... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...
Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.
The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…
Crawford, Barbara A.
Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)
Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.
This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…
... build up in a home and poison the people and animals inside. Every year, at least 430 people die ... build up in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces. People and animals in these spaces can be poisoned and can ...
Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.
Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…
... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed and...
Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T
Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.
Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579
... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency. Thanks...
Bacteriological investigations of raw and cooked foods and of food handlers in abattoirs, food factories and hospital kitchens show that they are potential sources of food poisoning organisms. The use of reheated (reconstituted) frozen foods is recommended as an ideal means of preventing food poisoning among hospital ...
Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard
Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hampson, Neil B
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms.
... Vol. 77 Wednesday, No. 55 March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012--Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section... action by using medications only as directed by a health care provider and removing old or unneeded...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8352 of March 13, 2009. National Poison... 13, 2009 Proc. 8352 National Poison Prevention Week, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since 1962, National Poison Prevention Week has helped raise awareness about the...
In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust. Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 10/2/2008.
Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Gunnell, David
Suicide by self-poisoning is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of individuals who poison themselves come into contact with medical services before they die. Our focus in the current study was the medical management of drug self-poisoning in industrialized countries and its possible contribution to suicide prevention.…
Jones, Paul R.; Sheppard, Monique A.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Miller, Ted R.; Nelkin, Valerie S.; Nguyen, Denise D.; Tominack, Ivy; Dunlap, Hallie Chillag
Background: Unintentional poisoning is an important public health issue that exacts a heavy toll on our nation's seniors. However, relatively few empirical studies have examined the efficacy of poison prevention education programs on this cohort. Purpose: This study assessed the impact of a poison education program on the knowledge, perceptions,…
Vaida, Allen J
This article provides an overview on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the only independent nonprofit organization in the USA devoted to the prevention of medication errors. ISMP developed the national Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) and investigates and analyzes errors in order to formulate recommendations to prevent further occurrences. ISMP works closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers, professional organizations, and others to promote changes in package design, practice standards, and healthcare practitioner and consumer education. By collaborating with ISMP to share and disseminate information, Poison Control centers, emergency departments, and toxicologists can help decrease unintentional and accidental poisonings.
Of the 436 children with paraffin poisoning, 288 (66%) were black and 99 (23%) coloured. Only 4 patients (1 %) in the series were white. Paraffin poisoning occurred more frequently (62,5%) in boys. Age distribution. From Fig. 1, it is clear that paraffin poisoning in the Cape. Peninsula occurred mainly in children under 3 ...
Skvortsova, R I; Pozniakovskiĭ, V M; Agarkova, I A
Experiments on rats were made to examine the effect of vitamin B1, pantothenic and ascorbic acids on the acetylation system and some characteristics of protein metabolism under chronic exposure to phenol. Inhibition of phenol vapours led to inhibition of the acetylation on the 105th day of the experiment, to accumulation of pyruvic acid by the blood and diurnal urine, to elevation of cholesterol content in the blood serum. The total content of protein and protein fractions in the blood serum remained unchanged. Additional vitaminization of the animals with thiamine (150 micrograms), calcium pantothenate (650 micrograms) or with their mixture containing ascorbic acid (2 mg) resulted in normalization of the test characteristics of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The data obtained and the clinical trials carried out by the authors suggest introduction of the physiological doses of thiamine, calcium pantothenate and ascorbic acid into the diet of the workers in order to prevent phenol poisonings more effectively.
... reported poisonings involve children under the age of six, and the vast majority take place in the home... exposure. To encourage Americans to learn more about the dangers of accidental poisonings and to take... Stat. 681), has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third...
Sharifah Barlian binti Aidid
Symptoms of metal poisoning in man and cases of metal poisoning in other countries were cited. The increased trend of toxic metals in the Malaysian environment and its impact on metal contamination in food products locally grown by the farmers for home consumption were discussed. This raised the question on the possibility that many cases of food poisoning occured recently might be due to the undetected metal poisoning and due to the ignorance of some villagers in ingesting metal contaminated foodstuffs. A few proposals were put forward with the aim to increase the awareness of the village folks on environmental issues so that the occurances of food poisoning due to toxic metals could be prevented in future
Sharma, B R; Harish, Dassari; Sharma, Vivek; Vij, Krishan
A twenty-one years retrospective study (1980-2000) of acute poisoning deaths carried out at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology at Government Medical College Hospital, Jammu and Gov't. Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh--the two demographically different zones of Northern India. Union Territory of Chandigarh, which is the capital of Punjab and Haryana states, is one of the most developed parts of India, whereas Jammu primarily represents the rural India. The study is an attempt to analyze the various changing trends in acute poisoning in these zones with the aim that it will help immensely the health policy-makers to equip health care institutions accordingly. The present study reveals a steep increase in the number of acute poisoning cases and a change in the trends of the most commonly used poisons with the passage of time. Males outnumbered females and youth formed the majority of fatalities. The main victims were unemployed youth and students, followed by agricultural and domestic workers. Despite India's predominantly rural character, the urban preponderance of deaths by poisoning may reflect the role of leading a more stressful life in urban areas.
Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton
Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…
Pooley, Amanda J; Fiddick, Laurence
To assess whether disgust, the emotion depicted on poison control "Mr. Yuk" stickers, conveys an age-appropriate message to young children. Two preliminary studies (both N = 48) were conducted with adults to assess what facial expressions of emotion they associated with child and adult violations of precautionary rules. Subsequently, 20 3-year-olds and 35 4-year-olds were tested on age-appropriate scenarios to determine what facial expressions of emotion they associate with accidental poisonings. Adults associated violations of precautionary rules, regardless of whether they involved children or adults and physical injury or accidental poisonings, with facial expressions of fear, not disgust. The study conducted with children indicated that they likewise anticipated facial expressions of fear in response to accidental poisonings. The disgust displayed on Mr. Yuk stickers does not appear to convey a valid emotional message, regardless of whether the stickers are used for preventive or educational purposes.
Ganesh Chandra Sahoo
Full Text Available Acute organophosphorous pesticide (OP poisoning kills a lot of people each year. Treatment of acute OP poisoning is of very difficult task and is a time taking event. Present day informatics methods (telemedicine, bioinformatics methods (data mining, molecular modeling, docking, cheminformatics, and nanotechnology (nanomedicine should be applied in combination or separately to combat the rise of death rate due to OP poisoning. Use of informatics method such as Java enabled camera mobiles will enable us early detection of insecticidal poisoning. Even the patients who are severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts can be diagnosed early. Telemedicine can take care for early diagnosis and early treatment. Simultaneously efforts must be taken with regard to nanotechnology to find lesser toxic compounds (use less dose of nanoparticle mediated compounds: nano-malathion as insecticides and find better efficacy of lesser dose of compounds for treatment (nano-atropine of OP poisoning. Nano-apitropine (atropine oxide may be a better choice for OP poisoning treatment as the anticholinergic agent; apitropine and hyoscyamine have exhibited higher binding affinity than atropine sulfate. Synthesis of insecticides (malathion with an antidote (atropine, apitropine in nanoscale range will prevent the lethal effect of insecticides.
Felix A Achana
Full Text Available There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i Medicines only, ii Other household products only, iii Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines, iv Poisonous plants; and v Possession of poison control centre (PCC telephone number in households with children.Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model.28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00 while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13, safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50 and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10. No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants.The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the
Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J
There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison
Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J.; Lacoursiere, D.
Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.
Ezoe, Kumiko; Nagatomi, Hideki; Imaizumi, Iwao
Food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly has been breaking out approximately ten cases per year nationwide from 2001 to 2010. Especially, it reflected the characteristics of food poisoning caused by noroviruses at a high rate. Usually we have been preventing from food poisoning by noroviruses working on existing measures such as temperature control of food materials, sanitary handlings of cooking tools and table wares, and so on. Additionally, the most effective measures to avoid secondary pollution at care facilities for the elderly is that all members at these facilities have to have a sense of crisis about food poisoning by noroviruses and managers at these facilities must take care of health control for all staff.
Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi
In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed......: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...
... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs...
... kidney transplantation may be needed. Prevent absorption of poison Stomach emptying (inducing vomiting or stomach pumping), once ... iron, or many household chemicals. Increase elimination of poison If a poison remains life threatening despite the ...
YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.
Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.
Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah
Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Asia, up to 20% of people ingesting pesticides for self-poisoning purchase the pesticide from a shop with the sole intention of self-harm. Individuals who are intoxicated with alcohol and/or non-farmers represent 72% of such high-risk individuals. We aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of vendor-based restrictions on pesticide sales for such high-risk individuals. Methods We conducted a pilot study in 14 (rural = 7, urban = 7 pesticide shops in Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka. A two-hour training program was delivered to 28 pesticide vendors; the aim of the training was to help vendors recognize and respond to customers at high risk of pesticide self-poisoning. Knowledge and attitudes of vendors towards preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning at baseline and in a three month follow-up was evaluated by questionnaire. Vendors were interviewed to explore the practice skills taught in the training and their assessment of the program. Results The scores of knowledge and attitudes of the vendors significantly increased by 23% (95% CI 15%–32%, p < 0.001 and by 16% (95% CI 9%–23%, p < 0.001 respectively in the follow-up. Fifteen (60% vendors reported refusing sell pesticides to a high-risk person (non-farmer or intoxicated person in the follow-up compared to three (12% at baseline. Vendors reported that they were aware from community feedback that they had prevented at least seven suicide attempts. On four identified occasions, vendors in urban shops had been unable to recognize the self-harming intention of customers who then ingested the pesticide. Only 2 (8% vendors were dissatisfied with the training and 23 (92% said they would recommend it to other vendors. Conclusions Our study suggests that vendor-based sales restriction in regions with high rates of self-poisoning has the potential to reduce access to pesticides for self-poisoning. A large-scale study of the effectiveness
Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009
... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care Wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth. Rinse the person's eyes and skin well if they touched the plant. Give milk to drink. Call poison control for more guidance. ...
Srisuma, Sahaphume; Pradoo, Aimon; Rittilert, Panee; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Krairojananan, Wannapa; Suchonwanich, Netnapis; Khomvilai, Sumana; Wananukul, Winai
Antidote shortage is a global problem. In Thailand, the National Antidote Project (NAP) has operated since November 2010 to manage the national antidote stockpile, educate the healthcare providers on appropriate antidote use, and evaluate antidote usage. To evaluate the effect of NAP implementation on mortality rate and antidote use in cyanide poisoning cases arising from ingestion of cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside. This is a retrospective cohort of poisoning cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. Mortality rate, antidote use, and appropriateness of antidote use (defined as correct indication, proper dosing regimen, and administration within 90 min) before and after NAP implementation were compared. Association between parameters and fatal outcomes was analyzed. A total of 343 cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion were reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center. There were 213 cases (62.1%) during NAP (Project group) and 130 cases (37.9%) pre-NAP implementation (Before group). Implementation of NAP led to increased antidote use (39.9% in Project group versus 24.6% in Before group) and a higher rate of appropriate antidote use (74.1% in Project group versus 50.0% in Before group). All 30 deaths were presented with initial severe symptoms. Cyanide chemical source and self-harm intent were associated with death (OR: 12.919, 95% CI: 4.863-39.761 and OR: 10.747, 95% CI: 3.884-28.514, respectively). No difference in overall mortality rate (13 [10.0%] deaths before versus 17 [8.0%] deaths after NAP) was found. In subgroup analysis of 80 cases with initial severe symptoms, NAP and appropriate antidote use reduced mortality (OR: 0.327, 95% CI: 0.106-0.997 and OR: 0.024, 95% CI: 0.004-0.122, respectively). In the multivariate analysis of the cases with initial severe symptoms, presence of the NAP and appropriate antidote use independently reduced the risk of
Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah
Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Lall, S B; Peshin, S S
The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and hazard management. Most of the developed and many developing countries have well established poison control centres with poisons information service, patient management facility and analytical laboratory. In India, the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) was established in February, 1995 in the Department of Pharmacology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The centre provides toxicological information and advice on the management of poisoned patients adopted to the level of the enquirer. The basis of this service are the databases on poisoning, drug reactions and also the continuous and systematic collection of data from the library. This information service is available round the clock. The PIC has the training responsibility extending to medical and other health professionals and community. The NPIC organized two successive training courses for medical professionals and para professionals at all health levels. Further, NPIC is a participant of INTOX project of IPCS/WHO, receiving regular yearly training on the use of INTOX database. Laboratory service is an essential component of a poisons control programme, providing analytical services on emergency basis to help in diagnosis and management. The NPIC is developing facilities for quick diagnosis of poisoning cases. Toxicovigilance and prevention of poisoning is another major function of PIC. The Centre has prepared manuals and leaflets on prevention and management cards on treatment of various poisonings. Thus the Centre provides a service with considerable health benefits, reducing morbidity and mortality from poisoning and gives significant financial savings to the community.
Diaz, James H
Since the 1950s, reports of severe and fatal mushroom poisonings have increased worldwide. Clinicians must consider mushroom poisoning in the evaluation of all patients who may be intoxicated by natural substances. Because information on natural exposures is often incorrect or insufficient, a new syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning is proposed to guide clinicians in making earlier diagnoses, especially in cases where only advanced critical care, including kidney or liver transplantation, may be life saving.
Stibich, A S; Yagan, M; Sharma, V; Herndon, B; Montgomery, C
Poison ivy (toxicodendron) dermatitis is the most common allergic contact dermatitis in the USA. No studies have shown an effect of washing after a short period of time for the prevention of binding of urushiol to the skin. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of three different modes of postcontact prevention using a surfactant (Dial ultra dishwashing soap), an oil-removing compound (Goop), and chemical inactivation (a commercial product Tecnu). A consented, unsponsored, volunteer experimental study on medical students from the University of Missouri School of Medicine, Kansas City. Each subject served as his/her own control, comparing four 2.5-cm exposed squares on the inner aspect of the forearm, three of which were treated and one untreated. Comparisons between the different agents were nonsignificant with P > 0.05. Each treatment, however, was significantly improved over the untreated control. Our study showed 70%, 61.8%, and 56. 4% protection with Tecnu, Goop, and Dial, respectively, when compared to the positive control, or to the possible maximum response, with a cost per ounce (in a local drug and automotive store) of $1.25, $0.07, and $0.07, respectively, for a decrease in protection that is nonsignificant.
Kubota, Satoshi; Kawai, Hiromi
In Japan, more than 20,000 people suffer from various types of food poisoning annually. In this paper, we discuss the prevention of food poisoning in hospital food service facilities from the perspective of hygiene management and organizational behavior. We inspected the kitchen environment and the meal preparation process in a hospital food service facility in Japan that had been the site of a food poisoning incident. To clarify the present state of hygiene management, interviews were conducted with both the head of the nutrition and food service section and the administrative manager. In addition, questionnaires were distributed to the food service staff to assess their level of satisfaction with the working environment. The facility had been built about 10 years previously and was well maintained. Meal preparations were performed according to the operation manual, and education and training for the food service staff were carried out daily. No problems were evident regarding hygiene management. However, concerning organizational behavior, the satisfaction level of the staff was found to be relatively low, which may have led to a reduction in their organizational commitment and a decrease in their performance. To aid in the prevention of food poisoning incidents in hospital food service facilities, it is essential not only to conduct standard hygiene management and training, but also to consider the organizational behavior of the food service staff.
[The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning].
Ren, Ainong; Ren, Siqing; Jian, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qing
To observe the prevention effects of patients with lung exudation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning in sodium bicarbonate (SB) with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection. To collect 38 patients with paraquat poisoning in hospital, after poison immediately with gastric lavage of 1.5% SB, and atomization inhalation of 5% SB 10~15 ml twice daily and intravenous injection of 5% SB twice a day, continuous application of 5~7 days. and the HRCT score and liver and kidney function was performed on patients with lung after treatment. And the extraction of 38 SB patients with previously untreated with SB for comparison. Lung HRCT average score in 72 h, 7 d, 30 d on patients with paraquat poisoning untreated with SB reached 2.87, 3.12, 2.13, HRCT display shows that the appearance of the wear glass shadow, grid shadow, honeycomb shadow, and other signs of fibrosis. Average HRCT reached 1.95, 2.20, 1.67 on patients treated with SB,signs of lung exudation and fibrosis was significantly reduced,compare two groups,there was statistically significance (Pparaquat poisoning with triple application of SB, the level of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) significantly decreased, the difference is statistically significant (Pparaquat poisoning,and protective effect on the function of liver and kidney is obvious, suggesting that the method for treatment of paraquat poisoning, prevention of paraquat lung and improve survival rate has the exact effect.
Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric
A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…
Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H; King, Michael; Bell, Jeneita; Yip, Fuyuen Y
Unintentional, non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning in the United States. A comprehensive national CO poisoning surveillance framework is needed to obtain accurate estimates of CO poisoning burden and guide prevention efforts. This article describes the current national CO poisoning surveillance framework and reports the most recent national estimates. We analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death file, emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) data from HBOT facilities, exposure data from the National Poison Data System, and CO alarm prevalence data from the American Housing Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. In the United States, 2,631 UNFR CO deaths occurred from 1999 to 2004, an average of 439 deaths annually. In 2007, there were 21,304 (71 per one million population) ED visits and 2,302 (eight per one million population) hospitalizations for confirmed cases of CO poisoning. In 2009, 552 patients received HBOT, and from 2000 to 2009, 68,316 UNFR CO exposures were reported to poison centers. Most nonfatal poisonings were among children (65 years of age). More poisonings occurred during winter months and in the Midwest and Northeast. UNFR CO poisoning poses a significant public health burden. Systematic evaluation of data sources coupled with modification and expansion of the surveillance framework might assist in developing effective prevention strategies.
Vega-Gonz¨¢lez Luis Roberto
All over the world there is a huge complex problem caused by the sting of poisonous animals. In many countries all around the orb there are some animal species hazardous for human beings. A case from a Mexican University R&D institute- Private firm innovation project about scorpion¡¯s antivenins health area is presented. The scientific-technological allied participant organizations performed a long life cycle innovation project, which includes research and development, knowledge transference,...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews and a network meta-analysis show home safety education with or without the provision of safety equipment is effective in promoting poison prevention behaviours in households with children. This paper compares the cost-effectiveness of home safety interventions to promote poison prevention practices. Methods A probabilistic decision-analytic model simulates healthcare costs and benefits for a hypothetical cohort of under 5 year olds. The model compares the cost-effectiveness of home safety education, home safety inspections, provision of free or low cost safety equipment and fitting of equipment. Analyses are conducted from a UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective and expressed in 2012 prices. Results Education without safety inspection, provision or fitting of equipment was the most cost-effective strategy for promoting safe storage of medicines with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £2888 (95 % credible interval (CrI £1990–£5774 per poison case avoided or £41,330 (95%CrI £20,007–£91,534 per QALY gained compared with usual care. Compared to usual care, home safety interventions were not cost-effective in promoting safe storage of other household products. Conclusion Education offers better value for money than more intensive but expensive strategies for preventing medicinal poisonings, but is only likely to be cost-effective at £30,000 per QALY gained for families in disadvantaged areas and for those with more than one child. There was considerable uncertainty in cost-effectiveness estimates due to paucity of evidence on model parameters. Policy makers should consider both costs and effectiveness of competing interventions to ensure efficient use of resources.
Diaz, James H
To assess the evolving global epidemiology of mushroom poisoning and to identify new and emerging mushroom poisonings and their treatments, a descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on mushroom poisoning was conducted. Data sources from observation studies conducted over the period 1959-2002 and describing 28,018 mushroom poisonings since 1951 were collected from case reports, case series, regional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, and laboratory studies of mushroom poisonings and the toxicokinetics of mycotoxins. Studies included in the review were selected by a MEDLINE search, 1966-2004, an Ovid OLDMEDLINE search, 1951-1965, and a medical library search for sources published before 1951. To better guide clinicians in establishing diagnoses and implementing therapies, despite confusing ingestion histories, data were extracted to permit an expanded syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning based on presentation timing and target organ systemic toxicity. The final 14 major syndromes of mushroom poisoning were stratified first by presentation timing and then by target organ systemic toxicity and included early (syndromes (> or =1 day). There were eight early syndromes (four neurotoxic, two gastrointestinal, two allergic); three late syndromes (hepatotoxic, accelerated nephrotoxic, erythromelalgia); and three delayed syndromes (delayed nephrotoxic, delayed neurotoxic, rhabdomyolysis). Four new mushroom poisoning syndromes were classified including accelerated nephrotoxicity (Amanita proxima, Amanita smithiana), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre, Russula subnigricans), erythromelalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens, Clitocybe acromelalgia), and delayed neurotoxicity (Hapalopilus rutilans). In addition, data sources were stratified by three chronological time periods with >1,000 confirmed mushroom ingestions reported and tested for any statistically significant secular trends in case fatalities from mushroom ingestions over the
... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...
Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David E; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan
Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the US, we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization and other measures). The benefit per resident child from improved lifetime earnings alone is $21,195 in pre-1940 housing and $8685 in 1940-59 housing (in 2005 dollars). Annual energy savings are $130-486 per housing unit, with or without young resident children, with an associated increase in housing market value of $5900-14,300 per housing unit, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Net benefits are $4490-5,629 for each housing unit built before 1940, and $491-1629 for each unit built from 1940-1959, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Lead-safe window replacement in all pre-1960 US housing would yield net benefits of at least $67 billion, which does not include many other benefits. These other benefits, which are shown in this paper, include avoided Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other medical costs of childhood lead exposure, avoided special education, and reduced crime and juvenile delinquency in later life. In addition, such a window replacement effort would reduce peak demand for electricity, carbon emissions from power plants, and associated long-term costs of climate change.
The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs
Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric
A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...
... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...
Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter
BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophospha...
Peiris-John, Roshini; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Reddy, Ravi Krishnan; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi N
This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of poisoning fatalities and hospital admissions among indigenous Fijians and Indians in Viti Levu, Fiji. Individuals with a mechanism of injury classified as poisoning were identified using the Fiji injury surveillance in hospitals system, a population-based registry established for 12 months in Viti Levu, and analysed using population-based denominators. The mean annual rates of fatalities and hospitalisations were 2.3 and 26.0 per 100 000, respectively. Over two-thirds of poisonings occurred among people of Indian ethnicity. Most intentional poisoning admissions occurred among women (58.3%) and in 15–29-year-old individuals (73.8%). Unintentional poisoning admission rates were highest among Indian boys aged 0–14 years. While over 75% of events occurred at home, the substances involved were not systematically identified. The findings indicate the need for a strategy that addresses the differing contexts across age group, gender and ethnicity, and a lead agency responsible for implementing and monitoring its effectiveness. PMID:23353079
Shadnia, S; Sasanian, G; Allami, P; Hosseini, A; Ranjbar, A; Amini-Shirazi, N; Abdollahi, M
The objective of this study was to survey aluminum phosphide (AIP) poisoning in a referral poisoning hospital in Tehran servicing an estimation of 10,000,000 populations. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized during a period of 7 years from January 2000 to January 2007 were collected and analyzed according to gender, age, cause of intoxication, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and onset of treatment, signs and symptoms of intoxication at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome. During the studied years, 471 patients were admitted to the hospital with AIP poisoning; 50% of them were men. The overall case fatality ratio was 31%. The mean age was 27.1 years, and most of the patients were between 20 and 40 years old. Self-poisoning was observed in 93% of cases. The average ingested dose was 5.1 g, and most of the patients (73%) consumed 1-3 tablets of AIP. A wide range of symptoms and signs was seen on admission, but the most common one was cardiovascular manifestations (78.12%). The majority (65%) of patients were from Tehran. Poisoning in spring and winter (34% and 24%, respectively) was more common than other seasons. Gastric decontamination with potassium permanganate, and administration of calcium gluconate, magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, and charcoal were considered for most of the patients. Mean arterial blood pH was 7.23 and bicarbonate concentration was 12.7 mEq/L. One-hundred percent of patients with blood pH or= 7.35 survived. Electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities were noted in 65.6% of cases. There was a significant difference between survival and non-survival according to pH, HCO(3) concentration, and EKG abnormality. Even without an increase in resources, there appears to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the AIP tablets usage. Arterial blood pH seems to be a prognostic factor for the outcome of AIP-poisoned
Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I
The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored. 38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy. The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J
, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents....... A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level...
Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chukanov, V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)] [and others
The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.
Tak, Casey R; Malheiro, Marty C; Bennett, Heather K W; Crouch, Barbara I
The purpose of this study is to determine the economic value of the Utah Poison Control Center (UPCC) by examining its contribution to the reduction of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and associated charges across multiple years. A multi-year (2009-2014) analysis of cross-sectional data was performed. Callers were asked what they would do for a poison emergency if the UPCC was not available. Healthcare charges for ED visits averted were calculated according to insurance status using charges obtained from a statewide database. Of the 10,656 survey attempts, 5018 were completed. Over 30,000 cases were managed on-site each year. Using the proportion of callers who noted they would call 911, visit an ED, or call a physician's office, between 20.0 and 24.2 thousand ED visits were potentially prevented each year of the survey. Between $16.6 and $24.4 million dollars in unnecessary healthcare charges were potentially averted annually. Compared to the cost of operation, the service UPCC provides demonstrates economic value by reducing ED visits and associated charges. As the majority of patients have private insurance, the largest benefit falls to private payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krenzelok, Edward P; Klick, Ross N; Burke, Thomas V; Mrvos, Rita
The distinctive yellow Lance Armstrong 'Live Strong' silicon wristbands, which support cancer research, have reached iconic status and spawned substantial interest from other organizations seeking to capitalize on the same awareness opportunity. To promote the national toll-free Poison Help telephone number, a regional poison information center developed and introduced a Poison Help wristband. The RPIC worked with a marketing firm to design the Poison Help wristband, conduct a feasibility analysis to determine the financial viability of the project and develop a plan to market and sell the wristbands. The wristbands were a unique color, contained the words Poison Help and the national toll-free telephone number. Approximately 50,000 wristbands were distributed in the first four months. By developing a practical application for a popular item, the RPIC increased poison center awareness and, as a secondary benefit, generated revenue to support other poison prevention education endeavors.
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
Haller, Christine; Kearney, Tom; Bent, Stephen; Ko, Richard; Benowitz, Neal; Olson, Kent
The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations. We collaborated with the FDA Center for Food Safety and Nutrition (CFSAN) to conduct a 1-year prospective surveillance study of dietary supplement-related poison control center calls in 2006. Prompt follow-up of symptomatic cases, laboratory analysis of implicated dietary supplements, and causality assessment by a case review expert panel were performed. Of 275 dietary supplements calls, 41% involved symptomatic exposures; and two-thirds were rated as probably or possibly related to supplement use. Eight adverse events required hospital admission. Sympathomimetic toxicity was most common, with caffeine products accounting for 47%, and yohimbe products accounting for 18% of supplement-related symptomatic cases. Suspected drug-herb interactions occurred in 6 cases, including yohimbe co-ingested with buproprion (1) and methamphetamine (3), and additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs taken with fish oils (1) and ginkgo (1). Laboratory analysis identified a pharmacologically active substance in 4 cases; supplement toxicity was ruled unlikely when analytical testing was negative in 5 cases. Most supplement-related adverse events were minor. Clinically significant toxic effects were most frequently reported with caffeine and yohimbe-containing products. Active surveillance of poison control center reports of dietary supplement adverse events enables rapid detection of potentially harmful products, which may facilitate regulatory oversight.
Slaven, Janine; Kisely, Stephen
Suicide has been a major community concern in Esperance, a geographically isolated port on the south coast of Western Australia. To evaluate the effect of three evidence-based initiatives for the primary prevention of suicide: (i) providing suicide awareness sessions for staff members in health, education and social services; (ii) limiting the sale of over the counter analgesics (aspirin and paracetamol) to packets containing less than the minimum lethal dose; and (iii) implementing Commonwealth media guidelines in the reporting of suicides by media. Changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, comfort and use, before and after each intervention were assessed using standardized instruments and pro forma derived from previous work, such as the Youth Suicide Prevention Training Manual and Suicide Intervention Beliefs Scale. Percentage changes in the number of retail outlets selling over the counter analgesics to less than potentially lethal quantities (less than 8 g of paracetamol or aspirin) were also measured. Media representatives were interviewed to gain their perceptions of Commonwealth Guidelines for the reporting of suicide, and encouraged to consult the project team before reporting suicide related issues. The baseline survey illustrated that mental health staff and general practitioners were more aware of suicide issues, risk factors for suicide and awareness of professional and ethical responses than staff from other services, and were more willing to raise the issue with a person at risk. Thirty-three subjects participated in suicide awareness training of whom 21 (66%) returned questionnaires. There were significant increases in awareness of suicide-related issues and risk factors, as well as reported levels of knowledge of professional and ethical responses and comfort, competence and confidence levels when assisting a person at risk. Only three media representatives were aware of the Commonwealth Health Department Guidelines for reporting suicide and only
Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Buckley, Nicholas A; Manuweera, Gamini; Fernando, Ravindra; Dawson, Andrew H; McDuie-Ra, Duncan
Background Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem and in 1995 the country had one of the highest rates of suicide worldwide. Since then reductions in overall suicide rates have been largely attributed to efforts to regulate a range of pesticides. The evolution, context, events and implementation of the key policy decisions around regulation are examined. Methods This study was undertaken as part of a broader analysis of policy in two parts—an explanatory case study and stakeholder analysis. This article describes the explanatory case study that included an historical narrative and in-depth interviews. Results A timeline and chronology of policy actions and influence were derived from interview and document data. Fourteen key informants were interviewed and four distinct policy phases were identified. The early stages of pesticide regulation were dominated by political and economic considerations and strongly influenced by external factors. The second phase was marked by a period of local institution building, the engagement of local stakeholders, and expanded links between health and agriculture. During the third phase the problem of self-poisoning dominated the policy agenda and closer links between stakeholders, evidence and policymaking developed. The fourth and most recent phase was characterized by strong local capacity for policymaking, informed by evidence, developed in collaboration with a powerful network of stakeholders, including international researchers. Conclusions The policy response to extremely high rates of suicide from intentional poisoning with pesticides shows a unique and successful example of policymaking to prevent suicide. It also highlights policy action taking place ‘under the radar’, thus avoiding policy inertia often associated with reforms in lower and middle income countries. PMID:24362640
In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...
... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...
Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...
In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning. Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 10/2/2008.
... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...
Ghoochani Khorasani, Ahmad; Shadnia, Shahin; Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Rahimi, Mitra; Aghabiklooei, Abbas
Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n = 43) and (2) control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n = 48). Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5%) were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9%) patients in the control group (P = 0.45). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10%) and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%). The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P = 0.68). Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.
Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani
Full Text Available Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1 subglottic secretion drainage (SSD group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n=43 and (2 control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n=48. Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5% were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8% patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9% patients in the control group (P=0.45. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10% and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%. The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P=0.68. Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.
The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.
Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation. PMID:22943579
Kellerman, T S
South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.
... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... whitish-green fruits hang in loose clusters. Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...
Harada, Seiya; Furukawa, Masato; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Yahiro, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Jiro; Saito, Morihiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Irikura, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko
More than 27 outbreaks per year of food poisoning caused by consuming horse meat were reported in Kumamoto Prefecture (including Kumamoto City) from January 2009 to September 2011. It was found that the causative agent of the outbreaks was a protein with a molecular weight of 15 kDa that had originated from bradyzoites of Sarcocystis fayeri parasitizing the horse meat. Rabit ileal loop tests showed that pepsin treatment of homogenates of frozen horse meat containing the cysts of S. fayeri induced loss of toxicity, presumably by digestion of the proteinous causative agent(s). Slices of horse meat containing the cysts were frozen at below -20°C for various periods. The cysts were collected after thawing the slices, then treated in an artificial stomach juice containing pepsin. The bradyzoites of the cysts kept at -20°C for 48 hr or more completely disappeared. Simultaneously, the 15 kDa protein also disappeared in the frozen cysts. After notifying the public and recommending freezing treatment of horse meat, no subsequent cases of food poisoning were reported. This indicates that freezing of horse meat is effective to prevent the occurrence of food poisoning caused by consuming raw horse meat containing S. fayeri.
... public education about poison prevention and clinical toxicology training for many different healthcare... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and education... currently provide poison center services to the citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...
... this page: About CDC.gov . Home & Recreational Safety Older Adult Falls Important Facts about Falls Costs of Falls Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Older Adult Falls Programs Compendium of Effective Fall Interventions, 3rd Edition ...
... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... using containers, cookware, or tableware to store or cook foods or liquids that are not shown to ...
... It includes tips about what foods to avoid, eating out, and traveling. TIPS FOR COOKING OR PREPARING FOOD: ... and herbs with cold running water. TIPS FOR EATING OUT SAFELY: Ask if all fruit juices have been ...
McBride, Joanna; Richardson, Annette
Pressure ulcer prevention is an important safety issue, often underrated and an extremely painful event harming patients. Critically ill patients are one of the highest risk groups in hospital. The impact of pressure ulcers are wide ranging, and they can result in increased critical care and the hospital length of stay, significant interference with functional recovery and rehabilitation and increase cost. This quality improvement project had four aims: (1) to establish a critical care network pressure ulcer prevention group; (2) to establish baseline pressure ulcer prevention practices; (3) to measure, compare and monitor pressure ulcers prevalence; (4) to develop network pressure ulcer prevention standards. The approach used to improve quality included strong critical care nursing leadership to develop a cross-organisational pressure ulcer prevention group and a benchmarking exercise of current practices across a well-established critical care Network in the North of England. The National Safety Thermometer tool was used to measure pressure ulcer prevalence in 23 critical care units, and best available evidence, local consensus and another Critical Care Networks' bundle of interventions were used to develop a local pressure ulcer prevention standards document. The aims of the quality improvement project were achieved. This project was driven by successful leadership and had an agreed common goal. The National Safety Thermometer tool was an innovative approach to measure and compare pressure ulcer prevalence rates at a regional level. A limitation was the exclusion of moisture lesions. The project showed excellent engagement and collaborate working in the quest to prevent pressure ulcers from many critical care nurses with the North of England Critical Care Network. A concise set of Network standards was developed for use in conjunction with local guidelines to enhance pressure ulcer prevention. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis
Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D
The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.
... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...
Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.
The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507
This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning. Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/6/2015.
... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...
... pyrethrins. These chemicals were originally isolated from chrysanthemum flowers and are generally not harmful. However, they can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...
... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...
Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Davison K, Frank BL. Ethnobotany: ...
The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If ... little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce or 30 milliliters) can kill a ...
... you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can ... under the following brand names: Eyesine Geneye Murine Tears Plus Opti-Clear ...
Sun, Zhihao; Wang, Ruofan; Nikiforov, Alexey Y.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Basu, Soumendra N.
Cr-poisoning of the cathodes due to the presence of metallic interconnects is detrimental to the performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Applying a protective coating on the interconnect is an effective solution to preventing Cr-poisoning. In this study, the application of a protective CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating is explored. Dense coatings are deposited on both metallic flat plates and meshes by electrophoretic deposition followed by thermal densification steps. The coating is found to be a mixture of Mn3O4 and cubic spinel phases at room temperature but is a pure cubic spinel phase between 750 °C and 850 °C. A reaction layer between the Cr2O3 scale at the coating/interconnect interface and CuMn1.8O4 coating is found to be a mixture of (Cu,Mn,Cr)3-xO4 cubic spinel phases with Cr-rich precipitates believed to be Cr2O3, indicating that the coating layer acts as a Cr getter. Solubility experiments show that 1 mol of the CuMn1.8O4 phase can getter at least 1.83 mol of Cr2O3 at 800 °C. Electrochemical testing of cells in the presence of coated interconnects show that the CuMn1.8O4 coating getters Cr effectively for 12 days at 800 °C, leading to no performance loss of the cell due to Cr-poisoning.
Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.
The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.
Junghanss, T; Bodio, M
Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.
Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle
There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).
Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz
Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.
... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...
... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...
Emine Dibek Misirlioglu
Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. Best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 281-284
Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, McGuigan ...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.
Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry
Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.
Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando
The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.
Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.
Pau, P W
A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.
... ingredient can be found in: Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy , poison oak, ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...
Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.
... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)
Background: Childhood poisoning is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric subpopulation. There is the continuous need to describe the pattern of childhood poisoning and to create public awareness on the common agents of poison in this environment. Objectives: To determine the ...
Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y
Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital
... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...
Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A
Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.
One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…
Gladman, Aaron C
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.
Montserrat Amigó Tadín
Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...
This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning. Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/6/2015.
Warrell, David A
This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo
The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri
Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.
Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani; Benabdallah, Ghita
Detecting medication errors needs collaboration between various organizations, such as patient safety institutions, pharmacovigilance centres, and poison control centres. In order to evaluate the input of pharmacovigilance centres and poison control centres in detecting and evaluating medication errors a pilot project was initiated by the World Alliance for Patient Safety in collaboration with the Uppsala Monitoring Centre; the Moroccan pharmacovigilance centre acted as project coordinator. As part of this project, a questionnaire on detecting medication errors was circulated to pharmacovigilance centres and poison control centres around the world, in order to assess their ability to detect and analyse medication errors. The results showed that through their databases pharmacovigilance centres can detect, identify, analyse, and classify medication errors and carry out root cause analysis, which is an important tool in preventing medication errors. The duties of pharmacovigilance centres in preventing medication errors include informing health-care professionals about the importance of reporting such errors and creating a culture of patient safety. Pharmacovigilance centres aim to prevent medication errors in collaboration with poison control centres. Such collaboration allows improved detection and improved preventive strategies. In addition, collaboration with regulatory authorities is important in finalizing decisions. Collaboration between pharmacovigilance centres and poison control centres should be strengthened and bridges need to be built linking pharmacovigilance centres, poison control centres, and organizations dedicated to patient safety, in order to avoid duplication of workload. PMID:19594539
Forrester, M B
There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blenman, Juliet; Marks-Maran, Di
Prevention of pressure ulcers is one of the greatest healthcare challenges in terms of reducing patient harm. The literature shows that although numerous reports and policy documents have been published, pressure ulcer prevention remains an ongoing challenge. A number of innovations have been published offering practising nurses and managers ideas for raising awareness of skin care and preventing pressure ulcers. The majority of these have focused on patients in hospital settings with very little in the literature related to care-home and community initiatives. This article reports on an innovative approach to education for pressure ulcer prevention through collaboration between patients, carers and health and social care professionals.
Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)
Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.
Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A
Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanomaterials and nanocomposites offer great potential for improvement in many applications. One such NASA application is the prevention of microcracking as well as...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...
Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...
Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.
... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral ... the person milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. Before Calling Emergency The following information ...
... harmful to the brain and liver. It often…Teenage Pregnancy and Birth Control AccessRead Article >>Kids and TeensTeenage Pregnancy and Birth Control AccessMany teenage pregnancies are unplanned and can be prevented. Learn more ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in...
Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen
Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...
Human poisoning with chemicals, including drugs, is emotive because of the real possibility that it often culminates in death. In acute poisoning, clinical symptoms such as vomiting, delirium, diarrhoea, convulsions, et cetera, are very dramatic, yet the onlookers with no medical background can only watch helplessly as the ...
Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.
Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael
Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate
Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)
"The objective [of this project] was to provide children, parents and school personnel with tobacco prevention education and skill training in order for these groups of individuals to create a smoke-free school community...
Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister
Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and
Dharmani, Chandrabhan; Jaga, Kushik
Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major health issue in developing countries. Organophosphate insecticides inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) enzymatic activity, thereby eliciting cholinergic signs and symptoms. Victims of OP poisoning require immediate hospital emergency room (ER) treatment to prevent a fatal outcome. We present an epidemiologic review of acute OP poisoning in hospital ER patients. Areas of interest include countries with acute OP poisoning, nature of exposure, gender and age of patients, clinical cholinergic features, ChE activity, and health outcome, including recovery rate, case fatality rate, and post-ER complications. The review comprises case reports, hospital surveys, and clinical studies on acute OP poisoning. More studies were conducted in developed than in developing countries. Suicidal and occupational OP poisoning in agricultural workers was prevalent in developing countries, whereas accidental OP poisoning was prevalent in developed countries. Healthcare workers in the ER were also affected by OP poisoning. Both males and females were affected. Children accounted for 35% of the OP-poisoned victims. Patients presented with a classic cholinergic syndrome and serum ChE depresssion, with a recovery rate above 90%. Neurologic impairment was the most frequent complication. Preventing environmental OP exposure and increasing the awareness of pesticide toxicity would reduce acute OP poisoning and protect human health.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are jointly undertaking six pilot projects in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean to develop innovative approaches for AIDS education in schools, with the long-term objective of integrating successful educational strategies into school curricula. The projects are being carried out through workshops for the production of educative materials and teacher training workshops. The overall goal is to help young people of school age behave responsibly, giving rightful importance to self-esteem and mutual respect. In line with the program's objective of focusing on technical leadership and support to help countries plan and implement effective AIDS control, plans are underway to organize regional training courses for decision makers on AIDS education in school. full text
Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.
The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.
Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye
To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.
Hampson, Neil B
Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios
The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.
Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan
PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health
Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.
Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.
Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert
Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...
Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.
The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective
Pradeep K. Mishra
Full Text Available Aim of the study is to find out demographic profile, clinical characteristics and analysis of poison in clinical set up. The study carried out in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Total 75 cases of poisoning were studied for demographic profile, vitals (BP, pulse, heart rate, pupils, etc., clinical features (such as vomiting, salivation, consciousness, etc., type of poison and its analysis. Results : Poisoning was more common in cases between 15 and 25 years of age, in males than in females and in Hindu religion. Poisoning cases were predominantly from rural areas and in married people. Majority of cases were discharged after proper treatment and counseling. Altered vitals and clinical features were found in most of the cases. Organophosphate and aluminum phosphide compound were evaluated in most of the cases. Conclusions : Preventive measures should be applied through educating people, proper counseling, promoting poison information centers, and introducing separate toxicological units in hospitals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of
Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A
Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local
Conclusion: Deliberate self-harm and poisoning with opioids especially methadone showed a high prevalence in elderly poisoned patients in Hamadan, Iran. It seems that drug trafficking control, addiction rehabilitation therapies and suicide prevention programs for elderly can be helpful in poisoning reduction in this age group in this part of the country.
Lisa M. Chauveron
Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.
Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven
Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program
Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A
Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...
Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.
... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...
HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...
... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...
Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.
A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.
Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.
Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M
Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Williams, Todd C
... vii American Management Association www.amanet.orgviii Contents Creating the Assignment's Statement of Work Defining the Responsibilities by Phase in the SOW Establishing the Recovery Manager's Authority Accepting the Role as a Recovery Manager Creating an Outline of the Recovery Chapter Takeaway 24 25 28 28 29 30 PART II Auditing the Project: Unde...
Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde
Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08; 0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, like-ability 95.6% versus 77.8%. Conclusion: We cannot support...
Lloyd, Jennifer K.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.
This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury. Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 12/10/2008.
Konstantin M. Brusin
Full Text Available Background: Toxic alcohol poisonings are responsible for high mortality and morbidity in Russia. This study was aimed to evaluate the trends of harmful ethanol (EtOH drinking as well as methanol (MeOH, isopropanol (IPA and ethylene glycol (EG poisonings in the Middle Urals region of Russia. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of patients poisoned with MeOH, IPA and EG as well as those with harmful heavy EtOH drinking admitted to Regional Poison Treatment Center in Yekaterinburg during the period of 2002 to 2014 were reviewed. Results: During this 13-year period, 17482 patients with acute poisoning (due to various toxic agents were admitted, which 2244 of them (12.8% were due to alcohol poisoning. Of all patients with acute poisoning, 502 cases died which 61 of them (12.2% were due to alcohol poisoning. Most of the alcohol poisoned patients were men (1658, 73.9%. The male proportion of EG poisoned patients was higher than poisoned patients with other types of alcohol. Harmful EtOH drinking constituted the majority of alcohol poisoning cases (2076, 92.5%. Patients with EG poisoning were relatively older while patients with heavy EtOH intake were significantly younger (P < 0.001. The highest mortality rate (35.9% was seen in patients with EG poisoning. During this period, heavy EtOH drinking had a slight increasing trend and MeOH poisoning had a sharp increasing trend. On the other hand, IPA poisoning had a constant trend and the trend of EG poisoning was decreasing. The majority of MeOH and IPA poisonings were due to ingestion of surrogate alcohols. Conclusion: Particular attention of health authorities should be directed towards alcohol drinking prevention measures as well as production and availability of surrogate alcohols in the community.
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim... ``Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting...-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057, Panel E, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of... Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057...
..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students, Initial Review In accordance... Populations & SIP 10-035, Impact of High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High...
The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)
Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.
Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718
Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C
The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa
'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.
Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery
Klee, H.; Podar, M.
The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project
Chen, Ling; Xu, Huilan
To determine the application of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model in food poisoning prediction in Hunan Province, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of food poisoning. We collected the number of food poisoning from January 2003 to December 2009 in Hunan Province for ARIMA model fitting, and used food poisoning data of 2010 to verify the effect of model prediction. We predicted the number of food poisoning in 2011. ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,1)12 better fit the trends of the poisoning number in previous time periods and series, with prediction fitting error of 9.59%. The number of food poisoning in Hunan Province in 2011 was predicted to be 834. ARIMA model can better fit the number of food poisoning in the short term trends and series. If used for long-term forecasts.
Birsen BILGEN SIVRI
Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate mothers’ level of knowledge regarding poisoning, to plan training for issues with an identified lack of knowledge, to collect required data regarding protection and approach issues on poisoning cases which may occur in children for various reasons. Methods: This descriptive study was performed after obtaining permission from the County Health Department and involved mothers who applied to Family Health Centers No. 1-7 between April 1st and May 31st 2012, and who agreed to participate in the study (n=290. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: “Personal Information Form,” “House Poisoning Evaluation Form” and “Home Poisoning Prevention Knowledge Level Form.” Results: Participant ages were between 16 and 50 years and the mean age was 33.09±7.10 years. The number of children ranged from 1 to 6, and 203 people had seven children under the age of six. 37.6% of the mothers were primary school graduates, while 74.5% were housewives. There was a significant relationship between the knowledge score of the mothers on poisoning and education, career, neighborhood, and social security (p<0.05. Conclusions: Childhood poisoning is the most common cause of admission to the hospital. Protective precautions such as family education, storage of medication out of reach of children and use of secure lids are thought to be important. Key words: First aid, level of knowledge, mother-child, nurses, poisoning
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. Methods The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. Results During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349 and adolescent age group (1269. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130, leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13% was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%. And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896 and fall (811, while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483 but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%. Conclusions This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.
Yimaer, Aziguli; Chen, Guangdi; Zhang, Meibian; Zhou, Lifang; Fang, Xinglin; Jiang, Wei
Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349) and adolescent age group (1269). Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130), leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13%) was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%). And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896) and fall (811), while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483) but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%). This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...
... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...
Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...
... symptoms will be followed soon after by strange sensations that may include numbness or tingling in your mouth, headache, dizziness, and hot and cold temperature reversal. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: This is a ...
Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...
Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...
... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...
Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J
In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.
... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...
... and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from the shoreline or hunting Cable ... wash any other contaminated items — such as outdoor gear, garden tools, jewelry, shoes and even shoelaces — as ...
Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...
Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric
Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.
McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M
Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...
Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C
On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective
Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit
Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.
Martínez Parra, Pedro P.
The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...
Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John
Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
The topical report describes the irradiation program developed to investigate different burnable poison rod material and designs. The purpose of the report is to present (1) technical support for the irradiation of several test burnable poison rod designs that have not been previously reviewed, and (2) describe the parameters that will be employed in the surveillance program for Combustion Engineering's (CE) standard burnable poison rod for 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. The test burnable poison rods will be placed in a CE reactor using 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, the first such reactor is Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2. The irradiation program has four phases. Phase I involves the irradiation of 48 standard burnable poison rods which (1) will be extensively precharacterized prior to irradiation and (2) will undergo interim performance evaluation and detailed post-irradiation examination. Phase II, III, and IV involve irradiation and performance evaluation of a small number of burnable poison rods of different proprietary designs. The report discusses the materials to be used in each phase, the methods of fabricating the rods, and the rods expected behavior in a reactor
Williams, C L; Perry, C L; Dudovitz, B; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Anstine, P S; Komro, K A; Toomey, T L
Project Northland is designed to prevent alcohol use among young adolescents. The project is ongoing in 24 school districts, randomly assigned to intervention or reference conditions. Multiple interventions begin with sixth graders and continue through eighth grade. The reference districts offer their standard health curricula. Evaluation consists of school surveys with the cohort (N = 2201) and telephone surveys of half their parents. This article describes the sixth-grade home-based intervention, the Slick Tracy Home Team. Findings of broad-based participation across sex, race, and risk status were documented, as well as some increases in knowledge and family communication about alcohol use.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine and classify the various types of poisoning deaths as seen at Andhra Medical College Mortuary, Visakhapatnam city. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study of all the deaths due to poisoning seen in the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam City over a 15 year period (January 2001‐December 2015 as recorded in the autopsy registers and postmortem reports of the department. RESULTS Poisoning is one of the commonest methods of committing suicide especially in developing countries like India. A total of 22475 autopsies were done during the period. Two thousand seventy four cases representing 9.23% of all bodies received by the mortuary were deaths due to poisoning. Organophosphate compounds were the most commonly 78.98% abused substance. The common motive of poisoning was suicidal 93.43%with male to female ratio 6.69:1.Peak incidence was observed in the age group 21-40 years. Type of poison consumed, socioeconomic status and place of household are also ascertained. CONCLUSION This study shows the pattern of poisoning deaths in Visakhapatnam and this preliminary data will provide a baseline for future research and help in formulating policies to prevent deaths due to poisoning.
The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon
Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika
Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.
Raju Prasad Shakya
Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning with various substances is a major public health problem and a reason for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the globe. It is one of the most common presentation in an emergency department. This study was conducted to determine the sociodemographic, poisoning types, and mode of poisoning in cases attending a tertiary hospital of Western Nepal. Methods: A retrospective observational study of two years was conducted from July 2014 to June 2016. Demography details, name of poisonous substance, and reasons for poisoning were reviewed and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 65 cases of poisoning were recorded. The occurrence was more common in female (n=44, 67.7% than in male (n=21, 32.3% with a F:M ratio of 2.1:1. Poisoning was most common in the age group of 11-20 years (32.3%. Most of the cases were students (37% followed by farmers (26%. The most commonly abused poisoning substance were organophosphorous compounds, zinc-phosphate, and kerosene in adults, adolescents, and children respectively. Oral route was the most common (99% route of administration. Suicidal attempt, as a mode of poisoning, accounted for 70.8% of total poisoning cases. Conclusion: Female and young people are at greater risk of acute poisoning. Insecticide was the most common agent and self administer poisoning was the most common mode of poisoning. The occurrence of poisoning and its morbidity and mortality can be reduced by developing and implementation of effective prevention strategies like restricting easy poison sales, establishing drug and poison information centers, and community awareness programs.
Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael
Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.
Benois, Alain; Petitjeans, Fabrice; Raynaud, Laurent; Dardare, Eric; Sergent, Hervé
We report a prospective and descriptive study about childhood acute poisoning with kerosene in Djibouti. Acute poisoning is a common and stable occurrence in low socioeconomic groups in Africa, where negligence is the main cause of poisoning. The respiratory system was the main target, with 41% of patients having pneumonia, which may become life-threatening, but with low mortality rate. Asymptomatic patients (35%) can be discharged, while those with pulmonary or neurological signs must be admitted for observation and supportive treatment based on oxygen administration. Our study suggests management and provides a discussion for therapeutic options and emphasizes the importance of prevention.
Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...
Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D
BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...
For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...
Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S
The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....
Imbert, J C; Essaïd el Feydi, A; Kadiri, A
Different diseases as viral or bacterian gastro-enteritis, Tiphoid, viral hepatitis can come from shellfishes. Less known is the shellfish poisoning although recent outbreaks took place in Spain, France, England, Morocco. Toxic poisoning is caused by a poison produced by dinoflagelates of plankton which get developped in shells and make them dangerous, even cooked, to be eaten. A respiratory failure can result from this neurotropic poison.
Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T
BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...
Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek
We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.
Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños
Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.
Full Text Available Background: In Iran, methadone has been used for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT as well as analgesic treatment in pain clinics. Recently, there are some reports regarding accidental and intentional methadone poisonings and deaths. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of methadone poisonings and deaths during a 10-year period in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study over 2000 to 2010. Patients with a documented methadone poisoning who were admitted in Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center in Tehran, Iran were identified and included in the study. The data including patients’ age, gender, ingested dose, co-ingestants, intention of ingestion and outcome were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: During the study period, 1426 cases of methadone poisoning were recorded, of which, 1041 cases (73% were men. Thirty-six cases (2.5% died. Mean age of the patients was 29.9 ± 17 years. In 476 cases, the intention of poisoning could not be determined, and in the remaining, the intention was misuse (n = 273, 28.7%, suicide (n = 254, 26.7%, accidental (n = 245, 25.8% and abuse (n = 178, 18.8%. Mean of the ingested dose of methadone was 120.6 ± 306.8 mg. The incidence of acute methadone poisoning per one million population of Tehran was 0.43 in 2000 that rose to 37.62 in 2010. Conclusion: The results indicate that methadone poisoning and deaths have increased in Tehran. MMT clinics should be strictly run according to the national guideline to prevent methadone poisoning. With regard to high frequency of poly-drug use in methadone poisoning, it seems important to warn health care providers against prescription of other drugs with methadone.
Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A
This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina
Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195
Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina
The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.
Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y
We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.
MIRZAKARIMOVA MALOKHAT ABDUVAKHIDOVNA
The direction of “biological prevention” in the field of hygiene of the environment, which is understood as the complex of measures directed to the increase in resistance of individual person and population to exposure of harmful factors of the industrial and ambient environment, are increasingly being developed over the last years. For biopreventive maintenance only the means are used harmless at long application in preventive effective dosage. In this context in the industrial towns for res...
Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis
Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen
Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to
Phoon, W.H.; Chan, M.O.; Goh, C.H.; Edmondson, R.P.; Kwek, Y.K.; Gan, S.L.; Ngui, S.J.; Kwok, S.F.
Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.
Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K
This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.
Kotsaftis, Panagiotis; Girtovitis, Fotios; Boutou, Afroditi; Ntaios, George; Makris, Pantelis E
Superwarfarins are widely used as rodenticides. They are similar to warfarin, but they are more potent and act longer. In case of poisoning, they cause severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. A 67-yr-old man was admitted with melaena, epistaxis and haemarthrosis in his left knee. PT, INR and aPTT were markedly increased. Initially, the patient was treated with blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions. However at the second day, PT, INR and aPTT were even worse. The combination of persistent coagulopathy, normal mixing studies, normal liver function tests and absence of hepatic failure or malabsorption syndromes lead to the suspicion of vitK dependent clotting factors deficiency due to superwarfarin poisoning. Indeed, the patient admitted a suicide attempt with rodenticide, although he had previously denied it. Psychiatric evaluation revealed a disturbed personality. Melaena stopped after 7 d. Then, the patient was administered 30 mg of vitK daily for a total period of 4 months. Superwarfarin poisoning leads to severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. Prolonged treatment with high doses of vitK is necessary. Haemarthrosis, as a complication of superwarfarin poisoning, is presented here for the first time in literature.
Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.
Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego
The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es
... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...
... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...
... outcome will depend on the extent of this damage. Opening a large bucket of chlorine tablets can expose you to a powerful chlorine gas that can be very poisonous. Always open the container outdoors. Keep your face as far away from ...
... sometimes used. With this procedure, a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by vein to make the urine ... acetaminophen (antidote is N - acetylcysteine ), aspirin (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone ). Some poisonous bites ...
Toni Rose M. Barroga
Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in the Philippines. To support the rabies campaign in the Bicol region at the southeastern part of Luzon, the BAI-OIE Stop Transboundary Animal Diseases and Zoonoses (STANDZ Rabies project was implemented in the pilot provinces of Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, and Masbate. A community awareness survey was conducted with the residents of these provinces to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP on rabies during the start and end of the project. Qualitative, descriptive research was done with a structured KAP questionnaire. Pet owners in the pilot provinces were chosen as respondents. Results showed that respondents know that they can acquire rabies in animals through the bite of a rabid dog (pre-project implementation (PRI: 19.6%, post-project implementation (POI: 38.0%. Vaccination was the top rabies preventive measure (PRI: 61.8%, POI: 92.8%. Biting incidents were noted in some respondents, and observing the dog and killing it immediately were some of the actions taken by bite victims. If a supposed rabid dog was seen, respondents would either: immediately kill the dog (PRI: 20.3%, POI: 13.7%, report it to authorities (PRI: 26.3%, POI: 63.1%, and capture and observe the dog concerned (PRI: 13.5%, POI: 6.0%. Pet owners increased their KAP about rabies prevention and control as compared to the pre-implementation study. However, certain gaps in their KAP need to be given attention; thus continuous education of pet owners must be done.
Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G
In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active
Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano
PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC
Podschun, G D
Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971
Melissa S. Lopez
Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.
Armour-Burton, Teri; Fields, Willa; Outlaw, Lanie; Deleon, Elvira
Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are serious clinical complications that can lead to increased length of stay, pain, infection, and, potentially, death. The surgical progressive care unit at Sharp Grossmont Hospital, San Diego, California, developed the multidisciplinary Healthy Skin Project to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The previous treatment plan was reviewed and modified according to current evidence-based practice. The project consisted of 3 components: creation of a position for a unit-based wound liaison nurse, staff education, and involvement of the nursing assistants. The wound liaison nurse developed and conducted bimonthly skin audits, which revealed inconsistencies in clinical practice and documentation. Education for the staff was accomplished via a self-learning module, case presentations, and 1-on-1 training. In addition, a pressure ulcer algorithm tool was developed to demonstrate step-by-step wound management and documentation. From Spring 2003 through Summer 2006, the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers ranged from 0.0% to 18.92%, with a mean of 4.85%. After implementation of the project, the prevalence decreased to 0.0% for 17 of 20 quarters, through 2011. Prevention and a multidisciplinary approach are effective in reducing the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Yu, Bin; Ding, Bangmei; Shen, Han; Zhu, Baoli; Gao, Qianqian
To investigate the characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China, and to provide a scientific basis for developing effective intervention measures and prevention strategies. The data from report cards of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2013 were arranged using EXCEL tables, and assessed. Statistical analysis was applied to the epidemiological data using SPSS. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 32672 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Jiangsu Province. Most of the cases were caused by non-occupational poisoning (life poisoning) (72.78%). A majority of patients with pesticide poisoning were 35-54 years old (40.85%) or older than 65 years (15.69%). There were more female patients (58.22%) than male patients (41.78%). Among patients with occupational poisoning, male patients (50.90%) were more than female patients. Among patients with non-occupational poisoning, female patients were more than male patients (38.37%). Pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from July to September. The case-fatality rate of occupational poisoning (0.47%) was lower than that of non-occupational poisoning (7.10%). All 13 cities in Jiangsu Province reported cases of pesticide poisoning. There were more cases in the northern regions than in the southern regions. Pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by organophosphorus insecticides including methamidophos, dichlorvos, dimethoate, omethoate, and parathion, which accounted for 65.58%of all cases. Paraquat had the highest case-fatality rate (10.06%) among all pesticides, followed by tetramine (10.00%), dimethoate or omethoate (7.85%), methamidophos (7.79%), and dimehypo (7.68%). Pesticide poisoning cannot be ignored. The management and control should be improved in production and usage of highly toxic pesticides including organophosphorus insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. More attention should be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups including women, children, and the elderly.
Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.
Kuca, K.; Musilek, K.; Pohanka, M.; Jun, D.; Karasova, J.; Novotny, L.
According to the present knowledge, none of the currently available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB-4 or HI-6) originally developed for the treatment of the nerve agent poisonings is able to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Among them, obidoxime seems to be the best candidate, however, its high toxicity disfavors its application in the high quantities. As byproduct of our searching for the new nerve agent reactivators, we found that oxime K027 seems to be very promising in the case of the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings. Its reactivation potency is similar or better than that of obidoxime, and moreover, its acute toxicity is lower. Thanks to these results, this oxime seems to be the best candidate for future use as universal reactivator for the treatment of poisonings caused by organophosphorus pesticides. This work was supported by the Czech Grant Agency - project No. 305/07/P162.(author)
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McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M
Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment. PMID:9285467
McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M
Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.
Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed
It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.
Montserrat Amigó Tadín
Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.
With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.
Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.
Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick
Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this
Parmod K. Sinha
Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7
Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.
Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030
Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit
Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.
Simmons Annie M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as
Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay
utilization remained unchanged (4.50 at baseline, 4.45 at conclusion of project; IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P = .26) in adjusted analyses. The number of urine cultures ordered for all residents decreased from 3.49 per 1000 resident-days to 3.08 per 1000 resident-days. Similarly, after adjustment, the rates were shown to decrease from 3.52 to 3.09 (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.94; P = .001). In a large-scale, national implementation project involving community-based nursing homes, combined technical and socioadaptive catheter-associated UTI prevention interventions successfully reduced the incidence of catheter-associated UTIs.
Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed
National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.
Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…
Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun
Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.
Constant vigilance must be maintained if childhood poisoning is to be prevented. S AIr Med J .... animals 2. The remaining 8 calls (7%) were of a general nature. The subjects of calls relating to bites and stings and plants are set out in Tables V and VI. Discussion. The service offered by the Poisons Information Service is not.
National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.
Because each year hundreds of thousands of children under five are poisoned by common household products, this book is designed as a resource of activities and guidelines for teaching poison prevention to older siblings. The book states three major objectives in teaching seventh through ninth graders: (1) to increase students' knowledge of hazards…
Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.
In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.
A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction
Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein
To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.
BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.
In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations
Bisio, Francesca; Masini, Giulia; Blasi Vacca, Elisabetta; Calzi, Anna; Cardinale, Francesco; Bruzzone, Bianca; Bruzzi, Paolo; Viscoli, Claudio
To evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention programme against the vertical transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting and to investigate variables associated with compliance. The Kento-Mwana project (2005-2008) provided counselling, serological and biomolecular testing and prophylaxis/therapy to HIV-positive pregnant women and their children attending four antenatal clinics in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Expected and actual rates of vertical transmission of HIV were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify variables associated with non-compliance. The observed transmission rate in the group who completed follow-up was 5/290 (1.7%, 95% CI 0.6%-4.1%). The overall estimated transmission rate in the target population, computed taking into account the expected vertical transmission of HIV among drop-outs, was 67-115/638 (10.5%-18.0%). A comparison between this rate and the expected transmission rate in the absence of intervention (25%-40%) showed that the programme was able to prevent approximately 50% of vertical transmissions. Older age (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.66, P = 0.002), telephone availability (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72, P = 0.002) and occupation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.29-1.10, P = 0.092) were associated with better compliance. Despite the vast majority of women accepting counselling and testing, many of them refused prophylaxis or dropped out, thus reducing the effectiveness of the intervention from an ideal 2% to a still important but less impressive median transmission rate of 15% (range 10.5%-18%). Promoting participation and compliance, rather than increasing the potency of antiretroviral regimens, is crucial for preventing the vertical transmission of HIV in Africa.
Lastingly effective projects for the prevention of violence and addiction must ask which resources adolescents require for coping with their lives. A central criteria for a successful life is the creation of coherence in one's inner life and thus the basis for becoming capable of functioning in society. In earlier social eras, the readiness to take on ready-made identity packages was the central criteria for coping with life. Today, this depends on individual adaptation and identity work, and thus the capability for self-organisation, for "intentionality" or "embedding". Children and young people need "free spaces" in their worlds, in order to be able to outline themselves and to act formatively upon their everyday environment. The future prospects of adolescents depend upon their options for learning the "craft of freedom". Sustainable key qualifications for coping with life in globalised, digital capitalism must grasp education as a hard-headed process in which the subject's capacity for self-organisation is to be given optimal encouragement, so that the patchwork of their own identity can succeed as a self-determined creative project.
Ogada, Darcy L
Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...
Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via
Zhang, Min; Li, Tao; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian
To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 506 acute severe occupational poisoning accidents for 15 years with 4 657 workers poisoned. The total poisoning rate was 54.8%, and the total mortality was 16.5%. The average poisoning age was (31.9 +/- 9.8) years old and the average death age was (33.7 +/- 10.3) years old. The poisoning accidents occurred more in men than in women. (2) There were more than 112 chemicals which caused these poisoning accidents. Most of the accidents caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, benzene and homologs, metal and metalloid and carbon dioxide, and the types of chemicals varied in different types of industries. (3) The accidents mainly occurred in chemical industry, manufacture, water disposal industry, mining and construction industry, and the risk was higher in some jobs than others, such as cleanout, machine maintenance and repair, production, mine and digging. The accidents occurred more frequently from April to August each year. (1) The control over the severe acute occupational poisoning is urgent. (2) The trend of the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents is centralized in the high risk industries, poisons and jobs. (3) The characteristics of the accidents varied in different types of industries. (4) It is the key point to strengthen the supervision on poisoning.
Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A
The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.
Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.
Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407
... A Safe, Kid-Friendly Home Print en español Seguridad en casa: cómo prevenir las intoxicaciones From fertilizer ... cautious with perfume, hair dye, hairspray, nail and shoe polish, and nail polish remover. Keep kids away ...
Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.
Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc
the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...
Gorman, Dennis M
This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.
Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.
Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.
Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables
Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara
Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
... One Room at a Time Pesticide Poison Prevention Checklist You’ve heard it before, ”Better to be ... for pets; and • Weed killers. The following home checklist provides a list of activities and action steps ...
Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in highrisk groups such as workers in shooting ...
Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams
Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C
This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.
Piscitelli, Prisco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Nuti, Ranuccio; Rizzuti, Carla; Giorni, Loredano; Giovannini, Valtere; Metozzi, Alessia; Merlotti, Daniela
The official inquiry on osteoporosis in Italy, promoted by the Italian Senate in 2002 concluded that proper preventive strategies should be adopted at regional level in order to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Tuscany is the first Italian region who has promoted an official program (the TARGET project) aimed to reduce osteoporotic fractures by ensuring adequate treatment to all people aged ≥65 years old who experience a hip fragility fracture. this paper provides information concerning the implementation of TARGET project in Tuscany, assuming that it may represent an useful model for similar experiences to be promoted in other Italian Regions and across Europe. we have examined the model proposed for the regional program, and we have particularly analyzed the in-hospital and post-hospitalization path of hip fractured patients aged >65 years old in Tuscany after the adoption of TARGET project by Tuscany healthcare system and during its ongoing start-up phase. orthopaedic surgeons have been gradually involved in the project and are increasingly fulfilling all the clinical prescriptions and recommendations provided in the project protocol. Different forms of cooperation between orthopaedic surgeons and other clinical specialists have been adopted at each hospital for the treatment of hip fractured elderly patients. GPs involvement needs to be fostered both at regional and local level. The effort of Tuscany region to cope with hip fractures suffered from elderly people must be acknowledged as an interesting way of addressing this critical health problem. Specific preventive strategies modelled on the Tuscany TARGET project should be implemented in other Italian regions.
Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E
This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...
Espada, José P.; Gonzálvez, María T.; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve
Tobacco use is of high prevalence among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use has been needed. There is a lack of knowledge on the efficacy of teen tobacco use cessation programming. The current study provides an immediate outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Spanish…
Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K
Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.
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The core curriculum distance learning project in cancer prevention was funded by Europe Against Cancer and the University of Southampton and supported by the European Oncology Nursing Society. The commitments of the project were to collaborative working, involvement of as many EU countries as possible, joint writing and design of the materials, and a flexible and useful end-product. The ambitions of the project were realized by the collective production of materials on cancer prevention that are available either as a teaching resource in English, French or Portuguese, or an accredited post-graduate course by distance learning in English. This paper will focus on the tensions and issues arising out of the collaborative process; these were connected to funding, translation, dissemination and evaluation.
Nezihat Rana Disel
Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.
Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa
Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319
Full Text Available The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto internacional Strong de investigação prática no que à implementação de estratégias de prevenção da violência nas escolas diz respeito através da promoção da resiliência. Após a apresentação breve dos resultados quantitativos e qualitativos, serão realçados os fatores de sucesso de uma estratégia de prevenção. En este artículo se presenta el marco teórico, el diseño y la evaluación de los resultados del proyecto internacional de investigación práctica Strong de la implementación de estrategias para prevenir la violencia en las escuelas mediante la promoción de la resiliencia. Después de la breve presentación de los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos se destacarán los factores de éxito de una estrategia de prevención. Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Framing to Increase Support for Evidence-based Tobacco Control, SIP12-060, Panel A, initial review. In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30 p...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.
Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana
Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.
Fotu, Kalesita F; Moodie, Marj M; Mavoa, Helen M; Pomana, Siosifa; Schultz, Jimaima T; Swinburn, Boyd A
The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were
Jiang, Guo-qin; Lian, Ling-jun; Wang, Chun-hui; Li, Ming; Wang, Ji-gang; Pan, Nan-yan; Wang, Sha-sha
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing, China during 2006-2011 and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. The data on pesticide poisoning in Shaoxing during 2006-2011 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and were then analyzed. A total of 2024 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Shaoxing during 2006-2011, and 44 cases were missed, accounting for 2.1% (44/2068) of all cases. Among the 2024 cases, 119 (5.9%) died; the fatality rates of productive poisoning and unproductive poisoning were 1.0% (3/289) and 6.7% (116/1735), respectively. The reported cases included 1038 (51.3%) females and 986 (48.7%) males, and there were no significant differences in the ratio between male and female cases of acute pesticide poisoning from 2006 to 2011 (χ2 = 9.16, P = 0.10). The 2024 cases had a mean age of 47.0±18.7 years; the male cases had a significantly higher mean age than the female cases (50.7±19.0 vs 43.4±17.8 years, t = 9.01, P poisoning, and 1735 (85.7%) suffered unproductive poisoning. In the 986 male cases, 219 (22.2%) suffered productive poisoning; in the 1038 female cases, 968 (93.3%) suffered unproductive poisoning. The pesticides that caused poisoning included insecticide (86.7%, 1754/2024), herbicide (5.1%, 104/2024), rodenticide (3.6%, 72/2024), and bactericide, mixed preparation, biochemical pesticides, and other four categories of pesticides (4.6%, 94/2024); of the 1754 cases caused by insecticide, 1455 (83.0%) were attributed to organophosphorus insecticide. The incidence of unproductive acute pesticide poisoning is high in Shaoxing, and it mainly affects females. Most cases of acute pesticide poisoning are aged 30∼60 years. Insecticide is the main cause of poisoning. It is necessary to enhance health knowledge popularization and safety management of pesticides.
Ogata, Mamoru; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takahito
A male in his early seventies complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea at 7h after ingesting a small piece of gratin from a box lunch prepared by a caterer. He was admitted to a hospital, but died 37 h later. Dozens of people who had eaten the same box lunch also complained of diarrhea. All of them recovered after medical treatment. A later investigation demonstrated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the gratin from the box lunch. An autopsy revealed very severe typhloenteritis with edema and submucosal hemorrhage. The digestive tract contained fluid contents without foodstuffs. Bacteriological examination revealed SE in the contents of the lower ileum and large intestine. Based on these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was food poisoning due to SE. In this case, ingesting only a small piece of contaminated food caused fatal food poisoning due to SE. These results emphasize the importance of prevention against food poisoning due to Salmonella, particularly SE.
Volans, G N; Mitchell, G M; Proudfoot, A T; Shanks, R G; Woodcock, J A
The National Poisons Information Services (NPIS) covering the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland currently receive over 40,000 telephone inquiries a year. Over the years there has been little change in the proportion of inquiries related to each of the main categories of poisons (drugs, household, chemical, agricultural, animals, and plants). More detailed analysis, however, shows pronounced changes in the inquiries relating to specific types of poisoning, particularly with drugs. By monitoring these trends and assessing the risks of toxicity, the NPIS has an important role in informing the medical profession of the need for preventive measures and for improved methods of treatment. At present, the NPIS cannot make full use of the available data due to inadequate staffing and lack of computer facilities. It is argued that for a modest increase in funding a much more comprehensive service could be provided. PMID:6786585
Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I
extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled...
Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T
in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...
Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle
The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...
Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F
in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...
Yasui, Sritana C.
Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.
The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)
Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO
This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated
Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO
Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,
Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J
Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.
Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O
In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Sawalha, Ansam F
The Palestinian Poison Control and Drug Information Center was established in 2006 to provide up-to-date information on medications and to help in the early diagnosis and management of poisoning cases. To summarize the activities carried out by the PCDIC in the past 2 years. Documented inquires received at the PCDIC were analyzed and the Center's activities were extracted from the files. During the first 2 years of the Center's existence, 323 enquiries were received, mainly (67.2%)from physicians; 70% of the calls were from the city of Nablus. Unintentional poisoning was the leading type of call (62.8%) followed by suicidal poisoning (20.7%). Medications were the major category of toxicants encountered (48.9%), followed by pesticides (23.5%). In 67.9% of the cases, the calls were initiated before any treatment was provided. The advice provided by the PCDIC was based on the nature of the call. During these 2 years the PCDIC has conducted both academic and non-academic activities. The Center introduced the concept of poison prevention weeks in Palestine and has conducted two so far. The PCDIC has published several articles in the fields of toxicology, rational drug use, complementary and herbal therapy, pharmacoepidemiology, and self-medication. Documentation of all enquiries is mandatory for analysis, evaluation, comparative purposes and quality assurance. More information campaigns are needed to encourage people to use the services provided by the PCDIC.
Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G
Current international projections suggest that reducing the prevalence of seven well-established risk factors, midlife hypertension and obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, physical inactivity, smoking and low educational attainment, may also substantially reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Following the procedures of the international projections, in this study we aimed to provide projections of a corresponding potential for prevention specific for Germany. For each risk factor separately and combined (with adjustment for the association between the risk factors) we calculated (1) the population attributable risk (PAR) for AD, (2) the corresponding total number of attributable AD cases and (3) the potential number of current AD cases that may have been prevented by a 10 %, 25 % and 50 % lower prevalence of the risk factors. According to the population projections 30.5 % of the current AD cases in Germany could be attributable to the risk factors considered (305,000 AD cases in total). The highest estimated impact on AD prevalence was found for physical inactivity (PAR = 21.7 %, 217,000 attributable cases) and smoking (PAR = 14.9 %, 149,000 cases). A 10-50 % reduction in the prevalence of all seven risk factors could have potentially prevented 23,000-130,000 of the current AD cases in Germany. The identified possible substantial potential for reducing AD prevalence should act as a strong additional incentive to reduce the seven risk factors in Germany.
Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F
Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive
Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy
Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953
Azab, Sonya M S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hirshon, John Mark; Hayes, Bryan D; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy
Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0-18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. During the 5-year study period, 38 470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19 987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4196 (11%) were 6-12 years; and 14 287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29 174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents whereas poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agents leading to morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.
Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad
Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.
Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.
García González, Elsa; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; Luaces Cubells, Carles
Prevention is an essential aspect in paediatric poisonings, especially when recurrent episodes are detected. The aims of this article are to detect the recurrence rate for suspected poisoning in emergency consultations, as well as to identify the cases in which specific preventive measures are indicated, and to determine whether the creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in the computerised medical records system facilitates its detection. A retrospective study was conducted on patients less than 18 years of age treated in the emergency room due to suspected poisoning during 2013 and 2014. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of previous episodes. From January 2014, a specific item is present in the computerised medical records of the poisoned patient, where the history of previous episodes is registered. The preventive measures used between both groups were compared. A total of 731 consultations were recorded for suspected poisoning. A history of previous episodes was detected in 9% of cases. Medical injury reports and follow-up in outpatient clinics were more often performed in patients with recurrent episodes than in patients without them (28.8% vs 18.0%, P=.034, and 65.2% vs. 18.8%, P<.001, respectively). In 2013, the recurrence rate was 5.9% vs 12% in 2014 (P=.004). The recurrence rate observed is significant. Although preventive measures are more frequently indicated in these patients, their application is low. The creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in a computerised medical records system facilitates their detection. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
M. L. Grossbeck J-P.A. Renier Tim Bigelow
Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding.
Grossbeck, M. L.; Renier, J-P.A.; Bigelow, Tim
Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding
Lisa M. Chauveron
While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence...
Full Text Available Objective: The scale of the problem of poisoning is enormous hence clinico epidemiological spectrum of all poisoning cases need to explore to generate the management tool. Methods: This prospective study was done at two medicine units (Unit 5 and 10 of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from July to December 2010 where all poisoning cases were seen. A total of 2890 patients were admitted out of which 600 were taken into the study. Results: Among the poisoning cases 29% were pesticide, 27% travel related poisoning, and 20% benzodiazepine. 70% of poisoning occurred below 30 years of age and male: female ratio was 3:2. Incidence of poisoning was highest among students (31% and housewives (25%. Majority of the patients were from urban area (76% and most common intention was suicidal (66%. Familial disharmony was the prime cause (63% behind poisoning. 42% cases got admitted between 5-8 hours of poisoning and more than 80% patients were admitted in the hospital directly without getting any first aid anywhere. Sixty-eight percent had Glasgow coma scale (GCS score above 10 during admission. Cardinal clinical features of poisoning were nausea/vomiting (63%, drowsiness (56%, miosis (31%. Seventy percent patients were treated with only general and supportive treatment and specific antidotes were used in 30% cases. Case fatality for pesticide, benzodiazepine/anti-psychotic, rodenticide and snake bite was 6.9%, 2.2%, 8.3% and 3.3% respectively. Conclusion: To assess the magnitude of problem, awareness of the public for prevention, immediate first aid measures and quick hospital admission is crucial component of poisoning.
Chen, Ling; Xu, Huilan; Wu, Gongping; Huang, Zhiqiang
To explore the incidence, mortality, trends and time distribution of food poisoning in Hunan Province. The data on food poisoning was derived from the Information Office of Hunan Provincial Health Department. Using the trend-test and circular distribution methods, we have described the current situation of food poisoning and tested the central tendency of the peak time points and the peak time zone of food poisoning in Hunan from 2000 to 2009. On average, the incidence of food poisoning in Hunan from 2000 to 2009 was 0.072 per 100000 population. And the average number of people affected in these incidents was 1.937 per 100000 population. There were no apparent trends in either the number of incidents or people affected between 2000 and 2009 (u=-0.98, P>0.05; u=-1.34, P>0.05, respectively). The average mortality was 0.015 per 100000 population. The trend-test indicated that the average annual mortality decreased significantly from 2000 to 2009 (u=-1.72, Pfood poisoning cases, with the average peak time at August 28th and the average peak time zone from June 7th to November 18th for food poisoning from 2000 to 2008. From 2000 to 2009, there is a significant tendency in the average annual mortality and fatality rate of food poisoning in Hunan. Summer and fall are the high seasons for food poisoning. We should pay attention to the peak time zone, especially the peak time point of food poisoning for food safety monitoring, and strengthen the prevention and control on food poisoning.
Ali Arjmand Shabestari
Full Text Available Background: Poisoning is one of the important reasons for children’s admission to hospital. Knowledge of epidemiology of poisoning in each region plays an important role in planning prevention, care, and treatment of patients. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of acute poisoning epidemiology in children attending pediatric wards of Amirkabir Hospital in Arak in a five-year period (March 2008 to March 2012. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 children admitted for poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: Of the total population, 54.9% were boys and the rest were girls. Mean age of children was 3.54±2.99 years, and the most common age range was 1-3 years (50.9%. The highest rate of children’s admission due to poisoning was in the winter (30.8%. The most common causes of poisoning included drugs (65.2%, kerosene (7.1%, and food poisoning (5.4%. The most common poisoning drugs, included benzodiazepines (21.9%, gastrointestinal drugs (19.9%, opioid analgesics (15.1%. The most prevalent drugs were methadone, metoclopramide, and clonazepam. At admission, the most common presenting symptoms were neurological (51.3%, and gastrointestinal symptoms (38.4%. Conclusion: High prevalence of poisoning with groups of drugs mentioned could indicate community-wide excessive use of these drugs, as well as negligence of families in keeping them out of children’s reach. Therefore, raising knowledge and awareness about variety of poisoning and how to prevent them, through holding workshops, national media, schools, and health centers can be a valuable step toward upkeep of children’s health.
Full Text Available Background Acute poisoning in children (APC is a preventable cause of pediatric emergency visits. Patterns of acute poisoning in children are different in various regions and times. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of acute poisoning in children, who were referred to the emergency department of Qods teaching hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, all children younger than 13 years old, admitted to the Qods teaching hospital in Qazvin (Iran, were assessed during September 2009 to September 2012. Demographic and clinical symptoms and signs of poisoned cases, poisonous agents and outcome of patients were studied. Results Four hundreds and thirty-four (2.59% of total hospital admission patients with APC were admitted to the emergency department during the study period; 63.36% were male. Overall, 345 (79.5% cases were under 6 years old. Drugs (265 cases were common agents for APC. The ingestion route was responsible in 391 of APC. Methadone, benzodiazepines and kerosene were the most frequent poisonous agents. Neurologic symptoms and signs (256 cases were the most common presentation of APC. Forty-five patients (10.36% were admitted to the PICU. Three deaths (%0.06 occurred with monoxide carbon and methadone poisoning. Monoxide carbon poisoning was the deadliest agent. Conclusions Acute poisoning in children is a serious preventable cause of hospital admissions. It is one of the differential diagnoses in patients with sudden onset of neurological, alimentary, respiratory symptoms and signs, who are visited at the emergency department. Parental awareness and education about keeping potential poisoning agents safely is essential to reduce APC in children.
Alcohol intoxication, commonly encountered in emergency department and clinic settings, is by no means a benign condition. Ethanol ingested alone or in combination with other CNS depressants (eg, isopropanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, sedatives, opioids) can be fatal. Obtaining the patient's history and careful observation for clinical signs and symptoms, along with appropriate analysis of results of laboratory tests, are the key to determining and differentiating the agent ingested. It is critical that poisoning due to ethanol and/or other related alcohols should be recognized early in order to initiate appropriate treatments and prevent fatalities. Emergency department nurses may be the first persons to collect the essential data, and it is incumbent upon them to plan and initiate appropriate care. In continuing management for these patients, critical care nurses must understand the factors contributing to the observed signs and symptoms in order to initiate and monitor ongoing care and prevent serious complications.
Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick
Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.
Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C
A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Yari, M.; Ahmadi, H.
Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)
Koskela, Lauri; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Liisanantti, Janne
Most fatal poisonings occur outside the hospital and the victims found dead. The purpose of this study was to determine the general pattern and patient demographics of fatal poisonings in Northern Finland. In particular, we wanted to analyze differences between pre-hospital and in-hospital deaths. All fatal poisonings that occurred in Northern Finland in 2007-2011 were retrieved from the Cause of Death Registry provided by Statistics Finland. We noted the patient demographics, causal agents, and other characteristics of the poisoning events. A total of 689 fatal poisonings occurred during the study period, of which only 42 (6.1%) reached the hospital alive. Those who died pre-hospital were significantly younger (50 vs. 56 years, p = 0.04) and more likely to be male (77% vs. 57%, p = 0.003). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted less often in pre-hospital cases (9.9% vs. 47.6%, p pre-hospital deaths (58.4% vs. 26.2%, p pre-hospital deaths. Most of the pre-hospital fatal poisoning victims are found dead and the majority of in-hospital victims are admitted to hospital in an already serious condition. According to results of this and former studies, prevention seems to be the most important factor in reducing deaths due to poisoning. The majority of poisoning-related deaths occur pre-hospital and are related to alcohol intoxication and multiple ingestions.
Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.
Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel
The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Poisoning is a global public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality. It is important to know the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases for proper planning, prevention and management of these cases. The aim of the study is to determine the mode (suicidal, accidental, homicidal and type of poisoning in North Indian population; relation to age, sex, occupation, marital status; outcome of different type of poisons and requirement of ventilatory support in different type of poisonings. MATERIALS AND METHODS This observational study was conducted in Department of Medicine of a tertiary care hospital in North India. A total of 379 patients were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. RESULTS Poisoning was more common among males (59.89%. Maximum number of patients were in the age group 21-30 years (40.63% and consumption was found to be more prevalent in rural population (75.99%. Most of the patients were farmers and students. Most common types of poisoning were organophosphate (n=95, 25.07%, snake bite (n=77, 20.32% followed by aluminium phosphide (n=71, 18.73%. Out of 379 patients, 318 (83.91% improved while 61 (16.09% expired. Mortality was highest in aluminium phosphide poisoning. Requirement of ventilatory support was most commonly associated with aluminium phosphide poisoning (37.89% followed by organophosphate poisoning (28.42%. CONCLUSION Poisoning was more common in young males. Pesticides and snake bite were major causes of poisoning. Of the total, 318 improved while rest of the 61 expired. Mortality was higher with use of aluminium phosphide poisoning (57.38%, snake bite (21.31% and organophosphate consumption (9.84%. Requirement of ventilator was most commonly associated with aluminium phosphide poisoning. We suggest strict statutory measures covering import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of pesticides. Training of peripheral health center personnel to manage cases
Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias
The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Thomas Y K
In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic characteristics, role of family factors, etiology and the factors affecting the prognosis in children who had been admitted to our hospital between 04 August 2007 and 24 January 2009 due to intoxication and, based on these data, to determine the preventive measures that can be taken. Methods: One hundred and one children (61 girls and 33 boys were included in the study. Patient age and sex, manner of poisoning, time between ingestion of poison and hospital admission, and attitudes and behaviors of families were recorded. Results: The poisoned patients represented 1.23%of all pediatric emergency admissions. The mean age of the patients was 6.75±5.30 years (range: 2-16. Self-poisoning was detected in 49 cases and 52 cases were accidental poisoning. It was seen that adolescent over 12 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning and children aged 2-6 years were more susceptible to accidental poisoning. Paracetamol (13.8% and amitriptyline (10.7% were the most common drugs. Conclusion: Although there are important improvements in the management of intoxication,family education and preventive measurements are of great importance. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:157-61
Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole
Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786
Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.
Full Text Available Past studies of pediatric poisoning in Kuwait have suggested differences at hospital level which could impact on the implementation of public health interventions. The objective was to compare pediatric poisoning admissions at general hospitals in Kuwait. Methods: Retrospective survey of all pediatric poisoning cases at the six general hospitals from January 2004 to December 2005. Case data were documented using ICD-10 criteria and the poisoning severity score. Aggregated data was also obtained from five private hospitals.Results: 978 children were admitted in public hospitals over 2004 and 2005 (no fatalities being 1.8% and 1.6% of all pediatric admissions (private hospitals admitted 293 cases. The majority of the poisoning cases came from Jahra hospital (>35%, the median age was 2.3 yrs, 93% of cases were under 6 yrs old and 71% were Kuwaiti. Two thirds of cases involved pharmaceuticals although this varied between hospitals with a tendency for more severe cases with chemical poisoning (p=0.011. Kerosene was an important problem at Jahra hospital (34.7% of chemical exposures. Non-opioid analgesics constituted 22.3% of medication exposures with hormones and drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system also common with some difference in pattern between institutions.Conclusion: Case demographics do not vary significantly between the hospitals but there are differences in the nature of toxic agents to which children are exposed suggesting that preventive and educational programs could be targeted to specific areas for maximal effect particularly with regard to household chemical and kerosene exposures.
Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.
Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and
Meaume, S; Marty, M; Colin, D
In patients with reduced mobility, specialised pressure-relieving supports (mattresses, beds and cushions) are widely used to reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and support surfaces to prevent incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs). The primary objective of these two observational studies was to assess the incidence of PUs in patients at high risk of PUs, seated in a wheelchair using a single- or multi-compartment air cushion. The level of patient satisfaction with the comfort and the views of the care team that used the air cushions were considered as secondary objectives. The PRESCAROH project was two prospective observational studies conducted in patients free of PUs at baseline and at high risk of PUs (Braden score ≤13 or ≤16 for people with spinal cord injury). Patients had to spend more than eight hours a day in a wheelchair and use either a single-compartment air cushion (patient without asymmetry of support) for the first study or a multi-compartment air cushion (patient with asymmetry of support) for the second study. The primary end point was the percentage of patients in whom a PU (sacrum and/or ischium) developed over a 35-day period. The analysis was performed on the full-analysis set (FAS) of patients included with at least a second assessment. We recruited 152 patients, 78 seated on a single-compartment air cushion (SiCAC group) and 74 on a multi-compartment air cushion (MuCAC group), in the two independent studies. All patients were included in the FAS (n=152). Most patients had spinal cord injuries. The average time spent sitting was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD): 2.3) hours a day in the SiCAC group and 9.1 (SD: 1.9) hours a day in the MuCAC group. In the SiCAC group, 6.4% (5/78) of patients dropped out of the study (one patient because of pulmonary infection and four patients for cushion installation problems). In the MuCAC group, 8.1% (6/74) of patients dropped out of the study (three patients because of adverse events not
G V Sharuho
Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.
Full Text Available Background. Ethylene glycol, usually ingested by coincidence, causes uncommon but serious poisoning which could have fatal consequences without prompt diagnosis and treatment. Ethylene glycol itself has a low toxicity but is rapidly degraded to toxic metabolites, that are responsible for typical clinical presentation. Metabolic acidosis, increased anion and osmolal gap are typical laboratory findings. Application of antidotes ethanol and fomepizol, hemodyalisis and correction of metabolic acidosis are mainstays of therapy.Patients and methods. A case of concurrent ethanol and ethylene glycol ingestion is presented. On admission diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning was supported by heteroanamnestic data, typical clinical presentation and laboratory findings and latter confirmed with body fluid analysis. Despite therapy with ethanol, sodium hydrogencarbonate and parenteral hydration patient developed acute renal failure which required hemodyalisis.Conclusions. Concurrent ingestion of spirit improved prognosis of ingestion of lethal ethylene glycol dose. Due to late arrival adequate and immediate in-hospital management could not prevent acute renal failure and subsequent hemodyalisis.
Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A
The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...
Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt
BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...
Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J
diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...
Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.
Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina
Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming
BACKGROUND: Acute poisoning, especially deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides, is an emerging global public health problem, but reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Only a few previous studies have assessed the impact of regulatory or other preventive measures. OBJECTIVE...... of the 1990s. The decline in mortality was attributed to regulatory controls for the group of highly hazardous organophosphorus compounds implemented in 1995 and for the organochlorine endosulfan in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: Regulatory control of highly toxic pesticides provides important health benefits, especially...
Li, X H; Leng, P B; Mao, G C; Wang, A H
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in Ningbo, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control strategy. Methods: In February 2017, the pesticide poisoning report card of Ningbo from 2011 to 2016 was drawn from the China Disease Control and prevention information system. The data of the report card was organized by Excel and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software. Results: 2593 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were reported in Ningbo from 2011 to 2016, 125 deaths, and the case fatality rate was 4.82%. The productive pesticide poisoning and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 299 and 2294, respectively, the ratio was 1: 7.67. The case fatality rate were 0.33% and 5.41%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=14.83, Ppoisoning mainly occurred from July to September (55.85%) , the unproductive pesticides mainly occurred from April to June (30.64%) and July to September (30.34%). The seasonal distribution of the pesticide poisoning in the two groups was statistically significant (χ2=82.21, Ppoisoning in male (80.27%) was significantly higher than the proportion of unproductive pesticide poisoning (52.09%) , the differences in gender composition between the two types of pesticide poisoning was significant (χ2=84.97, Ppoisoning from 55 to 65 years old group was in the largest number (35.45%) , and the distribution of unproductive pesticide poisoning was uniform in each age group including 25 years old and above, the difference in age composition between two types of pesticide poisoning was statistically significant (χ2=177.84, Ppoisoning. The counties with more reports were Ninghai county (18.28%) , Fenghua district (14.69%) and Yuyao (12.42%). The acute pesticide poisoning was mainly caused by pesticides and herbicides, mainly in organophosphorus (45.74%) and paraquat (16.81%) . Conclusions: At present, the pesticide poisoning in Ningbo is given priority to unproductive pesticide poisoning
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.
Tostes, Raimundo A
Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.
Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (ALP is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.
Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K
Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.
Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.
Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.
Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal
Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...
Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.
Suicide prevention efforts in Asia have increasingly turned to 'quick win' means restriction, while more complicated cognitive restriction and psychosocial programs are limited. This article argues the development of cognitive restriction programs requires greater consideration of suicide methods as social practices, and of how suicide cognitive schemata form. To illustrate this, the article contributes an ethnographically grounded study of how self-poisoning becomes cognitively available in Sri Lanka. I argue the overwhelming preference for poison as a method of self-harm in the country is not simply reflective of its widespread availability, but rather how cognitive schemata of poison-a 'poison complex'-develops from early childhood and is a precondition for suicide schemata. Limiting cognitive availability thus requires an entirely novel approach to suicide prevention that draws back from its immediate object (methods and causes of self-harm) to engage the wider poison complex of which suicide is just one aspect.
Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris
We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.
Bruun Larsen, Lars
To examine the reach of a preventive healthcare intervention that systematically identifies patients at high risk of developing lifestyle-related disease, and provides targeted and coherent preventive services to these individuals. Material/Methods The study population comprises 8814 persons born between......Background The evidence on targeted and systematic screening of chronic disease is limited. To effectively target people at high risk of lifestyle-related disease, there is a substantial need to advance and implement evidence-based health strategies and interventions that facilitate...
Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena
In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response.
Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang
To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.
Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.
Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Nelson, Lewis S; Bahreini, Seyed Ali; Shadnia, Shahin
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is also known as "rice tablet" in Iran. Due to the high incidence of acute AlP poisoning and its associated mortality in Iran, the authorities banned AlP-containing tablets in 2007. The aim of this study is to evaluate the trend of acute fatal AlP poisoning subsequent to this restriction. 0 This is a retrospective chart review of patients with acute "rice tablet" poisoning who were admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. Collected information included gender, age, type of poisoning, marital status, duration of hospitalization, and outcome. There were 956 cases with a mortality rate of 24.06%. The incidence of fatal AlP poisoning was 2.1 and 5.81 per one million populations of Tehran in 2007 and 2010, respectively. In 223 of the fatal cases (97%) and 697 of the non-fatal cases (96%), the poisoning was intentional. The male to female ratio in the fatal and non-fatal cases was 1.04:1 and 1:1.3, respectively. Most of the fatal cases (n = 122, 53%) were unmarried. The mean age was 27.32 ± 11.31 and 24.5 ± 8.19 years in fatal and non-fatal cases, respectively. In 196 (85.2%) of the fatal cases and in 577 (79%) of non-fatal cases, the duration of hospitalization was less than 24 hours and between 48-72 hours, respectively. The results of this study showed the incidence of "rice tablet" poisoning, and its mortality increased since 2007 in spite of the ban. It seems that legislative means alone without other interventions, such as suicide prevention and public education, will not always be able to control or prevent acute intentional poisonings.
Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A
Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.
This report evaluates this prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change in the area of alcohol abuse among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's third year, this paper presents summative evaluations for seven Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to translate models developed…
Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.
This report evaluates the alcohol abuse prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's second year, this paper presents summative evaluations for nine Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to implement model programs developed during…
... announced below concerns Research to Enhance Community- Based Fall Prevention among Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A Focus on Older Adult... Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A...
Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna
Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…
Niewöhner, J.; Döring, M.; Kontopodis, M.; Madarász, J.; Heintze, C.
Cardiovascular diseases present the leading cause of death worldwide. Over the last decade, their preventio has become not only a central medical and public health issue but also a matter of political concern as well as a major market for pharma, nutrition, and exercise. A preventive assemblage has
Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole
As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...... are the potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into joint R&D projects involving companies within the food industry and the university research? The objectives were (i) to identify the R&D peoples viewpoints on potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into R&D projects and (ii) to study...... the R&D processes in such networks in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions for integrating ergonomics....
Hewson, David J.; Duchêne, Jacques; Charpillet, François; Saboune, Jamal; Michel-Pellegrino, Valérie; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Paysant, Jean; Boyer, Anne; Hogrel, Jean-Yves
Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.
Full Text Available Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths. This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.
Sacco, Michele; Pellegrini, Fabio; Roncaglioni, Maria C; Avanzini, Fausto; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio
We investigated in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes. The Primary Prevention Project (PPP) is a randomized, open trial with a two-by-two factorial design aimed to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. The primary end point was a composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. A total of 1,031 people with diabetes in the PPP, aged >/=50 years, without a previous cardiovascular event were enrolled by 316 general practitioners and 14 diabetes outpatient clinics. The PPP trial was prematurely stopped (after a median of 3.7 years) by the independent data safety and monitoring board because of a consistent benefit of aspirin compared with the control group in a population of 4,495 patients with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors. In diabetic patients, aspirin treatment was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in the main end point (relative risk [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62) and in total cardiovascular events (0.89, 0.62-1.26) and with a nonsignificant increase in cardiovascular deaths (1.23, 0.69-2.19). In nondiabetic subjects, RRs for the main end point, total cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular deaths were 0.59 (0.37-0.94), 0.69 (0.53-0.90), and 0.32 (0.14-0.72), respectively. No significant reduction in any of the end points considered could be found with vitamin E in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. Our data suggest a lower effect of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with low-dose aspirin in diabetic patients as opposed to subjects with other cardiovascular risk factors. If confirmed, these findings might indicate that the antiplatelet effects of aspirin in diabetic patients are overwhelmed by aspirin-insensitive mechanisms of platelet activation and
Helden, H.P.M. van; Groen, B.; Moor, E.; Westerink, B.H.C.; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.
Current treatment of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning includes a combined administration of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam). This treatment is not adequate since it does not prevent neuronal brain damage and
van Helden, HPM; Moor, E; Westerink, BHC; Bruijnzeel, PLB
Current treatment of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning includes a combined administration of a cholinesterase reactivator (oxime), a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine) and an anticonvulsant (diazepam). This treatment is not adequate since it does not prevent neuronal brain damage and
Říčařová, B.; Rakovcová, H.; Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš
Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 473-473 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Czech Toxicological Information Centre * plant poison ings according Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Sarah Jane Banks
Full Text Available Background/Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results: The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≥0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions: The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time.
Meaume, S; Marty, M
Specialised pressure-relieving supports reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and the support surface. The comparative effectiveness of dynamic support surfaces is debated. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of using an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) on pressure ulcer (PU) incidence in patients receiving home-based care. A second aim was to determine the level of patient/family satisfaction with comfort and gain the views of the care team that used the APAM. The PARESTRY study was a prospective observational study conducted in patients with a high risk of PUs (Braden score prevention groups consisted of patients with no PU at baseline who were in bed for at least 20 hours a day. Patients at baseline with a category 3 or 4 PU or a category 1 or 2 PU in association with poor general health or end-of-life status were included in the secondary prevention group. All patients were laid on an APAM. The primary end point was the % of patients with a worsening skin condition in the pressure area (heel, sacrum, ischium) at day 90 or at the end of the study. The primary analysis was done on the full analysis set (patients included with at least a second assessment), using the last observation carried forward technique to handle missing data, at day 90. A 95% confidence interval was calculated. Analysis was performed on 92 patients (30 in primary prevention and 62 in secondary prevention). The average time spent in bed was 22.7 (SD 2.7) hours a day and 22.6 (SD 2.2) hours in the primary and secondary prevention groups, respectively. At baseline, in the secondary group, 77% of patients had a sacral PU, 63% a heel PU, 8% an ischial tuberosity PU and 45% a PU in another area, a number of patients having multiple PUs. In the primary prevention group, 63% (19/30) of patients dropped out of the study (5 were hospitalised, 9 died, 5 other causes). In the secondary prevention group, 61% (38/62) dropped out (7 were hospitalised, 23 died, 8
Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk
Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis
Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Rayamane, Anand P; Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda
Paraphenylenediamine poisoning is among one of the emerging causes of poisoning in Asian countries, because it is a constituent of hair dye formulations and is easily available in market at low cost. Hair dyes are rampantly used in Asian households compared with the western world. Locally, hair dye constituents may have allergic adverse effects, and acute systemic poisoning presents with characteristic angioedema, upper airway obstruction, rhabdomyolysis, methemoglobinemia, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. This study reports about the death of a 24-year-old Indian housewife who committed suicide by taking hair dye emulsion. She had an argument with her husband, and because of fit of rage, took a bowlful (80 mL) of hair dye emulsion kept prepared for the use by husband. She developed angioedema, cervical swelling, and rhabdomyolysis and died of acute renal failure within 24 hours. Toxicological analysis of viscera and blood revealed varying levels of paraphenylenediamine. Histopathological samples of kidney showed features of acute tubular necrosis and myoglobin casts in renal tubules. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the adverse effects of the hair dye, its poisoning outcome, and possible preventive measures.
Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires
Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.
van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P
Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent
Vagnby, Bo Hellisen
In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....
Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred
In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce
Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and
Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR
This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods
Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.
A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)
Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka
The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.
... and Control Website. Unintentional poisoning fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ injury/ wisqars/ . Accessed February 23, ... In-Depth Look at Keeping Young Children Safe Around Medicine. Washington, DC: Safe Kids Worldwide, ...
lavage, intravenous diazepam, mechanical ventilation when necessary, and occasionally inotropic infusions. Four patients suffered cardiac arrest during gastric lavage. There were 6 deaths (mortality 20.7%). Conclusions. This study indicates the common clinical features of acute chloroquine poisoning. A survival rate of.
van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.
In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without
Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.
Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P
This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.
Covington, Carolyn Frances; King, Joyce A; Fennell, Irnise; Jones, Chanel; Hutchinson, Charmaine; Evans, Annette
Despite advances in stroke treatment in the United States, stroke remains the third leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. About 780,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent stroke this year. Each year, about 60,000 more women than men have a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of first-ever strokes compared with Whites. Minority populations are less likely to know all stroke symptoms and far less likely to know all heart attack symptoms. There are many benefits of early treatment of stroke, yet most minorities do not get this treatment because they do not recognize the warning signs, risk factors, and prevention of stroke. The objective of this intervention course was to increase the students' knowledge and awareness of stroke, warning signs, risk factors, and prevention. Developing community-based stroke prevention intervention courses in minority communities is a good strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality and help to eliminate health disparities in minority communities.
Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.
Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606
Achour, Sanae; Khattabi, Asmae; Rhalem, Naïma; Ouammi, Lahcen; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani
The purpose of this paper is to describe the epidemiological profile of acute pesticide poisoning in children (APP) treated by the Moroccan Poison Control Center (CAPM) and to analyze death cases in order to determine factors predictive of severity. the study is based on a retrospective study of all cases of APP collected by the CAPM over a period of eighteen years (January 1990 to December 2008). Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors. 2,672 cases of childhood poisoning by pesticide were collected. The mean age was 5.6 ± 4.57 years. The sex ratio was 1.12. The cause of poisoning was accidental in 87.1% of cases, followed by attempted suicide (12.1%). Organophosphates were the most frequent poison (50.7%), followed by alpha-chloralose (26.5%). The case fatality rate was 3.3%. Mortality was attributed to organophosphates in 30 cases, followed by inorganic derivatives (7 cases) and carbamates (6 cases). A univariate analysis comparing survivors and groups who died showed that rural origin (p = 0.04), voluntary circumstances (p = 0.001), and the type of chemical class of pesticide (p < 0.001) significantly influence fatal poisoning. Acute pesticide poisoning among children is a reality in Morocco. Preventive measures may be needed.
Kim, Jung-Beom; Jeong, Hong-Rae; Park, Yong-Bae; Kim, Jae-Moung; Oh, Deog-Hwan
Bacillus cereus can cause diarrheal and emetic types of food poisoning but little study has been done on emetic type of food poisoning in Korea. The objective of this study was to report on the emetic type of food poisoning associated with B. cereus in Korea. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and antibiotic resistance of B. cereus isolates were investigated in this study. B. cereus was detected in three out of four samples, while the other food poisoning bacteria were not detected. All isolates (KUGH 10, 11, and 12) presented nhe A, B, and C diarrheal toxin genes (755, 743, and 683 bp), detected using NHA, NHB, and NHC primers, and ces emetic toxin gene (1271 bp), detected using CES primer, and produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin and emetic toxin (cereulide), detected using immunochemical assay and high performance liquid chromotography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) analysis. All emetic-associated isolates were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Most important finding in this study was that the risk of emetic-type B. cereus food poisoning has existed in Korea. This suggested that the food poisoning caused by B. cereus producing emetic and diarrheal toxins should be constantly evaluated to prevent misdiagnosis between emetic and diarrheal types of food poisoning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental poisoning is one of the leading causes of injury in the United States, second only to motor vehicle accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of accidental poisoning mortality have been increasing in the past fourteen years nationally. In Texas, mortality rates from accidental poisoning have mirrored national trends, increasing linearly from 1981 to 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are spatiotemporal clusters of accidental poisoning mortality among Texas counties, and if so, whether there are variations in clustering and risk according to gender and race/ethnicity. The Spatial Scan Statistic in combination with GIS software was used to identify potential clusters between 1980 and 2001 among Texas counties, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate risk differences. Results Several significant (p Conclusion The findings of the present study provide evidence for the existence of accidental poisoning mortality clusters in Texas, demonstrate the persistence of these clusters into the present decade, and show the spatiotemporal variations in risk and clustering of accidental poisoning deaths by gender and race/ethnicity. By quantifying disparities in accidental poisoning mortality by place, time and person, this study demonstrates the utility of the spatial scan statistic combined with GIS and regression methods in identifying priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Vangsness, Jane; Larimer, Mary E.
Objective: The aims of this study were to (1) determine recognition of and self-reported concern regarding alcohol poisoning symptoms versus other alcohol-related behaviors among students turning 21 years old, (2) assess the frequency of helping behavior among students in situations where peers display alcohol poisoning symptoms, (3) assess sources from which students seek help, and (4) consider reasons why students report reluctance to seek help. Method: Students (N = 306; 50% male) completed a Web-based self-report assessment during the week before their 21st birthday focusing on drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, concern for symptoms of alcohol poisoning, and observations of and experience with helping behavior. Results: Results indicated most students report having helped another student with symptoms of alcohol poisoning and show concern about the symptoms. Students most often seek help from other students and parents. When students do not help their peers, it is most often because of the perception that help is not needed. Heavier drinkers report a greater likelihood to help a peer showing symptoms of alcohol poisoning. Conclusions: Prevention professionals should incorporate students, friends, and parents in interventions that provide knowledge and helping strategies for alcohol poisoning symptoms. In addition, prevention efforts regarding alcohol poisoning should focus on heavy drinkers, as they are most likely to be in situations requiring help. Finally, administrators implementing medical amnesty policies should couple those policies with educational strategies aimed at recognition of alcohol poisoning symptoms. PMID:19538920
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Vangsness, Jane; Larimer, Mary E
The aims of this study were to (1) determine recognition of and self-reported concern regarding alcohol poisoning symptoms versus other alcohol-related behaviors among students turning 21 years old, (2) assess the frequency of helping behavior among students in situations where peers display alcohol poisoning symptoms, (3) assess sources from which students seek help, and (4) consider reasons why students report reluctance to seek help. Students (N = 306; 50% male) completed a Web-based self-report assessment during the week before their 21 st birthday focusing on drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, concern for symptoms of alcohol poisoning, and observations of and experience with helping behavior. Results indicated most students report having helped another student with symptoms of alcohol poisoning and show concern about the symptoms. Students most often seek help from other students and parents. When students do not help their peers, it is most often because of the perception that help is not needed. Heavier drinkers report a greater likelihood to help a peer showing symptoms of alcohol poisoning. Prevention professionals should incorporate students, friends, and parents in interventions that provide knowledge and helping strategies for alcohol poisoning symptoms. In addition, prevention efforts regarding alcohol poisoning should focus on heavy drinkers, as they are most likely to be in situations requiring help. Finally, administrators implementing medical amnesty policies should couple those policies with educational strategies aimed at recognition of alcohol poisoning symptoms.
Abel, Robert L; Warren, Kevin; Bean, Gloria; Gabbard, Bethany; Lyder, Courtney H; Bing, Mark; McCauley, Carol
Pressure ulcer prevalence, cost, associated mortality, and potential for litigation are major clinical problems in nursing homes despite guidelines for prevention and treatment. To improve the use of pressure ulcer prevention procedures at nursing homes in Texas through implementation of process of care system changes in collaboration with a state quality improvement organization (QIO). Preintervention and postintervention measurement of performance for process of care quality indicators and of pressure ulcer incidence rates. Twenty nursing homes in Texas. Quality improvement teams at participating nursing homes. Data were abstracted from medical records on performance measures (quality indicators) and pressure ulcer incidence rates between November 2000 and August 2002. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Process of care system changes consisting of tools and education to prevent pressure ulcers were introduced to participating nursing homes. Participating nursing homes showed statistically significant improvement in 8 out of 12 quality indicators. Pressure ulcer incidence rates also decreased, although not quite significantly. Furthermore, facilities with the greatest improvement in quality indicator scores had significantly lower pressure ulcer incidence rates than the facilities with the least improvement in quality indicator scores (S = 131.0, P = .03). This suggests that the interventions positively affected not only the process of care but also led to a decrease in pressure ulcer incidences. These results show that nursing homes in a collaborative effort with a QIO were able to improve their processes of care. Although significant improvement was noted on most of the quality indicators, opportunity remains for further improvement. Furthermore, these results suggest that implementation of process of care system changes by nursing homes in a collaborative relationship with a QIO may yield improvements in measures of patient outcome (eg, pressure
Edward J. Dill
Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.
Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria
Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Halder, Nabanita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar
The study was designed to analyze the incidence and pattern of pesticide poisoning calls reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC), AIIMS, New Delhi and highlight the common classes of pesticides involved in poisoning. The telephone calls received by the Centre during the thirteen year period (1999-2012) were entered into a preset proforma and then into a retrievable database. A total of 4929 calls of pesticide poisoning were recorded. The data was analyzed with respect to age, gender, mode and type of poisoning. The age ranged from 1 to 65 years with the preponderance of males (M = 62.19%, F = 37.80%). The age group mainly involved in poisoning was 18-35 years. While 59.38% calls pertained to household pesticides, 40.61% calls related to agricultural pesticides. The common mode of poisoning was intentional (64.60%) followed by accidental (34.40%) and unknown (1%). Amongst the household pesticides, the highest number of calls were due to pyrethroids (26.23%) followed by rodenticides (17.06%), organophosphates (6.26%), carbamates (4.95%) and others (4.86%). In agricultural pesticides group, the organophosphates (9.79%) ranked the first followed by, aluminium phosphide (9.65%), organochlorines (9.31%), pyrethroids (3.87%), herbicides, weedicides and fungicides (3.20%), ethylene dibromide (2.82%), and others (1.70%). The data analysis shows a high incidence of poisoning due to household pesticides as compared to agricultural pesticides, clearly emphasizing the need for creating awareness and education about proper use and implementation of prevention programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.
L. F. Arnot
Full Text Available The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine. Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed.
Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon monoxide poisoning go undetected and undiagnosed. We present a case of residential carbon monoxide poisoning to illustrate these points and to demonstrate the usefulness of a simple tool based on the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) that physicians can use to obtain an environmental exposure history. We outline the clinical management of carbon monoxide poisoning and provide strategies and resources to prevent exposure. PMID:12126326
Ammendola, A; Ammendola, E; Argenzio, F; Tedeschi, G
We report a six-year clinical and electrodiagnostic follow-up of an adolescent patient with acute thallium poisoning from attempted suicide. During the acute stage the patient showed gastrointestinal disturbances, alopecia, and clinical and electrodiagnostic signs of severe polyneuropathy. Three years after poisoning, his neurological symptomatology was making progress, and electrophysiologic signs of peripheral neuropathy were mainly confined to lower limbs. Six years after intoxication, he was still complaining of weakness and sensory disturbances at the level of distal lower extremities; his neurologic and electrodiagnostic abnormalities affected mainly the feet. In this case report we underline the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to prevent neurological damage and the role of serial electromyographic and nerve conduction studies in thallium poisoning. These investigations allowed the authors to depict the electrophysiologic course of peripheral nervous system involvement over six years following poisoning.
Podschun, G D
Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer e...
Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto
The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".
Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve
This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.
Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C Y; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju
Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services-such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services-remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors' results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health.
Kobidze, T S; Gerzmava, O Kh; Areshidze, T Kh; Tsintsadze, M A; Dikhamindzhiia, O B
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological aid and efficiency of preventive measures and methods in treatment of acute exogenous intoxications in hospitals in Tbilisi in 1990-2005. Structure of poisoning accidents in Tbilisi, its trends in last decade is analyzed and explained. The data were obtained in Georgian National Center for Disease Control and Medical statistics in Tbilisi. The study revealed that total number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning in Tbilisi exceeded the number of hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarction. In 1992-1994 Georgia was in severe social-economic crisis: the cases of acute poisoning increased and the number of hospitalizations had been reduced with concomitant longer hospital stay (in 1992--10.7 hospital days; in 1993-1994--13.7 hospital days), and higher mortality (in 1992--4%; in 1993--5.5%; 1994--5.2%). Low hospitalization rates in 1992-1994 should be explained by late patient referral to hospitals. Longer hospital stay was available due to free hospital care at that time. In 1995 with termination of free medical care number of hospitalized patients with acute intoxication raised annually; hospital stay shortened and mortality rate decreased. In 2003 mortality was reduced by 0.74% in Tbilisi. The prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication incidence was noticed. Therefore hospital stay decreases. High prevalence of acute alcoholic intoxication was explained by the growth of alcohol consumption; lack of quality control of beverage production resulting in huge amount of unconditioned and counterfeit substances in the market, etc. As to poisonings due to medical substances 42% of cases were intoxications with anticonvulsants, sedative and psychotropic preparations; 17% with cardiovascular drugs; and 10% with narcotic substances. It was found, that poisoning incidence and their outcome significantly depend on social-economical conditions in Georgia. Measures to improve toxicology care in the
Castelli, Darla M; Goss, David; Scherer, Jane; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen
This study assessed whether distributed interactive learning via web-based modules and grounded in schema and social cognitive theory (treatment group, n = 101) would increase knowledge about diabetes prevention in adolescents from three middle schools to a greater extent than the control group (n = 80) and examined whether the school environment used to convey the education had an effect. The treatment group showed substantially greater increases in overall and individual modular content knowledge, with 72 voluntarily choosing to retake evaluations that significantly improved their scores. The treatment (t[3.8], β ≥ 0.30, P school, pull out from physical education, or health education curriculum) (t[3.41], β ≥ 0.24, P learning was more effective than its passive counterpart, and a more structured delivery enhanced knowledge, as did opportunities to self-regulate learning. Attention to these process components will facilitate effective interventions by educators in schools.
Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.
Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...... environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...
Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta
Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.
Longo, E; Masellis, M; Fondi, G; Cedri, C; Debbia, C; Pitidis, A
Accidents and burns are a major problem in Italy and in industrialized countries, due to the consequences they have on health, especially in children aged 0-4 years. In Italy, about 400 people die each year from burns, with over 70% of these occurring in the home. In the European Union, burns are one of the top five causes of death from accidents, accounting for 3% of all deaths from accidents and violence in those age groups. One percent of all deaths in children are due to burns. In this paper, we illustrate the results of qualitative analysis, conducted according to the methodology of content analysis, on narratives included in the anamnesis of clinical papers at the ED in 738 cases of burns in children (0-14 years) observed in a sample of Emergency Departments in the years 2005-2009. The results of content analysis show that the most frequent mechanism that leads to burns is contact with hot liquids and heating surfaces. Much of preventive action should be directed at controlling the child. The accidental event descriptions for the younger age group (0-4 years) reveal an unequivocal responsibility of the parents. The qualitative analysis of narratives was carried out to produce scientific evidence to identify the more frequent and severe burn accidents for specific target/age groups and to establish specific preventive measures. The study of qualitative analysis of burns observed at the ED was introductory to the pilot project PRIUS (Preventing burns among school-aged children). The objective of PRIUS is to increase awareness of the risks of burns in children and adults through a learning path tailored towards their prevention, and the promotion of appropriate standards of personal safe behaviour and first aid actions.
Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L
Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.
Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A
Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.
Parker, W.G.; Ravets, J.M.; Preble, B.S.
A system to prevent supercriticality in nuclear power plants in the unlikely event of a core destructive accident terminating in the nuclear core meltdown is described. The system dilutes and poisons the molten core to maintain subcriticality, and is useful in mobile nuclear power plants, or in nuclear plants subject to seismic disturbances, where the orientation of the nuclear reactor after the accident is unknown. It is also applicable to alleviate the consequences of loss of coolant flow accidents from any cause. Aside from preventing supercriticality, the system serves the dual purpose of acting as a biological shield and/or structural member that reduces the deleterious effects of accidental core impaction, without compromising power plant weight and size constraints. A borated material, with a melting point greater than the fuel melting point, is inserted in the pressure vessel behind an inner wall. In the unlikely event of a core meltdown, the molten fuel melts through the inner wall and is diluted and poisoned by the borated material. In the event the molten fuel melts through the pressure vessel, additional borated material is provided to continue diluting and poisoning
An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)
Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Kaleekal, Thomas
A retrospective analysis of the poisoning calls received by the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) showed a total of 2,720 calls during a period of three years (April 1999-March 2002). Poisoning in children was reported in 995 calls (36.6%). The age ranged from less than 1 yr to 18 yr and the age groups involved were divided into four categories (0-6 yr, >6-12 yr, >12-16 yr, >16-18 yr). The most vulnerable age group included children from less than one year to 6 yr old. Males outnumbered females (M=628, F=367). Although the accidental mode was the commonest (79.7%), intentional attempts were also noticed (20.2%) in the >12-16 yr and >16-18 yr age groups. In the majority of cases, the route was oral (96.8%) followed by dermal exposure (3.2%) comprising bites and stings. Various types of agents belonged to classes of household products (47.0%), drugs (21.8%), industrial chemicals (7.9%), agricultural pesticides (9.1%), bites and stings (3.2%), plants (1.5%), miscellaneous products (5.3%) and unknown products (4.0%). The incidence of poisoning was highest due to household products comprising mainly pyrethroids, parad/thermometer mercury, rodenticides, phenyl, detergents and corrosives, etc. Poisoning due to drugs mainly included anticonvulsants, thyroid hormones, benzodiazepines, analgesics and oral contraceptives. Among the agricultural pesticides aluminium phosphide was the most commonly consumed, followed by organochlorines and organophosphates, etc. Paint thinners were common among industrial chemicals. Bites and stings were mainly snake bites and scorpion stings. Poisoning due to plants was low and Datura was commonly ingested. Although these data may not give an exact picture of the incidence rate in our country, due to underreporting of calls to the Centre and because the actual incidence might be higher or even variable, but they do give the trend in India, indicating that a strong emphasis should be placed on a prevention campaign which can at least
Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R
An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.
Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime.
Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J
Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires
Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Diaz, Julio; Hooyberghs, Hans
Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence. Methods We modelled the urban climate....... Results During the sample period 2009–2013 we observed an increase in daily mortality from a maximum daily temperature of 26 °C, or the 89th percentile of the maximum daily temperature series. The annual average heat-related mortality in this period was 13.4 persons (95% CI: 3.8–23.4). No effect of heat...... was observed in the case of hospital admissions due to cardiorespiratory causes. Under a no acclimatization scenario, annual average heat-related mortality is multiplied by a factor of 1.7 in the near future (24.1 deaths/year CI 95%: 6.78–41.94) and by a factor of 4.5 in the far future (60.38 deaths/year CI 95...
Golonka, Megan M; Peairs, Kristen F; Malone, Patrick S; Grimes, Christina L; Costanzo, Philip R
In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process. The goals of the intervention were to induce substance resistant self-persuasion in the leaders and to produce a spread of this resistance effect to their peer followers. To test the intervention, we compared the substance use behaviors of the selected leaders and their peers to a control cohort. The study found preliminary support that the intervention produced changes in the substance use behavior among the leaders who participated in the intervention, but did not detect a spread to non-leader peers in the short term. This descriptive study speaks to the plausibility of employing self-persuasion paradigms to bring about change in high-risk behaviors among highly central adolescents. In addition, it highlights the viability of applying social psychological principles to prevention work and calls for more research in this area.
Wilson, R C; Saunders, P J; Smith, G
To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non-intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish
Frost James L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends over two decades in a preliminary assessment of their independence and implications for suicide misclassification. Methods Description of overall and gender- and age-specific trends using national mortality data from WISQARS, the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Subjects were the 936,633 residents dying in the 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1987 and 2006 whose underlying cause of death was classified as suicide, unintentional poisoning, or injury mortality of undetermined intent. Results The official US suicide rate declined 18% between 1987 and 2000, from 12.71 to 10.43 deaths per 100,000 population. It then increased to 11.15 deaths per 100,000 by 2006, a 7% rise. By contrast to these much smaller rate changes for suicide, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate rose more than fourfold between 1987 and 2006, from 2.19 to 9.22 deaths per 100,000. Only the population aged 65 years and older showed a sustained decline in the suicide rate over the entire observation period. Consistently highest in gender-age comparisons, the elderly male rate declined by 35%. The elderly female rate declined by 43%. Unlike rate trends for the non-elderly, both declines appeared independent of corresponding mortality trends for unintentional poisoning and poisoning of undetermined intent. The elderly also deviated from younger counterparts by having a smaller proportion of their injury deaths of undetermined intent classified as poisoning
Gehlbach, S H; Wall, J B
We reviewed medical records of 53 children who ingested poison and were treated as inpatients and 107 who were treated as outpatients in a Southeastern community hospital. Findings included a much higher incidence of petroleum distillate poisoning than is found nationally, and a low frequency of aspirin ingestions. Data on packaging of the poisons indicate that one third was stored in food containers. Of the products encountered, 33% currently require safety packaging but were found in obsolete containers.
Mueller, M.; Borland, C.
Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood c...
... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...
VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas
Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.
This study deals with the chapter on poisons (Sümum) of Gunyetü'l-Muhassilin, a translation, and a pamphlet on antidotes called Panzehir, by Ahmed Sani, one of the most prominent figures of the Ottoman physicians. As a foreword, the terminology related with the subject; and an introduction to the Islamic medical theory, the basis of the subject, is discussed. The main topics on poisons are; protection against and treatment of poisons; being poisoned by the sting of insects, snakes etc. and diseases such as rabies, as a result of bites of animals and their treatment; treatment of poisoned suppuration; insecticide drugs and measures; and common drugs against all kinds of poisons. Immunization and nutrition with respect to being poisoned; and preventive measures against insects; and mineral and organic antidotes are also discussed. The classification of diseases and treatment ase evaluated on the humoral theory basis. The treatment of insect poisoning is viewed from the perspective of its symptoms. The pamphlet named Panzehir is about a special antidote, the bezoar stone. This antidote is divided into two, of the mineral and the animal origin and the uses of the bezoar are discussed. A vocabulary is added to help readers to understand the terminology.
... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...
Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Nuvials, X; Gimeno, R; Catalán, M; Gracia Arnillas, M P; Seijas Betolaza, I; Palomar Martínez, M
To analyze epidemiological data of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in critically ill patients admitted to Spanish ICUs in order to assess the need of implementing a nationwide intervention program to reduce these infections. Non-intervention retrospective annual period prevalence analysis. Participating ICUs in the ENVIN-UCI multicenter registry between the years 2007-2016. Critically ill patients admitted to the ICU with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Incidence rates per 1,000 catheter-days; urinary catheter utilization ratio; proportion of CAUTIs in relation to total health care-associated infections (HAIs). A total of 187,100 patients, 137,654 (73.6%) of whom had a urinary catheter in place during 1,215,673 days (84% of days of ICU stay) were included. In 4,539 (3.3%) patients with urinary catheter, 4,977 CAUTIs were diagnosed (3.6 episodes per 100 patients with urinary catheter). The CAUTI incidence rate showed a 19% decrease between 2007 and 2016 (4.69 to 3.8 episodes per 1,000 catheter-days), although a sustained urinary catheter utilization ratio was observed (0.84 [0.82-0.86]). The proportion of CAUTI increased from 23.3% to 31.9% of all HAIs controlled in the ICU. Although CAUTI rates have declined in recent years, these infections have become proportionally the first HAIs in the ICU. The urinary catheter utilization ratio remains high in Spanish ICUs. There is room for improvement, so that a CAUTI-ZERO project in our country could be useful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.
Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G
In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.
Arie Y Nemet
Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar
Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia
Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.
Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris
In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.
Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, Maria Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia
Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas
The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.
Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita
Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community
Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Runyan, Carol W.; Baccaglini, Lorena; Perkis, David; Johnson, Renee M.
Background Most unintentional childhood poisonings and firearm injuries occur in residential environments. Therefore, a preventive strategy includes limiting children’s access to poisons and firearms through safe storage. This study examines storage of poisons and firearms among households with older adults, and households where young children reside compared to those where they visit only. Methods Sample is from a 2002 national random-digit-dial survey of 1003 households. Analyses were weighted to reflect the national population. Results There were 637 households with children residents or visitors aged Poisons and firearms were stored less securely in homes with young children as visitors as compared to those homes with resident young children. In 55% of homes where young children lived, and 74% of homes where young children were only visitors, household chemicals were reportedly stored unlocked. Although firearm ownership was comparable between the two categories of households (33% vs 34%), homes in which children were only visitors were more likely to store firearms unlocked (56%), than homes in which children resided (33%). Homes with older adult residents had more firearms present. Conclusions Children are at risk from improperly stored poisonous substances and firearms in their own homes and homes they visit. Strategies are needed to improve the storage practices of both poisons and firearms to minimize in-home hazards to young children, particularly raising awareness of these hazards to young visitors. PMID:15626565
Abdullat, Emad M; Hadidi, Mu'men S; Alhadidi, Nazir; Al-Nsour, Thair Suleiman; Hadidi, Kamal A
A prospective autopsy study addressing fatal poisoning with agricultural and horticultural pesticides was undertaken in Jordan over a 4 year period. A total number of 140 deaths occurred during 1999-2002. The mean fatality rate was 0.68 case per 100,000 population and the age range was 2-55 years; mean 28.3 years with male to female ratio 1.03. The largest number of cases occurred in those 20-29 years (n=69, 49.3%) followed by the age group 30-39 years (n=34, 24.3%) and 40-49 years (n=17, 12.1%). Less than 3.0% of the total fatal poisoning was noticed in both children younger than 9 years of age and those in the age group 50-59 years, with no fatal poisoning in adults at the age 60 years and above. At least 64.3% of all pesticide fatalities were due to suicide with male: female ratio (1.37:1). Accidental and homicide poisoning resulted in 24.3% and 7.9% of the total fatalities, respectively; however, only five cases 3.6% of fatal poisoning were due to unknown pesticides. The main pesticide used was carbamates with 110 cases 78.6% followed by organophosphorus 23 cases 16.4%. The study showed that the present legislation on pesticides availability in Jordan failed to reduce the number of fatal pesticides poisoning since the number of fatal pesticides poisoning was increased from 25.3 to 35 cases per year over a 20 years period. Enforcement of a new legislation addressing the availability of agricultural and horticultural pesticides for self-harm, especially carbamates and organophosphorus, is the most important strategy in the long term to prevent fatal pesticides poisoning in Jordan.
Bugaj, Till Johannes
Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.
El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan
This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical