rate is not related to GH in all tissues

  2. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  3. Decreased suicide rate after induced abortion, after the Current Care Guidelines in Finland 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Karalis, Elina; Ulander, Veli-Matti

    2015-02-01

    Women with a recent induced abortion have a 3-fold risk for suicide, compared to non-pregnant women. The increased risk was recognised in unofficial guidelines (1996) and Current Care Guidelines (2001) on abortion treatment, highlighting the importance of a check-up 2 - 3 weeks after the termination, to monitor for mental health disorders. We studied the suicide trends after induced abortion in 1987 - 2012 in Finland. We linked the Register on Induced Abortions (N = 284,751) and Cause-of-Death Register (N = 3798 suicides) to identify women who had committed suicide within 1 year after an induced abortion (N = 79). The abortion rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated for 1987 - 1996 (period with no guidelines), 1997 - 2001 (with unofficial guidelines) and 2002 - 2012 (with Current Care Guidelines). The suicide rate after induced abortion declined by 24%, from 32.4/100,000 in 1987 - 1996 to 24.3/100,000 in 1997 - 2001 and then 24.8/100,000 in 2002 - 2012. The age-adjusted suicide rate among women aged 15 - 49 decreased by 13%; from 11.4/100,000 to 10.4/100,000 and 9.9/100,000, respectively. After induced abortions, the suicide rate increased by 30% among teenagers (to 25/100,000), stagnated for women aged 20 - 24 (at 32/100,000), but decreased by 43% (to 21/100,000) for women aged 25 - 49. The excess risk for suicide after induced abortion decreased, but the change was not statistically significant. Women with a recent induced abortion still have a 2-fold suicide risk. A mandatory check-up may decrease this risk. The causes for the increased suicide risk, including mental health prior to pregnancy and the social circumstances, should be investigated further. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  5. Implementation of vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery to decrease endometritis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Laura; Paternostro, Amanda; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Baxter, Jason; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-01-17

    Endometritis is a postpartum complication that is more common after cesarean delivery. It frequently requires intravenous antibiotic administration, prolonged hospital stays, and carries a risk of sepsis or abscess formation. Precesarean vaginal preparation has been shown to decrease the risk of endometritis in patients who have labored or have ruptured membranes. The objective of this study was to assess the practical implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery and the subsequent effect on endometritis rates in a clinical setting. This is a before-after retrospective cohort study evaluating the first 6 months of implementation of a vaginal cleansing protocol at a single institution. The primary outcome was the rate of implementation. Secondary outcomes included endometritis and other postoperative complications. The rate of implementation after 6 months was 68.3% (p < .001) and postoperative endometritis rates decreased from 14.0% before implementation to 11.7% after implementation (p .49, OR 0.77, CI 0.36-1.62). Postoperative fever decreased from 22.3% to 18.3% (p .256, OR 0.70, CI 0.37-1.30) and infectious wound complications were 4.5% and 5.8%, respectively (p .76, OR 1.07, CI 0.69-3.64). Implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery in women with ruptured membranes or in labor has high uptake, but in almost a third of eligible women it was not performed. The implementation, has led to a clinical, although not statistical, decrease in postoperative endometritis. Continued research is needed to explore how to improve uptake of this quality improvement measure.

  6. Decreasing Emergency Department Walkout Rate and Boarding Hours by Improving Inpatient Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenstein, Andrew W; Rathlev, Niels K; Neal, Douglas; Townsend, Vernette; Vemula, Michael; Goldlust, Sheila; Schmidt, Joseph; Visintainer, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Patient progress, the movement of patients through a hospital system from admission to discharge, is a foundational component of operational effectiveness in healthcare institutions. Optimal patient progress is a key to delivering safe, high-quality and high-value clinical care. The Baystate Patient Progress Initiative (BPPI), a cross-disciplinary, multifaceted quality and process improvement project, was launched on March 1, 2014, with the primary goal of optimizing patient progress for adult patients. The BPPI was implemented at our system's tertiary care, academic medical center, a high-volume, high-acuity hospital that serves as a regional referral center for western Massachusetts. The BPPI was structured as a 24-month initiative with an oversight group that ensured collaborative goal alignment and communication of operational teams. It was organized to address critical aspects of a patient's progress through his hospital stay and to create additional inpatient capacity. The specific goal of the BPPI was to decrease length of stay (LOS) on the inpatient adult Hospital Medicine service by optimizing an interdisciplinary plan of care and promoting earlier departure of discharged patients. Concurrently, we measured the effects on emergency department (ED) boarding hours per patient and walkout rates. The BPPI engaged over 300 employed clinicians and non-clinicians in the work. We created increased inpatient capacity by implementing daily interdisciplinary bedside rounds to proactively address patient progress; during the 24 months, this resulted in a sustained rate of discharge orders written before noon of more than 50% and a decrease in inpatient LOS of 0.30 days (coefficient: -0.014, 95% CI [-0.023, -0.005] Pboarding hours per patient decreased by approximately 2.1 hours (coefficient: -0.09; 95% CI [-0.15, -0.02] P = 0.007). Concurrently, ED walkout rates decreased by nearly 32% to a monthly mean of 0.4 patients (coefficient: 0.4; 95% CI [-0.7, -0.1] P= 0

  7. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Jbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods: Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results: The results of our statistical

  8. A Virtual Reality Curriculum for Pediatric Residents Decreases Rates of Influenza Vaccine Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Francis J; DeBlasio, Dominick; Beck, Andrew F; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Davis, David; Cruse, Bradley; Samaan, Zeina; McLinden, Daniel; Klein, Melissa D

    Influenza vaccine hesitancy is common in the primary care setting. Though physicians can affect caregivers' attitudes toward vaccination, physicians report uneasiness discussing vaccine hesitancy. Few studies have targeted physician-patient communication training as a means to decrease vaccination refusal. An immersive virtual reality (VR) curriculum was created to teach pediatric residents communication skills when discussing influenza vaccine hesitancy. This pilot curriculum consisted of 3 VR simulations during which residents counseled graphical character representatives (avatars) who expressed vaccine hesitancy. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 24) or control (n = 21) group. Only residents in the intervention group underwent the VR curriculum. Impact of the curriculum was assessed through difference in influenza vaccine refusal rates between the intervention and control groups in the 3 months after the VR curriculum. Participants included postgraduate level (PL) 2 and PL3 pediatric residents. All eligible residents (n = 45) participated; the survey response rate was 100%. In patients aged 6 to 59 months, residents in the intervention group had a decreased rate of influenza vaccination refusal in the postcurriculum period compared to the control group (27.8% vs 37.1%; P = .03). Immersive VR may be an effective modality to teach communication skills to medical trainees. Next steps include evaluation of the curriculum in a larger, multisite trial. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of usual lead apron in decreasing dose rate in nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momennezhad, M.; Ghazikhanloo, K.; Zakavi, S.R. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In a busy nuclear medicine department personnel exposure to radiation is inevitable during patient positioning and radiotracer preparation. There is controversy regarding usage of usual lead aprons with respect to penetrating gamma rays used in nuclear medicine departments as well as production of characteristic lead x-ray from aprons.This study tries to evaluate the effect of 0.5 mm lead apron on dose reduction. Methods and materials: We used three point sources usual radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine departments (99 mTc, 201 Tl and 131 I) and a single head L.F.O.V. gamma camera (S.M.V., D.S.X.) was used for counting purposes. The count rate for each source was about 20 K count/sec in air and in a brain water phantom. All point sources were placed at a distance of 3 meters, parallel to the center of the detector. The collimator was removed and imaging was performed for 1 min with and without lead apron on the detector. Lead apron covered all field of view of the detector. Each imaging was repeated 3 times and mean count was obtained for each radioisotope. The measurements were accomplished from full spectrum and specific region of spectrum such as characteristic lead x rays region (88 keV 20%) with and without apron. Result and Discussion: The measurement and comparison of count rates (count/min) for each source in different conditions (with and without apron source in air and in water phantom) showed that count rates were reduced in air about 77.3%, 84.2% and 40.8% for 99 mTc, 201 Tl and 131 I respectively. The reduction in count rates when sources placed in brain water phantom were 83.5%, 87% and 53.7% for the same isotope respectively. As the main source of radiation for personnel is from scattered photon and with respect to about 83% of count rate reduction using lead aprons for 99 mTc, it is expected that wearing lead apron significantly decrease dose rate. Conclusion: Our study showed that lead aprons

  10. Effect of usual lead apron in decreasing dose rate in nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momennezhad, M.; Ghazikhanloo, K.; Zakavi, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In a busy nuclear medicine department personnel exposure to radiation is inevitable during patient positioning and radiotracer preparation. There is controversy regarding usage of usual lead aprons with respect to penetrating gamma rays used in nuclear medicine departments as well as production of characteristic lead x-ray from aprons.This study tries to evaluate the effect of 0.5 mm lead apron on dose reduction. Methods and materials: We used three point sources usual radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine departments (99 mTc, 201 Tl and 131 I) and a single head L.F.O.V. gamma camera (S.M.V., D.S.X.) was used for counting purposes. The count rate for each source was about 20 K count/sec in air and in a brain water phantom. All point sources were placed at a distance of 3 meters, parallel to the center of the detector. The collimator was removed and imaging was performed for 1 min with and without lead apron on the detector. Lead apron covered all field of view of the detector. Each imaging was repeated 3 times and mean count was obtained for each radioisotope. The measurements were accomplished from full spectrum and specific region of spectrum such as characteristic lead x rays region (88 keV 20%) with and without apron. Result and Discussion: The measurement and comparison of count rates (count/min) for each source in different conditions (with and without apron source in air and in water phantom) showed that count rates were reduced in air about 77.3%, 84.2% and 40.8% for 99 mTc, 201 Tl and 131 I respectively. The reduction in count rates when sources placed in brain water phantom were 83.5%, 87% and 53.7% for the same isotope respectively. As the main source of radiation for personnel is from scattered photon and with respect to about 83% of count rate reduction using lead aprons for 99 mTc, it is expected that wearing lead apron significantly decrease dose rate. Conclusion: Our study showed that lead aprons

  11. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase decreases atrioventricular node-paced heart rate in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Smith, Godfrey L; Orchard, Clive H; Hancox, Jules C; Burton, Francis L

    2012-10-01

    Recent data indicate that Ca(2+) cycling in isolated atrioventricular node (AVN) cells contributes to setting spontaneous rate. The aim of the present study was to extend this observation to the intact AVN in situ, by evaluating the effects of inhibiting sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) on intact AVN spontaneous activity and its response to isoprenaline. A model of the AVN-paced heart was produced to investigate intact AVN automaticity, by surgical ablation of the sino-atrial node (SAN) in the rabbit Langendorff-perfused heart. Electrograms were recorded from a site close to the AVN (triangle of Koch), an atrial site above the AVN, the left atrium and right ventricle, enabling AVN pacing of the preparation to be confirmed. Before SAN ablation, the heart rate was 166.8 ± 5.4 beats min(-1). Ablation of the SAN was clearly indicated by a sudden and significant decrease of heart rate to 108.6 ± 9.6 beats min(-1) (P AVN rate to 187.8 ± 12.0 beats min(-1) after 1 min of application (P AVN rate to 81.6 ± 4.8 (n = 9) and 77.4 ± 6.0 beats min(-1) (n = 7), respectively [P AVN rate increase in response to isoprenaline from 78.8 ± 10.0 to 46.8 ± 6.8 and 26.7 ± 5.3%, respectively (P AVN rate and its response to isoprenaline indicate that Ca(2+) cycling is important to the intact AVN spontaneous activity and its acceleration during sympathetic stimulation.

  12. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  13. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  14. Interatrial septum pacing decreases atrial dyssynchrony on strain rate imaging compared with right atrial appendage pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Abe, Haruhiko; Umekawa, Seiko; Katsuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Norio; Araki, Ryo; Imanaka, Takahiro; Matsutera, Ryo; Morisawa, Daisuke; Kitada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Susumu; Noda, Yoshiki; Adachi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Miyatake, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Interatrial septum pacing (IAS-P) decreases atrial conduction delay compared with right atrial appendage pacing (RAA-P). We evaluate the atrial contraction with strain rate of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) during sinus activation or with IAS-P or RAA-P. Fifty-two patients with permanent pacemaker for sinus node disease were enrolled in the study. Twenty-three subjects were with IAS-P and 29 with RAA-P. The time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate was measured and corrected with RR interval on electrocardiogram. It was defined as the time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate (TSRc), and the balance between maximum and minimum TSRc at three sites (ΔTSRc) was compared during sinus activation and with pacing rhythm in each group. There were no significant differences observed in general characteristics and standard echocardiographic parameters except the duration of pacing P wave between the two groups. The duration was significantly shorter in the IAS-P group compared with the RAA-P group (95 ± 34 vs 138 ± 41; P = 0.001). TSRc was significantly different between sinus activation and pacing rhythm (36.3 ± 35.7 vs 61.6 ± 36.3; P = 0.003) in the RAA-P group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the IAS-P group (25.4 ± 12.1 vs 27.7 ± 14.7; NS). During the follow-up (mean 2.4 ± 0.7 years), the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) conversion to permanent AF was not significantly different between the two groups. IAS-P decreased the contraction delay on atrial TDI compared to RAA-P; however, it did not contribute to the reduction of AF incidence in the present study. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perioperative use of tamsulosin significantly decreases rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poylin, Vitaliy; Curran, Thomas; Cataldo, Thomas; Nagle, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Urinary retention is a common complication of pelvic surgery, leading to urinary tract infection and prolonged hospital stays. Tamsulosin is an alpha blocker that works by relaxing bladder neck muscles. It is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and retention. We aim to investigate the potential benefits of preemptive tamsulosin use on rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This is a retrospective review of an institutional colorectal database. All men undergoing pelvic surgery between 2004 and 2013 were included. Patients given 0.4 mg of tamsulosin 3 days prior and after surgery at discretion of surgeon starting in 2007 were compared with patients receiving expectant postoperative management. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study (study group: N = 30; control group: N = 155). Study group patients were older (56.8 vs. 50.1 years). Overall urinary retention rate was 22% with significantly lower rates in the study group compared with control (6.7 vs. 25%; p = 0.029). Study group had higher rates of minimally invasive surgery (61 vs. 29.7%); however, this did not impact urinary retention rate (20.6 vs. 22.7% for minimally invasive surgery vs. open surgery; p = 0.85). Independent predictors of urinary retention included lack of preemptive tamsulosin (odds ratio (OR), 7.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-41.7) and cancer location in the distal third of the rectum (OR, 18.8; 95% CI, 2.1-172.8). Preemptive perioperative use of tamsulosin may significantly decrease the incidence of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This may play a role in avoidance of urinary retention, particularly in patients with distal rectal cancer.

  16. DECREASING SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT. THEORETICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and social empowerment in Romania are unconcievable in the absence of a modern education system, which needs both economic and financial investments and social, political, cultural measures to increase the inclusion of young people in school system. In this particular context, given that Romania faces a high degree rate of school dropout, and moreover there are few chances that Romania reach its goals, we try in this paper to look inside the real situation. Indeed, school dropout present serious negative consequences both on individual level and for the whole society. Recognising this fact, next step is to investigate and reveal the determining factors for this situation, and we are particularly interested in the economic and systemic factors. Consequently, we present in this paper first a brief literature review on the fenomenon of school dropping out, including reviewing main studies related to factors, effects, causes etc. In the second part, starting from several statistical data provided by INS, EUROSTAT and UNICEF studies, we propose some theoretical models and policy reccomendations in order to decrease the school dropout rate and especially the early school dropout rate.

  17. Decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin required for physician notification reduces the rate of blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson EA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric A Larson,1 Paul A Thompson,1,2 Zachary K Anderson,3 Keith A Anderson,4 Roxana A Lupu,1 Vicki Tigner,5 Wendell W Hoffman6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Fairview Health Services, Edina, MN, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 5Medical Staff Services, 6Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford Health, Sanford USD Medical Center, 7Department of Infectious Disease, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USAAbstract: Red blood cell transfusions have been cited as one of the most overused therapeutic interventions in the USA. Excessively aggressive transfusion practices may be driven by mandatory physician notification of critical hemoglobin values that do not generally require transfusion. We examined the effect of decreasing the critical value of hemoglobin from 8 to 7 g/dL at our institution. Along with this change, mandatory provider notification for readings between 7 and 8 g/dL was rescinded. Transfusion rates were compared retrospectively during paired 5-month periods for patients presenting in three key hemoglobin ranges (6.00–6.99, 7.00–7.99, and 8.00–8.99 g/dL. A change in transfusion practices was hypothesized in the 7–8 g/dL range, which was no longer labeled critical and for which mandated physician calls were rescinded. Transfusion rates showed a statistically significant 8% decrease (P≤0.0001 during the 5-month period post change in our transfusion practices. This decrease in the 7.00–7.99 g/dL range was significantly greater than the 2% decrease observed in either the 6–6.99 g/dL (P=0.0017 or 8–8.99 g/dL (P≤0.0001 range. Cost savings of up to $700,000/year were extrapolated from our results showing 491 fewer units of red blood cells transfused during the 5-month post change. These cost

  18. Livaditis' circular myotomy does not decrease anastomotic leak rates and induces deleterious changes in anastomotic healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannuri, U; Teodoro, W R; de Santana Witzel, S; Tannuri, A C A; Lupinacci, R M; Matsunaga, P; Matsumura, N; Naufal, R R

    2003-08-01

    Considering that Livaditis' myotomy is still accepted as a good method for lengthening the esophagus to allow primary repair of long-gap esophageal atresia, the aim of this experimental study was to verify if this procedure decreases the incidence of leaks in anastomoses performed under severe tension. In addition, it was verified whether the myotomy promotes any morphological or biochemical change in the healing esophageal anastomosis. Sixty small dogs were submitted to a cervicotomy and resection of an esophageal segment (8.0 - 10.0 cm) resulting in an anastomosis under severe tension. The animals were divided into two groups (control group: only anastomosis; experimental group: anastomosis plus circular myotomy in the proximal esophageal segment). The animals were sacrificed on the 14th postoperative day, submitted to autopsy, and were evaluated as to the presence of leaks. Twelve scars of each group were collected for histological, histomorphometric (evaluation of scar thickness), electrophoretic and immunoblotting studies of collagen (total collagen and types of collagen determinations). Leak rates were the same in both groups. Histologic examination showed that the scar at the anastomosis was formed by fibrous tissue, without mucosa or muscular tissue. In the myotomy animals, a decreased number of newly formed small vessels was noted in comparison to control animals, and morphometric analysis showed that in the myotomy animals the anastomotic scar was thinner than in the control animals. Biochemical analysis of scars demonstrated that myotomy promoted a decrease in the soluble collagen content in comparison with the control animals and no alteration in the content of insoluble collagen. The electrophoretic separation of the types of collagen and characterization by immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of collagen types I, III, and V, and the quantification by densitometry of the bands showed a reduction in collagen type V (present in the blood vessels) in

  19. Reviewing and piloting methods for decreasing discount rates; someone, somewhere in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parouty, Mehraj B Y; Krooshof, Daan G M; Westra, Tjalke A; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-08-01

    There has been substantial debate on the need for decreasing discounting for monetary and health gains in economic evaluations. Next to the discussion on differential discounting, a way to identify the need for such discounting strategies is through eliciting the time preferences for monetary and health outcomes. In this article, the authors investigate the perceived time preference for money and health gains through a pilot survey on Dutch university students using methods on functional forms previously suggested. Formal objectives of the study were to review such existing methods and to pilot them on a convenience sample using a questionnaire designed for this specific purpose. Indeed, a negative relation between the time of delay and the variance of the discounting rate for all models was observed. This study was intended as a pilot for a large-scale population-based investigation using the findings from this pilot on wording of the questionnaire, interpretation, scope and analytic framework.

  20. Decreased activation and subsyndromal manic symptoms predict lower remission rates in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Walsh, Samantha; Deckersbach, Thilo; Bobo, William V; Gao, Keming; Ketter, Terence A; Shelton, Richard C; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Tohen, Mauricio; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael E; Kocsis, James H; Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-11-01

    Activation encompasses energy and activity and is a central feature of bipolar disorder. However, the impact of activation on treatment response of bipolar depression requires further exploration. The aims of this study were to assess the association of decreased activation and sustained remission in bipolar depression and test for factors that could affect this association. We assessed participants with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) bipolar depression ( n = 303) included in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium- and quetiapine-based treatments (the Bipolar CHOICE study). Activation was evaluated using items from the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale. The selection of these items was based on a dimension of energy and interest symptoms associated with poorer treatment response in major depression. Decreased activation was associated with lower remission rates in the raw analyses and in a logistic regression model adjusted for baseline severity and subsyndromal manic symptoms (odds ratio = 0.899; p = 0.015). The manic features also predicted lower remission (odds ratio = 0.934; p bipolar depression. Patients with these features may require specific treatment approaches, but new studies are necessary to identify treatments that could improve outcomes in this population.

  1. Experimental sources of variation in avian energetics: estimated basal metabolic rate decreases with successive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul J; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is one of the most widely used metabolic variables in endotherm ecological and evolutionary physiology. Surprisingly few studies have investigated how BMR is influenced by experimental and analytical variables over and above the standardized conditions required for minimum normothermic resting metabolism. We tested whether avian BMR is affected by habituation to the conditions experienced during laboratory gas exchange measurements by measuring BMR five times in succession in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) housed under constant temperature and photoperiod. Both the magnitude and the variability of BMR decreased significantly with repeated measurements, from 0.410 ± 0.092 W (n = 9) during the first measurement to 0.285 ± 0.042 W (n = 9) during the fifth measurement. Thus, estimated BMR decreased by ∼30% within individuals solely on account of the number of times they had previously experienced the experimental conditions. The most likely explanation for these results is an attenuation with repeated exposure of the acute stress response induced by birds being handled and placed in respirometry chambers. Our data suggest that habituation to experimental conditions is potentially an important determinant of observed BMR, and this source of variation needs to be taken into account in future studies of metabolic variation among individuals, populations, and species.

  2. Selective angiographic embolization of blunt splenic traumatic injuries in adults decreases failure rate of nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Indermeet S; Frykberg, Eric R; Siragusa, Daniel; Chesire, David; Paul, Julia; Tepas, Joseph J; Kerwin, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether angioembolization (AE) in hemodynamically stable adult patients with blunt splenic trauma (BST) at high risk for failure of nonoperative management (NOM) (contrast blush [CB] on computed tomography, high-grade IV-V injuries, or decreasing hemoglobin) results in lower failure rates than reported. The records of patients with BST from July 2000 to December 2010 at a Level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed using National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Failure of NOM (FNOM) occurred if splenic surgery was required after attempted NOM. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOM. A total of 1,039 patients with BST were found. Pediatric patients (age <17 years), those who died in the emergency department, and those requiring immediate surgery for hemodynamic instability were excluded. Of the 539 (64% of all BST) hemodynamically stable patients who underwent NOM, 104 (19%) underwent AE and 435 (81%) were observed without AE (NO-AE). FNOM for the various groups were as follows: overall NOM (4%), NO-AE (4%), and AE (4%). There was no significant difference in FNOM for NO-AE versus AE for grades I to III: grade I (1% vs. 0%, p = 1), grade II (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.318), and grade III (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.562); however, a significant decrease in FNOM was noted with the addition of AE for grades IV to V: grade IV (23% vs. 3%, p = 0.04) and grade V (63% vs. 9%, p = 0.03). Statistically significant independent risk factors for FNOM were grade IV to V injuries and CB. Application of strictly defined selection criteria for NOM and AE in patients with BST resulted in one of the lowest overall FNOM rates (4%). Hemodynamically stable BST patients are candidates for NOM with selective AE for high-risk patients with grade IV to V injuries, CB on initial computed tomography, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels. III, therapeutic study.

  3. Does attention speed up processing? Decreases and increases of processing rates in visual prior entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünnermann, Jan; Petersen, Anders; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2015-03-02

    Selective visual attention improves performance in many tasks. Among others, it leads to "prior entry"--earlier perception of an attended compared to an unattended stimulus. Whether this phenomenon is purely based on an increase of the processing rate of the attended stimulus or if a decrease in the processing rate of the unattended stimulus also contributes to the effect is, up to now, unanswered. Here we describe a novel approach to this question based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention, which we use to overcome the limitations of earlier prior-entry assessment with temporal order judgments (TOJs) that only allow relative statements regarding the processing speed of attended and unattended stimuli. Prevalent models of prior entry in TOJs either indirectly predict a pure acceleration or cannot model the difference between acceleration and deceleration. In a paradigm that combines a letter-identification task with TOJs, we show that indeed acceleration of the attended and deceleration of the unattended stimuli conjointly cause prior entry. © 2015 ARVO.

  4. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant'Ana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG - "no intervention" (n=17 or IG- "intervention" (n=16. IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP, professional prophylaxis (PROPH and oral hygiene instruction (OHI. NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, plaque index (PI and sulcular bleeding index (SBI at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (0.05 at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001, except for PI. Signifcant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001. The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Aging and decreased glomerular filtration rate: An elderly population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C R M Abdulkader

    Full Text Available Although a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR in old people has been attributed to physiologic aging, it may be associated with kidney disease or superimposed comorbidities. This study aims to assess the prevalence of decreased GFR in a geriatric population in a developing country and its prevalence in the absence of simultaneous diseases.This is a cross-sectional study of data from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento cohort study (SABE study[Health, Well-Being and Aging], a multiple cohorts study. A multistage cluster sample composed of 1,253 individuals representative of 1,249,388 inhabitants of São Paulo city aged ≥60 years in 2010 was analyzed. The participants answered a survey on socio-demographic factors and health, had blood pressure measured and urine and blood samples collected. GFR was estimated and defined as decreased when 0.20 g/g.The prevalence of GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 was 19.3%. Individuals with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 were older (75±1 versus 69±1 years, p<0.001, had lower schooling (18 versus 30% with complete 8-year basic cycle, p = 0.010, and higher prevalence of hypertension (82 versus 63%, p<0.001, diabetes (34 versus 26%, p = 0.021, cardiovascular disease (43 versus 24%, p<0.001 and kidney damage (35% versus 15%, p<0.001. Only 0.7% of the entire studied population had GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 without simultaneous diseases or kidney damage. Among the individuals with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2, 3.5% had neither renal damage nor associated comorbidities, whereas among those with GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2, 11.0% had none of these conditions. Logistic regression showed that older age, cardiovascular disease and hypertension were associated with GFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2.Decreased GFR was highly prevalent among the geriatric population in a megalopolis of a developing country. It was rarely present without simultaneous chronic comorbidities or kidney damage.

  6. A photo-tunable membrane based on inter-particle crosslinking for decreasing diffusion rates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    Functional polymeric membranes are widely used to adjust and control the diffusion of molecules. Herein, photosensitive poly(hydroxycinnamic acid) (PHCA) microspheres, which were fabricated by an emulsification solvent-evaporation method, were embedded into an ethyl cellulose matrix to fabricate composite membranes with a photo-tunable property. The photoreaction of PHCA is based on the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of cinnamic moieties upon irradiation with 365 nm light. Intra-particle crosslinking in PHCA microspheres was confirmed in the solution phase, while inter-particle crosslinking between adjacent PHCA microspheres dominated the solid membrane phase. The inter-particle crosslinking turned down the permeability of the composite membranes by 74%. To prove the applicability of the designed system, the composite membrane was coated on a model drug reservoir tablet. Upon irradiating the tablet with UV light, the original permeability decreased by 57%, and consequently the diffusion rate of the cargo (Rhodamine B) from the tablet slowed down. Most importantly, the tablet showed sustained release for over 10 days. This controllability can be further tuned by adjusting the membrane thickness. Composite membranes showed excellent processing reproducibility together with consistent mechanical properties. These results demonstrate that the incorporation of photosensitive PHCA microspheres in polymeric membranes provides a promising photo-tunable material for different applications including coating and separation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  7. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Reduced food intake is a frequent problem at a hospital setting, being a cause and/or consequence of malnutrition. Food presentation can affect food intake and induce nutritional benefit. To investigate the effect of improved meal presentation supported by gastronomy expertise on the food intake in adults hospitalized in internal medicine departments. Controlled before and after study. Two hundred and six newly hospitalized patients in internal medicine departments were included and divided in two groups, a) control: receiving the standard lunch from the hospital and b) experimental: receiving a lunch improved in terms of presentation by the advices received by the Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, Lyon, France together with the hospital kitchen of the Beilinson Hospital, without change in the composition of the meal. The amount of food left at the participants' plates was estimated using the Digital Imaging Method, which consisted in photographing the plates immediately to previous tray collection by the researcher. In addition, the nutritionDay questionnaire was used to measure other variables concerned to their food intake during hospitalization. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demography or Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients who received the meal with the improved presentation showed significantly higher food intake than those who received the standard meal, despite reported loss in appetite. Participants from the experimental group left on their plate less starch (0.19 ± 0.30 vs. 0.52 + 0.41) (p  0.05). Both of the groups were asked how hungry they were before the meal and no significance was shown. More participants from the experimental group reported their meal to be tasty in comparison to those in the control group (49.5% vs. 33.7% p < 0.005). Length of stay was not different but readmission rate decreased significantly in the study group (p < 0.02) from 31.2% to 13

  8. Decreasing soil erosion rates with evolving land-use techniques in a central European catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Annegret; Heckmann, Tobias; Hans-Rudolf, Bork; Alexander, Fuelling

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural societies around the world have caused accelerated soil erosion. Soil erosion and a decrease in soil fertility may also have caused the abandonment of entire landscapes and the collapse of civilizations. In central Europe, Medieval land-use is thought to have lead to the largest loss of top soil in history, which in turn lead to a malnutrition of the population and abandonment of agricultural land. However, this might be only part of the picture, as people are also able to adapt to changing environmental conditions, including the type of land-use they adopt. Within a catchment in the central European mountain belt, we were able to distinguish the evolution between three main types of land-use techniques between ~ 900 AD and 1950 AD: horticulture, agriculture and shifting cultivation. We were able to relate these techniques with different soil erosion rates, which differ by an order of magnitude, ranging from 0.83 ± 0.09 mm/yr to 1.62 ± 0.17 mm/yr. Using high-resolution surface data and chrono-stratigraphical methods in combination with soil charcoal analysis, we were able to reconstruct past land-use techniques on a local scale. This illustrates that less erosive and more sustainable techniques were developed through time, and hypothesize that people were able to adapt to the less favorable environmental conditions by changing the cultivation techniques. Although cultural adaptation to changing environmental conditions has been extensively discussed, this study is able to quantitatively demonstrate improved soil management with evolving land-use in central Europe.

  9. Glutamate transporter type 3 knockout leads to decreased heart rate possibly via parasympathetic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Jiejie; Li, Liaoliao; Feng, Chenzhuo; Xiong, Lize; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Parasympathetic tone is a dominant neural regulator for basal heart rate. Glutamate transporters (EAAT) via their glutamate uptake functions regulate glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We showed that EAAT type 3 (EAAT3) knockout mice had a slower heart rate than wild-type mice when they were anesthetized. We design this study to determine whether non-anesthetized EAAT3 knockout mice have a slower heart rate and, if so, what may be the mechanism for this effect. Young a...

  10. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  11. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Ho Jee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC: −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6 and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2. The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8 and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7 and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC: −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8. By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  12. Hopelessness is associated with decreased heart rate variability during championship chess games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alfons M; Schächinger, Hartmut; Adler, Rolf H; Goetz, Stefan M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest that negative affects such as helplessness/hopelessness (HE/HO) may induce autonomic duration; affects were assessed for every move after reconstruction of the games. In all games compiled, 18 situation of intense confidence/optimism and 20 of intense helplessness/hopelessness were observed. Intense affects of HE/HO were associated with decreasing HF-HRV (Fisher exact test, p =.003), increasing "nervousness" (p =.0005), decreasing "optimism" (p =.0005), and decreasing "calmness" (p =.0005). Investigation of championship chess game players with an ELO strength > or = 2300 in a natural field setting revealed increasing HE/HO being associated with reduced HF-HRV suggestive of vagal withdrawal. Thus, our data may help link negative mood states, autonomic nervous system disturbances, and cardiac events.

  13. 78 FR 24981 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, Washington potato handlers are subject to assessments... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0010... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the...

  14. 77 FR 39150 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, Florida... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0094... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the...

  15. 76 FR 53813 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California dried prune handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0068... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the...

  16. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such

  17. New von Hippel-Lindau manifestations develop at the same or decreased rates in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed throughout their lifetimes. We analyzed age-dependent manifestation rates using Poisson regression. We compared the women's rates in intervals where they had been pregnant with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals. We investigated possible long-term effects using pregnancy intervals...... is not due to concurrence of a naturally milder tumor development in women's fertile ages, as the rate of new tumor development increases for both men and women from 20 years of age, even more in men than in women....... of increasing lengths of 1, 3, and 5 years after conception. Furthermore, we compared age-related manifestation rates for women and men. RESULTS: From birth to the participants' current age, 581 manifestations were diagnosed; mean age was 37.5 years (range 2-64 years). Seventeen women had completed 30...

  18. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total farm-gate value of summer/fall processed pears grown in Oregon and... introductory text and paragraph (a) are revised to read as follows: Sec. 927.237 Processed pear assessment rate...

  19. 78 FR 69985 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... fiscal period is estimated at 14,360,000 hundredweight. Thus, the $0.0033 rate should provide $47,388 in... citizens to access Government information and services, and for other purposes. USDA has not identified any...

  20. Ways of TPP and NPP powerful steam turbine blade erosion decreasing in low flow rate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrabrov, P.V.; Khaimov, V.A.; Matveenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A systematized approach to the problem of efficient cooling of flow passage and exhaust parts of TPP and NPP steam turbines and prevention of erosion wear of inlet and outlet edges of operating blades is presented. Methods for LP casing cooling and sources of erosion-hazard moisture as well as the main technological and design measures to decrease the erosion of blades are determined

  1. Role of hydraulic diffusivity in the decrease of weathering rates over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; van der Weijden, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Springs emerging within massifs of crystalline rocks were monitored for discharge rate (Q), and the Q values combined with geomorphic and hydrographic parameters in a hydrologic model to calculate hydraulic conductivity (K) and effective porosity (ne) of the spring watersheds. The spring waters,

  2. 78 FR 24983 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... $7,000,000. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), data for the 2011 crop... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 [Docket No. AMS-FV-12-0035... Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule...

  3. Expansion of inverted repeat does not decrease substitution rates in Pelargonium plastid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mao-Lun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    For species with minor inverted repeat (IR) boundary changes in the plastid genome (plastome), nucleotide substitution rates were previously shown to be lower in the IR than the single copy regions (SC). However, the impact of large-scale IR expansion/contraction on plastid nucleotide substitution rates among closely related species remains unclear. We included plastomes from 22 Pelargonium species, including eight newly sequenced genomes, and used both pairwise and model-based comparisons to investigate the impact of the IR on sequence evolution in plastids. Ten types of plastome organization with different inversions or IR boundary changes were identified in Pelargonium. Inclusion in the IR was not sufficient to explain the variation of nucleotide substitution rates. Instead, the rate heterogeneity in Pelargonium plastomes was a mixture of locus-specific, lineage-specific and IR-dependent effects. Our study of Pelargonium plastomes that vary in IR length and gene content demonstrates that the evolutionary consequences of retaining these repeats are more complicated than previously suggested. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Explanation of enhanced mechanical degradation rate for radiation- aged polyolefins as the aging temperature is decreased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.; Wise, J.; Malone, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Degradation rates are normally increased by increasing the responsible environmental stresses. We describe results for a semi-crystalline, crosslinked polyolefin material that contradicts this assumption. In particular, under combined radiation plus thermal environments, this material mechanically degrades much faster at room temperature than it does at elevated temperatures. The probable explanation for this phenomenon relates to the importance on mechanical properties of the tie molecules connecting crystalline and amorphous regions. Partial melting and reforming/ reorganization of crystallites occurs throughout the crystalline melting region (at least room temperature up to 126 C), with the rate of such processes increasing with an increase in temperature. At low temperatures, this process is sufficiently slow such that a large percentage of the radiation-damaged tie molecules will still connect the amorphous and crystalline regions at the end of aging, leading to rapid reductions in tensile properties. At higher temperatures, the enhanced annealing rate will lead, during the aging, to the establishment of new, undamaged tie molecules connecting crystalline and amorphous regions. This healing process will reduce the degradation rate. Evidence in support of this model is presented

  5. Looking Maori predicts decreased rates of home ownership : Institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkamau, C.A.; Sibley, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national

  6. Decreased re-conviction rates of DUI offenders with intensive supervision and home confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.

  7. Evaluation of an ultraviolet room disinfection protocol to decrease nursing home microbial burden, infection and hospitalization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Christine R; Taneli, Yavuz; Neiman, Tammy; Dyer, Elaine M; Arzaga, Alvin Jason A; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2017-03-03

    The focus of nursing home infection control procedures has been on decreasing transmission between healthcare workers and residents. Less evidence is available regarding whether decontamination of high-touch environmental surfaces impacts infection rates or resident outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if ultraviolet disinfection is associated with changes in: 1) microbial counts and adenosine triphosphate counts on high-touch surfaces; and 2) facility wide nursing home acquired infection rates, and infection-related hospitalization. The study was conducted in one 160-bed long-term care facility. Following discharge of each resident, their room was cleaned and then disinfected using a newly acquired ultraviolet light disinfection device. Shared living spaces received weekly ultraviolet light disinfection. Thirty-six months of pretest infection and hospitalization data were compared with 12 months of posttest data. Pre and posttest cultures were taken from high-touch surfaces, and luminometer readings of adenosine triphosphate were done. Nursing home acquired infection rates were analyzed relative to hospital acquired infection rates using analysis of variance procedures. Wilcoxon signed rank tests, The Cochran's Q, and Chi Square were also used. There were statistically significant decreases in adenosine triphosphate readings on all high-touch surfaces after cleaning and disinfection. Culture results were positive for gram-positive cocci or rods on 33% (n = 30) of the 90 surfaces swabbed at baseline. After disinfectant cleaning, 6 of 90 samples (7.1%) tested positive for a gram-positive bacilli, and after ultraviolet disinfection 4 of the 90 samples (4.4%) were positive. There were significant decreases in nursing home acquired relative to hospital-acquired infection rates for the total infections (p = .004), urinary tract infection rates (p = .014), respiratory system infection rates (p = .017) and for rates of infection of the skin

  8. A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake envenoming is a major clinical problem in Sri Lanka, with an estimated 40,000 bites annually. Antivenom is only available from India and there is a high rate of systemic hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomized comparison trial of two infusion rates of antivenom for treatment of non-pregnant adult patients (>14 y with snake envenoming in Sri Lanka. Snake identification was by patient or hospital examination of dead snakes when available and confirmed by enzyme-immunoassay for Russell's viper envenoming. Patients were blindly allocated in a 11 randomisation schedule to receive antivenom either as a 20 minute infusion (rapid or a two hour infusion (slow. The primary outcome was the proportion with severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions (grade 3 by Brown grading system within 4 hours of commencement of antivenom. Secondary outcomes included the proportion with mild/moderate hypersensitivity reactions and repeat antivenom doses. Of 1004 patients with suspected snakebites, 247 patients received antivenom. 49 patients were excluded or not recruited leaving 104 patients allocated to the rapid antivenom infusion and 94 to the slow antivenom infusion. The median actual duration of antivenom infusion in the rapid group was 20 min (Interquartile range[IQR]:20-25 min versus 120 min (IQR:75-120 min in the slow group. There was no difference in severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions between those given rapid and slow infusions (32% vs. 35%; difference 3%; 95%CI:-10% to +17%;p = 0.65. The frequency of mild/moderate reactions was also similar. Similar numbers of patients in each arm received further doses of antivenom (30/104 vs. 23/94. CONCLUSIONS: A slower infusion rate would not reduce the rate of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions from current high

  9. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Campos, Marinele R de; Passanezi, Selma Campos; Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo de; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG--"no intervention" (n=17) or IG--"intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (pperiodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (ppregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallian, Aimee; Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Sand, Håkan

    2017-02-08

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Decreasing the infusion rate reduces the proarrhythmic risk of NS-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detre, Elke; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Beekman, Jet D

    2005-01-01

    1 The rate of infusion has been suggested to be important for drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. We investigated the repolarisation-prolonging effects and proarrhythmic properties of NS-7, a neuroprotective drug in development, using two different infusion rates. 2 A fast (5 min...... intravenously (i.v.)) escalating dosing regimen (0.3 and 3.0 mg kg(-1), n=4) of NS-7 was investigated in anaesthetised control dogs in sinus rhythm (SR). This was compared to a slow infusion (60 min i.v.) of one dose (3.0 mg kg(-1), n=4) NS-7. The similar dosing regimens were investigated in anaesthetised dogs...... with chronic, complete AV block (CAVB), an animal model of TdP (n=6). 3 No electrophysiological effects were seen after 0.3 mg kg(-1) NS-7. Fast infusion of 3.0 mg kg(-1) caused prolongation of repolarisation, for example, heart rate corrected QT interval (QT(c)): in SR: 6+/-1%; in CAVB: 10+/-7%, which...

  12. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  13. Infliximab dependency is related to decreased surgical rates in adult Crohn's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N.; Duricova, D.; Lenicek, M.

    2010-01-01

    last intended infusion: prolonged response (maintenance of complete/partial response), infliximab dependency (relapse requiring repeated infusions to regain complete/partial response or need of infliximab > 12 months to sustain response). Results Forty-seven percent obtained prolonged response, 29...... on maintenance versus on demand regime was 33 and 31%, respectively (P = 0.63). No relevant clinical or genetic predictors were identified. Conclusion The infliximab dependency response seems to be equivalent to the prolonged response in adult CD patients when comparing surgery rates. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol...

  14. Decreased rates of shoulder dystocia and brachial plexus injury via an evidence-based practice bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienas, Laura E; Hedriana, Herman L; Wiesner, Suzanne; Pelletreau, Barbara; Wilson, Machelle D; Shields, Laurence E

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether a standardized approach to identify pregnant women at risk for shoulder dystocia (SD) is associated with reduced incidence of SD and brachial plexus injury (BPI). Between 2011 and 2015, prospective data were collected from 29 community-based hospitals in the USA during implementation of an evidence-based practice bundle, including an admission risk assessment, required "timeout" before operative vaginal delivery (OVD), and low-fidelity SD drills. All women with singleton vertex pregnancies admitted for vaginal delivery were included. Rates of SD, BPI, OVD, and cesarean delivery were compared between a baseline period (January 2011-September 2013) and an intervention period (October 2013-June 2015), during which there was a system-wide average bundle compliance of 90%. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of SD (17.6%; P=0.028), BPI (28.6%; P=0.018), and OVD (18.0%; P<0.001) after implementation of the evidence-based practice bundle. There was a nonsignificant reduction in primary (P=0.823) and total (P=0.396) cesarean rates, but no association between SD drills and incidence of BPI. Implementation of a standard evidence-based practice bundle was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of SD and BPI. Utilization of low-fidelity drills was not associated with a reduction in BPI. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Do textured breast implants decrease the rate of capsular contracture compared to smooth implants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ignacio; Dagnino, Bruno; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-08-31

    The use of breast implants for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has become one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons. Several breast implants models exist. They differ in their size, filling, shape and characteristic of the shell, which can be smooth or textured. Capsular contracture is one of the main complications of breast implants. It has been suggested that the use of textured implants could reduce the incidence of capsular contracture. To answer this question, we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We identified 15 studies overall, of which 13 were randomized trials relevant for the question of interest. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of textured breast implants probably decreases the risk of capsular contracture, however, they might be associated to an increased risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

  16. Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Kowal

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR, a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history.

  17. Morphological Change and Decreasing Transfer Rate of Biofilm-Featured Listeria monocytogenes EGDe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuejia; Wang, Chinling

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes , a lethal foodborne pathogen, has the ability to resist the hostile food processing environment and thus frequently contaminates ready-to-eat foods during processing. It is commonly accepted that the tendency of L. monocytogenes ' to generate biofilms on various surfaces enhances its resistance to the harshness of the food processing environment. However, the role of biofilm formation in the transferability of L. monocytogenes EGDe remains controversial. We examined the growth of Listeria biofilms on stainless steel surfaces and their effect on the transferability of L. monocytogenes EGDe. The experiments were a factorial 2 × 2 design with at least three biological replicates. Through scanning electron microscopy, a mature biofilm with intensive aggregates of cells was observed on the surface of stainless steel after 3 or 5 days of incubation, depending on the initial level of inoculation. During biofilm development, L. monocytogenes EGDe carried out binary fission vigorously before a mature biofilm was formed and subsequently changed its cellular morphology from rod shaped to sphere shaped. Furthermore, static biofilm, which was formed after 3 days of incubation at 25°C, significantly inhibited the transfer rate of L. monocytogenes EGDe from stainless steel blades to 15 bologna slices. During 7 days of storage at 4°C, however, bacterial growth rate was not significantly impacted by whether bacteria were transferred from biofilm and the initial concentrations of transferred bacteria on the slice. In conclusion, this study is the first to report a distinct change in morphology of L. monocytogenes EGDe at the late stage of biofilm formation. More importantly, once food is contaminated by L. monocytogenes EGDe, contamination proceeds independently of biofilm development and the initial level of contamination when food is stored at 4°C, even if contamination with L. monocytogenes EGDe was initially undetectable before storage.

  18. Use of ventilator associated pneumonia bundle and statistical process control chart to decrease VAP rate in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadat, Reem; Al-Bardan, Hussam; Mazloum, Mona N; Shamah, Asem A; Eltayeb, Mohamed F E; Marie, Ali; Dakkak, Abdulrahman; Naes, Ola; Esber, Faten; Betelmal, Ibrahim; Kherallah, Mazen

    2012-10-01

    Implementation of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle as a performance improvement project in the critical care units for all mechanically ventilated patients aiming to decrease the VAP rates. VAP bundle was implemented in 4 teaching hospitals after educational sessions and compliance rates along with VAP rates were monitored using statistical process control charts. VAP bundle compliance rates were steadily increasing from 33 to 80% in hospital 1, from 33 to 86% in hospital 2 and from 83 to 100% in hospital 3 during the study period. The VAP bundle was not applied in hospital 4 therefore no data was available. A target level of 95% was reached only in hospital 3. This correlated with a decrease in VAP rates from 30 to 6.4 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 1, from 12 to 4.9 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 3, whereas VAP rate failed to decrease in hospital 2 (despite better compliance) and it remained high around 33 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 4 where VAP bundle was not implemented. VAP bundle has performed differently in different hospitals in our study. Prevention of VAP requires a multidimensional strategy that includes strict infection control interventions, VAP bundle implementation, process and outcome surveillance and education.

  19. Control of the flow rate in decreasing of the water load of peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The retention capacity and control of the flow rate was studied in the Aqua-Peat research. The sedimentation ability of solid matter (peat particles), erosion, migration of the solid matter, and the functioning of the retention pipes located in the strip ditches and the sedimentation basins were measured in the research. Detection was also supplemented by laboratory scale models and by measurements made using them. A model, describing the solid matter erosion and migration on the mire, was compiled on the basis of the results. Migration of the solid matter is possible to reduce by pounding the water into the ditching. So there is more time for particles to settle before migration into watercources. By this method it is possible to reduce the solid matter loads caused by heavy rains and power-flows even by 88 %. If the flow control system is equipped with retainers and settling basins, the solid matter retention capacity can rise up to 93-97 %. The results have shown that the retention pipe retainers play more important role in reduction of solid matter load than sedimentation basins. A follow-up study was made using several types of retainers. A 5 cm thick siphon pipe appeared to be the best. The final selection of the retention pipes has, however, to be made as a compromise between the functioning of the drying process, production possibilities and solid matter retention. (1 ref., 2 figs.)

  20. Cryopreservation and xenografting of human ovarian fragments: medulla decreases the phosphatidylserine translocation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine is the phospholipid component which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in regards to necrosis and apoptosis. When a cell affected by some negative factors, phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the intracellular side of membrane and can be translocated to the extracellular surface of the cell. Cryopreservation can induce translocation of phosphatidylserine in response to hypoxia, increasing intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. As such the aim of this study was to test the level of phosphatidylserine translocation in frozen human medulla-contained and medulla-free ovarian tissue fragments. Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces of two types, medulla-free cortex (Group 1, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 0.5–0.8 mm and cortex with medulla (Group 2, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–2.0 mm, pre-cooled after operative removal to 5 °C for 24 h and then conventionally frozen with 6 % dimethyl sulfoxide, 6 % ethylene glycol and 0.15 M sucrose in standard 5-ml cryo-vials. After thawing at +100 °C and step-wise removal of cryoprotectants in 0.5 M sucrose, ovarian pieces were xenografted to SCID mice for 45 days. The efficacy of tissues cryopreservation, taking into account the presence or absence of medulla, was evaluated by the development of follicles (histology with hematoxylin-eosin and through the intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide. Results For Groups 1 and 2, the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 were 9.8, and 9.0, respectively. In these groups, 90 and 90 % preantral follicles appeared morphologically normal. However, FACS analysis showed a significantly decreased intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FITC-Annexin V positive after

  1. Depression and Quality of Life in Relation to Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Among Adults with Hypertension in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aim to investigate the extent to which depression and quality of life might be associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural Northeast China. Methods: A total of 5566 hypertensive participants aged 35 years and older were screened with a stratified cluster multistage sampling scheme in rural areas of Liaoning Province during 2012-2013. Decreased GFR was defined as estimated GFR 2. Results: The overall prevalence of decreased GFR was 3.2%. In the multivariable regression model, participants with moderate or greater depression had a greater risk for having a decreased GFR (OR: 1.739, 95%CI: 1.004 to 3.014 after full adjustment. Every 1-point increase of all the domains in WHOQOL-BREF, except for physical and environment domains, was significantly related to a lower risk for decreased GFR adjusting for age, gender and race. However, after fully adjustment, only social relations remained significant (OR: 0.899, 95%CI: 0.820 to 0.985. Increasing in total scores of WHOQOL-BREF was a protective factor against decreased GFR after fully adjustment. Conclusion: We found that moderate or greater depression and lower quality of life were associated with higher risks for developing decreased GFR.

  2. Evaluation of an ultraviolet room disinfection protocol to decrease nursing home microbial burden, infection and hospitalization rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kovach, Christine R.; Taneli, Yavuz; Neiman, Tammy; Dyer, Elaine M.; Arzaga, Alvin Jason A.; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2017-01-01

    Background The focus of nursing home infection control procedures has been on decreasing transmission between healthcare workers and residents. Less evidence is available regarding whether decontamination of high-touch environmental surfaces impacts infection rates or resident outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if ultraviolet disinfection is associated with changes in: 1) microbial counts and adenosine triphosphate counts on high-touch surfaces; and 2) facility wide nursing ho...

  3. Economic Growth Rate May Be High in Spite of a Decreasing Working-age Population in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Parkkinen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possibilities for the growth of real income in Finland in a situation where the population is aging at a record rate. In contrast to other European countries, no larger age groups were born in Finland after the 1940s. Therefore, the labor force will decrease in long run, even though an abundant amount of labor reserves still exist in Finland after the exceptionally deep economic depression experienced in the previous decade. Finlands real income has been calculated as the product of the labor input and productivity per hour worked. The rate of change in productivity has been estimated on the basis of the historical development of labor productivity. On the basis of an analysis of labor input and productivity per hour worked, the real income of Finland per capita could rise to one-and-a-half times what it is now in one decade and a half, even if the working-age population decreased markedly and even if the number of hours worked per employed person declined at the traditional rate. Increasing immigration is not the only solution to the challenges of an aging and diminishing working-age population. By employing domestic labor reserves and improving productivity, reasonable economic growth rate can be achieved and at the same time the problems caused by uncontrolled immigration can be avoided.

  4. Is the apparent decrease in injury and illness rates in construction the result of changes in reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Laura S; Dong, Xiuwen; Carre, Francoise; Ringen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Injury rates in all industries and in construction in particular have been declining. Inconsistencies in the information suggest some of the apparent decrease may be due to changes in the ways injuries are treated, misclassification of employees, or underreporting. Lost-time injury rates for the largest construction employers declined by as much as 92% between 1988 and 1999. Yet the rate for cases with restricted work activity actually increased from 0.7 to 1.2 per 100 full-time workers between 1990 and 2000, and fatalities among construction workers remain high. In Massachusetts, at least 14% of construction employers misclassified workers as independent contractors, with the effect that injuries to these workers are not recordable. Studies that compare OSHA logs with other data sources find that the OSHA logs do not include a significant proportion of injuries and illnesses identified elsewhere.

  5. No evidence for a decrease of nuclear decay rates with increasing heliocentric distance based on radiochronology of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the decay rates of several radioactive nuclides are slightly lower at Earth's aphelion than at perihelion, and that this effect might depend on heliocentric distance. It might then be expected that nuclear decay rates be considerably lower at larger distances from the sun, e.g., in the asteroid belt at 2-3 AU from where most meteorites originate. If so, ages of meteorites obtained by analyses of radioactive nuclides and their stable daughter isotopes might be in error, since these ages are based on decay rates determined on Earth. Here we evaluate whether the large data base on nuclear cosmochronology offers any hint for discrepancies which might be due to radially variable decay rates. Chlorine-36 (t1/2 = 301,000 a) is produced in meteorites by interactions with cosmic rays and is the nuclide for which a decay rate dependence from heliocentric distance has been proposed, which, in principle, can be tested with our approach and the current data base. We show that compilations of 36Cl concentrations measured in meteorites offer no support for a spatially variable 36Cl decay rate. For very short-lived cosmic-ray produced radionuclides (half-lives uranium decay rates in different meteorite parent bodies in the asteroid belt. Moreover, the oldest U-Pb ages of meteorites agree with the main-sequence age of the sun derived from helioseismology within the formal ˜1% uncertainty of the latter. Meteorite ages also provide no evidence for a decrease of decay rates with heliocentric distance for nuclides such as 87Rb (decay mode β-) 40K (β- and electron capture), and 147Sm (α).

  6. A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L; Kelley, Michael S P; Knight, Matthew M

    2018-01-10

    Cometary outgassing can produce torques that change the spin state of the cometary nucleus, which in turn influences the evolution and lifetime of the comet. If these torques increase the rate of rotation to the extent that centripetal forces exceed the material strength of the nucleus, the comet can fragment. Torques that slow down the rotation can cause the spin state to become unstable, but if the torques persist the nucleus can eventually reorient itself and the rotation rate can increase again. Simulations predict that most comets go through a short phase of rapid changes in spin state, after which changes occur gradually over longer times. Here we report observations of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák during its close approach to Earth (0.142 astronomical units, approximately 21 million kilometres, on 1 April 2017) that reveal a rapid decrease in rotation rate. Between March and May 2017, the apparent rotation period of the nucleus increased from 20 hours to more than 46 hours-a rate of change of more than an order of magnitude larger than has hitherto been measured. This phenomenon must have been caused by the gas emission from the comet aligning in such a way that it produced an anomalously strong torque that slowed the spin rate of the nucleus. The behaviour of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák suggests that it is in a distinct evolutionary state and that its rotation may be approaching the point of instability.

  7. A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Knight, Matthew M.

    2018-01-01

    Cometary outgassing can produce torques that change the spin state of the cometary nucleus, which in turn influences the evolution and lifetime of the comet. If these torques increase the rate of rotation to the extent that centripetal forces exceed the material strength of the nucleus, the comet can fragment. Torques that slow down the rotation can cause the spin state to become unstable, but if the torques persist the nucleus can eventually reorient itself and the rotation rate can increase again. Simulations predict that most comets go through a short phase of rapid changes in spin state, after which changes occur gradually over longer times. Here we report observations of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák during its close approach to Earth (0.142 astronomical units, approximately 21 million kilometres, on 1 April 2017) that reveal a rapid decrease in rotation rate. Between March and May 2017, the apparent rotation period of the nucleus increased from 20 hours to more than 46 hours—a rate of change of more than an order of magnitude larger than has hitherto been measured. This phenomenon must have been caused by the gas emission from the comet aligning in such a way that it produced an anomalously strong torque that slowed the spin rate of the nucleus. The behaviour of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák suggests that it is in a distinct evolutionary state and that its rotation may be approaching the point of instability.

  8. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Delivery by Cesarean Section is not Associated With Decreased at-Birth Fracture Rates in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellur, S; Jain, M; Cuthbertson, D; Krakow, D; Shapiro, JR; Steiner, RD; Smith, PA; Bober, MB; Hart, T; Krischer, J; Mullins, M; Byers, PH; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, FH; Rauch, F; Sutton, VR; Lee, B; Nagamani, SC

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes to recurrent fractures. The moderate-to-severe forms of OI present with antenatal fractures and the mode of delivery that would be safest for the fetus is not known. Methods We conducted systematic analyses on the largest cohort of individuals (n=540) with OI enrolled to-date in the OI Linked Clinical Research Centers. Self-reported at-birth fracture rates were compared in individuals with OI types I, III, and IV. Multivariate analyses utilizing backward-elimination logistic regression model building were performed to assess the effect of multiple covariates including method of delivery on fracture-related outcomes. Results When accounting for other covariates, at-birth fracture rates did not differ based on whether delivery was by vaginal route or by cesarean section (CS). Increased birth weight conferred higher risk for fractures irrespective of the delivery method. In utero fracture, maternal history of OI, and breech presentation were strong predictors for choosing CS for delivery. Conclusion Our study, the largest to analyze the effect of various factors on at-birth fracture rates in OI shows that delivery by CS is not associated with decreased fracture rate. With the limitation that the fracture data were self-reported in this cohort, these results suggest that CS should be performed only for other maternal or fetal indications, but not for the sole purpose of fracture prevention in OI. PMID:26426884

  10. Preconceptional antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, are associated with decreased live birth rates in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seungdamrong, Aimee; Steiner, Anne Z; Gracia, Clarisa R; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Robinson, Randal D; Huang, Hao; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Jin, Susan; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-10-25

    To study whether preconceptual thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies are associated with poor reproductive outcomes in infertile women. Secondary analysis of data from two multicenter, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Reproductive Medicine Network of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between preconceptual TSH levels and anti-TPO antibodies. Not applicable. Serum samples from 1,468 infertile women were utilized. None. Cumulative conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates were calculated. Conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates did not differ between patients with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L vs. TSH < 2.5 mIU/L. Women with anti-TPO antibodies had similar conception rates (33.3% vs. 36.3%) but higher miscarriage rates (43.9% vs. 25.3%) and lower live birth rates (17.1% vs. 25.4%) than those without anti-TPO antibodies. Adjusted, multivariable logistic regression models confirmed elevated odds of miscarriage (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.22) and lower odds of live birth (oddr ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96) in patients with anti-TPO antibodies. In infertile women, preconceptional TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L is not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes; however, anti-TPO antibodies are associated with increased risk of miscarriage and decreased probability of live birth. PPCOS II NCT00719186; AMIGOS NCT01044862. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Increased classical endoplasmic reticulum stress is sufficient to reduce chondrocyte proliferation rate in the growth plate and decrease bone growth.

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    Louise H W Kung

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and matrilin-3 cause a spectrum of chondrodysplasias called multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH. The majority of these diseases feature classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR as a result of misfolding of the mutant protein. However, the importance and the pathological contribution of ER stress in the disease pathogenesis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the generic role of ER stress and the UPR in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A transgenic mouse line (ColIITgcog was generated using the collagen II promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (Tgcog in chondrocytes. The skeletal and histological phenotypes of these ColIITgcog mice were characterised. The expression and intracellular retention of Tgcog induced ER stress and activated the UPR as characterised by increased BiP expression, phosphorylation of eIF2α and spliced Xbp1. ColIITgcog mice exhibited decreased long bone growth and decreased chondrocyte proliferation rate. However, there was no disruption of chondrocyte morphology or growth plate architecture and perturbations in apoptosis were not apparent. Our data demonstrate that the targeted induction of ER stress in chondrocytes was sufficient to reduce the rate of bone growth, a key clinical feature associated with MED and PSACH, in the absence of any growth plate dysplasia. This study establishes that classical ER stress is a pathogenic factor that contributes to the disease mechanism of MED and PSACH. However, not all the pathological features of MED and PSACH were recapitulated, suggesting that a combination of intra- and extra-cellular factors are likely to be responsible for the disease pathology as a whole.

  12. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  13. Stable SREBP-1a knockdown decreases the cell proliferation rate in human preadipocyte cells without inducing senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, María Soledad; Fernandez-Alvarez, Ana; Cucarella, Carme; Casado, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SGBS cells mostly expressed SREBP-1a variant. • SREBP-1a knockdown decreased the proliferation of SGBS cells without inducing senescence. • We have identified RBBP8 and CDKN3 genes as potential SREBP-1a targets. - Abstract: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP), encoded by the Srebf1 and Srebf2 genes, are important regulators of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Whereas SREBP-2 controls the cholesterol synthesis, SREBP-1 proteins (-1a and -1c) function as the central hubs in lipid metabolism. Despite the key function of these transcription factors to promote adipocyte differentiation, the roles of SREBP-1 proteins during the preadipocyte state remain unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of SREBP-1 in preadipocyte proliferation using RNA interference technology. Knockdown of the SREBP-1a gene decreased the proliferation rate in human SGBS preadipocyte cell strain without inducing senescence. Furthermore, our data identified retinoblastoma binding protein 8 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 genes as new potential SREBP-1 targets, in addition to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A which had already been described as a gene regulated by SREBP-1a. These data suggested a new role of SREBP-1 in adipogenesis via regulation of preadipocyte proliferation

  14. Stable SREBP-1a knockdown decreases the cell proliferation rate in human preadipocyte cells without inducing senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, María Soledad [Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (IBV-CSIC), Jaime Roig 11, E-46010 Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Alvarez, Ana [Fundación Instituto Leloir, IIBBA-CONICET, Av. Patricias Argentinas 435, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires C1405BWE (Argentina); Cucarella, Carme [Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (IBV-CSIC), Jaime Roig 11, E-46010 Valencia (Spain); Casado, Marta, E-mail: mcasado@ibv.csic.es [Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (IBV-CSIC), Jaime Roig 11, E-46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • SGBS cells mostly expressed SREBP-1a variant. • SREBP-1a knockdown decreased the proliferation of SGBS cells without inducing senescence. • We have identified RBBP8 and CDKN3 genes as potential SREBP-1a targets. - Abstract: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP), encoded by the Srebf1 and Srebf2 genes, are important regulators of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Whereas SREBP-2 controls the cholesterol synthesis, SREBP-1 proteins (-1a and -1c) function as the central hubs in lipid metabolism. Despite the key function of these transcription factors to promote adipocyte differentiation, the roles of SREBP-1 proteins during the preadipocyte state remain unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of SREBP-1 in preadipocyte proliferation using RNA interference technology. Knockdown of the SREBP-1a gene decreased the proliferation rate in human SGBS preadipocyte cell strain without inducing senescence. Furthermore, our data identified retinoblastoma binding protein 8 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 genes as new potential SREBP-1 targets, in addition to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A which had already been described as a gene regulated by SREBP-1a. These data suggested a new role of SREBP-1 in adipogenesis via regulation of preadipocyte proliferation.

  15. Omigapil treatment decreases fibrosis and improves respiratory rate in dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy is a distinct group of diseases presenting with weakness in infancy or childhood and no current therapy. One form, MDC1A, is the result of laminin alpha-2 deficiency and results in significant weakness, respiratory insufficiency and early death. Modification of apoptosis is one potential pathway for therapy in these patients.dy(2J mice were treated with vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg of omigapil daily via oral gavage over 17.5 weeks. Untreated age matched BL6 mice were used as controls. Functional, behavioral and histological measurements were collected.dy(2J mice treated with omigapil showed improved respiratory rates compared to vehicle treated dy(2J mice (396 to 402 vs. 371 breaths per minute, p<0.03 and similar to control mice. There were no statistical differences in normalized forelimb grip strength between dy(2J and controls at baseline or after 17.5 weeks and no significant differences seen among the dy(2J treatment groups. At 30-33 weeks of age, dy(2J mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg omigapil showed significantly more movement time and less rest time compared to vehicle treated. dy(2J mice showed normal cardiac systolic function throughout the trial. dy(2J mice had significantly lower hindlimb maximal (p<0.001 and specific force (p<0.002 compared to the control group at the end of the trial. There were no statistically significant differences in maximal or specific force among treatments. dy(2J mice treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day omigapil showed decreased percent fibrosis in both gastrocnemius (p<0.03 and diaphragm (p<0.001 compared to vehicle, and in diaphragm (p<0.013 when compared to 1 mg/kg/day omigapil treated mice. Omigapil treated dy(2J mice demonstrated decreased apoptosis.Omigapil therapy (0.1 mg/kg improved respiratory rate and decreased skeletal and respiratory muscle fibrosis in dy(2J mice. These results support a putative role for the use of omigapil in laminin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy

  16. Looking Māori predicts decreased rates of home ownership: institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand's home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori.

  17. Ultrasound imaging in children with acute abdominal pain - can it help to decrease the rate of negative appendectomies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzielski, J.; Miodek, M.; Kucharski, P.; Sokal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of high-resolution ultrasound (US) with graded compression in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis.Material/Methods: The medical records of 664 consecutive children with acute abdominal pain treated between 2007 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively and analyzed; 408 children (61.4 %) underwent appendectomy and 256 patients were treated conservatively (38.6 %). High-resolution US was performed in 570 out of 664 patients (85.8 %). The US data were verified by intraoperative findings or by clinical follow-up. Results: Out of 664 children, 408 underwent appendectomy and 256 were treated conservatively. US was performed in 570 out of 664 children (85.8 %); in 327/408 children (80.1 %) with AA and in 243/256 children (94.9 %) with negative diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity for US was 66.6% and 77.4%, respectively. If histopathological diagnosis of catarrhal appendicitis was considered a negative (unnecessary) appendectomy, the sensitivity was 68.6 % (p=0.87), and specificity was 67 % (p=0.29). Positive and negative predictive values of US were 79.9 % and 63.1 %, respectively. After recalculating results, positive predictive value decreased to 59.8% (p=0.036) and negative predictive value increased to 74.8 % (p=0.2). The rate of false negative results was 13.1 % (75/572) and the rate of false positives was 19.2 % (110/572). The negative appendectomy rate was 27.4 % (112/408). Conclusions: High-resolution ultrasonography provides an accurate and specific test for acute appendicitis and is recommended by the authors as an examination of choice in children with acute abdominal pain. (authors)

  18. Decreasing Slip Rates From 12.8 Ma to Present on the Solitario Canyon Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Buesch

    2006-01-01

    .5 Ma. Paleoseismic studies in Quaternary deposits documented slip rates on the Solitario Canyon fault from 0.01 to 0.02 mm/yr since 0.077 and 0.20 Ma. The decrease of extensional activity slip rates data on the Solitario Canyon fault provide evidence of decreasing tectonic activity from the middle Miocene to present

  19. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate: evidence from spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2006-06-01

    The clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism resemble those of the hyperadrenergic state. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of spectral heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in hyperthyroidism. Thirty-two hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients (mean age 31 years) and 32 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched normal control subjects were recruited to receive one-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The cardiac autonomic nervous function was evaluated by the spectral analysis of HRV, which indicates the autonomic modulation of the sinus node. The correlation coefficients between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of the spectral HRV analysis were also computed. The hyperthyroid patients revealed significant differences (P hyperthyroidism in 28 patients, all of the above parameters were restored to levels comparable to those of the controls. In addition, serum thyroid hormone concentrations showed significant correlations with spectral HRV parameters. Hyperthyroidism is in a sympathovagal imbalanced state, characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of the heart rate. These autonomic dysfunctions can be detected simultaneously by spectral analysis of HRV, and the spectral HRV parameters could reflect the disease severity in hyperthyroid patients.

  20. Decreasing fertility rate correlates with the chronological increase and geographical variation in incidence of Kawasaki disease in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD is a common cause of acquired paediatric heart disease in developed countries. KD was first identified in the 1960s in Japan, and has been steadily increasing since it was first reported. The aetiology of KD has not been defined, but is assumed to be infection-related. The present study sought to identify the factor(s that mediate the geographical variation and chronological increase of KD in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based upon data reported between 1979 and 2010 from all 47 prefectures in Japan, the incidence and mean patient age at the onset of KD were estimated. Using spatial and time-series analyses, incidence and mean age were regressed against climatic/socioeconomic variables. Both incidence and mean age of KD were inversely correlated with the total fertility rate (TFR; i.e., the number of children that would be born to one woman. The extrapolation of a time-series regressive model suggested that KD emerged in the 1960s because of a dramatic decrease in TFR in the 1940s through the 1950s. CONCLUSIONS: Mean patient age is an inverse surrogate for the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between mean patient age and TFR suggests that a higher TFR is associated with KD transmission. This relationship may be because a higher TFR facilitates sibling-to-sibling transmission. Additionally, the observed inverse correlation between incidence and TFR implies a paradoxical "negative" correlation between the incidence and the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. It was hypothesized that a decreasing TFR resulted in a reduced hazard of contracting the agent for KD, thereby increasing KD incidence.

  1. Decreased rates of nosocomial endometritis and urinary tract infection after vaginal delivery in a French surveillance network, 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Girard, Raphaële; Chapuis, Catherine; Depaix, Florence; Dumas, Anne-Marie; Gignoux, Chantal; Haond, Catherine; Lafarge-Leboucher, Joëlle; Launay, Carine; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent, Agnès; Fabry, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    To identify independent risk factors for endometritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after vaginal delivery, and to monitor changes in nosocomial infection rates and derive benchmarks for prevention. Prospective study. We analyzed routine surveillance data for all vaginal deliveries between January 1997 and December 2003 at 66 maternity units participating in the Mater Sud-Est surveillance network. Adjusted odds ratios for risk of endometritis or UTI were obtained using a logistic regression model. The overall incidence rates were 0.5% for endometritis and 0.3% for UTI. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and risk of endometritis but not of UTI during the 7-year period. Significant risk factors for endometritis were fever during labor, parity of 1, and instrumental delivery and/or manual removal of the placenta. Significant risk factors for UTI were urinary infection on admission, premature rupture of membranes (more than 12 hours before admission), blood loss of more than 800 mL, parity of 1, instrumental delivery, and receipt of more than 5 vaginal digital examinations. Each maternity unit received a poster showing graphs of the number of expected and observed cases of UTI and endometritis associated with vaginal deliveries, which enabled each maternity unit to determine their rank within the network and to initiate prevention programs. Although routine surveillance means additional work for maternity units, our results demonstrate the usefulness of regular targeted monitoring of risk factors and of the most common nosocomial infections in obstetrics. Most of the information needed for monitoring is already present in the patients' records.

  2. Antioxidant supplementation decreases the cell death rate in the prostatic stromal tissue of long-term castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fartes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of castration on cell death rate of the adult rat prostates and to evaluate the benefic action of alpha tocopherol supplementation to avoid apoptosis post-orchiectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into three groups: group I - they were subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and sacrificed eight weeks after the procedure; group II - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure; and group III - subjected to bilateral orchiectomy and alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards. At the end of the experiment, the prostatectomy was performed in all rats. The presence of oxidative stress was determined by assaying the blood level of 8-isoprostane and the occurrence of apoptosis was evaluated by identification of active caspase-3 through immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: The statistic analysis of active caspase-3 showed that in the long-term castrated group the detection was higher than in groups were the alpha-tocopherol was supplemented (p=0.007. Analysis of 8-isoprostane levels showed higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species in group I compared to other groups (p<0.05. Groups II and III presented active caspase-3 lower than in group I (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our exploratory analyses demonstrate a method to study the aging process and its influence on oxidative stress of prostatic tissue and cells death rate. Based on our results we can suggest that alpha tocopherol supplementation can decrease the apoptotic process as well as the oxidative stress levels induced by androgen deprivation of the prostate gland.

  3. Pseudomembranous Type of Oral Candidiasis is Associated with Decreased Salivary Flow Rate and Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Bela; Bagul, Neeta; Desai, Rajiv; Reddy, Mamatha; Mahajan, Amit; Shete, Ashwini; Risbud, Arun; Mane, Arati

    2015-08-01

    Saliva plays an important role in maintaining microbial homeostasis in the oral cavity, while salivary gland hypofunction predisposes the oral mucosa to pathologic alteration and increases the risk for oral candidiasis. This study sought to determine the salivary flow rate (SFR) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and evaluate their relationship with the determinants of oral candidiasis. Sixty HIV-positive (30 with and 30 without oral candidiasis) and 30 healthy HIV-negative individuals were enrolled. Cotton pellet was weighed pre- and post-saliva collection for the assessment of SFR, while SIgA levels were estimated by commercial ELISA (Diametra, Italy) kit. The mean ± SD, SFR and SIgA levels in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis, without candidiasis and HIV-negative controls were 0.396 ± 0.290, 0.546 ± 0.355 and 0.534 ± 0.214 ml/min and 115.891 ± 37.621, 136.024 ± 51.075 and 149.418 ± 31.765 µg/ml, respectively. A positive correlation between low CD4 counts (indicator of immunodeficiency) and SIgA was observed in HIV-positive individuals with candidiasis (r = 0.373, p = 0.045). We also report here for the first time the significant decrease in SFR and SIgA levels in individuals presenting with pseudomembranous type of oral candidiasis and Candida albicans infection.

  4. Decrease of back recombination rate in CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells using reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi Ali

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the 0.2 wt% of reduced graphene oxide and TiO 2 nanoparticles (RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite) photoanode is investigated. CdS QDs are adsorbed onto RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique for several cycles. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristic curves of the assembled QDSSCs are measured at AM1.5 simulated sunlight. The optimal photovoltaic performance for CdS QDSSC was achieved for six SILAR cycles. Solar cells based on the RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanode achieve a 33% increase in conversion efficiency (η) compared with those based on plain TiO 2 nanoparticle (NP) photoanodes. The electron back recombination rates decrease significantly for CdS QDSSCs based on RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanodes. The lifetime constant (τ) for CdS QDSSC based on the RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanode is at least one order of magnitude larger than that based on the bare TiO 2 NPs photoanode. (paper)

  5. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS, the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC task. Three experiments were conducted: Exp. 1 (N = 41 to study the left DLPFC, Exp. 2 (N = 49 to study the right DLPFC, and Exp. 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Exp. 1 to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Exps. 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD- tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Exp. 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Exp. 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions.

  6. Increased pediatric sub-specialization is associated with decreased surgical complication rates for inpatient pediatric urology procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, R.; Wang, H-H. S.; Young, B. J.; Greene, N. H.; Wolf, S.; Wiener, J. S.; Routh, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Increased case volumes and training are associated with better surgical outcomes. However, the impact of pediatric urology sub-specialization on perioperative complication rates is unknown. Objectives To determine the presence and magnitude of difference in rates of common postoperative complications for elective pediatric urology procedures between specialization levels of urologic surgeons. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative administrative database, was used. Study Design The NIS (1998–2009) was retrospectively reviewed for pediatric (≤18 years) admissions, using ICD-9-CM codes to identify urologic surgeries and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) inpatient postoperative complications. Degree of pediatric sub-specialization was calculated using a Pediatric Proportion Index (PPI), defined as the ratio of children to total patients operated on by each provider. The providers were grouped into PPI quartiles: Q1, 0–25% specialization; Q2, 25–50%; Q3, 50–75%; Q4, 75–100%. Weighted multivariate analysis was performed to test for associations between PPI and surgical complications. Results A total of 71,479 weighted inpatient admissions were identified. Patient age decreased with increasing specialization: Q1, 7.9 vs Q2, 4.8 vs Q3, 4.8 vs Q4, 4.6 years, PSpecialization was not associated with race (P>0.20), gender (P>0.50), or comorbidity scores (P=0.10). Mortality (1.5% vs 0.2% vs 0.3% vs 0.4%, Pspecialization. Patients treated by more highly specialized surgeons incurred slightly higher costs (Q2, +4%; Q3, +1%; Q4 + 2%) but experienced shorter length of hospital stay (Q2, –5%; Q3, –10%; Q4, –3%) compared with the least specialized providers. A greater proportion of patients treated by Q1 and Q3 specialized urologists had CCS ≥2 than those seen by Q2 or Q4 urologists (12.5% and 12.2%, respectively vs 8.4% and 10.9%, respectively, P=0.04). Adjusting for confounding effects

  7. Predicting timing of clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and severely decreased glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Ho, Kevin; Ito, Sadayoshi; Marks, Angharad; Naimark, David; Nash, Danielle M; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Sarnak, Mark; Stengel, Benedicte; Visseren, Frank L J; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon; Köttgen, Anna; Levey, Andrew S; Woodward, Mark; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Coresh, Josef

    2018-03-24

    Patients with chronic kidney disease and severely decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk for kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Accurate estimates of risk and timing of these clinical outcomes could guide patient counseling and therapy. Therefore, we developed models using data of 264,296 individuals in 30 countries participating in the international Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium with estimated GFR (eGFR)s under 30 ml/min/1.73m 2 . Median participant eGFR and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 24 ml/min/1.73m 2 and 168 mg/g, respectively. Using competing-risk regression, random-effect meta-analysis, and Markov processes with Monte Carlo simulations, we developed two- and four-year models of the probability and timing of kidney failure requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT), a non-fatal CVD event, and death according to age, sex, race, eGFR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and history of CVD. Hypothetically applied to a 60-year-old white male with a history of CVD, a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg, an eGFR of 25 ml/min/1.73m 2 and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 1000 mg/g, the four-year model predicted a 17% chance of survival after KRT, a 17% chance of survival after a CVD event, a 4% chance of survival after both, and a 28% chance of death (9% as a first event, and 19% after another CVD event or KRT). Risk predictions for KRT showed good overall agreement with the published kidney failure risk equation, and both models were well calibrated with observed risk. Thus, commonly-measured clinical characteristics can predict the timing and occurrence of clinical outcomes in patients with severely decreased GFR. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decline in measured glomerular filtration rate is associated with a decrease in endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Matthias; Höglund, Peter; Svensson, Philippa; Abdulahi, Huda; Clyne, Naomi

    2017-07-01

    Physical performance in chronic kidney disease affects morbidity and mortality. The aim was to find out which measures of physical performance are important in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and if there are associations with declining measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Endurance was assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT) and stair climbing, muscular endurance by 30 s sit to stand, heel rises and toe lifts, strength by quadriceps- and handgrip-strength, balance by functional reach and Berg's balance scale, and fine motor skills by Moberg's picking-up test. GFR was measured by Iohexol clearance. The study comprised 101 patients with CKD 3b-5 not started dialysis, 40 women and 61 men, with a mean age of 67 ± 13 (range: 22 - 87) years. All measures of physical performance were impaired. A decrease in GFR of 10 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 corresponded to a 35 metre shorter walking distance in the 6-MWT. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant relationships between decline in GFR and the 6-MWT (P = 0.04), isometric quadriceps strength left (P = 0.04), balance measured as functional reach (P = 0.02) and fine motor skills in the left hand as measured by Moberg's picking-up test (P = 0.01), respectively, after sex, age, comorbidity and the interaction between sex and age had been taken into account. Endurance, muscular endurance, strength, balance and fine motor skills were impaired in patients with CKD 3b-5. Walking capacity, isometric quadriceps strength, balance, and fine motor skills were associated with declining GFR. The left extremities were more susceptible to GFR, ageing and comorbidities and seem thus to be more sensitive. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. The influence of continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate on the survival rote and induction of gene mutations in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistova, T.P.; Elisova, E.V.; Stavrakova, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous γ-irradiation at decreasing dose-rate was shown to be less effective than acute exposure with regard to the lethal effect and frequency of mutations of resistance to 6-thioguanine in cultured Chinese hamster cells. The cell population subjected to continuons irradiation was d more radioresistant than the intact one. Lethal and genetic effects of continuous irradiation at decreasing dose-rate were mainly determined by the contribution of the radiation dose received during the first 24 h of exposure

  10. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates: a population-based study using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  11. Embryo transfer simulation improves pregnancy rates and decreases time to proficiency in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellow embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; Csokmay, John M; Pilgrim, Justin; DeCherney, Alan H; Deering, Shad

    2017-05-01

    To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. Patients undergoing IVF. Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. Pregnancy rates. The REI fellow and faculty evaluation responses (n = 19/21 [90%]) of the model demonstrated realistic characteristics, with evaluators concluding the model was suitable for training in almost all evaluated areas. A total of 12 REI fellows who performed ET were analyzed: 6 before ET trainer and 6 after ET trainer. Pregnancy rates were 31% in the initial 10 ETs per fellow before simulator vs. 46% after simulator. One of six pre-ET trainer fellows (17%) had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs; whereas four of six post-ET trainer fellows had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs. The average number of ETs to obtain >40% pregnancy efficiency was 27 ETs before trainer vs. 15 ETs after trainer. Pregnancy rates were similar in the two groups after 20 ETs, and collective terminal pregnancy rates were >50% after 40 ETs. Embryo transfer simulation improved REI fellow pregnancy rates in their first 10 transfers and led to a more rapid ET proficiency. These data suggest potential value in adopting ET simulation, even in programs with a robust history of live ET in fellowship training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates: a population-based study using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    -based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA...... 100,000, recipients of antidepressants contributed to the decline by 0.9 suicides. Women redeeming antidepressant prescriptions accounted for 0.4 suicides of the observed reduction of 3.3 per 100,000. The average suicide rates for men receiving TCA and SSRI were 153.3 and 169.0 per 100,000 person......-years, respectively. Among older women, both TCA and SSRI users had an average suicide rate of 68.8 per 100,000 over the period examined. CONCLUSIONS: Just a small proportion of older adults dying by suicide were found to be in treatment with antidepressants at the time of death. Individuals in active treatment...

  13. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement

  14. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  15. Association of apneic oxygenation with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by a Chinese emergency medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Qin, Zong-He

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and safe airway management has always been of paramount importance in successful management of critically ill and injured patients in the emergency department. The achievement rate of emergency medicine inhabitants in airway management improved enhanced essentially subsequent to finishing anaesthesiology turn. There was a slightly higher rate of quick sequence intubation in the postapneic oxygenation groups (preapneic oxygenation 6.4%; postapneic oxygenation 9.1%). The majority of patients intubated in both groups were men (preapneic oxygenation 72.3%; postapneic oxygenation 63.5%). A higher percentage of patients in the preapneic oxygenation group had a Cormack-Lehane grade III or worse view (23.2% versus 11.8%). Anaesthesiology turns should be considered as an essential component of emergency medicine training programs. A collateral curriculum of this nature should also focus on the acquisition of skills in airway management.

  16. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  17. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....... insulin clearance rate was estimated as the ratio of posthepatic insulin appearance rate to steady-state plasma insulin concentration during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU.m-2 .min-1). Posthepatic insulin appearance rate during the clamp was calculated, taking into account the remnant...

  18. Direct-acting antiviral therapy decreases hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence rate in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlogeux, Victor; Pradat, Pierre; Hartig-Lavie, Kerstin; Bailly, François; Maynard, Marianne; Ouziel, Guillaume; Poinsot, Domitille; Lebossé, Fanny; Ecochard, Marie; Radenne, Sylvie; Benmakhlouf, Samir; Koffi, Joseph; Lack, Philippe; Scholtes, Caroline; Uhres, Anne-Claire; Ducerf, Christian; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Rode, Agnès; Levrero, Massimo; Combet, Christophe; Merle, Philippe; Zoulim, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    Arrival of direct-acting antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus with high-sustained virological response rates and very few side effects has drastically changed the management of hepatitis C virus infection. The impact of direct-acting antiviral exposure on hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after a first remission in patients with advanced fibrosis remains to be clarified. 68 consecutive hepatitis C virus patients with a first hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and under remission, subsequently treated or not with a direct-acting antiviral combination, were included. Clinical, biological and virological data were collected at first hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, at remission and during the surveillance period. All patients were cirrhotic. Median age was 62 years and 76% of patients were male. Twenty-three patients (34%) were treated with direct-acting antivirals and 96% of them achieved sustained virological response. Median time between hepatocellular carcinoma remission and direct-acting antivirals initiation was 7.2 months (IQR: 3.6-13.5; range: 0.3-71.4) and median time between direct-acting antivirals start and hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence was 13.0 months (IQR: 9.2-19.6; range: 3.0-24.7). Recurrence rate was 1.7/100 person-months among treated patients vs 4.2/100 person-months among untreated patients (P=.008). In multivariate survival analysis, the hazard ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after direct-acting antivirals exposure was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.55; PHepatocellular carcinoma recurrence rate was significantly lower among patients treated with direct-acting antivirals compared with untreated patients. Given the potential impact of our observation, large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these results. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations.

  20. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  1. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia in response to atonal music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time. A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents was received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching. Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic, possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the aesthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  2. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  3. Institution of a Preoperative Stoma Education Group Class Decreases Rate of Peristomal Complications in New Stoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Audrey L; Tice, Shelly; Follett, Suzi; Paskey, Diane; Abraham, Lini; Bealer, Cheryl; Keister, Holly; Koltun, Walter; Puleo, Frances J

    The purpose of this study was to compare selected postoperative complications (including stomal and peristomal complications), hospital length of stay, and readmission rates in a group of patients who attended a preoperative educational intervention to a retrospective group of patients who did not receive the intervention. Retrospective, comparison cohort study. The intervention group comprised 124 patients who attended an educational session for persons with fecal ostomies at a single tertiary care center in the Northeastern United States. They were compared to findings from a group of 94 individuals who underwent ostomy surgery during a 1-year period before initiation of the class. Patients undergoing emergent procedures or who had previous stomas were excluded. We found no significant differences between the 2 cohorts with respect to age, gender, comorbidities, open versus minimally invasive procedures, or colorectal diagnoses. A preoperative 2-hour stoma education class was led by certified WOC nurses for all patients undergoing colorectal surgeries in which the creation of a stoma was anticipated. This session included a didactic portion outlining postoperative expectations in the management of new ostomies (including dietary changes, prevention of dehydration, and an overview of ostomy supplies), as well as a hands-on portion to practice stoma care skills. We compared postoperative complications within 30 days (particularly stoma-related complications, including pouch leakage due to loss of seal, and peristomal skin irritation) between the group attending the education session and the control group. We also compared length of stay and 30-day readmission rates. Patients who participated in the educational intervention experienced significantly fewer peristomal complications than did patients in the historic control group (44.7% vs 20.2%, P = .002). Logistic regression analysis revealed that participation in the group was associated with a lower likelihood of

  4. Nitrogen deficiency inhibits leaf blade growth in Lolium perenne by increasing cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanová, Monika; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen deficiency severely inhibits leaf growth. This response was analysed at the cellular level by growing Lolium perenne L. under 7.5 mM (high) or 1 mM (low) nitrate supply, and performing a kinematic analysis to assess the effect of nitrogen status on cell proliferation and cell growth in the leaf blade epidermis. Low nitrogen supply reduced leaf elongation rate (LER) by 43% through a similar decrease in the cell production rate and final cell length. The former was entirely because of a decreased average cell division rate (0.023 versus 0.032 h(-1)) and thus longer cell cycle duration (30 versus 22 h). Nitrogen status did not affect the number of division cycles of the initial cell's progeny (5.7), and accordingly the meristematic cell number (53). Meristematic cell length was unaffected by nitrogen deficiency, implying that the division and mitotic growth rates were equally impaired. The shorter mature cell length arose from a considerably reduced post-mitotic growth rate (0.033 versus 0.049 h(-1)). But, nitrogen stress did not affect the position where elongation stopped, and increased cell elongation duration. In conclusion, nitrogen deficiency limited leaf growth by increasing the cell cycle duration and decreasing mitotic and post-mitotic elongation rates, delaying cell maturation.

  5. The rate of hypo-osmotic challenge influences regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and mechanical properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Irianto, J; Kazun, S; Wang, W; Knight, M M

    2015-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with a gradual reduction in the interstitial osmotic pressure within articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. Bovine articular chondrocytes were exposed to a reduction in extracellular osmolality from 327 to 153 mOsmol/kg applied either suddenly (osmotic stress, 66% of chondrocytes exhibited an increase in diameter followed by RVD, whilst 25% showed no RVD. By contrast, cells exposed to gradual hypo-osmotic stress exhibited reduced cell swelling without subsequent RVD. There was an increase in the equilibrium modulus for cells exposed to sudden hypo-osmotic stress. However, gradual hypo-osmotic challenge had no effect on cell mechanical properties. This cell stiffening response to sudden hypo-osmotic challenge was abolished when actin organization was disrupted with cytochalasin D or RVD inhibited with REV5901. Both sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge reduced cortical F-actin distribution and caused chromatin decondensation. Sudden hypo-osmotic challenge increases chondrocyte mechanics by activation of RVD and interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the rate of hypo-osmotic challenge is shown to have a profound effect on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. This important phenomenon needs to be considered when studying the response of chondrocytes to pathological hypo-osmotic stress. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of false discovery rate control in the assessment of decrease of FDG uptake in early Alzheimer dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hye Jin; Jang, Myung Jin; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Kang Uk; Woo, Jong In; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Sang Soo

    2003-01-01

    Determining an appropriate thresholding is crucial for PDG PET analysis since strong control of Type I error could fail to find pathological differences between early Alzheimer' disease (AD) patients and healthy normal controls. We compared the SPM results on FDG PET imaging of early AD using uncorrected p-value, random-field based corrected p-value and false discovery rate (FDR) control. Twenty-eight patients (66±7 years old) with early AD and 18 age-matched normal controls (68±6 years old) underwent FDG brain PET. To identify brain regions with hypo-metabolism in group or individual patient compared to normal controls, group images or each patient's image was compared with normal controls using the same fixed p-value of 0.001 on uncorrected thresholding, random-field based corrected thresholding and FDR control. The number of hypo-metabolic voxels was smallest in corrected p-value method, largest in uncorrected p-value method and intermediate in FDG thresholding in group analysis. Three types of result pattern were found. The first was that corrected p-value did yield any voxel positive but FDR gave a few significantly hypometabolic voxels (8/28, 29%). The second was that both corrected p-value and FDR did not yield any positive region but numerous positive voxels were found with the threshold of uncorrected p-values (6/28, 21%). The last was that FDR was detected as many positive voxels as uncorrected p-value method (14/28, 50%). Conclusions FDR control could identify hypo-metabolic areas in group or individual patients with early AD. We recommend FDR control instead of uncorrected or random-field corrected thresholding method to find the areas showing hypometabolism especially in small group or individual analysis of FDG PET

  7. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, M; Peyron, F; Cornu, C; Vinault, S; Abrahamowicz, M; Kopp, C Bonithon; Binquet, C

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy exposes the fetus to risks of congenital infection and sequelae that depend heavily on gestational age (GA) at time of infection. Accurate risk estimates by GA are necessary to counsel parents and improve clinical decisions. We analyzed data from pregnant women diagnosed with acute Toxoplasma infection in Lyon (France) from 1987 to 2008 and assessed how the risks of congenital toxoplasmosis and of clinical signs at age 3 years vary depending on GA at the time of maternal infection. Among 2048 mother-infant pairs, 93.2% of mothers received prenatal treatment and 513 (24.7%) fetuses were infected. Because of a significant reduction in risk since 1992 when monthly screening was introduced (59.4% vs 46.6% at 26 GA weeks; P = .038), probabilities of infection were estimated on the basis of maternal infections diagnosed after mid-1992 (n = 1624). Probabilities of congenital infection were <10% for maternal infections before 12 weeks of gestation, rose to 20.0% at 19 weeks, and then continued increasing to 52.3% and almost 70% at 28 and 39 GA weeks, respectively. Because of a significant reduction in risk of clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis in infected children born from mothers diagnosed after 1995 when polymerase chain reaction testing on amniotic fluid was initiated (87/794 vs 46/1150; P = .012), probabilities of clinical signs at 3 years were estimated based on 1015 maternal infections diagnosed after 1995 including 207 infected children, with symptoms in 46 (22.2%). These analyses demonstrated that introduction of monthly prenatal screening and improvement in antenatal diagnosis were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of congenital infection and a better outcome at 3 years of age in infected children. Our updated estimates will improve individual management and counseling in areas where genotype II Toxoplasma is predominant.

  8. Low-dose-rate radiation exposure leads to testicular damage with decreases in DNMT1 and HDAC1 in the murine testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Eun Ji; Son, Tae Gen; Yang, Kwangmo; Heo, Kyu; Kim, Joong Sun; Shin, In Sik

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of continuous low-dose-rate radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) of gamma rays on mice testicles. C57BL/6 mice were divided into sham and radiation groups (n = 8 each), and were exposed to either sham irradiation or 2 Gy for 21 days, 0.2 Gy for 2 days, or 0.02 Gy for 6 h of low-dose-rate irradiation. Testicular weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, and seminiferous epithelial depth were significantly decreased in the mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure. Moreover, the low-dose-rate radiation exposure induced an increase in malondialdehyde levels, and a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in the testis of mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure. The sperm count and motility in the epididymis also decreased in mice irradiated with 2 Gy at 1 and 9 days after exposure, whereas there was no significant effect on the proportion of abnormal sperm. The expressions of DNA methlytransferases-1 and histone deacetylases 1 in testes irradiated with 2 Gy were significantly decreased compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the damage exerted on the testes and epididymis largely depended on the total dose of low-dose-rate radiation. (author)

  9. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  10. No decrease in the rate of early or missed colorectal cancers after colonoscopy with polypectomy over a 10-year period : A population-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullens, Hendrikus J M; Leenders, Max; Schipper, Marguerite E I; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims: It is not clear whether the incidence of missed or early colorectal cancers (CRCs) has decreased over time. We compared the rates of missed or early CRC after polypectomy between 1996 and 2006, and aimed to identify risk factors for these. Methods: We performed a population-based,

  11. No decrease in the rate of early or missed colorectal cancers after colonoscopy with polypectomy over a 10-year period: a population-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullens, H.J.; Leenders, M.; Schipper, M.E.; Oijen, M.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is not clear whether the incidence of missed or early colorectal cancers (CRCs) has decreased over time. We compared the rates of missed or early CRC after polypectomy between 1996 and 2006, and aimed to identify risk factors for these. METHODS: We performed a population-based,

  12. Onset of decreased heart work is correlated with increased heart rate and shortened QT interval in high-carbohydrate fed overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Aysegul; Olgar, Yusuf; Tuncay, Erkan; Karaomerlioglu, Irem; Kayki Mutlu, Gizem; Arioglu Inan, Ebru; Altan, Vecdi Melih; Turan, Belma

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical activity of the heart is adversely affected in metabolic syndrome (MetS) characterized by increased body mass and marked insulin resistance. Herein, we examined the effects of high carbohydrate intake on cardiac function abnormalities by evaluating in situ heart work, heart rate, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) in rats. MetS was induced in male Wistar rats by adding 32% sucrose to drinking water for 22-24 weeks and was confirmed by insulin resistance, increased body weight, increased blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures in addition to significant loss of left ventricular integrity and increased connective tissue around myofibrils. Analysis of in situ ECG recordings showed a markedly shortened QT interval and decreased QRS amplitude with increased heart rate. We also observed increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense characterized by decreases in serum total thiol level and attenuated paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. Our data indicate that increased heart rate and a shortened QT interval concomitant with higher left ventricular developed pressure in response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulation as a result of less cyclic AMP release could be regarded as a natural compensation mechanism in overweight rats with MetS. In addition to the persistent insulin resistance and obesity associated with MetS, one should consider the decreased heart work, increased heart rate, and shortened QT interval associated with high carbohydrate intake, which may have more deleterious effects on the mammalian heart.

  13. Ion-neutral gas reactions in a collision/reaction cell in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Correlation of ion signal decrease to kinetic rate constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Patrick J. [Trace Element Research Laboratory, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 125 S. Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 120 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Olesik, John W., E-mail: olesik.2@osu.edu [Trace Element Research Laboratory, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 125 S. Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Reaction gas flow rate dependent Ar{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sup +} signals are correlated to fundamental kinetic rate coefficients. A simple calculation, assuming that gas exits the reaction cell due only to effusion, is described to estimate the gas pressure in the reaction cell. The value of the product of the kinetic rate constant and the ion residence time in the reaction cell can be determined from experimental measurement of the decrease in an ion signal as a function of reaction gas flow rate. New kinetic rate constants are determined for the reaction of CH{sub 3}F with Ar{sup +} and Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. - Highlights: • How to determine pressure and the product of the kinetic rate constant times the ion residence time in reaction cell • Relate measured ICP-DRC-MS signals versus gas flow rate to kinetic rate constants measured previously using SIFT-MS • Describe how to determine previously unmeasured kinetic rate constants using ICP-DRC-MS.

  14. Pre-operative antiseptic shower and bath policy decreases the rate of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus surgical site infections in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Kristin; Statz, Catherine; Glover, James; Banton, Kaysie; Beilman, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following joint arthroplasty increases length of stay, hospital cost, and leads to patient and healthcare provider dissatisfaction. Due to the presence of non-biologic implants (the prosthetic joint) in these procedures, infection is often devastating and treatment of the infection is more difficult. For this reason, prevention of SSI is of crucial importance in this population. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nares of approximately 30-40% of the population, is the most common pathogen causing SSI, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. A pre-operative shower or bath with an antiseptic is an inexpensive and effective method of removal of these transient skin pathogens prior to the procedure and may be used to decrease SSI. We hypothesize that a preoperative antiseptic shower or bath will decrease the rate of SSI. A retrospective review was performed at two affiliated hospitals within the same system, one with a hospital-wide policy enforcing pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath and the other with no policy, with cases included from January 2010 to June 2012. International Classification of Disease-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing joint arthroplasty and to identify those with SSI. Two thousand three-hundred forty-nine arthroplasties were performed at the University of Minnesota Medical Center, a tertiary-care hospital with a pre-operative antiseptic shower or bath policy in place. An additional 1,693 procedures were performed at Fairview Ridges Hospital, a community hospital with no pre-operative policy. There was no difference in the rate of SSI between the two hospitals (1.96% vs. 1.95%; p=1.0). However, the rate of SSI caused by S. aureus was significantly decreased by pre-operative antiseptic shower/bath (17% vs. 61%; p=0.03), as was the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections (2% vs. 24% p=0.002). A pre

  15. All-cause mortality rates and home deaths decreased in children with life-limiting diagnoses in Denmark between 1994 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Camilla; Ekholm, Ola; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    %). The relative proportion of hospital deaths increased, while home deaths decreased. CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality rate decreased markedly, and the relative proportion of hospital deaths increased. The results may reflect more aggressive and effective treatment attempts to save lives, but some terminally ill...... deaths. The decline in infant mortality (26%) primarily reflected fewer deaths due to congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (68%) and perinatal deaths (30%). In children aged one year to 17 years, the substantial decrease (65%) was due to external causes (75%) and neoplasms (57......AIM: Specialised paediatric palliative care has not previously been a priority in Denmark. The aim of this study was to support its development and organisation, by examining why and where children died using official national data for 1994-2014. METHODS: We obtained data on 9462 children who died...

  16. Influence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts resulted from maceration extraction on decreasing corrosion rate for mild steel in 1M H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, M.; Sukirno; Nasikin, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors is necessary to obtain safe corrosion inhibitors for the environment. The tannin compounds derived from plant extract has the ability to decrease the corrosion rate. The purpose of this research is to find the ability of tannin compounds in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts to decrease corrosion rate on mild steel. Terminalia catappa leaves that have been mashed in ethanol solvent extraction using maceration with the variable time 2.4 and 6 days. Mild steel that has been on the sandpaper and cleaned then soak into the 1 M H2SO4. Terminalia catappa leaves extract concentration used is 0, 250, 500, 500, 750, 1000 ppm, the immersion time is 3.6 and 9 hours. Calculating of corrosion rate is used the weight loss method, the analysis of the tannin concentration using GC-MS. The results indicate that highest tannin content equal to 7.23% in 6 days maceration time. The result showed that the corrosion rate was reduced in the presence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extract.

  17. Decrease in mortality rate and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction after the enactment of the smoking ban law in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Scholz, Jaqueline; de Masi, Eduardo; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Filho, Roberto Kalil

    2017-11-01

    Smoking restriction laws have spread worldwide during the last decade. Previous studies have shown a decline in the community rates of myocardial infarction after enactment of these laws. However, data are scarce about the Latin American population. In the first phase of this study, we reported the successful implementation of the law in São Paulo city, with a decrease in carbon monoxide rates in hospitality venues. To evaluate whether the 2009 implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban law in São Paulo city was associated with a reduction in rates of mortality and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. We performed a time-series study of monthly rates of mortality and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction from January 2005 to December 2010. The data were derived from DATASUS, the primary public health information system available in Brazil and from Mortality Information System (SIM). Adjustments and analyses were performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) method modelled by environmental variables and atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the effect of smoking ban law in mortality and hospital admission rate. We also used Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) to make a comparison between the period pre and post smoking ban law. We observed a reduction in mortality rate (-11.9% in the first 17 months after the law) and in hospital admission rate (-5.4% in the first 3 months after the law) for myocardial infarction after the implementation of the smoking ban law. Hospital admissions and mortality rate for myocardial infarction were reduced in the first months after the comprehensive smoking ban law was implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Effectivity of immunostimulant from Zoothamnium penaei protein membrane for decreasing the mortality rate of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in traditional plus pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasri, G.; Kusdarwati, R.; Kismiyati; Rozi; Gustrifandi, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to analys immunogenic membrane protein as immunostimulant development material to control the mortality of white shrimp in traditional plus pond. This research was designed to use explorative experiment and experimental laboratory methods which used completed random sampling design. Collected data was analyzed with analysis of variance for examination of survival rate (SR), total haemocyte count (THC) and differensial haemocyte Count (DHC). The research divided into 2 part of riset: (1) Identification, cultivation Zoothamnium penaei, analysed of membrane protein by SDS-PAGE, (2) Field test protein membran on Survival Rate level, immune response (THC and/or DHC level) and infestation of Zoothamnium penaei in traditional plus pond. The result showed that there were seven bands membrane protein of Zoothamnium penaei with molecular weight 38 kDa, 48 kDa, 67 kDa, 71 kDa, 77 kDa, 98 kDa dan 104 kDa by using SDS-PAGE. Immunogenicity tested decrease by using ELISA and western blotting there are only found three bands with molecular weight 38 kDa, 48 kDa dan 67 kDa. The membrane protein could increase the immun respons and decrease the mortality, by subsequenly, it could increase the survival rate from 17% until 68% and pressured the parasite infestation of white shrimp.

  19. The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of haemopoietic organs and blood of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishurova, E.; Kropachova, K.; Reksa, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of rat hemopoietic tissues and blood was followed up. We have found that the dynamics of the changes seems to be similar to that observed after acute exposure, and the hemopoiesis recovery starts just at the time of irradiation. In evaluating the damage and recovery extent after accidental irradiation, we consider it expedient to complement the biological dosimetry with the indices studied work including the determination of DNA and RNA concentrations in blood of irradiated human beings

  20. An investigation of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility-to-hospital readmissions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Michael; Topinka, Joseph Baar; Lee, Kimberly; Brooks, Matthew; McNeil, Christopher; Jackson, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives in decreasing the rate of avoidable 30-day, skilled nursing facility (SNF)-to-hospital readmissions. The rate of rehospitalizations from SNF within 30 days of original discharge has increased within the last decade. The research team participants conducted a literature review via Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed to collect data about quality improvement implemented in SNFs. The most common facilitator was the incorporation of specialized staff. The most cited barriers were quality improvement tracking and implementation. These strategy examples can be useful to acute care hospitals attempting to lower bounce back from subacute care providers and long-term care facilities seeking quality improvement initiatives to reduce hospital readmissions.

  1. Pasteurization of breastmilk decreases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections, but shows a nonsignificant trend to an increased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in very preterm infants--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Katharina; Griesmaier, Elke; Brunner, Barbara; Neubauer, Vera; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Trawöger, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk (1) decreases the rate of late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis and (2) increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. Between January 2008 and July 2013, preterm infants below 32 completed weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Innsbruck Medical University (Innsbruck, Austria) (n=344) were eligible for the study. Of those, 323 fed breastmilk were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Two groups were formed, with 164 infants being fed unpasteurized and 159 infants being fed pasteurized breastmilk. There was no significant difference in the rate of late-onset sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis between the unpasteurized and pasteurized breastmilk groups (late-onset sepsis, 15.9% versus 15.1% [p=0.486]; necrotizing enterocolitis, 2.4% versus 4.4% [p=0.254]). The number of infants diagnosed with postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection was significantly higher in the unpasteurized group (39.3%) compared with the pasteurized group (4.2%) (p=0.008). Feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. However, we also demonstrate a nonsignificant trend to a decreased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in the unpasteurized group, which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  2. [The mechanism of phenoptosis: I. Age-dependent decrease of the overall rate of protein synthesis is caused by the programmed attenuation of bio-energetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2009-01-01

    The age-dependent degradation of all vital processes of an organism can be result of influences of destructive factors (the stochastic mechanism of aging), or effect of realizations of the genetic program (phenoptosis). The stochastic free-radical theory of aging dominating now contradicts the set of empirical data, and the semicentenial attempts to create the means to slow down aging did not give any practical results. It makes obvious that the stochastic mechanism of aging is incorrect. At the same time, the alternative mechanism of the programmed aging is not developed yet but preconditions for it development have already been created. It is shown that the genes controlling process of aging exist (contrary to the customary opinion) and the increase in the level of damaged macromolecules (basic postulate of the free-radical theory) can be explained by programmed attenuation of bio-energetics. As the bio-energetics is a driving force of all vital processes, decrease of its level is capable to cause degradation of all functions of an organism. However to transform this postulate into a basis of the theory of phenoptosis it is necessary to show, that attenuation of bio-energetics predetermines such fundamental processes accompanying aging as decrease of the overall rate of protein biosynthesis, restriction of cellular proliferations (Hayflick limit), loss of telomeres etc. This article is the first step in this direction: the natural mechanism of interaction of overall rate of protein synthesis with a level of cellular bio-energetics is shown. This is built-in into the translation machine and based on dependence of recirculation rate of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (elF2) from ATP/ADP value that is created by mitochondrial bio-energetic machine.

  3. Heart rate variability reveals that a decrease in parasympathetic ('rest-and-digest') activity dominates autonomic stress responses in a free-living seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martina S; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Yamamoto, Maki; Yoda, Ken

    2017-10-01

    The autonomic stress response, often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response, is a highly conserved physiological reaction to stress in vertebrates that occurs via a decrease in parasympathetic (PNS) activity, which promotes self-maintenance 'rest and digest' processes, and an increase in sympathetic (SNS) activity, which prepares an animal for danger ('fight-or-flight'). Though the PNS and SNS both innervate most organs, they often control different tissues and functions within those organs (though the pacemaker of the heart is controlled by both). Moreover the PNS and SNS are regulated independently. Yet until now, most studies of autonomic stress responses in non-model species focused only on the SNS response. We used external electrocardiogram loggers to measure heart rate and heart rate variability indexes that reflect PNS and SNS activity in a seabird, the Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), during the stress of handling, and during recovery in the nest burrow or during restraint in a cloth bag. We show for the first time in a free-living animal that the autonomic stress response is mediated primarily by a rapid decrease in PNS activity: handling stress induced a large and long-lasting depression of PNS 'rest-and-digest' activity that required two hours to recover. We also found evidence for a substantially smaller and shorter-lasting SNS 'fight-or-flight' response. Confinement in a cloth bag was less stressful for birds than handling, but more stressful than recovering in nest burrows. We show that quantifying autonomic activity from heart rate variability is effective for non-invasively studying stress physiology in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? - A 45 year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-12-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  5. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? – A 45 year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  6. An Evidence-Based Protocol for Antibiotic Use Prior to Cystoscopy Decreases Antibiotic Use without Impacting Post-Procedural Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Justin R; Bhalla, Rohan G; Cook, J Paul; Kang, Caroline; Dmochowski, Roger; Talbot, Thomas R; Barocas, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Symptomatic urinary tract infection is a complication of office based cystourethroscopy. Studies are mixed regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections. Our aim was to develop and evaluate an evidence-based protocol that reduces unnecessary antibiotic use while avoiding an increase in urinary tract infections. We created a clinic antibiogram based on all urology office visits performed during a 2-year period. Bacterial resistance rates, institutional risk related data and clinical guidelines were applied to create a protocol for antibiotic administration before cystourethroscopy. We then analyzed 1,245 consecutive patients without a renal transplant who underwent outpatient cystourethroscopy, including 610 after protocol initiation. Urinary tract infection rates and antibiotic use were analyzed for an association with the protocol change using the Fisher exact test. Cultures had an overall 20% rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones, representing 40% of the cultures that grew Escherichia coli. Before the protocol change 602 of 635 patients (94.8%) received a preprocedural antibiotic compared to 426 of 610 (69.9%) after protocol initiation (p urinary tract infection prior to the protocol change while 16 (2.6%) had a urinary tract infection after the change (p = 0.69). Regarding resistance, fluoroquinolone resistant organisms grew in the cultures of 12 of 19 patients (63.2%) with a urinary tract infection before the protocol change compared to 5 of 16 (31.3%) with a urinary tract infection after the change. Recent antibiotic administration, hospitalization and chronic catheterization were associated with urinary tract infection in the entire cohort (all p ≤0.01). A local antibiogram with infection related risk data effectively risk stratifies patients before cystourethroscopy, decreasing the use of antibiotics without increasing the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association

  7. Cumulative dose of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a decrease of resting heart rate in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairoli, E; Danese, N; Teliz, M; Bruzzone, M J; Ferreira, J; Rebella, M; Cayota, A

    2015-10-01

    The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) offers a wide range of benefits. However, there are evidence in favour of cardiotoxicity, including heart conduction disturbances and congestive heart failure. To determine the effects of HCQ in the resting heart rate (RHR) of SLE patients. Included were patients with non active SLE, with a sedentary lifestyle and treated with HCQ. Excluded were patients on beta blocker treatment, trained patients, pacemaker's users and patients with clinical or analytical evidence of anemia, renal disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, uncontrolled thyroid disease, fever or current infection. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed in the resting condition (supine decubitus and orthostatic position). Comparison between groups was performed using Mann-Whitney U test. A multiple linear regression was performed. A p value 365 g). Non significant differences were found in age, sex, prednisone dose or SLEDAI. The mean RHR was 73 ± 6 beats/min in the low-HCQ and 65 ± 7 beats/min in the high-HCQ, with a significant decrease of 11% (p = 0.003). In multiple linear regressions, there were non significant association between the decrease of RHR and prednisone dose, age, SLEDAI or TSH, but there was significant association between RHR and CD-HCQ (p = 0.024) and RHR and time of exposure to HCQ (p = 0.029). CD-HCQ higher than 365 g was associated with a significant decrease (11%) in RHR in non-active SLE patients, although a larger prospective study is required to allow more definitive conclusions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Interpretation of the auto-mutual information rate of decrease in the context of biomedical signal analysis. Application to electroencephalogram recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Javier; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The mutual information (MI) is a measure of both linear and nonlinear dependences. It can be applied to a time series and a time-delayed version of the same sequence to compute the auto-mutual information function (AMIF). Moreover, the AMIF rate of decrease (AMIFRD) with increasing time delay in a signal is correlated with its entropy and has been used to characterize biomedical data. In this paper, we aimed at gaining insight into the dependence of the AMIFRD on several signal processing concepts and at illustrating its application to biomedical time series analysis. Thus, we have analysed a set of synthetic sequences with the AMIFRD. The results show that the AMIF decreases more quickly as bandwidth increases and that the AMIFRD becomes more negative as there is more white noise contaminating the time series. Additionally, this metric detected changes in the nonlinear dynamics of a signal. Finally, in order to illustrate the analysis of real biomedical signals with the AMIFRD, this metric was applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) signals acquired with eyes open and closed and to ictal and non-ictal intracranial EEG recordings

  9. Interpretation of the auto-mutual information rate of decrease in the context of biomedical signal analysis. Application to electroencephalogram recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Javier; Hornero, Roberto; Abásolo, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The mutual information (MI) is a measure of both linear and nonlinear dependences. It can be applied to a time series and a time-delayed version of the same sequence to compute the auto-mutual information function (AMIF). Moreover, the AMIF rate of decrease (AMIFRD) with increasing time delay in a signal is correlated with its entropy and has been used to characterize biomedical data. In this paper, we aimed at gaining insight into the dependence of the AMIFRD on several signal processing concepts and at illustrating its application to biomedical time series analysis. Thus, we have analysed a set of synthetic sequences with the AMIFRD. The results show that the AMIF decreases more quickly as bandwidth increases and that the AMIFRD becomes more negative as there is more white noise contaminating the time series. Additionally, this metric detected changes in the nonlinear dynamics of a signal. Finally, in order to illustrate the analysis of real biomedical signals with the AMIFRD, this metric was applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) signals acquired with eyes open and closed and to ictal and non-ictal intracranial EEG recordings.

  10. Stent type used does not impact complication rate or placement time but can decrease treatment cost for benign and malignant esophageal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camille; McGaw[1; Ahmad; Alkaddour[2; Kenneth; J; Vega[3; Juan; Carlos; Munoz[1

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if differences exist between selfexpanding esophageal metal stents (SEMS) and selfexpanding esophageal plastic stents (SEPS) when used for benign or malignant esophageal disorders with regard to safety, efficacy, clinical outcomes, placement ease and cost.METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate outcome in patients having SEPS/SEMS placed for malignant or benign esophageal conditions from January 2005 to April 2012. Inclusion criteria was completed SEMS/SEPS placement. Outcomes assessed included technical success of and time required for stent placement, procedure-related complications, need for repeat intervention, hospital stay, mortality and costs.RESULTS: Forty-three patients underwent stent placement for either benign/malignant esophageal disease during the study period. Thirty patients had SEMS (25 male, mean age 59.6 years old) and 13 patients had SEPS (10 male, mean age 61.7 years old). Placement outcome as well as complication rate (SEPS 23.1%, SEMS 25.2%) and in-hospital mortality (SEPS 7.7%, SEMS 6.7%) after placement did not differ between stent types. Migration was the most frequent complication reported occurring equally between types (SEPS 66.7%, SEMS 57.1%). SEPS was less costly than SEMS, decreasing institutional cost by $255/stent. CONCLUSION: SEPS and SEMS have similar outcomes when used for benign or malignant esophageal conditions. However, SEPS use results in decreased costs without impacting care.

  11. Stent type used does not impact complication rate or placement time but can decrease treatment cost for benign and malignant esophageal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camille McGaw; Ahmad Alkaddour; Kenneth J Vega; Juan Carlos Munoz

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if differences exist between selfexpanding esophageal metal stents(SEMS) and selfexpanding esophageal plastic stents(SEPS) when used for benign or malignant esophageal disorders with regard to safety, efficacy, clinical outcomes, placement ease and cost.METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate outcome in patients having SEPS/SEMS placed for malignant or benign esophageal conditions from January 2005 to April 2012. Inclusion criteria was completed SEMS/SEPS placement. Outcomes assessed included technical success of and time required for stent placement, procedure-related complications, need for repeat intervention, hospital stay, mortality and costs.RESULTS: Forty-three patients underwent stent placement for either benign/malignant esophagealdisease during the study period. Thirty patients had SEMS(25 male, mean age 59.6 years old) and 13 patients had SEPS(10 male, mean age 61.7 years old). Placement outcome as well as complication rate(SEPS 23.1%, SEMS 25.2%) and in-hospital mortality(SEPS 7.7%, SEMS 6.7%) after placement did not differ between stent types. Migration was the most frequent complication reported occurring equally between types(SEPS 66.7%, SEMS 57.1%). SEPS was less costly than SEMS, decreasing institutional cost by $255/stent.CONCLUSION: SEPS and SEMS have similar outcomes when used for benign or malignant esophageal conditions. However, SEPS use results in decreased costs without impacting care.

  12. Effectiveness of Educational Program Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action to Decrease the Rate of Cesarean Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Fasa, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan-Jeihooni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cesarean section is considered as a major surgery accompanied by several complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of reasoned action to reduce the rate of cesarean section among pregnant women in Fasa, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 100 (50 participants in each of the control and intervention groups primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to health centers of Fasa city, Fars province, Iran. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables and the theory of reasoned action structures. After the pretest, the intervention group underwent exclusive training based on the theory of reasoned action. Then, after 3 months, both groups took part in the posttest. Data was analyzed by paired T-test, independent T-test and chi-square using SPSS-18 software. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups regarding knowledge, evaluations behavioral outcomes, Behavioral beliefs and intention (P<0.001. Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding their performance (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present intervention was effective in increasing the pregnant women’s knowledge, evaluation of outcomes, attitude and strengthening their intention as well as performance. Therefore, it is suggested to use this model and other systematic straining for pregnant women to decrease the rate of cesarean section.

  13. Screening for decreased glomerular filtration rate and associated risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in a middle-income country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santiago

    Full Text Available With the introduction of combined active antiretroviral therapy and the improved survival of HIV-infected patients, degenerative diseases and drug toxicity have emerged as long-term concerns. We studied the prevalence of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and associated risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected patients from a middle-income country. Our cross-sectional study included all adult patients who attended an urban outpatient clinic in 2008. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation. The prevalence ratio (PR of decreased GFR (defined as <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 was estimated using generalizing linear models assuming a Poisson distribution. We analyzed data from 1,970 patients, of which 82.9% had been exposed to ART. A total of 249 patients (12.6% had a GFR between 60 and 89 mL/min/1.73 m(2, 3.1% had a GFR between 30 and 59, 0.3% had a GFR between 15 and 29, and 0.4% had a GFR <15. Decreased GFR was found in only 74 patients (3.8%. In the multivariate regression model, the factors that were independently associated with a GFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 were as follows: age ≥ 50 years (PR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-6.8, diabetes (PR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, hypertension (PR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.2, current CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3 (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3-3.3, past exposure to tenofovir (PR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.3-9.4 and past exposure to indinavir (PR =1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.8. As in high-income countries, CKD was the predominant form of kidney involvement among HIV-infected individuals in our setting. The risk factors associated with decreased glomerular filtration were broad and included virus-related factors as well as degenerative and nephrotoxic factors. Despite the potential for nephrotoxicity associated with some antiretroviral drugs, in the short-term, advanced chronic renal disease remains very rare.

  14. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  15. Study of Effectiveness of Human Factors Engineering Interference in Cumulative Trauma Disorders Rate Decreasing in the Tehran South Health Center 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisepehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to now accomplished many investigations about cumulative trauma disorders (CTD accession. For the most part sitting pattern and unsuitable task posture has been specified reason of these complications. In the publicized stats from a foreign source ambit of 44 percent of people who worked with computer has been afflict to the CTD's. The aim of this paper is to find and measurement of CTD and ergonomic intervention and investigation rate of this intervention's effect in the Tehran south health center. This center use paperless system. Methods: In this research Nordic questionnaire distribute between 68 persons of the center to determine CTD's. By technical expert inspection specified reason of complications. Observantly to state methods reason which create more severity and frequency CTD's has been recognized and interference with human factors engineering. For the more efficiency of interference Anthropometry has been used for all of Work stations and for any person designed a significant posture. Results: results that obtained before interference indicate that were CTD's complications at more of employees which 90 percent of them suffered of up spine pain. Also 27.4 percent of them had shoulder pain and 20.4 percent had neck pain. After the interference these measures decreased. And complaint of employee decreased 40.8 percent to up spine pain. Also for the shoulder pain it reached to 22 and neck pain 17.6 percent. With state test identified that there are significant difference between CTD after and before of intervention (p<0.005. Conclusion: Being unsuitable task posture is main cause of CTD's in the Work stations. We can prevent to increasing these complications in the work place by simple approach like adjustment in the desk and chair height, correct performance working training and doing simple exercise.

  16. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  17. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Decreased fracture rate, pharmacogenetics and BMD response in 79 Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta types I, III and IV treated with Pamidronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Kindmark, A; Rubin, C-J; Malmgren, B; Grigelioniene, G; Söderhäll, S; Ljunggren, Ö; Åström, E

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited heterogeneous bone fragility disorder, usually caused by collagen I mutations. It is well established that bisphosphonate treatment increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), as well as improves vertebral geometry in severe OI; however, fracture reduction has been difficult to prove, pharmacogenetic studies are scarce, and it is not known at which age, or severity of disease, treatment should be initiated. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were analyzed in 79 children with OI (type I n=33, type III n=25 and type IV n=21) treated with Pamidronate. Data on LS BMD, height, and radiologically confirmed non-vertebral and vertebral fractures were collected prior to, and at several time points during treatment. An increase in LS BMD Z-score was observed for all types of OI, and a negative correlation to Δ LS BMD was observed for both age and LS BMD Z-score at treatment initiation. Supine height Z-scores were not affected by Pamidronate treatment, The fracture rate was reduced for all OI types at all time points during treatment (overall p4yrs Pamidronate. Twice as many boys as girls with OI type I were treated with Pamidronate, and the fracture rate the year prior treatment was 2.2 times higher for boys (p=0.0236). Greater Δ LS BMD, but smaller Δ fracture numbers were observed on Pamidronate for helical glycine mutations in COL1A1 vs. COL1A2. Vertebral compression fractures did not progress in any individual during treatment; however, they did not improve in 9%, and these individuals were all >11years of age at treatment initiation (p<0.0001). Pamidronate treatment in children with all types of OI increased LS BMD, decreased fracture rate, and improved vertebral compression fractures. Fracture reduction was prompt and maintained during treatment, irrespective of age at treatment initiation and collagen I mutation type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decrease in delivery room intubation rates after use of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room for resuscitation of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniwale, Manoj; Wertheimer, Fiona

    2017-07-01

    The literature supports minimizing duration of invasive ventilation to decrease lung injury in premature infants. Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommended use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in delivery room for infants requiring prolonged respiratory support. To evaluate the impact of implementation of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) using nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for resuscitation in very low birth infants. Retrospective study was performed after NIPPV was introduced in the delivery room and compared with infants receiving face mask to provide positive pressure ventilation for resuscitation of very low birth weight infants prior to its use. Data collected from 119 infants resuscitated using NIPPV and 102 infants resuscitated with a face mask in a single institution. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal intubation in the delivery room. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 24. A total of 31% of infants were intubated in the delivery room in the NIPPV group compared to 85% in the Face mask group (p=rates were 11% in the NIPPV group and 31% in the Face mask group (p<0.001). Epinephrine administration was also lower in NIPPV group (2% vs. 8%; P=0.03). Only 38% infants remained intubated at 24hours of age in the NIPPV group compared to 66% in the Face mask group (p<0.001). Median duration of invasive ventilation in the NIPPV group was shorter (2days) compared to the Face mask group (11days) (p=0.01). The incidence of air-leaks was not significant between the two groups. NIPPV was safely and effectively used in the delivery room settings to provide respiratory support for VLBW infants with less need for intubation, chest compressions, epinephrine administration and subsequent invasive ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  1. Temperature shift experiments suggest that metabolic impairment and enhanced rates of photorespiration decrease organic acid levels in soybean leaflets exposed to supra-optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate in soybean leaflets decreased 40 to 80% when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Glycerate was not temperature responsive in this study. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organi...

  2. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Increasing incidence, decreasing surgery rate, and compromised nutritional status: A prospective population-based cohort study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from a backgro......Background: The aim was to evaluate the incidence, treatment, surgery rate, and anthropometry at diagnosis of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Patients diagnosed between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 in Eastern Denmark, Funen, and Aarhus were included from...... a background population of 668,056 children evaluation of incidence, treatment, and surgery rate, a subcohort from Eastern Denmark was extracted for comparison with a previously published population-based cohort from the same geographical area (1998–2006). Results: In all, 130 children...... in the rate of initiating immunomodulators (IM) within the first year (29.0/100 person-years versus 69.2, P nutritional status at diagnosis compared with the general...

  3. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Renteria, Elisenda; Sharp, Linda; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Comber, Harry; Baas, Paul; Bray, Freddie; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Smoking prevalence has been declining in men all over Europe, while the trend varies in European regions among women. To study the impact of past smoking prevalence, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent trends in incidence, during 1988-2010, in 26 countries, of four of the major cancers in the respiratory and upper gastro-intestinal tract associated with tobacco smoking. Data from 47 population-based cancer registries for lung, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancer cases were obtained from the newly developed data repository within the European Cancer Observatory (http://eco.iarc.fr/). Truncated age-standardised incidence rates (35-74 years) by calendar year, average annual percentage change in incidence over 1998-2007 were calculated. Smoking prevalence in selected countries was extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organization databases. There remained great but changing variation in the incidence rates of tobacco-related cancers by European region. Generally, the high rates among men have been declining, while the lower rates among women are increasing, resulting in convergence of the rates. Female lung cancer rates were above male rates in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden (35-64 years). In lung and laryngeal cancers, where smoking is the main risk factor, rates were highest in central and eastern Europe, southern Europe and the Baltic countries. Despite a lowering of female smoking prevalence, female incidence rates of lung, laryngeal and oral cavity cancers increased in most parts of Europe, but were stable in the Baltic countries. Mixed trends emerged in oesophageal cancer, probably explained by differing risk factors for the two main histological subtypes. This data repository offers the opportunity to show the variety of incidence trends by sex among European countries. The diverse patterns of trends reflect varied exposure to risk factors. Given the heavy cancer

  4. Decreasing rate of multiple treatment modifications among individuals who initiated antiretroviral therapy in 1997-2009 in the Danish HIV Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that rates and reasons for treatment modifications have changed since the implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) due to improvements in therapy. METHODS: From a nationwide population-based cohort study we identified all HIV-1 infected adults who...... initiated cART in Denmark 1997-2009 and were followed (3)1 year. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and reasons for treatment modifications were estimated and compared between patients, who initiated treatment in 1997-1999, 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Rates of discontinuation of individual antiretroviral drugs (ARVs......) were evaluated. RESULTS: 3,107 patients were followed median 7.3 years (IQR 3.8-10.8). Rates of first treatment modification ≤1 year after cART initiation did not change (IRR 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-1.01) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.18) in 2000-2004 and 2005-2009 compared to 1997-1999). Rates of multiple...

  5. Decrease in Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer Patients Due to Insertion of a Single Guanine Base in Promoter Sequences of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Gene (in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hojati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion or deletion of a guanine in -1607 at promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme creates two allelic types for this gene in the population: 2G and 1G, respectively. 2G allele contains an extra binding site for ETS transcription factors that this may increase the level of gene expression. Therefore, aim of this study was investigation of the single Guanine insertion in the promoter gene and its association with colorectal cancer patient survival rate and tumor progression. Methods: Blood samples from 150 colorectal patients and 100 cases were extracted. The mean follow-up was 25 months (12-36 months. Cases and patients were genotyped using genomic DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP. Results: Colorectal cancer patients were divided in two groups; with activity of metastasis (M+ and without activity of metastasis (M-. 2G allele in metastasis group (55% showed more frequency rather than controls (23%. Survival analyses showed that 3 years survival patients rate in the patients without metastasis activity carrying 1G allele (homo and heterozygote was 81% and for 2G homozygote is 66% (p=0.04. The survival rate dependent to cancer was 90% and 71%, respectively (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that patients carrying 1G allele show a better survival rate dependent on cancer as compared to patients who do not carry this allele.

  6. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We...... investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after...... composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher...

  8. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A time-efficient web-based teaching tool to improve medical knowledge and decrease ABIM failure rate in select residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Sean M; Qureshi, Waqas; Morse, William; Baker-Genaw, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) exam's pass rate is considered a quality measure of a residency program, yet few interventions have shown benefit in reducing the failure rate. We developed a web-based Directed Reading (DR) program with an aim to increase medical knowledge and reduce ABIM exam failure rate. Internal medicine residents at our academic medical center with In-Training Examination (ITE) scores ≤ 35 th percentile from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled in DR. The program matches residents to reading assignments based on their own ITE-failed educational objectives and provides direct electronic feedback from their teaching physicians. ABIM exam pass rates were analyzed across various groups between 2002 and 2013 to examine the effect of the DR program on residents with ITE scores ≤ 35 percentile pre- (2002-2006) and post-intervention (2007-2013). A time commitment survey was also given to physicians and DR residents at the end of the study. Residents who never scored ≤ 35 percentile on ITE were the most likely to pass the ABIM exam on first attempt regardless of time period. For those who ever scored ≤ 35 percentile on ITE, 91.9% of residents who participated in DR passed the ABIM exam on first attempt vs 85.2% of their counterparts pre-intervention (p ITE were more likely to fail ABIM exam on first attempt, those who participated in the DR program were less likely to fail than the historical control counterparts. The web-based teaching method required little time commitment by faculty.

  10. Breath-hold after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle decreased the rate of pneumothorax in CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Lingfeng; Xu, Xingxiang [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Song, Yong [Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medical, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China); Issahar, Ben-Dov [Pulmonary Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Wu, Jingtao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Qian [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingxiang, E-mail: chenmx1129@126.com [Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Clinical Medical School of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of a breath-hold after forced expiration on the rate of pneumothorax after computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed in 440 patients. Two hundred and twenty-one biopsies were performed without (control group) and two hundred and nineteen biopsies were performed with (study group) the study maneuver – a breath-hold after forced expiratory approach. Multivariate analysis was performed between groups for risk factors for pneumothorax, including patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and biopsy technique. Results: A reduced number of pneumothoraces (18 [8.2%] vs 35 [15.8%]; P = 0.014) but no significant difference in rate of drainage catheter insertions (2 [0.9%] vs (4 [1.8%]; P = 0.418) were noted in the study group as compared with the control group. By logistic regression analysis, three factors significantly and independently affected the risk for pneumothorax including lesion size (transverse and longitudinal diameter), distance from pleura and utilizing or avoiding the breath-hold after deep expiration maneuver. Conclusion: Breath-holding after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle during the percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy almost halved the rate of overall pneumothorax. Small lesion size (longitudinal diameter) and the distance from pleura were also predictors of pneumothorax in our study.

  11. Breath-hold after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle decreased the rate of pneumothorax in CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Lingfeng; Xu, Xingxiang; Song, Yong; Issahar, Ben-Dov; Wu, Jingtao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Qian; Chen, Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of a breath-hold after forced expiration on the rate of pneumothorax after computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed in 440 patients. Two hundred and twenty-one biopsies were performed without (control group) and two hundred and nineteen biopsies were performed with (study group) the study maneuver – a breath-hold after forced expiratory approach. Multivariate analysis was performed between groups for risk factors for pneumothorax, including patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and biopsy technique. Results: A reduced number of pneumothoraces (18 [8.2%] vs 35 [15.8%]; P = 0.014) but no significant difference in rate of drainage catheter insertions (2 [0.9%] vs (4 [1.8%]; P = 0.418) were noted in the study group as compared with the control group. By logistic regression analysis, three factors significantly and independently affected the risk for pneumothorax including lesion size (transverse and longitudinal diameter), distance from pleura and utilizing or avoiding the breath-hold after deep expiration maneuver. Conclusion: Breath-holding after forced expiration before removal of the biopsy needle during the percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy almost halved the rate of overall pneumothorax. Small lesion size (longitudinal diameter) and the distance from pleura were also predictors of pneumothorax in our study

  12. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy with flexible applicator. A trial toward decrease of stress during treatment and improvement of quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Keiji; Kasahara, Kotaro; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichiro; Kariya, Shinji; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Shuin, Taro

    2001-01-01

    We tried to improve the materials and methods of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer and evaluated the stress during the treatment in 20 patients with whom the therapy was performed. Rigid applicators made of stainless steel of 1.6 mm in diameter were indwelt with a template as usual for 30 hours in 14 patients (group A). Flexible applicators made of polyoxymethylene rosin (POM) of 2.0 mm in diameter were indwelt without a template for 30 hours after the applicator insertion in 6 patients (group B). We made inquiries about lumbago, inconvenience and necessity of assistant help and sleep in the course of therapy, and urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy as the QOL. The stress during the course of therapy in the patients of group B was obviously less than that of group A. There were no significant differences in urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy between group A and B. In this study, our trial successfully reduced the stress during the course of therapy in the patients with localized prostate cancer in the course of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy. (author)

  13. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy with flexible applicator. A trial toward decrease of stress during treatment and improvement of quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Keiji; Kasahara, Kotaro; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichiro; Kariya, Shinji; Inomata, Taisuke; Yoshida, Shoji; Shuin, Taro [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We tried to improve the materials and methods of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer and evaluated the stress during the treatment in 20 patients with whom the therapy was performed. Rigid applicators made of stainless steel of 1.6 mm in diameter were indwelt with a template as usual for 30 hours in 14 patients (group A). Flexible applicators made of polyoxymethylene rosin (POM) of 2.0 mm in diameter were indwelt without a template for 30 hours after the applicator insertion in 6 patients (group B). We made inquiries about lumbago, inconvenience and necessity of assistant help and sleep in the course of therapy, and urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy as the QOL. The stress during the course of therapy in the patients of group B was obviously less than that of group A. There were no significant differences in urinary incontinence and erectile function after the course of therapy between group A and B. In this study, our trial successfully reduced the stress during the course of therapy in the patients with localized prostate cancer in the course of high-dose rate Iridium-192 brachytherapy. (author)

  14. Study of the early age cracking of concrete massive structures: effect of the temperature decrease rate, steel reinforcement and construction joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briffaut, M.

    2010-01-01

    At early-age, massive concrete structures (ex. nuclear power plant) are submitted to strains due to the hydration reaction. If they are restrained, crossing cracks can occurs. This cracking may increase significantly the concrete wall permeability. The objectives of this work was to characterize the early age concrete behavior (thermal and endogenous shrinkage, basic and thermal transient creep, mechanical characteristic evolution) as well as develop a new device to study the early age cracking of a concrete structure submitted to restrained shrinkage. The experimental campaign achieved with this new device (called thermal active ring test) and the numerical analysis of the test thanks to finite element simulations allows us to evaluate the coupling between creep and damage, to identify the tensile strength decrease due to construction joints and to quantify the effect of reinforcement on the concrete behaviour. Moreover, with this device, permeability measurements have been performed on a cracked specimen. Finally, numerical simulations of massive structures highlight the influence of boundary conditions for restrained shrinkage and the influence of the coupling between creep and damage on the damage pattern. (author)

  15. An acute fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with losartan predicts a slower decrease in long-term renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Thomas, Merlin C

    2011-01-01

    initial fall in eGFR had a significant lower long-term eGFR slope compared to those with a moderate fall or rise. This relationship was independent of other risk markers or change in risk markers for progression of renal disease such as blood pressure and albuminuria. Thus, the greater the acute fall in e......Intervention in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is associated with slowing the progressive loss of renal function. During initiation of therapy, however, there may be an acute fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We tested whether this initial fall in GFR reflects a renal...... a significantly greater acute fall in estimated (eGFR) during the first 3 months compared to patients assigned to placebo, but a significantly slower long-term mean decline of eGFR thereafter. A large interindividual difference, however, was noticed in the acute eGFR change. When patients were divided...

  16. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  17. Acute electroconvulsive therapy followed by maintenance electroconvulsive therapy decreases hospital re-admission rates of older patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Assaf; Mazeh, Doron; Berger, Uri; Baruch, Yehuda; Barak, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Maintenance ECT (M-ECT) is required for many elderly patients experiencing severe recurrent forms of mood disorders, whereas M-ECT for schizophrenia patients is a poorly studied treatment. We report on the outcomes in aged patients with SMI: schizophrenia and severe affective disorders treated by M-ECT of varying duration to prevent relapse after a successful course of acute ECT. The study measured the effectiveness of M-ECT in preventing hospital readmissions and reducing admission days. A retrospective chart review of 42 consecutive patients comparing the number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after the start of M-ECT was used. We analyzed diagnoses, previous ECT treatments, number of ECT treatments, and number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after M-ECT. Mean age in our sample was 71.5 (6.9) years. Twenty-two (52%) patients experienced severe affective disorders and 20 (48%) experienced schizophrenia. Patients were administered 92.8 (85.9) M-ECT treatments. Average duration of the M-ECT course was 34 (29.8) months. There were on average 1.88 admissions before M-ECT and only 0.38 admissions in the M-ECT period (P < 0.001). Duration of mean hospitalization stay decreased from 215.9 to 12.4 days during the M-ECT (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acute ECT followed by M-ECT is highly effective in selected elderly patients with SMIs.

  18. Decrease in Infection Rate Following Use of Povidone-Iodine During Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the Prostate: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, Mahyar; Shakiba, Madjid; Seifmanesh, Hamidreza; Hoseini, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Infection after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy of the prostate is a major and potentially life-threatening problem. Using antibiotic premedication can not completely eliminate infection after biopsy. We performed this study to determine the value of using povidone-iodine in prevention of post biopsy infection. Totally, 280 patients who were referred for TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate were divided randomly into two equal groups. The case group received an intrarectal mixture of povidone-iodine and lidocaine gel before performing biopsy, while the control group received only lidocaine gel. Patients were followed up for 30 days for possible signs of infection including fever, chills and dysuria. The mean age in the case group was 68.7 ± 7 years and 68.1 ± 7 years in the control group (P = 0.78). Overall, there were signs and symptoms of infection in 78 patients (27.9%), of which 27 (19.3%) were in the case group, while 51 (36.4%) were in the control group (P = 0.001, OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4-4.1). Simple use of widely available povidone-iodine for cleaning the rectum before TRUS guided prostate biopsy can reduce the infection rate

  19. Detecting Mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pyrazinamidase Gene pncA to Improve Infection Control and Decrease Drug Resistance Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Matthew Z.; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H.; Ticona, Eduardo; Friedland, Jon S.; Kirwan, Daniela E.; Caviedes, Luz; Rodriguez, Richard; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Coronel, Jorge; Grandjean, Louis; Moore, David A. J.; Evans, Carlton A.; Huaroto, Luz; Chávez-Pérez, Víctor; Zimic, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Hospital infection control measures are crucial to tuberculosis (TB) control strategies within settings caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients, as these patients are at heightened risk of developing TB. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a potent drug that effectively sterilizes persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. However, PZA resistance associated with mutations in the nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase coding gene, pncA, is increasing. A total of 794 patient isolates obtained from four sites in Lima, Peru, underwent spoligotyping and drug resistance testing. In one of these sites, the HIV unit of Hospital Dos de Mayo (HDM), an isolation ward for HIV/TB coinfected patients opened during the study as an infection control intervention: circulating genotypes and drug resistance pre- and postintervention were compared. All other sites cared for HIV-negative outpatients: genotypes and drug resistance rates from these sites were compared with those from HDM. HDM patients showed high concordance between multidrug resistance, PZA resistance according to the Wayne method, the two most common genotypes (spoligotype international type [SIT] 42 of the Latino American-Mediterranean (LAM)-9 clade and SIT 53 of the T1 clade), and the two most common pncA mutations (G145A and A403C). These associations were absent among community isolates. The infection control intervention was associated with 58–92% reductions in TB caused by SIT 42 or SIT 53 genotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.420, P = 0.003); multidrug-resistant TB (OR = 0.349, P < 0.001); and PZA-resistant TB (OR = 0.076, P < 0.001). In conclusion, pncA mutation typing, with resistance testing and spoligotyping, was useful in identifying a nosocomial TB outbreak and demonstrating its resolution after implementation of infection control measures. PMID:27928075

  20. Increased cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain in left atria and decreased myocardial insulin-like growth factor (Igf-I) expression accompany low heart rate in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, N D; Nelson, O L; Robbins, C T; Rourke, B C

    2011-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extended periods of extremely low heart rate during hibernation without developing congestive heart failure or cardiac chamber dilation. Left ventricular atrophy and decreased left ventricular compliance have been reported in this species during hibernation. We evaluated the myocardial response to significantly reduced heart rate during hibernation by measuring relative myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and expression of a set of genes important to muscle plasticity and mass regulation in the left atria and left ventricles of active and hibernating bears. We supplemented these data with measurements of systolic and diastolic function via echocardiography in unanesthetized grizzly bears. Atrial strain imaging revealed decreased atrial contractility, decreased expansion/reservoir function (increased atrial stiffness), and decreased passive-filling function (increased ventricular stiffness) in hibernating bears. Relative MyHC-α protein expression increased significantly in the atrium during hibernation. The left ventricle expressed 100% MyHC-β protein in both groups. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) mRNA expression was reduced by ∼50% in both chambers during hibernation, consistent with the ventricular atrophy observed in these bears. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and Muscle Ring Finger 1 did not increase, nor did expression of myostatin or hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). We report atrium-specific decreases of 40% and 50%, respectively, in MAFBx and creatine kinase mRNA expression during hibernation. Decreased creatine kinase expression is consistent with lowered energy requirements and could relate to reduced atrial emptying function during hibernation. Taken together with our hemodynamic assessment, these data suggest a potential downregulation of atrial chamber function during hibernation to prevent fatigue and dilation

  1. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  2. CT-guided core biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung: Can these procedures be combined without an increase in complication rate or decrease in technical success?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Interventional Radiology, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Sheiman, Robert, E-mail: rsheiman@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Brook, Olga R. [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [King' s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, SE1 7EH London (United Kingdom); Mahadevan, Anand [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Radiation Oncology, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Siewert, Bettina [Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Department of Radiology, Abdominal Imaging, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine if concomitant CT-guided biopsy and percutaneous fiducial seed placement in the lung can be performed in a selective patient population without increased complication or decreased success rates compared to either procedure alone. Materials and methods: An IRB approved retrospective analysis of 285 consecutive patients that underwent CT-guided placement of fiducial seeds in the lung alone (N = 63), with concomitant core biopsy (N = 53) or only core biopsy (N = 169) was performed. Variables compared included: patient demographics, lesion size, depth from pleura, needle size, number of passes through pleura, number and size of core biopsies, number of seeds placed and technical success rates. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate pair-wise comparisons. Results: A pathologic diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed in all cases undergoing seed placement alone and seed placement with concurrent biopsy, and in 144 of the biopsy alone lesions. On univariate analysis, major complication rates were similar for all three groups as were lesion size, depth, number of pleural passes, and technical success. Pair-wise comparisons of the remaining variables demonstrated a significant younger age and smaller needle size in the biopsy only group, and less minor complications in the fiducial only group. Overall there were 80/285 (28.1%) minor and 29/285 (10.2%) major complications. All major complications leading to admission consisted of either pneumothorax or hemothorax, while minor complications included asymptomatic stable or resolving pneumothoraces, transient hemoptysis or small hemothoraces. Conclusions: A combined procedure of percutaneous pulmonary core biopsy and stereotactic seed placement can be performed without additional risk of a major complication when compared to performing these separately.

  3. The possibility of applying spectral redundancy in DWDM systems on existing long-distance FOCLs for increasing the data transmission rate and decreasing nonlinear effects and double Rayleigh scattering without changes in the communication channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekuchaev, A. O.; Shuteev, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A new method of data transmission in DWDM systems along existing long-distance fiber-optic communication lines is proposed. The existing method, e.g., uses 32 wavelengths in the NRZ code with an average power of 16 conventional units (16 units and 16 zeros on the average) and transmission of 32 bits/cycle. In the new method, one of 124 wavelengths with a duration of one cycle each (at any time instant, no more than 16 obligatory different wavelengths) and capacity of 4 bits with an average power of 15 conventional units and rate of 64 bits/cycle is transmitted at every instant of a 1/16 cycle. The cross modulation and double Rayleigh scattering are significantly decreased owing to uniform distribution of power over time at different wavelengths. The time redundancy (forward error correction (FEC)) is about 7% and allows one to achieve a coding enhancement of about 6 dB by detecting and removing deletions and errors simultaneously.

  4. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  5. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  6. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  7. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  8. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  9. HDR- and LDR-interstitial irradiation (IRT) in rat spinal cord: the effect of decreasing the dose rate and the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L.A.M.; Plas, M. van der; Hanssen, A.E.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of radiobiological parameters of the different tissues involved are warranted before HDR- and recently PDR-brachytherapy can be successfully introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to LDR- brachytherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the α/β ratio and half time of repair of rat spinal cord during continuous irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1- 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR-microSelectron. Serial experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 5 different dose rates, resp. 0.5, 0.9, 1.6, 2.6 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal are used as experimental endpoints. Dose-volume histograms of each irradiated rat have been analysed to evaluate the correlation between dose distribution and biological response and the histopathological damage seen. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall-off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h. Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis revealed an α/β ratio of 2.44 Gy and a (mono- exponential) half time of repair (=t (1(2)) ) of 1.43 hours; for the maximum of 150 % of the prescribed dose these values were 3.67 Gy and 1.43 hours respectively. Conclusions: Spinal cord radiation tolerance is

  10. Exacerbation of oxidative stress during sickle vaso-occlusive crisis is associated with decreased anti-band 3 autoantibodies rate and increased red blood cell-derived microparticle level: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierso, Régine; Lemonne, Nathalie; Villaescusa, Rinaldo; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Charlot, Keyne; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Tressières, Benoit; Lamarre, Yann; Tarer, Vanessa; Garnier, Yohann; Hernandez, Ada Arce; Ferracci, Serge; Connes, Philippe; Romana, Marc; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Painful vaso-occlusive crisis, a hallmark of sickle cell anaemia, results from complex, incompletely understood mechanisms. Red blood cell (RBC) damage caused by continuous endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress may precipitate the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crises. In order to gain insight into the relevance of oxidative stress in vaso-occlusive crisis occurrence, we prospectively compared the expression levels of various oxidative markers in 32 adults with sickle cell anaemia during vaso-occlusive crisis and steady-state conditions. Compared to steady-state condition, plasma levels of free haem, advanced oxidation protein products and myeloperoxidase, RBC caspase-3 activity, as well as the concentrations of total, neutrophil- and RBC-derived microparticles were increased during vaso-occlusive crises, whereas the reduced glutathione content was decreased in RBCs. In addition, natural anti-band 3 autoantibodies levels decreased during crisis and were negatively correlated with the rise in plasma advanced oxidation protein products and RBC caspase-3 activity. These data showed an exacerbation of the oxidative stress during vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell anaemia patients and strongly suggest that the higher concentration of harmful circulating RBC-derived microparticles and the reduced anti-band 3 autoantibodies levels may be both related to the recruitment of oxidized band 3 into membrane aggregates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study. A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenstein, D; Murphy, M; Fokar, A; Hernandez, R K; Park, H; Nsouli, H; Sanders, M E; Davis, B A; Niborski, V; Tondu, F; Shara, N M

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3-6 years old in daycare/schools. The intervention was a fermented dairy drink containing a specific probiotic strain or matching placebo with no live cultures for 90 consecutive days. Two primary outcomes were assessed: incidence of CIDs and change of behavior because of illness (both assessed by parental report). The rate of change of behavior because of illness was similar among active and control groups. However, the incidence rate for CIDs in the active group (0.0782) is 19% lower than that of the control group (0.0986) (incidence rate ratio=0.81, 95% CI: 0.65, 099) P=0.046. Daily intake of a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain L. casei DN-114 001 showed some promise in reducing overall incidence of illness, but was primarily driven by gastrointestinal infections and there were no differences in change of behavior.

  12. Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003-2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Ida; Riis, L; Jess, T

    2006-01-01

    incidence rates and patient characteristics in Copenhagen County and City. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with IBD during 2003-2005 were followed prospectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics, such as disease extent, extraintestinal manifestations, smoking habits, medical treatment, surgical...... interventions, cancer, and death, were registered. RESULTS: Five-hundred sixty-two patients were diagnosed with IBD, resulting in mean annual incidences of 8.6/10(5) for CD, 13.4/10(5) for UC, and 1.1/10(5) for IC. Time from onset to diagnosis was 8.3 months in CD and 4.5 months in UC patients. A family history...... of IBD, smoking, and extraintestinal manifestations was significantly more common in CD than in UC patients. Only 0.6% of UC patients had primary sclerosing cholangitis. In CD, old age at diagnosis was related to pure colonic disease, whereas children significantly more often had proximal and extensive...

  13. Editor's Choice - High Annual Hospital Volume is Associated with Decreased in Hospital Mortality and Complication Rates Following Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Secondary Data Analysis of the Nationwide German DRG Statistics from 2005 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenner, Matthias; Kuehnl, Andreas; Salvermoser, Michael; Reutersberg, Benedikt; Geisbuesch, Sarah; Schmid, Volker; Eckstein, Hans-Henning

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between annual hospital procedural volume and post-operative outcomes following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Germany. Data were extracted from nationwide Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) statistics provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. Cases with a diagnosis of AAA (ICD-10 GM I71.3, I71.4) and procedure codes for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR; OPS 5-38a.1*) or open aortic repair (OAR; OPS 5-38.45, 5-38.47) treated between 2005 and 2013 were included. Hospitals were empirically grouped to quartiles depending on the overall annual volume of AAA procedures. A multilevel multivariable regression model was applied to adjust for sex, medical risk, type of procedure, and type of admission. Primary outcome was in hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications, use of blood products, and length of stay (LOS). The association between AAA volume and in hospital mortality was also estimated as a function of continuous volume. A total of 96,426 cases, of which 11,795 (12.6%) presented as ruptured (r)AAA, were treated in >700 hospitals (annual median: 501). The crude in hospital mortality was 3.3% after intact (i)AAA repair (OAR 5.3%; EVAR 1.7%). Volume was inversely associated with mortality after OAR and EVAR. Complication rates, LOS, and use of blood products were lower in high volume hospitals. After rAAA repair, crude mortality was 40.4% (OAR 43.2%; EVAR 27.4%). An inverse association between mortality and volume was shown for rAAA repair; the same accounts for the use of blood products. When considering volume as a continuous variate, an annual caseload of 75-100 elective cases was associated with the lowest mortality risk. In hospital mortality and complication rates following AAA repair are inversely associated with annual hospital volume. The use of blood products and the LOS are lower in high volume hospitals. A minimum annual case threshold for AAA procedures might improve

  14. Uncertainty in action-value estimation affects both action choice and learning rate of the choice behaviors of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Akihiro; Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of reward outcomes for action candidates is essential for decision making. In this study, we examined whether and how the uncertainty in reward outcome estimation affects the action choice and learning rate. We designed a choice task in which rats selected either the left-poking or right-poking hole and received a reward of a food pellet stochastically. The reward probabilities of the left and right holes were chosen from six settings (high, 100% vs. 66%; mid, 66% vs. 33%; low, 33% vs. 0% for the left vs. right holes, and the opposites) in every 20-549 trials. We used Bayesian Q-learning models to estimate the time course of the probability distribution of action values and tested if they better explain the behaviors of rats than standard Q-learning models that estimate only the mean of action values. Model comparison by cross-validation revealed that a Bayesian Q-learning model with an asymmetric update for reward and non-reward outcomes fit the choice time course of the rats best. In the action-choice equation of the Bayesian Q-learning model, the estimated coefficient for the variance of action value was positive, meaning that rats were uncertainty seeking. Further analysis of the Bayesian Q-learning model suggested that the uncertainty facilitated the effective learning rate. These results suggest that the rats consider uncertainty in action-value estimation and that they have an uncertainty-seeking action policy and uncertainty-dependent modulation of the effective learning rate. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Poking cells for efficient vector-free intracellular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Yan, Li; Kwok, So Ying; Li, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Guangyu; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Shi, Peng

    2014-07-01

    Techniques for introducing foreign molecules and materials into living cells are of great value in cell biology research. A major barrier for intracellular delivery is to cross the cell membrane. Here we demonstrate a novel platform utilizing diamond nanoneedle arrays to facilitate efficient vector-free cytosolic delivery. Using our technique, cellular membrane is deformed by an array of nanoneedles with a force on the order of a few nanonewtons. We show that this technique is applicable to deliver a broad range of molecules and materials into different types of cells, including primary neurons in adherent culture. Especially, for delivering plasmid DNAs into neurons, our technique produces at least eightfold improvement (~45% versus ~1-5%) in transfection efficiency with a dramatically shorter experimental protocol, when compared with the commonly used lipofection approach. It is anticipated that our technique will greatly benefit basic research in cell biology and also a wide variety of clinical applications.

  16. Peeking and poking at atoms with laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaergaard, N.

    2015-01-01

    Richard Feynman, in his famous Lectures on Physics, toyed with the idea of all scientific knowledge being wiped out and facing the choice of passing one single idea down to future generations. He believed it should be the hypothesis that all things are made of atoms. The idea that matter is built up from discrete fundamental units can be traced back to several ancient cultures (the word atom deriving from the Greek word atomos 'cannot be divided'). It is only within the last century or so, however, that theories for atomic structure were developed to explain a series of phenomena observed throughout the 18th-19th Centuries. Many of these phenomena were optical, such as Melvill's observation in 1752 that a mixture of sea salt and alcohol would burn with a yellow flame or Wollaston's observation in 1802 that sunlight contains black lines in its spectrum. Further refinement and characterisation from people like Fraunhofer, Kirchoff, Bunsen, Balmer, and Zeeman followed, but it was not until 1913, with the introduction of the Rutherford-Bohr atomic model, that a cornerstone was laid for what would become a quantum mechanical description of the atom. (author).

  17. The Biltmore Forest School: Poking Back into an Extraordinary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Our nation's first school of forestry operated in the early 1900s, when states were still being admitted to the union, and the motor car and typewriter had just been introduced to the American public. In the previous century, timber operations had slashed their way through forests with the simple policy of "cut and get out." To farmers,…

  18. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... regulation by contacting Jeffrey Smutny, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program...- 2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or Email: Jeffrey[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule...

  19. 78 FR 62959 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... Jeffrey Smutny, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, AMS, USDA, 1400..., or Email: Jeffrey[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule is issued under...

  20. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0...; Telephone: (559) 487-5901, Fax: (559) 487-5906, or E-mail: Jeffrey[email protected] or [email protected

  1. 78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... contacting Jeffrey Smutny, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, AMS, USDA...: (202) 720-8938, or Email: Jeffrey[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule is issued...

  2. 75 FR 10409 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    .../AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateN&page=MarketingOrdersSmallBusinessGuide ; or by..., based on production data, grower prices as reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, and...

  3. 78 FR 9307 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... salaries, $250,000 for research, $66,000 for office rent, and $48,000 for employee health insurance... research, $66,000 for office rent, and $48,000 for employee health insurance. Budgeted expenses for these...

  4. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., or E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] . Small businesses may request..., Fax: (202) 720- 8938, or E-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule is... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0115...

  5. 76 FR 8871 - Walnuts Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA; Telephone: (559) 487-5901, Fax: (559) 487-5906, or E-mail: [email protected], Washington, DC 20250-0237; Telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: [email protected] 8871

  6. Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Fiachra T

    2010-03-01

    Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes.

  7. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... allow the Committee to reduce its financial reserve and to help reduce overall industry costs, while... allows the Committee to reduce its financial reserve and helps to reduce overall industry cost, while... to cover budgeted expenses. This action will allow the Committee to reduce its financial reserve and...

  8. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  9. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  10. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  12. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  13. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  14. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  15. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  16. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  17. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Progreso en el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio: la mortalidad por cáncer de cérvix desciende en Colombia / Progress in the achievement of the millennium development goals: the rate of mortality by cervical cancer decreases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jancy A. Huertas Q.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Colombia cumpliendo en 2015 la fecha establecida para el alcance de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (odm, ha logrado un descenso progresivo en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino durante el decenio 2000 - 2010. En este período, la tasa de mortalidad descendió significativamente para las mujeres de todas las edades (11,4% en 1998 – 6,9 en 2011, meta a 2015: 6,8% y aumentó la proporción de casos in situ detectados oportunamente (63,31% en 2012. Colombia asumió el cáncer como un problema de salud pública y logró posicionarlo en la agenda pública. De igual forma, el cambio en el conocimiento y el autocuidado de la población, dieron como resultado un aumento en el pronóstico de las pacientes. A pesar de estos avances, el país continúa concentrando esfuerzos en reducir tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, aumentar los niveles de tecnología y promover mayor desarrollo en las regiones, mejorar sustancialmente el derecho de las mujeres a ser protegidas contra esta enfermedad, a través de acceso sin barreras a los programas de tamización y tratamientos del cáncer de cuello uterino. Y finalmente, la inclusión más amplia de la vacuna contra el vph con intervalo de cada 5 años, y que tiene un mayor potencial, especialmente entre las mujeres más jóvenes. La pregunta clave hoy en día es cómo acelerar ese ritmo de progreso en los indicadores propuestos por la agenda para el desarrollo después del 2015: Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ods, y ofrecer suficientes ejemplos de estrategias eficaces y adecuadas, y proporcionar experiencias en un contexto latinoamericano./ Abstract Two years before the deadline set for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG, Colombia is experiencing a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer during the 2000-2010 decade. During this time, the mortality rate decreased significantly for women of all ages (11,4% in

  19. Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Torsten; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases - abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays - by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation...

  20. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  1. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  2. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  3. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  4. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  5. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  6. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, de A.G.

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  7. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, A.G. de

    2015-01-01

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  8. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  9. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  11. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  12. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  13. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  14. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  15. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  16. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  17. Insulin delivery systems combined with microneedle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuan; Zhu, Dan Dan; Chen, Bo Zhi; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Guo, Xin Dong

    2018-03-29

    Diabetes, a metabolic disorder of glucose, is a serious chronic disease and an important public health problem. Insulin is one of the hormones for modulating blood glucose level and the products of which is indispensable for most diabetes patients. Introducing microneedles (MNs) to insulin delivery is promising to pave the way for modulating glucose level noninvasively of diabetes patients, as which born to be painless, easy to handle and no need of any power supply. In this work, we review the process of insulin delivery systems (IDSs) based on MN technology in terms of two categories: drug free MNs and drug loaded MNs. Drug free MNs include solid MNs ("poke and patch"), hollow MNs ("poke and flow") and reservoir-based swelling MNs ("poke and swell R-type"), and drug loaded MNs include coated MNs ("coat and poke"), dissolving MNs ("poke and release") and insulin incorporated swelling MNs ("poke and swell I-type"). Majority researches of MN-based IDSs have been conducted by using hollow MNs or dissolving MNs, and almost all clinical trials for MN-based IDSs have employed hollow MNs. "Poke and patch" approach dramatically increase skin permeability compared to traditional transdermal patch, but MNs fabricated from silicon or metal may leave sharp waste in the skin and cause a safety issue. "Poke and flow" approach, similar to transitional subcutaneous (SC) injection, is capable of producing faster insulin absorption and action than SC injection but may associate with blockage, leakage and low flow rate. Coated MNs are able of retaining the activity of drug, which loaded in a solid phase, for a long time, however have been relatively less studied for insulin application as the low drug dosing. "Poke and release" approach leaves no biohazardous sharp medical waste and is capable of rapid drug release. "Poke and swell R-type" can be seen as a combination of "poke and flow" and "poke and patch" approach, while "poke and swell I-type" is an approach between "coat and

  18. Decreased cisplatin uptake by resistant L1210 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromas, R.A.; North, J.A.; Burns, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance remains poorly understood compared to other forms of anti-neoplastic drug resistance. In this report radiolabelled cisplatin and rapid separation techniques were used to compare drug uptake by L1210 leukemia cells that are sensitive (K25) or resistant (SCR9) to cisplatin. Uptake of cisplatin by both cell lines was linear without saturation kinetics up to 100 μM. The resistant ZCR9 cells had 36-60% reduced drug uptake as compared to its sensitive parent line, K25. In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of efflux. We conclude that a decreased rate of uptake is one possible mechanism of cellular cisplatin resistance. (Author)

  19. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthy Pokes: After-School Education and Mentoring to Enhance Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Shiver, Victoria; Kinder, Christopher; Guseman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity and related health consequences are currently considered some of the most important health challenges in our nation today. Early intervention programs designed to teach healthy lifestyle choices and behaviors are imperative to addressing this issue. Evidence suggests that intervention programs offered at an earlier age may reduce…

  1. Single gene control of postzygotic self-incompatibility in poke milkweed, Asclepias exaltata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, S R; Wyatt, R

    2000-02-01

    Most individuals of Asclepias exaltata are self-sterile, but all plants lack prezygotic barriers to self-fertilization. To determine whether postzygotic rejection of self-fertilized ovules is due to late-acting self-incompatibility or to extreme, early acting inbreeding depression, we performed three diallel crosses among self-sterile plants related as full-sibs. The full-sibs segregated into four compatibility classes, suggesting that late acting self-incompatibility is controlled by a single gene (S-locus). Crosses between plants sharing one or both alleles at the S-locus are incompatible. An additional diallel cross was done among full-sib progeny from a cross of a self-sterile and a self-fertile plant. These progeny grouped into two compatibility classes, and plants within classes displayed varying levels of self-fertility. This suggests that the occasional self-fertility documented in natural pollinations is caused by pseudo-self-fertility alleles that alter the functioning of the S-locus.

  2. Single gene control of postzygotic self-incompatibility in poke milkweed, Asclepias exaltata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, S R; Wyatt, R

    2000-01-01

    Most individuals of Asclepias exaltata are self-sterile, but all plants lack prezygotic barriers to self-fertilization. To determine whether postzygotic rejection of self-fertilized ovules is due to late-acting self-incompatibility or to extreme, early acting inbreeding depression, we performed three diallel crosses among self-sterile plants related as full-sibs. The full-sibs segregated into four compatibility classes, suggesting that late acting self-incompatibility is controlled by a single gene (S-locus). Crosses between plants sharing one or both alleles at the S-locus are incompatible. An additional diallel cross was done among full-sib progeny from a cross of a self-sterile and a self-fertile plant. These progeny grouped into two compatibility classes, and plants within classes displayed varying levels of self-fertility. This suggests that the occasional self-fertility documented in natural pollinations is caused by pseudo-self-fertility alleles that alter the functioning of the S-locus. PMID:10655239

  3. Laser-synchrotron hybrid experiments. A photon to tickle - a photon to poke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, D.L.; Rubensson, J.E.; Mueller, D.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)); Shuker, R. (Ben Gurion Univ., Beer Shiva (Israel)); O' Brien, W.L.; Jai, J.; Dong, Q.Y.; Callcott, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Carr, G.L. (Grumman Corporation Research Center, Bethpage, NY (United States)); Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States)); Etemad, S.; Inam, A. (Belcore, Redbank, NJ (United States)); Tanner, D.B. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results from a new experimental technique to synchronize the pulses from a mode-locked Nd-YAG laser to the light pulses in the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We describe a method to electronically change the delay time between the laser pulses and the synchrotron pulses. We also illustrate a method to overlap the synchrotron pulses with the laser pulses in space and time. Preliminary results will be presented for two experiments. (orig.).

  4. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  5. Streamflow ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous direct determination of a continuous time series of streamflow is not economically feasible at present (2014). As such, surrogates are used to derive a continuous time series of streamflow. The derivation process entails developing a streamflow rating, which can range from a simple, single-valued relation between stage and streamflow to a fully dynamic one-dimensional model based on hydraulics of the flow.

  6. Decreasing patient identification band errors by standardizing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan Chu; Berger, Stephanie; Harris, Yolanda; Gallizzi, Gina; Hayes, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    Patient identification (ID) bands are an essential component in patient ID. Quality improvement methodology has been applied as a model to reduce ID band errors although previous studies have not addressed standardization of ID bands. Our specific aim was to decrease ID band errors by 50% in a 12-month period. The Six Sigma DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) quality improvement model was the framework for this study. ID bands at a tertiary care pediatric hospital were audited from January 2011 to January 2012 with continued audits to June 2012 to confirm the new process was in control. After analysis, the major improvement strategy implemented was standardization of styles of ID bands and labels. Additional interventions included educational initiatives regarding the new ID band processes and disseminating institutional and nursing unit data. A total of 4556 ID bands were audited with a preimprovement ID band error average rate of 9.2%. Significant variation in the ID band process was observed, including styles of ID bands. Interventions were focused on standardization of the ID band and labels. The ID band error rate improved to 5.2% in 9 months (95% confidence interval: 2.5-5.5; P error rates. This decrease in ID band error rates was maintained over the subsequent 8 months.

  7. Decreasing burned children's pain behavior: impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M L; Jarvie, G J; Middlebrook, J L; McNeer, M F; Drabman, R S

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cartoon viewing with the use of a star feedback chart on two burned children's pain behavior during their physical therapy sessions. In addition, the degree to which the observational data corresponded with physical therapists' and mothers' ratings of the children's pain, fear, and cooperativeness was examined. Using a reversal single-subject design, the results showed that the children's pain behavior substantially decreased during experimental treatment sessions compared to their baseline levels. The rating scale data indicated that the physical therapist's and mother's rating of pain, anxiety, and cooperativeness were all correlated significantly with the observational data (p less than .05). The contributions of respondent and operant conditioning to the occurrence and treatment of pain behavior in burned children are discussed. PMID:6735948

  8. Decreasing the false alarm rate of arrhythmias in intensive care using a machine learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerikäinen, L.M.; Vanschoren, J.; Rooijakkers, M.J.; Vullings, R.; Aarts, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for classifying true and false alarms of five life-threatening arrhythmias in intensive care. This algorithm was entered in the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU. The algorithm performs a binary classification of

  9. 78 FR 1130 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ..., or Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule is issued under Marketing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 [Docket No. AMS-FV-12-0035... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY...

  10. 77 FR 21624 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., or Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This rule is issued under Marketing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0070... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as a final rule...

  11. 78 FR 54147 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... this regulation by contacting Jeffrey Smutny, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and...: (202) 720- 2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or Email: Jeffrey[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  12. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... production research and market development, $6,355,000 for promotion and paid advertising for winter pears, and $1,260,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/ fall pears. In comparison, major... advertising for winter pears, and $1,410,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/fall pears. The...

  13. NEW SOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT ON INCREASING, DECREASING AND BATHTUB SHAPED FAILURE RATE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Alam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum likelihood equations of IDB distribution can’t be solved analytically. Solutions of the MLE equations can be obtained numerically. But the problem is to detect the initial value of the parameters to solve the nonlinear MLE equations. A technique is developed for formulating the initial value of the parameter to solve the MLE equations of IDB distribution. Considering all the facts, though IDB distribution is not suitable for graduating mortality data but the model can graduate mortality data of Bangladesh in the age range of 0-8 very well.

  14. Lactoferricin treatment decreases the rate of cell proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburghaus, C; Janicke, B; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Oredsson, S M; Paulsson, M A

    2009-06-01

    Food components modify the risk of cancer at a large number of sites but the mechanism of action is unknown. In the present investigation, we studied the effect of the peptide lactoferricin derived from bovine milk lactoferrin on human colon cancer CaCo-2 cells. The cells were either untreated or treated with 2.0, 0.2, or 0.02 microM lactoferricin. Cell cycle kinetics were investigated with a bromodeoxyuridine DNA flow cytometric method. The results show that lactoferricin treatment slightly but significantly prolonged the S phase of the cell cycle. Lactoferricin treatment lowered the level of cyclin E1, a protein involved in the regulation of genes required for G(1)/S transition and consequently for efficient S phase progression. The slight prolongation of the S phase resulted in a reduction of cell proliferation, which became more apparent after a long treatment time.

  15. Mining Educational Data Using Classification to Decrease Dropout Rate of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, number of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) grows rapidly in India. Since most of the institutions are opened in private mode therefore, a cut throat competition rises among these institutions while attracting the student to got admission. This is the reason for institutions to focus on the strength of students not on the quality of education. This paper presents a data mining application to generate predictive models for engineering student's dropout management. Gi...

  16. Decreasing systolic blood pressure and declining mortality rates in an untreated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla O; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate developments in 30 years mortality risk that may be associated with developments in population systolic blood pressure (SBP) and to evaluate possible secular trends in BP-associated mortality risk in the untreated population....

  17. Irrigation of DOC-rich liquid promotes potential denitrification rate and decreases N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Shuping; Hu, Chunsheng; Clough, Tim J.; Luo, Jiafa; Oenema, Oene; Zhou, Shungui

    2017-01-01

    Lack of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is generally one of the key factors limiting denitrification in subsoil beneath the root zone. Despite a number of laboratory DOC amendment studies, the effects of in situ DOC infiltration on subsoil denitrification, and on subsequent end product

  18. Decreasing candidaemia rate in abdominal surgery patients after introduction of fluconazole prophylaxis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B J; Thorup, J; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients with gastrointes......Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients...

  19. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance; $5,000 for contingency; and $3,900... and data management fees; $27,000 for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance... any relevant Federal rules that duplicate, overlap, or conflict with this rule. A small business guide...

  20. Decrease in the rate of sensitization and clinical allergy to natural rubber latex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Michelle S B; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    patients prick tested for NRL at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital were included in this study (n = 8580). In NRL-sensitized patients, the clinical relevance was evaluated for NRL. Furthermore, concomitant positive prick test results for birch pollen were recorded.......5-0.6% in 2006-2013 (p history of reaction to oral intake of related fruits or vegetables. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a statistically significant decline in the number of patients...

  1. Decreasing candidaemia rate in abdominal surgery patients after introduction of fluconazole prophylaxis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, Barbara; Thorup, Jens Frederik; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients...

  2. Depression among Alumni of Foster Care: Decreasing Rates through Improvement of Experiences in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; English, Diana; Williams, Jason R.; Phillips, Chereese M.

    2009-01-01

    The Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study examined the relation between experiences in foster care and depression among young adults who spent at least a year in foster care as adolescents. Results indicate that preparation for leaving foster care, nurturing supports from the foster family, school stability, access to tutoring, access to therapeutic…

  3. A New Generalization of the Lomax Distribution with Increasing, Decreasing, and Constant Failure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelumi E. Oguntunde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing new compound distributions which are more flexible than the existing distributions have become the new trend in distribution theory. In this present study, the Lomax distribution was extended using the Gompertz family of distribution, its resulting densities and statistical properties were carefully derived, and the method of maximum likelihood estimation was proposed in estimating the model parameters. A simulation study to assess the performance of the parameters of Gompertz Lomax distribution was provided and an application to real life data was provided to assess the potentials of the newly derived distribution. Excerpt from the analysis indicates that the Gompertz Lomax distribution performed better than the Beta Lomax distribution, Weibull Lomax distribution, and Kumaraswamy Lomax distribution.

  4. Morphological change and decreasing transfer rate of biofilm-featured Listeria monocytogenes EGDe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a lethal foodborne pathogen, has the ability to resist the hostile food-processing environment and, thus, frequently contaminates ready-to-eat foods during processing. It is commonly accepted that L. monocytogenes’ tendency to generate biofilms on various surfaces enhances it...

  5. Do textured breast implants decrease the rate of capsular contracture compared to smooth implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cifuentes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El uso de implantes mamarios con propósitos estéticos y reconstructivos se ha convertido en uno de los procedimientos más comunes realizados por los cirujanos plásticos. Existen diversos modelos de implantes mamarios, los cuales difieren en su tamaño, relleno, forma y característica de la envoltura, pudiendo ser lisa o texturizada. La contractura capsular es una de las principales complicaciones del uso de implantes mamarios y se ha planteado que las prótesis texturizadas podrían disminuir la incidencia de contractura capsular. Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud a nivel mundial, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 15 estudios primarios, 13 de ellos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados pertinentes a la pregunta de interés. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el uso de prótesis mamaria texturizada probablemente disminuye el riesgo de contractura capsular, sin embargo, podría asociarse a un aumento en el riesgo de linfoma anaplásico de células grandes.

  6. Male-male interference competition decreases spawning rate in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel; Smith, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2004), s. 34-41 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:NATO/Royal Society(GB) fellowship; Royal Society(GB) Joint Project Grant Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * density dependence * operational sex ratio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.180, year: 2004

  7. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  9. Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, Stewart F; Welten, Brendon; Betteridge, Keith

    2015-12-01

    The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late summer and early winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking-water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine N concentration and urine N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases: a cattle metabolism stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g per heifer per day) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine N rate on N leaching. Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per-hectare N leaching by 10-22%. Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  11. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  12. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  13. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2017-09-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (IT WK 2 ), and end of IT (IT WK 4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin] s , [ghrelin] s , and [cortisol] s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to IT WK 2 , but decreased it significantly from IT WK 2 to IT WK 4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin] s decreased from Baseline to IT WK 4 , while [ghrelin] s increased significantly. Fatigue at IT WK 4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Homicide Rates in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Laima, Sigitas; Andriuskeviciute, Gerda; Jurolaic, Eleonora; Jasulaitis, Algimantas

    2018-05-01

    Homicide rate in Lithuania between 2004 and 2013 decreased and reached an average of 6.7 per 100,000 people in 2013. The data regarding forensic autopsies of intentional homicide victims were obtained from the State Forensic Medicine Service. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess trends in the homicide rates. A significant correlation was observed between homicide distribution and the following variables: Lithuania's gross domestic product (r = -0.85, p = 0.003), the number of alcohol intoxication cases of victims (r = 0.97, p homicide distribution (p homicides were carried out indoors, 57% in urban area. The presented findings help decide which prevention programs may be the most effective in homicide rate reduction. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  16. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  17. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-01-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  18. Decreasing prematurity in twin gestations: predicaments and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zork, Noelia; Biggio, Joseph; Tita, Alan; Rouse, Dwight; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    The twin birth rate has been steadily increasing in the United States over the past 10 years attributable in large part to the increased use of reproductive technologies. Despite advancements in the prevention of preterm labor for singletons, the overall rate of preterm birth has decreased only minimally. Several interventions to prevent preterm birth in twins have been studied, but none has proven effective. Inpatient bedrest has not been shown to be effective and can cause significant maternal morbidity. Although intramuscular 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate is effective in decreasing the risk of recurrent preterm delivery in singletons, neither it nor cerclage is effective in twin gestations, even in those with a short cervix. However, small trials, subgroup analyses, and a meta-analysis suggest that vaginal progesterone and the Arabin cervical pessary may reduce rates of preterm birth in twins of mothers with a short cervix. Given the current lack of effective therapies to prevent preterm birth in twins, large multicenter trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone and pessary in twins of mothers with a short cervix.

  19. Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  1. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Methodology of decreasing software complexity using ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool [5]. The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before [1][2]. Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.

  3. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  4. Decrease in domestic violence during pregnancy: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagcioglu, Erman; Vural, Mehmet; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Aksin, Mahmut; Selek, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among pregnant women and find out whether several factors were associated with DV or not. A total of 317 pregnant women applied at Sanliurfa Obstetrics Hospital and Harran University obstetrics and gynecology department outpatient clinic were interviewed using the modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Several clinical and sociodemographic data were also obtained from the participants. Mean pregnancy number per woman (gravida) was 3.62 ± 0.13. 47.3% of women had experienced DV before pregnancy. However, the rate of DV exposure significantly decreased to 10.3% during pregnancy (p violence. Pregnancy appears to decrease DV in Sanliurfa.

  5. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  6. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  7. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Rate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, S.; Skorek, R.; Maugis, P.; Dumont, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO 2 . It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)

  9. Decreased 133Xe clearance in the proximal femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.; Marek, J.; Jahoda, I.; Vilimovska, D.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 133 Xe tissue clearance method, the blood flow in the greater trochanter of the femur was studied in 30 patients with acromegaly. Both the washout rate constant (k 2 ) and blood flow (P 2 ) values are significantly decreased in acromegaly (p < 0.01). There is a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42, p < 0.05) between the flow values and mean daily concentrations of growth hormone in serum of acromegalic patients. The observation is presented as a preliminary evidence of a possible influence of growth hormone on the blood flow in bone. (author)

  10. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  12. Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Decreases Allogeneic Transfusion Requirements in Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Andrew J; Sanders, Thomas L; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Bernese (Ganz) periacetabular osteotomy is associated with significant blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusion. Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss and minimizes transfusion rates in total joint arthroplasty. However, no reports have described its use in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. This study reports the use of intravenous tranexamic acid in these patients. The study included 137 patients (150 hips) who underwent isolated periacetabular osteotomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2014. Of these, 68 patients (75 hips) received intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g at the time of incision and 1 g at the time of closure. A group of 69 patients (75 hips) served as control subjects who underwent periacetabular osteotomy without administration of intravenous tranexamic acid. Thromboembolic disease was defined as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurring within 6 weeks of surgery. Outcomes measured included transfusion requirements, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values, operative times, and thromboembolic disease rates. Aspirin was used as the thromboembolic prophylactic regimen in 95% of patients. The rate of allogeneic transfusion was 0 in the tranexamic acid group compared with 21% in the control group (P=.0001). No significant difference was found in the autologous cell salvage requirement (.96 vs 1.01; P=.43) or the thromboembolic disease rate between the tranexamic acid group and the control group (2.67% vs 1.33%; P=.31). The use of intravenous tranexamic acid led to a decreased transfusion requirement with no increased risk of thromboembolic disease in this contemporary cohort of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Theoretical isochrones with decreasing gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Van Flandern has postulated a variation of the gravitational constant at the rate approximately -8 x 10 -11 /yr. This variation, consistent with Hoyle-Narlikar and Dirac cosmologies, has been assumed in the computation of a 5 x 10 9 yr theoretical isochrone. Present results show that, even for this age, theory predicts a cluster turn-off luminosity approximately 0.5 to 1.0 mag fainter than the observed turn-offs of globular clusters. Unsatisfactory agreement between theoretical and observed luminosity functions is also indicated. (author)

  14. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  15. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  16. Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Watkins, Casey M; Barillas, Saldiam R; Lin, Anne; Archer, David C; Lockie, Robert G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-11-01

    Wong, MA, Dobbs, IJ, Watkins, C, Barillas, SR, Lin, A, Archer, DC, Lockie, RG, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Sled towing acutely decreases acceleration sprint time. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3046-3051, 2017-Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced after a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals after sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained men (age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.46 cm, mass = 83.19 ± 11.31 kg) who were currently active in a field sport twice a week for the last 6 months volunteered to participate. A maximal 30-meter (m) baseline (BL) body mass (BM) sprint was performed (with splits at 5, 10, 20, and 30 m) followed by 5 visits where participants sprinted 30 m towing a sled at 30% BM then rested for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 minutes. They were instructed to stand still during rest times. After the rest interval, they performed a maximal 30-m post-test BM sprint. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that post sled tow BM sprint times (4.47 ± 0.21 seconds) were less than BL times (4.55 ± 0.18 seconds) on an individualized rest interval basis. A follow-up 2 × 4 ANOVA showed that this decrease occurred only in the acceleration phase over the first 5 m (BL = 1.13 ± 0.08 seconds vs. Best = 1.08 ± 0.08 seconds), which may be the result of PAP and the complex relationship between fatigue and potentiation relative to the intensity of the sled tow and the rest interval. Therefore, coaches should test their athletes on an individual basis to determine optimal rest time after a 30-m 30% BM sled tow to enhance acute sprint speed.

  17. A proactive outreach intervention that decreases readmission after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Nisha; Kim, Bradford J; Davis, Catherine H; Dewhurst, Whitney L; Samp, Leigh A; Aloia, Thomas A

    2018-04-01

    After hepatectomy, 7%-19% of patients are readmitted within 30 days, accounting for substantial cost and poor patient experience. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a proactive outreach intervention on readmissions. Consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy by a single surgeon 2012-2016 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. In August 2013 a postoperative intervention was implemented; an advanced practice provider called each patient within 72 hours of discharge. Readmission rates were compared pre- and postintervention using standard statistics. Two hundred thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and major hepatectomy was performed in 45.5% of patients. Although the complication rate was similar (25.0% preintervention and 19.4% postintervention, P = .324), readmissions within 30 days of operation decreased from 14.5% pre- to 6.5% postintervention (P = .046). Approximately 30% of outreach interactions required outpatient intervention. Factors associated with readmission on univariate analysis included increased operative time (P = .007), major hepatectomy (P = .012), hemi or extended hepatectomy (P = .032), second stage operation (P = .031), bile leak (P = 0.022), and any complication/modified Accordion complication ≥ 3 within 30 days (P work created by the intervention is likely offset by decreased inpatient care needs and costs. Identification of high-risk populations and application of technology are likely to lead to further improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  19. Nutlin-3a decreases male fertility via UQCRC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamla Kant Shukla

    Full Text Available Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2 is a component of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex that is known to correlate with male fertility via spermatogenesis. Simultaneously, nutlin-3a is a small molecule antagonist of mouse double minute 2 repressor (MDM2, activate p53 and induce apoptosis responsible for spermatogenesis. To date, however there are no known effects of nutlin-3a on reproduction. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effect of nutlin-3a on male fertility via UQCRC2. In this in vitro trial with mice spermatozoa, we utilized CASA, CTC staining, ATP assay, western blotting, and IVF to measure the main study outcome. The short-term exposure of spermatozoa in nutlin-3a decreases sperm motion kinematics, intracellular ATP production, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, UQCRC2, and tyrosine phosphorylation (TYP of sperm proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the decreased UQCRC2 and TYP were associated with reduced sperm kinematics, ATP production, and capacitation, which ultimately led to adverse effects on male fertility such as poor fertilization rates and embryo development. Thus, nutlin-3a may be considered as a potential male contraceptive agent due to its ability to decrease fertility secondary to changes in overall sperm physiology and embryonic development. However, the results of this preliminary study have to be confirmed by additional independent trial.

  20. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  1. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  2. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  3. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  5. Decreased thyroidal response to thyrotropin in diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, N.; Brown, T.R.; Shivers, B.; Lucas, S.; Mack, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of diabetes mellitus on the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone ws investigated in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Thyroid glands were labeled in vivo with 131I for 2 h. In control animals, TSH stimulated the synthesis of PB127I and 131I-labeled iodothyronines and simultaneously decreased the proportion of 131I-. These effects of TSH were not observed in diabetic animals but were demonstrable in diabetic animals treated with insulin. For studies of hormone secretion, labeled thyroid glands were cultured in vitro in medium containing 1 mM mononitrotyrosine. The rate of the hydrolysis of labeled thyroglobulin was measured as the proportion of 131I-labeled iodotyrosines and 131I-labeled iodothyronines recovered at the end of culture and was used as an index of thyroid secretion. TSH in vivo stimulated the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis for 6 h, with a peak occurring after 2 h. The diabetic mice had a diminished response to TSH, which improved on treatment with insulin. The addition of TSH and insulin to the culture medium significantly increased the rate of thyroglobulin hydrolysis in glands of diabetic mice over that resulting from the addition of dibutyryl cAMP alone. The generation of thyroidal cAMP in response to TSH was higher in diabetic mice than in controls. The rise in plasma T4 and T3 2 h after the administration of TSH was less in diabetic mice than in control mice or diabetic mice treated with insulin. Our studies, therefore, indicate that the thyroidal response to TSH is decreased in diabetes mellitus. The defect appears to be at a step beyond the generation of cAMP

  6. Intermittent pressure decreases human keratinocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Maria R; Shih, Alan T; West, Dennis P; Martinez, Wanda M; Micali, Giuseppe; Landsman, Adam S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure changes and keratinocyte proliferation by determining whether keratinocytes exposed to altered mechanical pressures would proliferate at different rates compared to control cells not subjected to pressure changes. Tissue culture flasks of human keratinocytes plated at an approximate density of 15,000 cells/cm(2) undergoing an intermittent cyclic pressure of 362 mm Hg at a frequency of 2.28 or 5.16 cycles/min (0.038 or 0.086 Hz) for 8 h were compared to control flasks grown at ambient room pressure. An in-line pressure transducer was used to monitor and adjust pressure within the cell chambers, using a solenoid valve. A thymidine incorporation assay assessed the amount of cell proliferation in each set of experiments. Differences in proliferation between keratinocytes subjected to cyclic pressure changes and control cells were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 4 out of 5 proliferation assays. Also, a higher frequency of pressure changes consistently generated a reduced proliferation rate compared to that seen in cells exposed to a lower frequency of pressure changes. These data indicate that keratinocytes undergoing intermittent pressure changes exhibit decreased proliferation rates compared to controls. Furthermore, an increased frequency rate seems to have a greater effect on proliferation than low-frequency rate pressure changes, suggesting that the stress caused by frequently changed pressure may play a greater role in reducing keratinocyte proliferation than the actual magnitude of load applied to the cells. Our results support the current treatment protocol of reducing speed and duration of walking on the site of the wound to promote healing of foot ulcers. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  8. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  9. Vegetation succession as affected by decreasing nitrogen deposition, soil characteristics and site management: A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of increasing nitrogen deposition, the deposition rates are now decreasing. A major question is whether this will result in the expected positive effects on plant species diversity. Long-term experiments that investigate the effects of decreasing deposition are not available. Model

  10. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxytocin decreases sweet taste sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Abouyared, Marianne; St John, Steven J; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OXT) suppresses food intake and lack of OXT leads to overconsumption of sucrose. Taste bud cells were recently discovered to express OXT-receptor. In the present study we tested whether administering OXT to wild-type mice affects their licking behavior for tastants in a paradigm designed to be sensitive to taste perception. We injected C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10mg/kg OXT and assayed their brief-access lick responses, motivated by water deprivation, to NaCl (300mM), citric acid (20mM), quinine (0.3mM), saccharin (10mM), and a mix of MSG and IMP (100mM and 0.5mM respectively). OXT had no effect on licking for NaCl, citric acid, or quinine. A possible effect of OXT on saccharin and MSG+IMP was difficult to interpret due to unexpectedly low lick rates to water (the vehicle for all taste solutions), likely caused by the use of a high OXT dose that suppressed licking and other behaviors. A subsequent experiment focused on another preferred tastant, sucrose, and employed a much lower OXT dose (0.1mg/kg). This modification, based on our measurements of plasma OXT following i.p. injection, permitted us to elevate plasma [OXT] sufficiently to preferentially activate taste bud cells. OXT at this low dose significantly reduced licking responses to 0.3M sucrose, and overall shifted the sucrose concentration - behavioral response curves rightward (mean EC50saline=0.362M vs. EC50OXT=0.466M). Males did not differ from females under any condition in this study. We propose that circulating oxytocin is another factor that modulates taste-based behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go task in which palatable foods were consistently linked to go cues or no-go cues within participants. Next, evaluation of the palatable foods was measured as well as food choice. Replicating previous work, results show that among participants with a relatively high appetite palatable foods associated with no-go cues are less often chosen as snacks compared to when these foods are associated with go cues, whereas this manipulation did not affect participants with a relatively low appetite. Moreover, this effect was completely mediated by decreased evaluation of the palatable foods that had been associated with the no-go cues, whereas evaluation of the foods associated with go cues did not mediate this effect. Results further showed that the devaluation effect of foods associated with no-go cues was independent of the amount of pairings (4 vs. 12 vs. 24) with the no-go cues. The current findings suggest that decreased food evaluation is a mechanism that explains effects of stop signals on food choice. PMID:24324451

  13. Live Cells Decreased Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Gong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4 production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells, control (no live yeast cells and yeast (YST supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2. The yeast cultures contained 1.8×1010 cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2, and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM basis. Total gas and CH4 production decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of yeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD and total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration increased (p<0.05 in 0.4 mg/ml YST1 and 0.2 mg/ml YST2 supplementation groups. Proportion of propionate, butyrate and valerate increased (p<0.05, but that of acetate decreased (p<0.05, which led to a decreased (p<0.05 acetate: propionate (A: P ratio in the both YST2 treatments and the 0.4 mg/ml YST 1 supplementation groups. Hydrogen recovery decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (p<0.05 with yeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic

  14. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  15. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...

  16. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  17. Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M; Pygon, B; Bernett, C; Ramanathan, S

    1997-06-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA) decreases maternal stress as measured by maternal circulating plasma catecholamine concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) provides effective labour analgesia but its effect on maternal epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations is not known. This study assesses whether ITF reduces maternal stress in the same manner as conventional LEA. Twenty-four healthy women in active labour received either 25 micrograms ITF (n = 12) or epidural lidocaine 1.5% (n = 12) for analgesia. Venous blood samples were collected before anaesthesia and at five minute intervals for 30 min following anaesthesia for the measurement of plasma Epi and NE by high performance liquid chromatography. Maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), visual analog scores (VAS) to pain and pruritus were recorded at the same time. Both ITF and LEA decreased pain VAS scores, maternal BP, and plasma Epi concentrations with only minimal effects on plasma NE concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) and LEA reduced plasma epi to a similar extent, with ITF reducing the levels slightly faster than LEA. Intrathecal fentanyl(ITF) and LEA reduced plasma Epi concentrations by 52% and 51%, respectively (P value < 0.01). We conclude that ITF is as effective as LEA in producing pain relief in the labouring patient. Intrathecal Fentanyl (ITF) is also capable of reducing maternal plasma epinephrine concentration, thus avoiding the possibly deleterious side effects of excess amounts of this catecholamine during labour.

  18. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support Decreases Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil; Baker, Steven A; Spain, David; Shieh, Lisa; Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Maggio, Paul; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2017-08-01

    To curtail inappropriate plasma transfusions, we instituted clinical decision support as an alert upon order entry if the patient's recent international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.7 or less. The alert was suppressed for massive transfusion and within operative or apheresis settings. The plasma order was automatically removed upon alert acceptance while clinical exception reasons allowed for continued transfusion. Alert impact was studied comparing a 7-month control period with a 4-month intervention period. Monthly plasma utilization decreased 17.4%, from a mean ± SD of 3.40 ± 0.48 to 2.82 ± 0.6 plasma units per hundred patient days (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference, -0.1 to 1.3). Plasma transfused below an INR of 1.7 or less decreased from 47.6% to 41.6% (P = .0002; odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89). The alert recommendation was accepted 33% of the time while clinical exceptions were chosen in the remaining cases (active bleeding, 31%; other clinical indication, 33%; and apheresis, 2%). Alert acceptance rate varied significantly among different provider specialties. Clinical decision support can help curtail inappropriate plasma use but needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy including audit and feedback for comprehensive, long-term changes. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Neonatal heart rate prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Yumna; Jeremic, Aleksander; Tan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have caused a decrease in the number of infant deaths. Pre-term infants now have a substantially increased chance of survival. One of the mechanisms that is vital to saving the lives of these infants is continuous monitoring and early diagnosis. With continuous monitoring huge amounts of data are collected with so much information embedded in them. By using statistical analysis this information can be extracted and used to aid diagnosis and to understand development. In this study we have a large dataset containing over 180 pre-term infants whose heart rates were recorded over the length of their stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). We test two types of models, empirical bayesian and autoregressive moving average. We then attempt to predict future values. The autoregressive moving average model showed better results but required more computation.

  2. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  3. Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training to decrease test anxiety in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Catherine A; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experiencing debilitating test anxiety may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and have potential for poor academic performance. A biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program was created to reduce test anxiety. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory and monitoring peripheral skin temperature, pulse, and respiration rates during the training. Participants were introduced to diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training. Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions. No statistically significant difference was noted between the first and second TAI. Subjective test anxiety scores of the students did not decrease by the end of training. Autogenic training session was most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.

  4. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  5. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Decreasing influenza impact in lodges: 1997-2000 Calgary Regional Health Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, L; Lau, W W

    2001-01-01

    Influenza causes high morbidity and hospitalization rates in residents of seniors lodges, I causing increased pressure on emergency departments and hospital beds every winter. This quasi-experimental study assessed the prevention of influenza outbreaks and their consequences in Calgary lodges. A multidisciplinary team worked to improve communication between health professionals, increase resident and staff immunization coverage, obtain weights and creatinines prior to influenza season, and facilitate amantadine prophylaxis during influenza A outbreaks. We had an increase in standing orders for amantadine and up to 56% of residents from one lodge had documented creatinine levels. Amantadine was administered to residents within two days of outbreak notification. Influenza morbidity in lodge outbreaks decreased from a rate of 37% to 9% over the three years and hospitalization rates decreased from 9% to 1%. We recommend that other regions consider a similar approach to decreasing influenza morbidity and hospitalization in lodge residents.

  7. Decreasing transobturator sling groin pain without decreasing efficacy using TVT-Abbrevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathan S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rardin, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain following a transobturator (TO) midurethral sling is not uncommon and can be difficult to manage. We sought to determine if decreasing the mesh burden in the groin would decrease pain. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of post-operative groin pain following placement of full-length TVT-Obturator versus the shorter TVT-Abbrevo. Secondarily, we aimed to compare the efficacy between both devices 6 months after surgery. This is a retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent a TO midurethral sling by the division of urogynecology at one institution between 1 January 2007 and 31 October 2013. Charts were reviewed and the incidence of post-operative groin pain in the two groups dichotomized as present or absent and compared using a Chi-squared test. Validated questionnaire scores of the groups were compared using t tests. There were 125 patients who received a TVT-Obturator and 100 patients who received a TVT-Abbrevo. No differences in demographic data were present between the groups. Twelve patients (9.6 %) in the TVT-Obturator group and 1 patient (1 %) in the TVT-Abbrevo group experienced bothersome groin pain (P value = 0.007). The complete pre- and 6-month post-operative ISI, UDI-6 and PFIQ-7 scores were available for 76 (61 %), 47 (38 %), and 45 (36 %) patients following TVT-Obturator and 57 (57 %), 30 (30 %), and 28 (28 %) following TVT-Abbrevo treatment. At 6 months the mean improvement in questionnaire scores for the TVT-Obturator and TVT-Abbrevo groups were as follows: 5.0 and 5.1 for ISI (P value = 0.9), 8.3 and 7.9 for UDI-6 (P value = 0.8), and 4.8 and 6.1 for PFIQ-7 (P value = 0.4). Use of TVT-Abbrevo reduces post-operative groin pain compared with the full-length TVT-Obturator, without any reduction in efficacy.

  8. Observation of the February 2011 Forbush decrease by the EEE telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccetti, F; Coccia, E; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Doroud, K; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F.L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Massai, M; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Regano, A; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Spandre, G; Squarcia, S; Taiuti, M; Tosello, F; Votano, L; Williams, M.C.S; Zichichi, A; Zouyevski, R

    2011-01-01

    The Forbush decrease following the large X2 solar flare on mid-February 2011 has been observed by the muon telescopes of the EEE Project, which are located in several Italian sites and at CERN. Data from two different telescopes of the EEE network have been analyzed and compared to those measured by neutron monitor stations. The variation of the muon counting rate during the Forbush decrease was also extracted for different intervals of the azimuthal angle of the incoming muons.

  9. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  10. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  11. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  12. Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Rosa; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2017-08-01

    The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters. The combat simulation produces a significant increase (p body temperature post, HF post/correct sound, body temperature post/glucose post, CFFTpre/lactate post, CFFT post/wrong sound, glucose post/AC pre, AC post/wrong fusil, AS post/SC post and SC post/wrong olfactory; and negative correlations: LF post/correct sound, body temperature post/lactate post and glucose post/lactate post. This data suggest that combat stress actives fight-flight system of soldiers. As conclusion, Combat stress produces an increased psychophysiological response that cause a selective decrease of memory, depending on the nature, dangerous or harmless of the objects.

  13. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  14. Low-angled peripheral intravenous catheter tip placement decreases phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hidenori; Murayama, Ryoko; Yabunaka, Koichi; Oe, Makoto; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Komiyama, Chieko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-02

    Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are frequently removed due to phlebitis. We hypothesized that catheters made of polyurethane, which is more flexible than Teflon, would decrease phlebitis, and that flexibility could be estimated by measuring the catheter-tip angle. Ultrasonography in two groups of patients with different catheter types was then used to compare catheter-tip angles and phlebitis. Observational studies were carried out at a medical ward in a university hospital. Infusion therapy was administered to one group of patients in 2014 using Teflon catheters (control group, n = 200), and to another group of patients in 2015 using polyurethane catheters (investigational group, n = 207). The symptoms were assessed according to a scale developed by the Infusion Nurses Society. Long-axis ultrasonography images taken immediately before catheter removal were used to measure the angle between the central line of the catheter within 2 mm from the distal point and a tangent to the vessel wall. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, age, and medical diagnosis. In the control and investigational groups, the rates of phlebitis were 37% (73/200) and 17% (36/207), respectively (pPhlebitis occurred more frequently when the catheter-tip was placed at angle >5.8°. The frequency of phlebitis was lower in the polyurethane, in which the catheter was placed at lower angle, almost parallel to the vessel. Our results will aid in developing new catheters and in improving PIVC-securement techniques.

  15. Low social status decreases the neural salience of unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eHu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one’s social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game, during which event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170 – 240 ms, and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than did cues indicating low status in a later time window (350 – 520 ms. During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400 – 700 ms for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.

  16. A projected decrease in lightning under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Declan L.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Wild, Oliver; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Blyth, Alan M.

    2018-03-01

    Lightning strongly influences atmospheric chemistry1-3, and impacts the frequency of natural wildfires4. Most previous studies project an increase in global lightning with climate change over the coming century1,5-7, but these typically use parameterizations of lightning that neglect cloud ice fluxes, a component generally considered to be fundamental to thunderstorm charging8. As such, the response of lightning to climate change is uncertain. Here, we compare lightning projections for 2100 using two parameterizations: the widely used cloud-top height (CTH) approach9, and a new upward cloud ice flux (IFLUX) approach10 that overcomes previous limitations. In contrast to the previously reported global increase in lightning based on CTH, we find a 15% decrease in total lightning flash rate with IFLUX in 2100 under a strong global warming scenario. Differences are largest in the tropics, where most lightning occurs, with implications for the estimation of future changes in tropospheric ozone and methane, as well as differences in their radiative forcings. These results suggest that lightning schemes more closely related to cloud ice and microphysical processes are needed to robustly estimate future changes in lightning and atmospheric composition.

  17. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzelberger, A. M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), which in concert with climate change, poses a significant threat to human health and nutrition. In addition to being an important greenhouse gas, O3 reduces plant productivity, an effect that has been particularly pronounced in soybean, which provides over half of the world's oilseed production. Plant productivity is linked to feedbacks in the climate system, indirectly through the carbon cycle, as well as directly through the partitioning of radiation into heat and moisture fluxes. Soybean, along with maize, comprises the largest ecosystem in the contiguous U.S. Therefore, changes in productivity and water use under increasing O3 could impact human nutrition as well as the regional climate. Soybean response to increasing O3 concentrations was tested under open-air agricultural conditions at the SoyFACE research site. During the 2009 growing season, eight 20 m diameter FACE plots were exposed to different O3 concentrations, ranging from 40 to 200 ppb. Canopy growth (leaf area index) and physiological measurements of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were taken regularly throughout the growing season. Canopy fluxes of heat and moisture were measured using the residual energy balance micrometeorological technique. Our results indicate that as O3 increased from 40 to 200 ppb, rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased significantly. Further, the seed yield decreased by over 60%, while water use decreased by 30% and the water-use-efficiency (yield/water-use) declined by 50%. The growing season average canopy temperatures increased by 1°C and midday temperatures increased by 2°C compared to the control. Warmer and drier canopies may result in a positive feedback on O3

  18. Tinnitus retraining therapy for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2003-04-01

    Our experience has revealed the following: (1) TRT is applicable for all types of tinnitus, as well as for decreased sound tolerance, with significant improvement of tinnitus occurring in over 80% of the cases, and at least equal success rate for decreased sound tolerance. (2) TRT can provide cure for decreased sound tolerance. (3) TRT does not require frequent clinic visits and has no side effects; however, (4) Special training of health providers involved in this treatment is required for this treatment to be effective.

  19. A multistate quality improvement program to decrease elective deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Bryan T; Kowalewski, Leslie; Sappenfield, William; Alter, Caroline C; Bettegowda, Vani R; Russell, Rebecca; Curran, John; Reeves, Lori; Kacica, Marilyn; Andino, Nelson; Mason-Marti, Peyton; Crouse, Dennis; Knight, Susan; Littlejohn, Karen; Malatok, Sharyn; Dudley, Donald J; Berns, Scott D

    2013-05-01

    Nonmedically indicated (elective) deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation result in unnecessary neonatal morbidity. We sought to determine whether implementation of a process improvement program will decrease the rate of elective scheduled singleton early-term deliveries (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation) in a group of diverse community and academic hospitals. Policies and procedures for scheduling inductions and cesarean deliveries were implemented and patient and health care provider education was provided. Outcomes for scheduled singleton deliveries at 34 weeks of gestation or higher were submitted through a web-based data entry system. The rate of scheduled singleton elective early-term deliveries as well as the rates of early-term medically indicated and unscheduled deliveries, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, and singleton term fetal mortality rate were evaluated. A total of 29,030 scheduled singletons at 34 weeks of gestation or higher were delivered in 26 participating hospitals between January 2011 and December 2011. Elective scheduled early-term deliveries decreased from 27.8% in the first month to 4.8% in the 12th month (Pscheduled singleton early-term inductions (72%, P=.029) and cesarean deliveries (84%; Pscheduled early-term singletons decreased nonsignificantly from 1.5% to 1.2% (P=.24). There was no increase in the term fetal mortality rate. A rapid-cycle process improvement program substantially decreased elective scheduled early-term deliveries to less than 5% in a group of diverse hospitals across multiple states. III.

  20. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  1. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  2. Simvastatin decreases steroid production in the H295R cell line and decreases steroids and FSH in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Guldvang; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Weisser, Johan J

    2015-01-01

    .10-0.13μM for SV and from 0.019-0.055μM for SVA. In rats, SV decreased progestagens in ovaries, brain and plasma, and plasma FSH in the M (72.4% decrease) and H group (76.6% decrease). Because progestagens and gonadotropins are major players in fertility, administration of SV might exert negative effects...

  3. Video x-ray progressive scanning: new technique for decreasing x-ray exposure without decreasing image quality during cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Bove, A.A.; Wondrow, M.A.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed video x-ray progressive scanning system improves image quality, decreases radiation exposure, and can be added to any pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray system using a video display without major system modifications. With use of progressive video scanning, the radiation entrance exposure rate measured with a vascular phantom was decreased by 32 to 53% in comparison with a conventional fluoroscopic x-ray system. In addition to this substantial decrease in radiation exposure, the quality of the image was improved because of less motion blur and artifact. Progressive video scanning has the potential for widespread application to all pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray systems. Use of this technique should make cardiac catheterization procedures and all other fluoroscopic procedures safer for the patient and the involved medical and paramedical staff

  4. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  5. MBS Ratings and the Mortgage Credit Boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashcraft, A.; Goldsmith-Pinkham, P.; Vickery, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study credit ratings on subprime and Alt-A mortgage-backed securities (MBS) deals issued between 2001 and 2007, the period leading up to the subprime crisis. The fraction of highly-rated securities in each deal is decreasing in mortgage credit risk (measured either ex-ante or ex-post), suggesting

  6. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  7. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  8. Fingolimod in active multiple sclerosis: an impressive decrease in Gd-enhancing lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, A.H.; Rolf, L.; Damoiseaux, J.; Koeman, E.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fingolimod is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) in highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as is natalizumab. Fingolimod decreases annual relapse rates and gadolinium enhancing lesions on MRI as compared to either interferon beta (IFNβ) or placebo. The effect of

  9. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  10. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  11. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  12. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  13. The decrease of cardiac chamber volumes and output during positive-pressure ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Iversen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    the effect of PPV on the central circulation by studying cardiac chamber volumes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We hypothesized that PPV lowers cardiac output (CO) mainly via the Frank-Starling relationship. In 18 healthy volunteers, cardiac chamber volumes and flow in aorta and the pulmonary...... artery were measured by CMR during PPV levels of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O applied via a respirator and a face mask. All cardiac chamber volumes decreased in proportion to the level of PPV. Following 20-cmH2O PPV, the total diastolic and systolic cardiac volumes (±SE) decreased from 605 (±29) ml to 446 (±29......) ml (P volume decreased by 27 (±4) ml/beat; heart rate increased by 7 (±2) beats/min; and CO decreased by 1.0 (±0.4) l/min (P

  14. Introducing Upfront Money Can Decrease Discounting in Intertemporal Choices with Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Sun, Hong-Yue; Zheng, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Liang-Jun; Qin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    People generally tend to advance gains and postpone losses in intertemporal choice. Jiang et al. (2014) recently showed that adding upfront losses or gains to both smaller and sooner (SS) and larger and later (LL) rewards can decrease people's discounting. To account for this decrease, they proposed the salience hypothesis, which states that introducing upfront losses or gains makes the money dimension more salient than not, thus increasing people's preference for LL rewards. Considering that decreasing the discounting of delayed losses is imperative and that most previous studies have focused on intertemporal choices with gains, in the current paper we conducted two experiments and used hypothetical money outcomes to examine whether the effect of upfront money could be extended to intertemporal choices with losses. The results showed that when both SS and LL intertemporal losses were combined with an upfront loss or gain, people's discounting rate decreased and the preference for the SS option increased. This finding further supports the salience account.

  15. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  16. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and...

  17. A geometric proof of confluence by decreasing diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, J.W.; Oostrom, V. van; Vrijer, R. de

    The criterion for confluence using decreasing diagrams is a generalization of several well-known confluence criteria in abstract rewriting, such as the strong confluence lemma. We give a new proof of the decreasing diagram theorem based on a geometric study of in finite reduction diagrams, arising

  18. Decreased language lateralization is characteristic of psychosis, not auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; De Weijer, Antoin D.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased language lateralization is a well-replicated finding in psychotic patients. It is currently unclear, however, whether this abnormality is related to a particular symptom of psychosis or to psychosis in general. It has been argued that decreased language lateralization may be related to

  19. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  20. Do patients' information needs decrease over the course of radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate if cancer patients' information needs decrease during radiotherapy and if so, which patient, consultation and radiation oncologist characteristics are associated with a decrease in information needs over time. In this longitudinal study, patients (n = 104) completed a

  1. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  2. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  3. Overcoming Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Policies in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jose De Gregorio; Andrea Tokman R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the exchange rate management experience in Chile, with particular emphasis on the floating exchange rate regime and its two forex intervention episodes. It presents evidence on Chile’s favorable conditions to face exchange rate shocks: a well-developed financial sector, that offers hedging opportunities taken up by the corporate sector to decrease its vulnerability through balance sheet effects; and a low and decreasing level of passthrough from the exchange rate to prices. ...

  4. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  5. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  6. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous clinical studies have documented successful neck pain relief in whiplash patients using nerve block and radiofrequency ablation of facet joint afferents, including capsular ligament nerves. No previous study has documented injuries to the neck ligaments as determined by altered dynamic mechanical properties due to whiplash. The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of whiplash-exposed human cervical spine ligaments. Additionally, the present data were compared to previously reported control data. The ligaments included the anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. Methods A total of 98 bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1 were prepared from six cervical spines following 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g rear impacts and pre- and post-impact flexibility testing. The specimens were elongated to failure at a peak rate of 725 (SD 95 mm/s. Failure force, elongation, and energy absorbed, as well as stiffness were determined. The mechanical properties were statistically compared among ligaments, and to the control data (significance level: P Results For all whiplash-exposed ligaments, the average failure elongation exceeded the average physiological elongation. The highest average failure force of 204.6 N was observed in the ligamentum flavum, significantly greater than in middle-third disc and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. The highest average failure elongation of 4.9 mm was observed in the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. The average energy absorbed ranged from 0.04 J by the middle-third disc to 0.44 J by the capsular ligament. The ligamentum flavum was the stiffest ligament, while the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments were most flexible. The whiplash

  7. Decreased Heart Rate Variability in HIV Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: Importance of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    whether autonomic dysfunction is present in an ART treated HIV population and if so to identify factors of importance. METHODS: HIV patients receiving ART for at least 12 months (n¿=¿97) and an age-matched control group of healthy volunteers (n¿=¿52) were included. All were non-diabetic and had never......-intervals (RMSSD) or the percent of differences between adjacent NN intervals greater than 50 ms (pNN50). In the HIV positives, haemoglobin A1c correlated inversely with SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 (pcorrelated inversely with RMSSD and pNN50 (p...4 cell count nor CD4 nadir correlated with time or phase domain HRV variables. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate autonomic dysfunction is present in HIV positives patients even with suppressed viral load due to ART. The dysfunction is correlated with HbA1c and hypercholesterolemia but not to duration of HIV...

  8. Comparing primary prevention with secondary prevention to explain decreasing coronary heart disease death rates in Ireland, 1985-2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether primary prevention might be more favourable than secondary prevention (risk factor reduction in patients with coronary heart disease(CHD)). METHODS: The cell-based IMPACT CHD mortality model was used to integrate data for Ireland describing CHD patient numbers, uptake of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors, and the mortality benefits of these specific risk factor changes in CHD patients and in healthy people without recognised CHD. RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2000, approximately 2,530 fewer deaths were attributable to reductions in the three major risk factors in Ireland. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 14% between 1985 and 2000, resulting in about 685 fewer deaths (minimum estimate 330, maximum estimate 1,285) attributable to smoking cessation: about 275 in healthy people and 410 in known CHD patients. Population total cholesterol concentrations fell by 4.6%, resulting in approximately 1,300 (minimum estimate 1,115, maximum estimate 1,660) fewer deaths attributable to dietary changes(1,185 in healthy people and 115 in CHD patients) plus 305 fewer deaths attributable to statin treatment (45 in people without CHD and 260 in CHD patients). Mean population diastolic blood pressure fell by 7.2%, resulting in approximately 170 (minimum estimate 105, maximum estimate 300) fewer deaths attributable to secular falls in blood pressure (140 in healthy people and 30 in CHD patients), plus approximately 70 fewer deaths attributable to antihypertensive treatments in people without CHD. Of all the deaths attributable to risk factor falls, some 1,715 (68%) occurred in people without recognized CHD and 815(32%) in CHD patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with secondary prevention, primary prevention achieved a two-fold larger reduction in CHD deaths. Future national CHD policies should therefore prioritize nationwide interventions to promote healthy diets and reduce smoking.

  9. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  10. Direction of the J-Tip of the Guidewire to Decrease the Malposition Rate of an Internal Jugular Vein Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong jun Ahn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We hypothesized that the direction of the J-tip of the guidewire during insertion into the internal jugular vein (IJV might determine its ultimate location. Methods In this study, 300 patients between the ages of 18 and 99 years who required central venous catheterization via IJV in the emergency department enrolled for randomization. IVJ catheterization was successful in 285 of 300 patients. An independent operator randomly prefixed the direction of the J-tip of the guidewire to one of three directions. Based on the direction of the J-tip, patients were allocated into three groups: the J-tip medial-directed group (Group A, the lateral-directed group (Group B, or the downward-directed group (Group C. Postoperative chest radiography was performed on all patients in order to visualize the location of the catheter tip. A catheter is considered malpositioned if it is not located in the superior vena cava or right atrium. Results Of the total malpositioned catheter tips (8 of 285; 2.8%, the majority (5 of 8; 62.5% entered the contralateral subclavian vein, 2 (25.0% were complicated by looping, and 1 (12.5% entered the ipsilateral subclavian vein. According to the direction of the J-tip of the guidewire, the incidence of malpositioning of the catheter tip was 4 of 92 in Group A (4.3%, 4 of 96 in Group B (4.2%, and there were no malpositions in Group C. There were no significant differences among the three groups (p = 0.114. Conclusions The direction of the J-tip of the guidewire had no statistically significant effect on incidence of malpositioned tips.

  11. A Calibrated Method of Massage Therapy Decreases Systolic Blood Pressure Concomitant With Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Kurt A; Kaprelian, Anthony; Gutierrez, Roberto; Jha, Vidyasagar; Wilson, Christopher G; Dobyns, Abigail; Xu, Karen H; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying calibrated manual massage pressures by using commonly available, inexpensive sphygmomanometer parts and validate the use of this approach as a quantitative method of applying massage therapy to rodents. Massage pressures were monitored by using a modified neonatal blood pressure (BP) cuff attached to an aneroid gauge. Lightly anesthetized rats were stroked on the ventral abdomen for 5 minutes at pressures of 20 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively for 20 minutes following massage therapy at 5-minute intervals. Interexaminer reliability was assessed by applying 20 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg pressures to a digital scale in the presence or absence of the pressure gauge. With the use of this method, we observed good interexaminer reliability, with intraclass coefficients of 0.989 versus 0.624 in blinded controls. In Long-Evans rats, systolic BP dropped by an average of 9.86% ± 0.27% following application of 40 mm Hg massage pressure. Similar effects were seen following 20 mm Hg pressure (6.52% ± 1.7%), although latency to effect was greater than at 40 mm Hg. Sprague-Dawley rats behaved similarly to Long-Evans rats. Low-frequency/high-frequency ratio, a widely-used index of autonomic tone in cardiovascular regulation, showed a significant increase within 5 minutes after 40 mm Hg massage pressure was applied. The calibrated massage method was shown to be a reproducible method for applying massage pressures in rodents and lowering BP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Noncommunicable Diseases: Three Decades Of Global Data Show A Mixture Of Increases And Decreases In Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed K; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kowalski, Alysse J; Siegel, Karen R; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are the leading health concerns of the modern era, accounting for two-thirds of global deaths, half of all disability, and rapidly growing costs. To provide a contemporary overview of the burdens caused by noncommunicable diseases, we compiled mortality data reported by authorities in forty-nine countries for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases; diabetes; chronic respiratory diseases; and lung, colon, breast, cervical, liver, and stomach cancers. From 1980 to 2012, on average across all countries, mortality for cardiovascular disease, stomach cancer, and cervical cancer declined, while mortality for diabetes, liver cancer, and female chronic respiratory disease and lung cancer increased. In contrast to the relatively steep cardiovascular and cancer mortality declines observed in high-income countries, mortality for cardiovascular disease and chronic respiratory disease was flat in most low- and middle-income countries, which also experienced increasing breast and colon cancer mortality. These divergent mortality patterns likely reflect differences in timing and magnitude of risk exposures, health care, and policies to counteract the diseases. Improving both the coverage and the accuracy of mortality documentation in populous low- and middle-income countries is a priority, as is the need to rigorously evaluate societal-level interventions. Furthermore, given the complex, chronic, and progressive nature of noncommunicable diseases, policies and programs to prevent and control them need to be multifaceted and long-term, as returns on investment accrue with time. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. A single exposure to acrolein causes arrhythmogenesis, cardiac electrical dysfunction and decreased heart rate variability in hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between cardiovascular morbidity, arrhythmias, and exposure to air toxicants such as acrolein. We hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would increase arrhythmias and cause changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of hype...

  14. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  15. Decreasing methane production in hydrogenogenic UASB reactors fed with cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Reyes, Julián; Celis, Lourdes B.; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2014-01-01

    One of the problems in fermentative hydrogen producing reactors, inoculated with pre-treated anaerobic granular sludge, is the eventual methane production by hydrogen-consuming methanogens. In this study, strategies such as reduction of pH and HRT, organic shock loads and repeated biomass heat treatment were applied to hydrogenogenic UASB reactors fed with cheese whey, that showed methane production after certain time of continuous operation (between 10 and 60 days). The reduction of pH to 4.5 not only decreased methane production but also hydrogen production. Organic shock load (from 20 to 30 g COD/L-d) was the more effective strategy to decrease the methane production rate (75%) and to increase the hydrogen production rate (172%), without stopping reactor operation. Repeated heat treatment of the granular sludge was the only strategy that inhibited completely methane production, leading to high volumetric hydrogen production rates (1.67 L H 2 /L-d), however this strategy required stopping reactor operation; in addition homoacetogenesis, another hydrogen-consuming pathway, was not completely inhibited. This work demonstrated that it was possible to control the methane activity in hydrogen producing reactors using operational strategies. - Highlights: • Operational strategies control methane in hydrogen production from cheese whey. • Organic shock load increased the hydrogen production rate. • Operation pH below 5 decreased both the hydrogen and methane production. • Second biomass heat treatment inhibits completely methanogenesis. • Homoacetogens play a negative role in fermentative hydrogen production

  16. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  17. Age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Intractable epileptic adolescents have higher scores for physical functioning and health perception, but lower scores for social stigmatization. Social support has extremely low scores. Increasing age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

  18. Proactive pharmaceutical care interventions decrease patients' nonadherence to osteoporosis medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman-Bieze, A G G; Hiddink, E G; van Boven, J F M; Vegter, S

    UNLABELLED: Using a protocolled intervention program, pharmacists can decrease nonadherence to osteoporosis medication, by continuous monitoring and tailored counseling sessions, starting at treatment initiation. In the usual care group, 32.8% of patients initiating osteoporosis medication

  19. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  20. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  1. Forbush decreases and particle acceleration in the outer heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.; Mihalov, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major solar flare activity in 1989 has provided examples of the local acceleration of protons at 28 AU (Pioneer 11) and of the propagation of Forbush decreases in galactic cosmic ray intensity to a heliocentric radial distance of 47 AU (Pioneer 10). The combination of these and previous data at lesser distances shows (a) that Forbush decreases propagate with essentially constant magnitude to (at least) 47 AU and with similar magnitude at widely different ecliptic longitudes and (b) that the times for recovery from such decreases become progressively greater as the radial distance increases, being of the order of months in the outer heliosphere. A phenomenological scheme for (b) is proposed and fresh support is given to the hypothesis that the solar cycle modulation of the galactic cosmic ray intensity is attributable primarily to overlapping Forbush decreases which are more frequent and of greater magnitude near times of maximum solar activity than at times of lesser activity

  2. Drug Combo Decreases Colorectal Polyps in People with FAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    In people with familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP, a combination treatment of erlotinib (Tarceva) and sulindac (Aflodac) decreased the number of precancerous colorectal polyps, according to recently published clinical trial results.

  3. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  4. Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ... which involves, teaching mnemonic strategies: organization, visualization and association for ... and they should be made to participate in training to focus on thinking ability to ...

  5. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  6. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  7. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  8. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  9. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  10. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  11. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Volker, Desi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochast...

  12. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  13. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  14. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  15. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  16. Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    consumption (p meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p ... preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p ....9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p 

  17. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  18. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  19. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  20. Dexmedetomidine decreases inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Douglas B; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-29

    Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, is a useful sedative but can also cause significant bradycardia. This decrease in heart rate may be due to decreased central sympathetic output as well as increased parasympathetic output from brainstem cardiac vagal neurons. In this study, using whole cell voltage clamp methodology, the actions of dexmedetomidine on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus was determined. The results indicate that dexmedetomidine decreases both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input to cardiac vagal neurons, with no significant effect on excitatory input. These results provide a mechanism for dexmedetomidine induced bradycardia and has implications for the management of this potentially harmful side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glass approach ''saturation'' with respect to the leachate solution. Most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to ''saturation''. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to ''saturation'' is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. Interpretations of recent experimental data on the dissolution behaviour of silicate glasses and silicate minerals indicate the following: 1) simple affinity control does not explain the observed dissolution rate for silicate minerals or glasses; 2) dissolution rates can be significantly modified by dissolved cations even under conditions far from saturation where the affinity term is near unity; 3) the effects of dissolved species such as Al and Si on the dissolution rate vary with pH, temperature, and saturation state; and 4) as temperature is increased, the effect of both pH and temperature on glass and mineral dissolution rates decrease, which strongly suggests a switch in rate control from surface reaction-based to diffusion control. Borosilicate glass dissolution models need to be upgraded to account for these recent experimental observations. (A.C.)

  2. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  3. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  4. Opioid management strategy decreases admissions in high-utilizing adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Amy; Pelot, Kristin; Koch, Kathryn; Miller, Lawrence; Hubler, Collin; Ndifor, Anisah; Coan, Canice; Leonard, Cynthia; Field, Joshua J

    A subset of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) heavily utilizes the emergency department (ED) and hospital. The objective of our study was to determine the efficacy of a multidisciplinary strategy to address unmet needs in highly utilizing adults with SCD. In a prospective study, adults with SCD with ≥10 admissions per year were assessed by a multidisciplinary team for gaps in medical, social, and psychological care. Thereafter, the team decided upon the subject's predominant domain that drove admissions and instituted an interventional plan. All plans included an opioid management strategy. Preintervention and postintervention admission rate, as well as opioid use, was compared. Twelve subjects were enrolled. Median rate of ED and hospital admissions preintervention was 25 per year. The predominant domains identified were social needs (n = 6), psychological disorder (n = 1), and substance use disorder (n = 5). Multifaceted interventional plans were developed to address a wide range of gaps in care, but an opioid management strategy was the only intervention successfully completed. Even so, when the preintervention versus postintervention admission rate was compared, regardless of the domain, there was a 40 percent decline in hospital admissions (p = 0.03). Consistent with the successful implementation of an opioid management plan, the decrease in admissions was accompanied by a 37 percent decrease in intravenous opioid use (p = 0.02) and 10 percent decrease in oral opioid use (p = 0.04). An opioid management strategy, as part of a larger effort to improve care for high-utilizing adults with SCD, decreased rate of admissions and opioid use.

  5. Judgments of Restrictiveness, Social Acceptability, and Usage: Review of Research on Procedures to Decrease Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Research on professionals’, consumers’, and others’ judgments of the restrictiveness, social acceptability, and estimated frequency of use of procedures to decrease behavior were reviewed. General findings were that (a) respondents generally were consistent in rating procedures from least to most restrictive; (b) most respondents agreed that procedures judged more restrictive should be used as a last resort; (c) more restrictive procedures were not frequently used in practice; (d) respondents...

  6. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  7. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y Z; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Wu, Y L; Sha, Y J

    2012-01-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as R i0 ) while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 R i0 . CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 R i0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 R i0 . FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  8. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. Z.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Sha, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as "Ri0") while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 Ri0. CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 Ri0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 Ri0. FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  9. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  10. Implications of a decrease in the precipitation area for the past and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2018-04-01

    The total area with 24 hrs precipitation has shrunk by 7% between 50°S–50°N over the period 1998–2016, according to the satellite-based Tropical Rain Measurement Mission data. A decrease in the daily precipitation area is an indication of profound changes in the hydrological cycle, where the global rate of precipitation is balanced by the global rate of evaporation. This decrease was accompanied by increases in total precipitation, evaporation, and wet-day mean precipitation. If these trends are real, then they suggest increased drought frequencies and more intense rainfall. Satellite records, however, may be inhomogeneous because they are synthesised from a number of individual missions with improved technology over time. A linear dependency was also found between the global mean temperature and the 50°S–50°N daily precipitation area with a slope value of ‑17 × 106 km 2/°C. This dependency was used with climate model simulations to make future projections which suggested a continued decrease that will strengthen in the future. The precipitation area evolves differently when the precipitation is accumulated over short and long time scales, however, and there has been a slight increase in the monthly precipitation area while the daily precipitation area decreased. An increase on monthly scale may indicate more pronounced variations in the rainfall patterns due to migrating rain-producing phenomena.

  11. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' environmental conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (warming) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561

  12. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  13. Evolution of the French greenhouse gas emissions: an eyewash decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.

    2010-01-01

    As the French greenhouse emissions displayed a significant decrease in 2009, compared with the reference levels of 1990, the author shows that this decrease cannot be in fact attributed to the environment policy, and more particularly not to the measures adopted within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'. An examination of the statistics reveals that this decrease cannot be explained by a structural transformation of energy production or consumption, but essentially by the current economic crisis. Therefore, the energetic transition which is supposed to allow the emissions to be divided by 4 in 2050, is not actually under way. On the contrary, it appears that, in a context of globalization of economy, emissions produced to satisfy French needs tend to increase through their foreign relocation

  14. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  15. Do socioeconomic mortality differences decrease with rising age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Hoffmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of SES on mortality is an established finding in mortality research. I examine, whether this impact decreases with age. Most research finds evidence for this decrease but it is unknown whether the decline is due to mortality selection. My data come from the US-HRS Study and includes 9376 persons aged 59+, which are followed over 8 years. The variables allow a time varying measurement of SES, health and behavior. Event-history-analysis is applied to analyze mortality differentials. My results show that socioeconomic mortality differences are stable across ages whereas they decline clearly with decreasing health. The first finding that health rather than age is the equalizer combined with the second finding of unequally distributed health leads to the conclusion that in old age, the impact of SES is transferred to health and is stable across ages.

  16. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  17. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  18. Decreasing radioactive cesium in lodged buckwheat grain after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katashi Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed soil contamination with high radioactive cesium (R–Cs concentration in buckwheat grains by lodging, and assessed the possibility of R–Cs reduction in grain through post-harvest preparation. Analysis of buckwheat grain produced in farmers’ fields and reports from farmers indicated that grain from fields that had lodging showed higher R–Cs than grain from fields with no lodging. A field experiment demonstrated that R–Cs in grain after threshing and winnowing (TW was about six times higher in lodged plants than in nonlodged plants. In lodged plants, R–Cs in grain was decreased to about one-fourth by polishing, and was decreased to about one-seventh by ultrasonic cleaning, compared with R–Cs in grain after TW. These results demonstrate that R–Cs of buckwheat grain of lodged plants can be decreased by removing soil from the grain surface by polishing and winnowing.

  19. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  20. Intranasal naloxone administration by police first responders is associated with decreased opioid overdose deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Jessica; Broering, Derek; Olson, James E; Marco, Catherine; Evans, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to answer the question, "Can police officers administer intranasal naloxone to drug overdose victims to decrease the opioid overdose death rate?" This prospective interventional study was conducted in Lorain County, OH, from January 2011 to October 2014. Starting October 2013, trained police officers administered naloxone to suspected opioid overdose victims through a police officer naloxone prescription program (NPP). Those found by the county coroner to be positive for opioids at the time of death and those who received naloxone from police officers were included in this study. The rate of change in the total number of opioid-related deaths in Lorain County per quarter year, before and after initiation of the NPP, and the trend in the survival rate of overdose victims who were given naloxone were analyzed by linear regression. Significance was established a priori at P police officer NPP with average deaths per quarter of 5.5 for 2011, 15.3 for 2012, and 16.3 for the first 9 months of 2013. After initiation of the police officer NPP, the number of opioid overdose deaths decreased each quarter with an overall average of 13.4. Of the 67 participants who received naloxone by police officers, 52 (77.6%) survived, and 8 (11.9%) were lost to follow-up. Intranasal naloxone administration by police first responders is associated with decreased deaths in opioid overdose victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  2. Decreased Identification of Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Hyder Qureshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimTo find the trend in patient’s visits to our centers for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. We hypothesize that VUR diagnosis and hence possible nephropathy recognition may be diminishing because of changing practice patterns.MethodsData were extracted from electronic medical records for new and follow-up patients aged 0–18 years with ICD-9/10 codes to correspond with VUR, VUR unilateral, VUR bilateral, and VUR with reflux nephropathy, as well as new patients with diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTI and pyelonephritis at two major pediatric centers from 2012 to 2015. Figures and statistics to reflect absolute clinic visits and annual trends were created with SPSS 2010. Linear regression was applied.ResultsAnnually, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital and Nationwide Children’s Hospital experienced an average decrease of 13 and 17% in total VUR visits, and an average decrease of 22 and 27% in VUR nephropathy visits, respectively, for each institution. Patient visits for UTIs were reduced an average of 16% annually in both centers. Linear regression demonstrated that number of patients (patients/year ± SE decreased annually 69 ± 19 (P = 0.02, 7 ± 2 (P = 0.02, and 67 ± 25 (P = 0.04 for VUR, VUR nephropathy, and UTI, respectively.ConclusionWe conclude that the decreased number of VUR and VUR nephropathy cases identified in subspecialty clinics (Nephrology/Urology at two major children’s hospitals reflect a possible decreased identification of VUR. This trend may also be due to decreased referral of low grade cases of VUR. We cannot conclude that “undifferentiated UTI” referrals increased concomitantly to account for the decreased VUR as our data reflects a decreased trend in those visits as well. We suggest that clinicians following the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines ensure that all UTI are accounted for and surveillance is appropriately escalated for recurrent UTI or abnormal imaging results.

  3. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  4. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  5. Decreased sound tolerance: hyperacusis, misophonia, diplacousis, and polyacousis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, potential mechanisms, and treatments for decreased sound tolerance, hyperacusis, misophonia, and diplacousis are presented with an emphasis on the associated physiologic and neurophysiological processes and principles. A distinction is made between subjects who experience these conditions versus patients who suffer from them. The role of the limbic and autonomic nervous systems and other brain systems involved in cases of bothersome decreased sound tolerance is stressed. The neurophysiological model of tinnitus is outlined with respect to how it may contribute to our understanding of these phenomena and their treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  7. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  8. Understanding Rig Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Osmundsen; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Terje Skjerpen

    2013-01-01

    We examine the largest cost component in offshore development projects, drilling rates, which have been high over the last years. To our knowledge, rig rates have not been analysed empirically before in the economic literature. By econometric analysis we examine the effects on Gulf of Mexico rig rates of gas and oil prices, rig capacity utilization, contract length and lead time, and rig specific characteristics. Having access to a unique data set containing contract information, we are able ...

  9. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  10. Decreased NAA in gray matter is correlated with decreased availability of acetate in white matter in postmortem multiple sclerosis cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Clements, R; Sulak, M; Gregory, R; Freeman, E; McDonough, J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to progressive neurological disability. Our previous studies have demonstrated mitochondrial involvement in MS cortical pathology and others have documented decreased levels of the neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the MS brain. While NAA is synthesized in neurons, it is broken down in oligodendrocytes into aspartate and acetate. The resulting acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, linking neuronal mitochondrial function to oligodendrocyte-mediated elaboration of myelin lipids in the CNS. In the present study we show that treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A decreased levels of NAA as measured by HPLC. To better understand the significance of the relationship between mitochondrial function and levels of NAA and its breakdown product acetate on MS pathology we then quantitated the levels of NAA and acetate in MS and control postmortem tissue blocks. Regardless of lesion status, we observed that levels of NAA were decreased 25 and 32 % in gray matter from parietal and motor cortex in MS, respectively, compared to controls. Acetate levels in adjacent white matter mirrored these decreases as evidenced by the 36 and 45 % reduction in acetate obtained from parietal and motor cortices. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAA levels in neurons may result in compromised myelination by oligodendrocytes due to decreased availability of acetate necessary for the synthesis of myelin lipids.

  11. A Teacher-Focused Intervention to Decrease PE Students' Amotivation by Increasing Need Satisfaction and Decreasing Need Frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Song, Yong-Gwan

    2016-06-01

    Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students' amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students' PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students' end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

  12. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  13. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  14. Decreased TK activity alters growth, yield and tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity in transgenic cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Huangai; Dong, Xubing; Wu, Guoxiu; Wang, Meiling; Ai, Xizhen

    2015-02-01

    Four CsTK antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased TK activity decreased the photosynthetic rate, seed germination rate, growth yield, and the tolerance to low temperature and weak light stress. Transketolase (TK, EC 2.2.1.1) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Calvin cycle). A cDNA fragment (526 bp) encoding transketolase was cloned from cucumber plants (Cucumis sativa L. cv 'Jinyou 3') by RT-PCR. The antisense expression [(PBI-CsTK(-)] vector containing the CsTK gene fragment was constructed. The resulting plasmid was introduced into the cucumber inbred lines '08-1' using the agrobacterium-mediated method, and four antisense transgenic cucumber plants were obtained. Decreased CsTK expression either unaltered or slightly increased the mRNA abundance and activities of the other main enzymes in the Calvin cycle, however, it decreased the TK activity and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in antisense transgenic cucumber leaves. Antisense plants showed decreases in the growth, ratio of female flowers and yield compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The decrease in Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and the increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) were greater in antisense transgenic plants than in WT plants under low temperature (5 °C) and low light intensity (100 μmol m(-2) s(-1)).

  15. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  16. Does Corruption Increase or Decrease Employment in Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.

  17. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  18. Chemotherapy decreases epiphyseal strength and increases bone fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, BL; Verkerke, GJ; Hartel, RM; Sluiter, WJ; Kamps, WA; Jansen, HWB; Hoekstra, HJ

    To establish the effect of three frequently used chemotherapeutic agents in childhood cancer on the skeleton, growing male Wistar rats were studied. Treatment with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and cisplatin reduces the proximal tibial growth plate shear strength because of a decreased surface area and

  19. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  20. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  1. Decrease of the atmospheric co-rotation with height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M; Pacheco, A F

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis.

  2. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua and Crozet shags Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis breeding annually at Marion Island, one of South Africa's Prince Edward Islands in the South-West Indian Ocean, were strongly correlated over 19 split-years from 1994/1995 to 2012/2013. Both species decreased ...

  3. The effect of decreased developer activity on patient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.B.; Turner, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Overexposing and underdeveloping a radiographic image is not a common practice, but it has been observed to occur as a result of poor processing protocols. This study discovered that, as a result of decreased developer activity, the patient exposure could be three times as great as it would be under normal conditions

  4. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  5. ASCORBID ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTEvidence suggests that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA), plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased levels of AA have been reported in asthmatics but not at the site directly proximal to asthma pathology, i.e. the bronchial...

  6. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  7. Observed Decrease of North American Winter Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether temperature variability has changed in recent decades. Model ensembles project that extratropical land temperature variance will detectably decrease by 2070. We use quantile regression of station observations to show that decreasing variability is already robustly detectable for North American winter during 1979--2014. Pointwise trends from GHCND stations are mapped into a continuous spatial field using thin-plate spline regression, resolving small-scales while providing uncertainties accounting for spatial covariance and varying station density. We find that variability of daily temperatures, as measured by the difference between the 95th and 5th percentiles, has decreased markedly in winter for both daily minima and maxima. Composites indicate that the reduced spread of winter temperatures primarily results from Arctic amplification decreasing the meridional temperature gradient. Greater observed warming in the 5th relative to the 95th percentile stems from asymmetric effects of advection during cold versus warm days; cold air advection is generally from northerly regions that have experienced greater warming than western or southwestern regions that are generally sourced during warm days.

  8. Does Child Labor Decrease when Parental Incomes Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carol Ann; Swinnerton, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    When parents and children care about each other's utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to decreases in child labor. Adults raised in poor families make altruistic transfers to their elderly parents, which the parents take as repayment for income lost when their children were young and spent some time in school instead of…

  9. Decrease Radar Cross-Section Objectives Using the Metamerial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchev Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work influence of an electromagnetic field on lattices from close located ring conductors is shown. RCS is also calculated and shown that at 0 ≤ n2 < 1 there is the considerable decrease of an object.

  10. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  13. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  14. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  15. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  16. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  17. Glucocorticosteroids Associated With a Decreased Risk of Psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Burger, Huibert

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis. A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed

  18. DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet sertoli cells exposed to gossypol. Ming Zhang, Hui Yuan, Zuping He, Liyun Yuan, Jine Yi, Sijun Deng, Li Zhu, Chengzhi Guo, Yin Lu, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Qiang Wei, Liqun Xue ...

  19. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.

  20. Downsizing a database platform for increased performance and decreased costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1993-06-01

    Technological advances in the world of microcomputers have brought forth affordable systems and powerful software than can compete with the more traditional world of minicomputers. This paper describes an effort at Sandia National Laboratories to decrease operational and maintenance costs and increase performance by moving a database system from a minicomputer to a microcomputer.

  1. Use of an Explicit Rule Decreases Procrastination in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Salo, Allen; Deschaine, Elyssa; Johnson, Beth

    2016-01-01

    The procrastination behavior of students from a small rural university was decreased by presenting them with a rule indicating that a sooner final due date for a writing assignment would be contingent on procrastination during earlier phases of the paper. A counterbalanced AB BA design was used to measure the effects of the rule-based treatment…

  2. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  3. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  4. Decreased attention to object size information in scale errors performers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzyb, B.J.; Cangelosi, A.; Cattani, A.; Floccia, C.

    2017-01-01

    Young children sometimes make serious attempts to perform impossible actions on miniature objects as if they were full-size objects. The existing explanations of these curious action errors assume (but never explicitly tested) children’s decreased attention to object size information. This study

  5. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  6. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High fat feeding results in a decrease in insulin responsiveness of isolated solei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundleger, M.L.; Preves, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between diet and insulin responsiveness was examined in isolated solei from 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Weanling rats were fed either a high fat (HF) (67%kcal) or a high carbohydrate diet (HC) (67% kcal) for 21 days. A significant decrease in plasma insulin (I) but not glucose was observed in the HF fed rats. Insulin stimulated (IS) glucose (G) metabolism was examined using a maximal concentration of I (20 mU/m1). G uptake was estimated using 14 C-2 deoxyglucose (2DG). Basal and IS 2DG uptake decreased in HF rats. However, I sensitivity but not responsiveness remained intact in the HF rats. Total G utilization (GU) was estimated by the sum of the rate of formation of: 3 H 2 O from 5- 3 H-glucose [glycolysis- (GL)] and 3 H-glycogen (GLY). IS GU decreased in HF versus HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate GL while GLY remained sensitive. Glucose oxidation (GO) was measured by 14 CO 2 . I failed to stimulated GO. Intracellular metabolite concentrations (IC) were measured in solei from HF and HC fed rats. IS IC-G6P decreased in HF compared to HC fed rats. Basal IC-F6P but not IC-F 1.6 BP increased in HF compared to HC fed rats. I failed to stimulate an increase in IC-F 1,6BP concentrations. Glycolytic activators were determined. HF produced a significant decrease in F2, 6BP concentration when compared to HC rats. Prostaglandins (PG) have been implicated in mediating insulin action. HF produced a significant decrease in basal and insulin stimulated PGE 2 . These data demonstrate that postreceptor - postmembrane alterations are in part responsible for the decreased insulin responsiveness observed after HF feeding

  8. Decreased Expression of DREAM Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, Shravan; Cheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic mechanisms that promote the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) in NMDA-mediated degeneration of the retina. NMDA, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and MK801 were injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6 mice. At 12, 24, and 48 hours after injection, expression of DREAM in the retina was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA). Apoptotic death of cells in the retina was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferace dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Degeneration of RGCs in cross sections and in whole mount retinas was determined by using antibodies against Tuj1 and Brn3a respectively. Degeneration of amacrine cells and bipolar cells was determined by using antibodies against calretinin and protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha respectively. DREAM was expressed constitutively in RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, as well as in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). NMDA promoted a progressive decrease in DREAM levels in all three cell types over time, and at 48 h after NMDA-treatment very low DREAM levels were evident in the IPL only. DREAM expression in retinal nuclear proteins was decreased progressively after NMDA-treatment, and correlated with its decreased binding to the c-fos-DRE oligonucleotides. A decrease in DREAM expression correlated significantly with apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells and bipolar cells. Treatment of eyes with NMDA antagonist MK801, restored DREAM expression to almost normal levels in the retina, and significantly decreased NMDA-mediated apoptotic death of RGCs, amacrine cells, and bipolar cells. Results presented in this study show for the first time that down-regulation of DREAM promotes the degeneration of RGCs, amacrine cells, and

  9. Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea J; Grellinger, Lisa; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-09-01

    The consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) has been linked to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little is known about recent consumption trends in the United States or how intakes compare with current guidelines. We examined trends in intakes of added sugars in the United States over the past decade. A cross-sectional study of US residents ≥2 y of age (n = 42,316) was conducted by using dietary data from NHANES 1999-2008 (five 2-y cycles) and data for added-sugar contents from the MyPyramid Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of added sugars (grams and percentage of total energy intake) were weighted to obtain national estimates over time across age, sex, and race-ethnic groups. Linear trends were tested by using Wald's F tests. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, the absolute intake of added sugars decreased from a mean (95% CI) of 100.1 g/d (92.8, 107.3 g/d) to 76.7 g/d (71.6, 81.9 g/d); two-thirds of this decrease, from 37.4 g/d (32.6, 42.1 g/d) to 22.8 g/d (18.4, 27.3 g/d), resulted from decreased soda consumption (P-linear trend added sugars to increase over the study period (P-linear trend = 0.003), although the peak consumption reached only 0.15 g/d (0.08, 0.22 g/d). The percentage of total energy from added sugars also decreased from 18.1% (16.9%, 19.3%) to 14.6% (13.7%, 15.5%) (P-linear trend added sugars in the United States decreased between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008, primarily because of a reduction in soda consumption, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits.

  10. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  11. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  12. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  13. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  14. Interest rates mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Maignan, M.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Timonin, V.

    2008-06-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space-time and maturity. Exploratory data analysis includes a variety of tools widely used in econophysics and geostatistics. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and pattern perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asset-liability simulations and for financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  15. Use of electronic medical record-enhanced checklist and electronic dashboard to decrease CLABSIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageler, Natalie M; Longhurst, Christopher A; Wood, Matthew; Cornfield, David N; Suermondt, Jaap; Sharek, Paul J; Franzon, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesized that a checklist enhanced by the electronic medical record and a unit-wide dashboard would improve compliance with an evidence-based, pediatric-specific catheter care bundle and decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). We performed a cohort study with historical controls that included all patients with a central venous catheter in a 24-bed PICU in an academic children's hospital. Postintervention CLABSI rates, compliance with bundle elements, and staff perceptions of communication were evaluated and compared with preintervention data. CLABSI rates decreased from 2.6 CLABSIs per 1000 line-days before intervention to 0.7 CLABSIs per 1000 line-days after intervention. Analysis of specific bundle elements demonstrated increased daily documentation of line necessity from 30% to 73% (P < .001), increased compliance with dressing changes from 87% to 90% (P = .003), increased compliance with cap changes from 87% to 93% (P < .001), increased compliance with port needle changes from 69% to 95% (P < .001), but decreased compliance with insertion bundle documentation from 67% to 62% (P = .001). Changes in the care plan were made during review of the electronic medical record checklist on 39% of patient rounds episodes. Use of an electronic medical record-enhanced CLABSI prevention checklist coupled with a unit-wide real-time display of adherence was associated with increased compliance with evidence-based catheter care and sustained decrease in CLABSI rates. These data underscore the potential for computerized interventions to promote compliance with proven best practices and prevent patient harm.

  16. Use of Electronic Medical Record–Enhanced Checklist and Electronic Dashboard to Decrease CLABSIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Christopher A.; Wood, Matthew; Cornfield, David N.; Suermondt, Jaap; Sharek, Paul J.; Franzon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that a checklist enhanced by the electronic medical record and a unit-wide dashboard would improve compliance with an evidence-based, pediatric-specific catheter care bundle and decrease central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). METHODS: We performed a cohort study with historical controls that included all patients with a central venous catheter in a 24-bed PICU in an academic children’s hospital. Postintervention CLABSI rates, compliance with bundle elements, and staff perceptions of communication were evaluated and compared with preintervention data. RESULTS: CLABSI rates decreased from 2.6 CLABSIs per 1000 line-days before intervention to 0.7 CLABSIs per 1000 line-days after intervention. Analysis of specific bundle elements demonstrated increased daily documentation of line necessity from 30% to 73% (P < .001), increased compliance with dressing changes from 87% to 90% (P = .003), increased compliance with cap changes from 87% to 93% (P < .001), increased compliance with port needle changes from 69% to 95% (P < .001), but decreased compliance with insertion bundle documentation from 67% to 62% (P = .001). Changes in the care plan were made during review of the electronic medical record checklist on 39% of patient rounds episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an electronic medical record–enhanced CLABSI prevention checklist coupled with a unit-wide real-time display of adherence was associated with increased compliance with evidence-based catheter care and sustained decrease in CLABSI rates. These data underscore the potential for computerized interventions to promote compliance with proven best practices and prevent patient harm. PMID:24567021

  17. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Ji-Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Sungbo; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyunjin; Song, Junghan; Ghim, Yuna

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV.

  18. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  19. Symptom rating scale for assessing hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, I; Trzepacz, P T; Roberts, M; Levey, G S

    1988-02-01

    A hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS) was designed and administered to ten subjects with untreated Graves' disease. All subjects had clinical and chemical evidence of hyperthyroidism and reproducible HSS scores of 20 or more points. During sequential treatments with propranolol hydrochloride (phase 2) followed by propylthiouracil (phase 3) there was a significant decline in the HSS scores at each phase. Accompanying the decrease in HSS scores was a decrease in heart rate, but there was no change in thyroid function test results at phase 2 and a decrease in heart rate, thyroid function test results, and goiter size at phase 3. This new scale includes ten categories of symptoms, it is sensitive to changes in both the adrenergic and metabolic components of hyperthyroidism, and it is useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with thyrotoxicosis.

  20. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Pmeal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (PIndex (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; Pmeal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.