Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.
Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L
Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
... NIH/National Institute of Mental Health – Division of AIDS Research SAMHSA – Behavioral Health and HIV/AIDS SAMHSA – Suicide ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ...
... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and ... a friend. Return to top More information on Good mental health Read more from womenshealth.gov Action ...
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
... NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Share NAMI Share Home ... Support Diverse Communities Latinos IN THIS SECTION La salud mental en la comunidad latina Latino Mental Health Video ...
... Health Promotion . Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Chronic Illness & Mental Health . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes ... of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007; ...
... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
vab, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Mental health conceptualize a state of well-being, perceived self efficacy, competence, autonomy, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one's intellectual and emotional potential. Mental health care are services provided to individuals or communities by agents of the health services or professions to promote, maintain, monitor, or restore mental health. Students will become familiar with extensiveness of the problem, and levels of preventing it. It is illustra...
... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon discusses NIMH priorities and future directions in mental health research. More Autism Awareness Month Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl
areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Summary Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services....... Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...
Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen
The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...
Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.
... and Family Members For Educators For Community and Faith Leaders Conversations in Your Community How To Get Help Get Immediate Help Help for Veterans and Their Families Health Insurance and Mental Health Services Participate in a ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet outlines the signs of poor mental health and suggests steps that people can take to promote good mental health. It advises people to talk to someone if they feel that they may have a mental health problem.
Bonelli, Raphael Maria
Since 1978, two systematic evidence-based reviews of the available data on religiosity and mental health in the field of psychiatry have been done. More than 70 % found a relationship between level of religious/spiritual involvement and less mental disorder (positive), some found mixed results (positive and negative), and only about 5 % reported more mental disorder (negative), as was originally suggested by Sigmund Freud. There is good evidence that religious involvement is correlated with better mental health in the areas of depression, substance abuse, and suicide; some evidence in stress-related disorders and dementia; insufficient evidence in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and no data in many other mental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija
Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim
This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).
hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric......In 2010, I began a PhD study to examine how professionals and patients talked to—and about—each other in mental health institutions in Denmark. One year later, I found myself chain-smoking, dressed in baggy clothing, and slouching on a sofa in a closed psychiatric ward. I had not myself been...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...
... violence (IPV) and women veterans More information on women veterans and mental health Recent research shows that about 25to 30 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan report symptoms of a mental disorder. Untreated mental ...
Health promotion is essential to improve the health status and quality of life of individuals. Promoting mental health at an individual, community and policy level is central to reducing the incidence of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicide. Men may be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, in part because they are less likely to seek help from healthcare professionals. Although this article discusses mental health promotion and related strategies in general, th...
Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C
The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne
This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P
With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Gruebner, Oliver; Rapp, Michael A; Adli, Mazda; Kluge, Ulrike; Galea, Sandro; Heinz, Andreas
More than half of the global population currently lives in cities, with an increasing trend for further urbanization. Living in cities is associated with increased population density, traffic noise and pollution, but also with better access to health care and other commodities. This review is based on a selective literature search, providing an overview of the risk factors for mental illness in urban centers. Studies have shown that the risk for serious mental illness is generally higher in cities compared to rural areas. Epidemiological studies have associated growing up and living in cities with a considerably higher risk for schizophrenia. However, correlation is not causation and living in poverty can both contribute to and result from impairments associated with poor mental health. Social isolation and discrimination as well as poverty in the neighborhood contribute to the mental health burden while little is known about specific interactions between such factors and the built environment. Further insights on the interaction between spatial heterogeneity of neighborhood resources and socio-ecological factors is warranted and requires interdisciplinary research.
... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...
The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.
In the United Kingdom, contemporary mental health rehabilitation services evolved during the period of deinstitutionalisation. They focus on people with complex psychosis, a "low volume, high needs" group which is at risk of social exclusion. Without these specialist services, this group is at risk of becoming stuck in a hospital or in other facilities that do not enable them to achieve their optimal level of autonomy. When a "whole system" of rehabilitative care is provided, including specialist inpatient facilities and supported accommodation, the majority are able to progress in their recovery and live successfully in the community. Rehabilitation is a complex intervention; current and further research is needed to identify the specific aspects of treatment and support it delivers that are most effective in enabling recovery and social inclusion for those with the most complex and long-term mental health needs.
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.
The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear
van Gastel, W.A.
Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K
pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...... that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result...
Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda
Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.
Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.
Smith, A P
The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.
Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation. Part II. Activity-based costing. ABR Janse van Rensburg1, W Jassat2. 1Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
Stewart, Carmen López
This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).
Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.
Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.
This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…
Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel
Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...
Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J
Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires
Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...
Introduction. Reliable data is necessary to facilitate the effective planning, management and restructuring of mental health care facilities. Access to accurate information on clinical conditions, treatment outcomes and expenditure is essential to ensure accountability, quality and cost-effective mental health care. This article is ...
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Pedro Costa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco.METHOD: In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX, Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and Mortality Information System (SIM.RESULTS: The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected.CONCLUSION: The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.
de Albuquerque, Pedro Costa Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Gurgel, Aline do Monte; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; de Siqueira, Marília Teixeira
Understanding the epidemiologic profile of a particular disease is key to undertake health actions. To that end, information systems that present quality data help in the decision-making process and demonstrate the impact of the problems. To analyze the contribution of health information systems for the characterization of pesticide poisoning through SINAN, CEATOX and SIM in the State of Pernambuco. In this study, the completeness and consistency of the data were assessed, as well as the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in Pernambuco in the period from 2008 to 2012, based on the following Health Information Systems: Center for Toxicological Assistance of Pernambuco (CEATOX), Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and Mortality Information System (SIM). The data revealed incompleteness and inconsistencies in information. Regarding the profile, females are more affected in the morbidity profile, and men have a higher mortality rate. Poisoning was more frequent in young adults with low educational level. With regard to the circumstances, most of the cases were suicide attempts, unique acute cases and not related to work. Despite suggesting underreporting, the data showed that persons engaged in agriculture are most commonly affected. The strengthening of these systems is necessary for the generation of consistent information that support health policies for the population groups involved.
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet
Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.
... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Lucero, John A.
The goals of the School Mental Health Consultation Program, a cooperative effort of the Children and Youth Service at High Plains Mental Health Center and the Unified School District 489 in Hays, Kansas, are to evaluate students' behavioral problems, to assess how students' difficulties affect teachers, and to help the consultee assess the…
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S
Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
mental illness in the regional population HJH is supposed to serve. Therefore, only an analysis of trends for specific cohorts of in-patient users was possible. Both studies - the current review as well as the previous pilot, were retrospective descriptive clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training.
Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...
... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...
Lora, A.; Sharan, P.
Background. Information is needed for development of mental health (MH) services; and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), where the MH systems are relatively weak. World Health Organization (WHO) has worked intensively during the last 15 years for developing a strategy in the field of MH information. Methods. The paper analyzes WHO instruments developed in this area [MH Atlas series and WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)]. Results. Data from ...
legislation humane treatment for the mentally ill. In 1913 there was a .... way, the person leaves his village and his com- munity at a time when he is ..... fective treatment? How might we predict if an epileptic patient may commit murder? We have in our mental hospital population a number of people who have murdered while ...
Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon
Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193
Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....
Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.
... tools and materials offering practical ways to help adolescent girls and adult women achieve better physical, mental, ... org Spanish-speaking operators available National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 1-847-831-3438 9: ...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hewitt, J L
Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.
Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.
... 8255) . Health Topics and Resources Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide Prevention Attention Deficit ...
Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is
Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal
Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251
... Article: Readmission After Pediatric Mental Health Admissions. Article: Care Coordination for Youth With Mental Health Disorders in Primary... Article: Increased prescription rates of anxiolytics and hypnotics ...
Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...
Introduction. To assess the use of space requires the review of activities performed and functions executed. The assessment of the use and structuring of space for acute mental health care necessitates the review of all operational areas and related activities incorporated in the care program. At the same time appropriate ...
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Cachia, John M.;
Mental ill-health imposes a huge burden on individuals, their families, society, health systems and the economy. Mental health care remains a neglected area of health policy in too many countries. This statement by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2014) confirms the overall bleak assessment of the reaction to mental ill-health that prevails worldwide even in well-developed economies. Mental ill-health has accompanying costs in terms o...
Richard Frank; Thomas G. McGuire
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mental health treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mental health services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among adult and child criminal justice populations. The association between serious mental illness and violence and arrest...
... HealthPersistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)Managing Daily StressDepressionGrieving: Facing Illness, Death, and Other LossesTherapy and CounselingUnderstanding Your Teen’s Emotional HealthGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental ...
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ISBN 978-92-837-2022-5 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only by those organisations or individuals...Health Status on Military Fitness, HFM-164/RTG on Psychological Aspects of Health Behaviours on Deployed Military Operations, HFM-175/RTG Medically...dstl.gov.uk Dr. R. (Roos) DELAHAIJ Research Scientist, Behavioural Societal Sciences TNO P.O. Box 23, Kampweg 5 3769 ZE, Soesterberg
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
Chen, Martin K.
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D
Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.
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Miller, Charles W; Whitcomb, Robert C; Ansari, Armin; McCurley, Carol; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B; Jones, Robert
On November 23, 2006, former Russian military intelligence officer Alexander Litvinenko died in a London hospital. Authorities determined he was deliberately poisoned with the radionuclide Polonium-210 (210Po). Police subsequently discovered that those involved in this crime had--apparently inadvertently--spread 210Po over many locations in London. The United Kingdom Health Protection Agency (HPA) contacted many persons who might have been exposed to 210Po and provided voluntary urine testing. Some of those identified as potentially exposed were U.S. citizens, whom the HPA requested that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assist in contacting. CDC also provided health care professionals and state and local public health officials with guidance as to how they might respond should a Litvinenko-like incident occur in the U.S. This guidance has resulted in the identification of a number of lessons that can be useful to public health and medical authorities in planning for radiological incidents. Eight such lessons are discussed in this article.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria
One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.
van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.
This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Stein, Dan J; Giordano, James
Global mental health is a relatively new field that has focused on disparities in mental health services across different settings, and on innovative ways to provide feasible, acceptable, and effective services in poorly-resourced settings. Neuroethics, too, is a relatively new field, lying at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience; it has studied the implications of neuroscientific findings for age-old questions in philosophy, as well as questions about the ethics of novel neuroscientific methods and interventions. In this essay, we address a number of issues that lie at the intersection of these two fields: an emphasis on a naturalist and empirical position, a concern with both disease and wellness, the importance of human rights in neuropsychiatric care, and the value of social inclusion and patient empowerment. These different disciplines share a number of perspectives, and future dialogue between the two should be encouraged.
Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte
Purpose of review\\ud The aim was to synthesise recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).\\ud \\ud Recent findings\\ud There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMIC are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare. Family supp...
At the point of civilization where we find ourselves today, in the post-modernity conditions, the responsibility of civil society is a determining factor in the overall politic of mental health. More than ever we have to think of health and mental health in particular in terms of a social dynamics where the participation of social groups and individuals in the responsibility for collective health has priority over the structures of state and institutional interventions. The responsibilities of the state, the institutions and professionals are therefore displaced and redefined while new rights emerge and with them the need for more information and control for the users who pay for health services with their taxes. The concern to adapt a system now anachronistic can only increases the problems of a society responsible for its obsolescence. The social and human costs of the radical changes needed, will in the short term, be socially less burdensome than the consequences of illusory adaptations. In this area, we can expect that nothing will be effective without the mobilisation by the state of the collective responsabilities for a social involvement in public health.
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment f...
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B
The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette
analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...
Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
... normal or healthy. For example, if you have bipolar disorder, you might think your mood swings are just ... patient-with-mental-symptoms. Accessed June 10, 2016. Bipolar disorder. The National Institute of Mental Health. https://www. ...
Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.
Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…
Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua
The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.
Abdolsattar Shahi; Ibrahim Ghaffari; Khalil Ghasemi
Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-...
... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Cook, R J; Ortega-Ortiz, A; Romans, S; Ross, L E
Where legal systems allow therapeutic abortion to preserve women's mental health, practitioners often lack access to mental health professionals for making critical diagnoses or prognoses that pregnancy or childcare endangers patients' mental health. Practitioners themselves must then make clinical assessments of the impact on their patients of continued pregnancy or childcare. The law requires only that practitioners make assessments in good faith, and by credible criteria. Mental disorder includes psychological distress or mental suffering due to unwanted pregnancy and responsibility for childcare, or, for instance, anticipated serious fetal impairment. Account should be taken of factors that make patients vulnerable to distress, such as personal or family mental health history, factors that may precipitate mental distress, such as loss of personal relationships, and factors that may maintain distress, such as poor education and marginal social status. Some characteristics of patients may operate as both precipitating and maintaining factors, such as poverty and lack of social support.
Rakesh Kumar Chadda
Full Text Available Community mental health refers to the treatment of persons with mental disorders in the community. In the earlier periods, treatment of patients with mental illness was limited to the mental hospitals or asylums. This paper traces the beginnings of community psychiatry in India from the time Dr. Vidya Sagar initiated his famous experiment of treating patients with mental illnesses along with family members in tents outside the mental hospital, Amritsar. It then discusses the role of the National Mental Health Program and the District Mental Health Program. The role of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability in leading onto the development of the current Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 is discussed. Authors critically evaluate some of the merits and drawbacks of the Bill as related to recent developments in community mental health in India.
Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana
Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...
Riek, Laurel D.
This chapter discusses the existing and future use of robotics and intelligent sensing technology in mental health care. While the use of this technology is nascent in mental health care, it represents a potentially useful tool in the practitioner's toolbox. The goal of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the field, discuss the recent use of robotics technology in mental health care practice, explore some of the design issues and ethical issues of using robots in this space, and fi...
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...
The health impacts of climate change are being increasingly recognized, but mental health is often excluded from this discussion. In this issue we feature a collection of articles on climate change and mental health that highlight important directions for future research.
... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...
Blue, I; Harpham, T
It is expected that the urban population in developing countries will double in the next 30 years. While urbanization is accompanied by health problems, population density can lower public health costs. Common mental disorders, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue, irritability, and poor memory, account for 90% of all mental disorders, cause behavioral problems in offspring, and impede recovery from physical ailments. Those who suffer most from common mental disorders include women, those between 15 and 49 years old, and low-income populations. Strong links have been established between socioenvironmental factors and common mental disorders, and an urban environment has been associated with many possible risk factors for such disorders. Only a small percentage of people with mental disorders seek primary health care and even less receive secondary- or tertiary-level care. Common mental disorders place a large burden on primary health care services, however, but most of the patients suffering from mental disorders seek care for physical disorders that mask proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the World Health Organization advocates the introduction of mental health components in primary health care services in developing countries. In order to reach those who remain outside of the health care system, community-based interventions such as self-help groups or efforts to promote wider social changes or address poverty should be undertaken. Mental health in developing countries is gaining attention as the attendant loss in economic productivity of human capital has become apparent.
.... Exploring issues covering psychological, social, and cultural aspects of mental health problems, it looks at epidemiological data that shows increased frequency in different clinical aspects of many...
Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K
to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...
Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala
To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on
Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available The concept of positive mental health represents not merely the absence of mental disease but presence of high level of happiness and well-being. In this paper we mentioned shortly the earliest concept of mental health, presented by Marie Jahoda in the mid-twentieth century. After that, we described two traditions in understanding and researching of subjective well-being: hedonic and eudaimonic approach. First approach focuses on investigation of positive affects and happiness as emotional and life satisfaction as cognitive component of subjective well-being. Second tradition emphasizes potentials and competences that person develops to the highest level, in personal and social area. Both psychological and social well-being are core concept of positive mental health psychology, designated together as positive functioning. The psychological well-being comprises six dimensions: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, environmental mastery, autonomy, purpose of life and personal growth. Social well-being consists of five dimensions: social integration, social acceptance, social contribution, social actualization and social coherence. By integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as well as absence of mental disease, Corey Keyes introduced concept of complete mental health. People with complete mental health have reported absence of disease during past year and presence of high level of emotional, psychological and social well-being (flourishing. People with incomplete mental health have also reported absence of mental disease but low level of positive functioning (languishing. Keyes thought there are people with complete and incomplete mental illness; both groups report presence of mental disease, but second group has high level of positive functioning. Models of positive mental health are widely used in research studies as well as in programs for prevention and promotion of mental health. .
Ryan, Brigid; Goding, Margaret; Fenner, Patricia; Percival, Steven; Percival, Wendy; Latai, Leua; Petaia, Lisi; Pulotu-Endemann, Fuimaono Karl; Parkin, Ian; Tuitama, George; Ng, Chee
To pilot an art and mental health project with Samoan and Australian stakeholders. The aim of this project was to provide a voice through the medium of art for people experiencing mental illness, and to improve the public understanding in Samoa of mental illness and trauma. Over 12 months, a series of innovative workshops were held with Samoan and Australian stakeholders, followed by an art exhibition. These workshops developed strategies to support the promotion and understanding of mental health in Samoa. Key stakeholders from both art making and mental health services were engaged in activities to explore the possibility of collaboration in the Apia community. The project was able to identify the existing resources and community support for the arts and mental health projects, to design a series of activities aimed to promote and maintain health in the community, and to pilot these programs with five key organizations. This project demonstrates the potential for art and mental health projects to contribute to both improving mental health and to lowering the personal and social costs of mental ill health for communities in Samoa. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Kutcher, S.; Gilberds, H.; Morgan, C.; Greene, R.; Hamwaka, K.; Perkins, K.
Background. Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Methods. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called ?An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania?, we culturally adapted a previously demons...
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... and sychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle......, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline) and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive...
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Huang, Yuanguang; Thornicroft, Graham
In order to reduce the huge treatment gap in mental health, WHO has called for integrating mental health into primary care. The purposes of this study are to provide a training course to improve the community mental health staff's knowledge of mental health and reduce stigma related to mental illness, as well as to evaluate the impact of this training on knowledge and stigma. The training intervention was a one day course for community mental health staff in Guangzhou, China. Evaluation questionnaires were given before and after the training session. Mental health knowledge was assessed using two vignettes. Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). A total of 99 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou, China were recruited for the study. The training course did not lead to a significant improvement of participants' levels of mental health knowledge. The mean score of MICA decreased from 47.92 ± 8.63 to 43.53 ± 9.61 after the training (t = 6.64, P training course is an effective way to improve community mental health staff's attitudes toward people with mental illness in the short term, as well as to lessen the social distance between staff and people with mental illness.
Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad
Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research wo...
Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo
Migration is an important risk factor for the development of common and severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, in Europe, immigrants are less likely to access community mental health care and to adhere to treatments, with consequent emergency referrals, involuntary admissions, and traumatic coercive measures. At a clinical level, changes in practices and cross-cultural skills of mental health professionals might be crucial in addressing this challenge.
Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Sartorius, Norman
To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services. Urbanization is a global and growing phenomenon that pose significant challenges to mental health and mental health services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services, and to develop new forms of mental health services adjusted to urban settings. Regrettably there are no universally accepted guidelines that would help governments in structuring health services for people with mental illness in towns and help to prevent mental health problems related to rapid urbanization.
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The deaths of mentally ill patients transferred from Life. Esidimeni health facilities in Gauteng province, South. Africa to 27 unlicensed non- governmental organizations. (NGOs) is a sober reflection of how we as a society perceive and care for mentally ill people. As of 15 February 2017, the. Health ombudsman Professor.
The professionalization of psychology yielded many advantages, but also led to a main focus on psychopathology in mental health care. This thesis investigated an additional positive approach to mental health, focusing on positive feelings and life satisfaction (emotional well-being) and optimal
We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, J.D.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
Objectives: The relationships between wisdom and age and between wisdom and mental health are complex with empirical results often inconsistent. We used a lifespan sample and broad, psychometrically sound measures of wisdom and mental health to test for possible age trends in wisdom and its
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...
Grandjean Bamberger, Simon; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...... of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...
Williams, S S; Hewage, S N; Karandawala, I R
To review the number of research publications in the field of mental health in Sri Lanka from 1900 to 2009. A search of all publications in psychiatry and mental health from Sri Lanka was conducted using Pubmed, all medical journals published in Sri Lanka and researchers. The identified papers were reviewed for their content and categorised as research in psychiatry and mental health, based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 207 papers were identified. The first mental health research publication from Sri Lanka is in 1964. The last decade (2000-2009) accounted for 62% of the publications with the majority of the papers being published in indexed journals. The Ceylon Medical Journal carried the most number of papers and the topic on which most of the research was conducted was suicide and deliberate self harm. There is an increasing trend towards research in to psychiatry and mental health in Sri Lanka.
Masoe, Paula; Bush, Allister
This paper describes background to the development of the relatively new field of infant mental health and why this may be important for Pacific communities in Aotearoa/New Zealand (NZ) and elsewhere. There is a discussion of Samoan concepts and research that could inform infant mental health theory and practice. A Pacific home visiting programme based at Taeaomanino Trust in Porirua, Aotearoa/NZ has formed a collaboration with child and adolescent mental health service clinicians with an interest in infant mental health, to further develop infant mental health understandings and practices in this early intervention service. The benefits and practical application of this collaboration are discussed. The paper ends with a personal perspective from one of the authors on her Samoan reflection on the relevance of attachment ideas to her family relationships and work with Pacific infants, mothers and their families.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor...... decision latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.......OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas
Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.
Szmukler, G; Bach, M
Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.
Magalhães, Andrea Franco Amoras; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra
Poisoning is a worldwide public health problem that involves individuals of all ages and a wide range of chemicals. This study investigated the data from two health information systems to characterize poisoning events in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. Data related to the period from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from the poison information center (Centro de Informação Toxicológica, CIT) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) of the DF. A total of 3622 cases were reported to CIT-DF and 5702 cases to SINAN-DF. Most of the cases in CIT-DF (53%) occurred with children up to 9 years old, while this corresponded to 33.9% in SINAN-DF. Unintentional poisoning was the main circumstance involved in the cases. Pharmaceuticals were the main agent (44.3-47.1% of the cases), mainly clonazepan and paracetamol, and pesticides the most fatal (2.4% fatality rate). Out of the 47 fatal cases reported to the systems, only four were reported to both; six cases occurred with children up to 6 years. Under-reporting and missing information were identified in both systems, but the data were complementary to describe the epidemiology of poisoning cases in the DF.
To assist in improving team working in Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs), the Mental Health Commission formulated a user-friendly but yet-to-be validated 25-item Mental Health Team Development Audit Tool (MHDAT).
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
The origins and evolution of psychiatry as a medical discipline since the end of the 18th century have been influenced by society's beliefs about the 'nature of man', the dominant forms of social organisation, and the level of technology which could be mobilised to modify human behaviour. These are also the themes from which politics develop. Throughout the past two centuries and up to the present day, two distinct streams can be traced in the political history of psychiatry: first, psychiatry as social control of deviance; and secondly, psychiatry as advocacy of the 'right to be different'. The 'third psychiatric revolution' which is now in progress in many parts of the world has been inspired by the second set of beliefs. It has already produced positive effects on the quality of life of many patients but is also experiencing certain setbacks. The extent to which the new approach to mental health care delivery will benefit patients and society depends not so much on psychiatry as a discipline as on the perceptions and actions of politicians.
Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.
Full Text Available This paper considers indications and obstacles for the development of primary mental health care practice in both developed and under-developed countries. Both are considered as this represents the South African reality. While a significant body of literature has documented the need for primary mental health care, the obstacles (especially in terms of the commodification of health to its fruition are seldom addressed.
Jessecae K. Marsh PhD; Amanda L. Romano BA
Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Ponce, Allison N; Rowe, Michael
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members. We then discuss our citizenship research at both individual and social-environmental levels, including previous, current, and planned efforts. We also discuss the role of community psychology and psychologists in advancing citizenship and other themes relevant to a citizenship perspective on mental health care and persons with mental illness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
The wide-ranging benefits of physical activity for consumers with mental illness are acknowledged within the mental health nursing field; however, this is not commonly translated to practice. The primary aim of this paper is to argue that mental health nurses are well positioned to, and should, provide leadership in promoting physical activity to improve the quality of care for people with mental illness. Topics addressed in this paper include the relationship between physical activity and both physical and mental health, the views and experiences of consumers with physical activity, the efficacy of physical activity interventions, the attitudes of nurses to physical activity as a component of care, barriers to a physical activity focus in care for mental illness, and the role of mental health nurses in promoting physical activity. There is a clear and important relationship between physical activity and mental health. Mental health nurses are well positioned to encourage and assist consumers to engage in physical activity, although they might lack the educational preparation to perform this role effectively. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children.
Stotland, Nada Logan
Reproductive rights are essential to the recognition/treatment of women as full-fledged human beings/citizens. Barriers to reproductive rights pose a grave danger to women's well-being. This article explores the origins of these barriers, their nature, and their impact on mental health. The most controversial relationship is between induced abortion and mental health. Barriers, misinformation, and coercion affecting contraceptive, abortion, and pregnancy care are an ongoing danger to women's mental health and the well-being of their families. Mental health professionals are best qualified, and have an obligation, to know the facts, apply them, and provide accurate information to protect women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treatment innovation in mental health is a major public-health priority. A specific sub-challenge underlying the development of new treatments is the use of digital technologies to support mental health interventions. In addition to the potential benefits of increased access to care and reduced
Most developing countries and indeed many African countries have been undertaking reforms of the mental health policies and strategies to improve access and equity for the community to mental health and psychiatric services. This has been in conformity with a health policy philosophy which emphasize decentralization ...
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
rates of mental illness and low knowledge is arguably even more discordant. A South African study, that formed part of an international survey of mental health advocacy group members suffering from mood and anxiety disorders, revealed that most participants waited 3-5 years before seeking help and stated reasons such ...
Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A
Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope.
Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments
Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alvarez Amaya, M; Ackall, G; Pingitore, N; Quiroga, M; Terrazas-Ponce, B
Human exposure to environmental hazards is a major public health problem along the US-Mexico border due to socioeconomic, cultural and political factors. Childhood lead exposure is endemic in areas of extreme poverty and substandard housing. Hispanic children of indigent, poorly-educated, disenfranchised families are at disproportionate risk. Risk management is contingent upon consideration of the interrelationships between socioeconomics, politics, and culture. This case study explains childhood lead poisoning in a colonia family living at subsistence level from such a perspective. The purpose of the study was to identify, explain, and ameliorate lead exposure pathways. Case study methodology was used to support or refute the proposition that these children were exposed to occupational lead. The children were the study sampling unit and the family a subunit. An embedded single case explanatory design was appropriate. Data were collected from exposure surveys, environmental and blood specimens, and review of medical records. Pattern-matching and explanation-building techniques were used to analyze data. The study illustrated how extreme poverty, lack of access to health services, social isolation, language and legal barriers, and hazardous occupations may be singularly common risk factors for Hispanic children on the US-Mexico border. The study is pertinent to public health nurses who work with this population.
Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Mental health nurses are agents of change, and their leadership, management role and characteristics exist at many levels in health care. Previous research presents a picture of mental health nurses as subordinate and passive recipients of the leader's influence and regard leadership and management as distinct from the nurses' practical work. The aim was to provide a synthesis of the studies conducted and to discuss the relationship between nursing leadership and nursing management in the context of mental health nursing. A literature search was conducted using EBSCO-host, Academic Search Premier, Science Direct, CINAHL and PubMed for the period January 1995-July 2010. Leadership and management in the context of mental health nursing are human activities that imply entering into mutual relationships. Mental health nurses' leadership, management and transformational leadership are positively related in terms of effectiveness and nurses' skills. It is important to consider mental health nurses' management as a form of leadership similar to or as a natural consequence of transformational leadership (TL) and that ethical concerns must be constantly prioritized throughout every level of the organization. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mitchell, P; Malak, A; Small, D
This paper presents results from research that explored the roles of bilingual professionals in community mental health services in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. There were two main objectives to the research: (i) to identify and describe the roles of bilingual professionals that are important in improving the quality of community mental health services for clients from non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB); and (ii) to identify and describe the factors that facilitate and inhibit the conduct of these roles. Data collection involved indepth interviews with bilingual professionals and team leaders in community mental health services and various other community health services; and various staff responsible for policy and service development with regard to cultural diversity. Bilingual mental health workers were found to have at least four critical roles. These were (i) direct clinical service provision to NESB clients; (ii) mental health promotion and community development; (iii) cultural consultancy; and (iv) service development. Respondents reported that the latter three roles were seriously underdeveloped compared to the clinical service provision role. It is critical that service managers implement strategies to make better use of the linguistic and cultural skills of bilingual professionals. In addition to their role in clinical service provision ways must be found to facilitate the community-focused, cultural consultancy and service development roles of bilingual professionals employed in mental health services.
Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen
The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.
Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.
Gladding, Samuel T.
Describes the benefits of combining poetic expression with computers in promoting positive mental health. Discuses prescriptive poetry, composition, computerized poetic exercises, computers and poetry for groups and families, computerized poetic records, and poetic communication. (JAC)
Fuller Jeffrey D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.
... health and public welfare resources; including— (i) Community mental health centers; (ii) Nursing homes... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106... Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan includes services in public institutions for mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental health... concerns about their child's mental health; (ii) Sharing staff observations of their child and discussing...
Provision of mental health services is in a state of ?ux as the Patient Protection and A¤ordable Care Act a¤ects provision and cost of medical care and state policymakers grapple with di¢ cult tradeo¤s between budget balance and provi- sion of public medical care. Mental health care provision is actually a relatively small part of the total cost of medical care provision.
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y
The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung
Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and
May 8, 2003 ... ing to Mental Health Care Users. The Act specifies and contextualizes various rights ... health status; Disclosure of information; Limitation on intimate adult relationships; Rights to representation; ... tion is provided - within the financial constraints available. If litigation is to be avoided, health professionals ...
Somasundaram, D J; van de Put, W A; Eisenbruch, M; de Jong, J T
Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from the clinics are presented in the context of the historical and traditional setting, and the effort to maintain a culturally informed approach is described. The contrasting results in the clinics are analyzed in relation to factors intrinsic to the health care system and those related to the local population in order to highlight the issues involved in establishing future mental health services, both locally in other provinces and in situations similar to Cambodia. The efficacy of introducing low-cost, basic mental health care is shown, and related to the need to find solutions for prevailing problems on the psychosocial level. They can be introduced with modest means, and can be complementary to local health beliefs and traditional healing. In introducing mental health services, an approach is needed which adapts to the absorption potential of the health system as well as to the patients' need to find meaningful help. Existing resources, from the traditional healing sector to rudimentary village structures, cannot be neglected in the rehabilitation of the community, or in interventions to help the individual patient.
Military Medicine, Vol. 177, No. 3, March 2012, pp. 278–283. Cifu, David X., and Cory Blake , “Re-Establishing Normalcy,” in David X. Cifu and Cory... Blake , eds., Overcoming Post-Deployment Syndrome: A Six-Step Mission to Health, New York: DemosHealth, 2011. Clark-Hitt, Rose, Sandi W. Smith, and...Challenge Stigmatizing Attitudes and Promote Mental Health in Teenagers,” Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006, pp. 243–250. Evans-Lacko, Sara
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran׳s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one׳s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Teri S Krebs
Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Jessecae K. Marsh PhD
Full Text Available Background: Past research shows that people believe psychologically caused mental disorders are helped by different treatments than biologically caused mental disorders. However, it is unknown how people think about treatment when limited information is known to identify the disorder. Objective: Our objective was to explore how laypeople judged the helpfulness of treatments when a limited set of mental health symptoms is presented. Method: Across four experiments, Mechanical Turk and college undergraduate participants (N = 331 read descriptions displaying sets of three mental health symptoms and rated how helpful pharmaceuticals, counseling, or alternative medicine would be on a 0 (not at all helpful to 100 (completely helpful scale. We measured judgments for perceived mental and medical symptoms (Experiment 1 and how judgments were influenced by symptom severity (Experiment 2, duration (Experiment 3, and if alternative medicine and conventional treatments were used in conjunction (Experiment 4. Results: Perceived mental symptoms were rated as helped by counseling, while perceived medical symptoms were rated as helped by medication. Alternative medicine was never rated as extremely helpful. For example, in Experiment 1, counseling (mean [M] = 80.1 was rated more helpful than pharmaceuticals (M = 50.5; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 45.1; P < 0.001 for mental symptoms, and pharmaceuticals (M = 62.6 was rated more helpful than counseling (M = 36.1; P < 0.001 or alternative medicine (M = 47.5; P < 0.001 for medical symptoms. This pattern held regardless of severity, duration, or the adjunct use of alternative medicine. Limitations: We employed a general population sample and measured hypothetical treatment judgments. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms viewed as problems of the mind are thought to need different treatment than mental health symptoms seen as problems of the body.
Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V S; Timothy, A; Kalpana, S; Khanam, Shagufta
Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
Shahbaz Ali Khan
Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.
Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.
Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.
Kutcher, S; Gilberds, H; Morgan, C; Greene, R; Hamwaka, K; Perkins, K
Mental health literacy is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction and care. Integrated school mental health literacy interventions may offer an effective and sustainable approach to enhancing mental health literacy for educators and students globally. Through a Grand Challenges Canada funded initiative called 'An Integrated Approach to Addressing the Issue of Youth Depression in Malawi and Tanzania', we culturally adapted a previously demonstrated effective Canadian school mental health curriculum resource (the Guide) for use in Malawi, the African Guide: Malawi version (AGMv), and evaluated its impact on enhancing mental health literacy for educators (teachers and youth club leaders) in 35 schools and 15 out-of-school youth clubs in the central region of Malawi. The pre- and post-test study designs were used to assess mental health literacy - knowledge and attitudes - of 218 educators before and immediately following completion of a 3-day training programme on the use of the AGMv. Results demonstrated a highly significant and substantial improvement in knowledge ( p mental health literacy in study participants. There were no significant differences in outcomes related to sex or location. These positive results suggest that an approach that integrates mental health literacy into the existing school curriculum may be an effective, significant and sustainable method of enhancing mental health literacy for educators in Malawi. If these results are further found to be sustained over time, and demonstrated to be effective when extended to students, then this model may be a useful and widely applicable method for improving mental health literacy among both educators and students across Africa.
Van Schrojenstein Lantman M
Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life
Funakoshi, Akiko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kayama, Mami
This paper is a report of a study to describe the support behaviours practised by managers of community mental health nurses (CMHNs) who provide homecare for people with mental illness, and to identify factors related to those behaviours. Homecare of mentally ill clients can prevent hospital readmission, provide rehabilitation, and include support for medication adherence, personal relationships, mental health, activities of daily living, as well as supporting informal caregivers. However, this work is stressful for CMHNs, who can themselves develop mental health problems and suffer burnout. Therefore support for these nurses is essential. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 nurse managers in 2004. A constant comparative data collection and analysis process was used, and a core category identified. Four categories of managerial support behaviour were identified: (1) 'modifying client-nurse relationships'; (2) 'ensuring community mental health nurse safety'; (3) 'providing emotional support'; (4) 'providing opportunities for skill development'. 'To continue homecare for clients in need' emerged as a core category, representing the ultimate purpose of managerial support behaviours. Moreover, the timing of managerial support behaviours was influenced by the quality and length of the client-nurse relationship. The managerial support behaviours reported in the present study may be useful in other cultural contexts. Further research is needed to evaluate their effectiveness for CMHNs in other settings in Japan and other countries.
Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika
While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Christensen, H; Griffiths, K
This paper describes the informational and treatment opportunities offered by the Worldwide Web (WWW) and comments on the advantages, disadvantages and potential dangers of its role in mental health and mental health research. Two perspectives are taken: (i) the impact of the Web from the point of view of the clinician (the practitioner view) and (ii) the impact of the Web on the public's knowledge of mental health (mental health literacy; the community or public health view). These perspectives are applied to two areas of impact: (i) information and knowledge; and (ii) treatment and self-help. The Web, due to its accessibility, has advantages in providing access to information, online therapy and adjunctive therapy in mental health. Problems include information overload, poor information quality, potential harm and lack of scientific evaluation. Issues of overload and quality of information, the potential for harm and the need to evaluate interventions are not unique to the Internet. However, the Internet has special features which make these issues more prominent. The Internet is likely to increase the general public's access to information and to decrease unmet need. Sites and interventions on the Internet need to be formally evaluated.
Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…
Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean
Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139
Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Durant, James T; Morman, Suzette A; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E; Dooyema, Carrie A; Hageman, Philip L; Lowers, Heather A; Fernette, Gregory L; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M; Driscoll, Rhonda L; Berry, Cyrus J; Crock, James G; Goldstein, Harland L; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean
In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.
Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean
Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.
Abdallah S. Daar
Full Text Available Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps. There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.
Johannsen, Gundi Schrötter; Elstad, Toril
, social incluison and integration for people who live with mental health problems. Aiming to support people in daily life, community mental health services that facilitate active participation are encouraged internationally (WHO 2001b, 2005,2013). From these perspectives, we will present our studies from......This chapter aims to contribute to an understanding of the social dimension the concept of participation and the meaning participation can have for mental health and identity. In order to increase participation, it is important to support the personal recovery process of each individual. However...... since participation can function as a link between individuals and society, health and welfare services should also provide opportunities for social inclusion and reciprocal relationships. According to the theories of Goffman (1967) and Mead (1934/1967) face-toface interaction is of central importance...
Mental health research has received relatively little philanthropic support in Australia compared with other areas of health research. Philanthropic trusts do not generally provide recurrent funding or make grants for that perceived to be the responsibility of the state or the market. The emergence of 'strategic philanthropy' however, provides potential for mental health researchers to form partnerships with philanthropic foundations, particularly on initiatives that are focused on prevention and innovative and sustainable models with the capacity to 'go to scale' across the service system.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study
-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according...... of Greenland. In Greenland, women were more often GHQ-cases and had suicidal thoughts more often than men. The association between language and GHQ-cases is presumed to operate through socioeconomic factors. It is necessary to modify the common notion that rapid societal development is in itself a cause...
... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...
van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Broer, Jan; Tholen, Alfons J.; Winthorst, Wim H.; Visser, Ellen; Wiersma, Durk
Background: The police are considered frontline professionals in managing individuals experiencing mental health crises. This study examines the extent to which these individuals are disconnected from mental health services, and whether the police response has an influence on re-establishing
Yahraes, Herbert; And Others
Prepared by the National Institute of Mental Health staff and grantees, this report gives not only the quantitative research data, but also demonstrations of community mental health efforts that serve as excellent models for other communities to follow. Chapter I presents An Introduction: The Setting and an Overview; Chapter II, Studies of Rural…
Wechsler, Nick D.; Woodlock, Kelly K.
Many professionals who work with very young children and their families have not received training in infant mental health (IMH). The Ounce of Prevention Fund recognized this unmet need and formed a multidisciplinary support network for teams of home visitors, parent group facilitators, community program supervisors, and mental health clinicians.…
Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep
Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and...
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Full Text Available Health agencies in refugee camps face the dual challenge of, firstly,convincing both camp populations and the international communitythat mental health disorders deserve treatment as much as any otherillness – and, secondly, building enough trust to encourage people toseek that treatment.
Shanley, Eamon; Jubb-Shanley, Maureen
The aim of this paper was to describe a newly-developed system of mental health nurse counselling (coping focus counselling (CFC)) for people with serious and complex mental health needs. The system is based on the recovery alliance theory (RAT) of mental health nursing. The paper identifies shortcomings in current practices in psychotherapy and counselling in the exclusive use of techniques from a single approach, for example, cognitive behaviour therapy, client-centred therapy, attachment theory, or Gestalt theory. It also discusses the opposite dangers of the use of many techniques from different approaches, without a clear rationale for their selection. CFC was developed to avoid these practices. It accommodates the selective use of techniques from different approaches. Techniques selected are viewed as deriving their meanings from the theoretical framework into which they are assimilated, namely RAT, and no longer take the same meaning from the theory from which they originated. Central to this integrative process is the use of the concept of coping. Other distinguishing features of CFC are the use of everyday language in using the system and the reaffirmation of the nurse-client relationship within a working alliance as the basis in which the CFC operates. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Houle, Jason N
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie
A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fathelrahman Ahmed I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases. Methods Cross-sectional sample of 100 poisoning cases consecutively admitted to the Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were studied. Data on health and socioeconomic problems were collected both by self-administered questionnaire and from medical records. Agreement between the two sets of data was assessed by calculating the concordance rate, Kappa (k and PABAK. McNemar statistic was used to test differences between categories. Results Data collected by questionnaire and medical records showed excellent agreement on the "marital status"; good agreements on "chronic illness", "psychiatric illness", and "previous history of poisoning"; and fair agreements on "at least one health problem", and "boy-girl friends problem". PABAK values suggest better agreements' measures. Conclusion There were excellent to good agreements between questionnaire and medical records on the marital status and most of the health problems and fair to poor agreements on the majority of socioeconomic problems. The implications of those findings were discussed.
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McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...
Morozov, Petr Victorovich
Despite being a pressing problem, the influence of urbanization on mental health is still underestimated in Russia. Although few studies on the topic in recent years were available, viewpoints of the expert community in Russia will be presented. Intensive urbanization impacts on the living conditions of the majority of the country's population being associated with mass migration of the population, a change in the structure of employment, the restructuring of family relations, and the need to adapt to unaccustomed living conditions. Modern urbanization can adversely affect mental health due to stressful factors related to overpopulation, environmental contamination, poverty, violence, and lack of social support. The main factors that directly affect mental health in Russia are consequences of urbanization such as:The society and the Government are taking a number of measures to prevent the consequences of urbanization (restrictions in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, mass green plantations, a ban on noise in the evening, closure of landfills, etc.).
Eglee Duran Rodríguez
Full Text Available The article reports the results of the project “Mental health and emotional expression in Facebook”. The research was approached from the qualitative paradigm under virtual ethnographic approach, interpreting the findings through their own players and triangulated with the views of researchers and experts in the area of mental health, emotions and information technology and communication. We concluded that a good part of users vented their secrets on Facebook, where they are able to confide and express a range of emotions and intimacies that in the real context is unlikely to give. Along these findings show that the use of Facebook serves as a space for emotional expression impacting the mental and emotional health.
Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A
The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.
Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels
Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...... aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...
The author is looking into the problem of multidisciplinarity in mental health : through a theoretical conception of mental disease and from a more practical point of view through the actual functionning of a treating team in mental health. He tries to develop two thesis : 1) physical or social criteria cannot define madness, it has to be studied from a psychological point of view : madness is a personal as well as a psychical fate, a difficulty in facing the different levels and crisis of existence where the physical and social factors are secondary : the specific character of mental health resides in its psychological dimension; 2) the functioning of the treating team is analyzed according to three main models : autocratic, anarchic and democratic : the concept of a treating team in mental health can only be understood if each of its members express himself in an autonomous way and according to his own competencies with regard to the public : this would protect the multidisciplinary team from the dangers of an autocratic leadership or of an anarchic functioning.
Bromet, Evelyn J
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental
Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro
The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Opsenica-Kostić Jelena J.
Full Text Available Today's generations of adolescents have grown up with information and communication technologies which have a significant place in their lives. One of the important issues in this context is the relation between the Internet and the mental health of adolescents. The first topic that this paper deals with, is the relationship between the use of the Internet and mental health, and the other is related to the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving wellbeing. The most common activity of young people on the Internet is social networking. Online social networks can positively affect wellbeing through facilitating self-disclosing and the availability of social support. Such findings from empirical research support the ideas of theories that emphasize the positive aspects of online relating. However, social networks (and online communication in general can also have significant negative effects on the mental health of adolescents, if they are exposed to cyberbullying. The second topic of the paper is the planned use of the Internet for the purpose of improving mental health. To young people (and to members of other age groups, as well online support groups are the most accessible nowadays, aimed at supporting a group of people with a common problem or life challenge. These forums are most often text-based and this kind of communication has a number of potential benefits for users. It is also possible to organize online interventions that promote mental health and prevent its deterioration. Research shows that online skill-based interventions can have a positive impact on adolescent mental health. The results of the online prevention interventions indicate the encouraging evidence concerning computerized cognitive behavioral therapy interventions and their impact on adolescent's anxiety and depression symptoms. Although it contains potentially negative aspects, the Internet has a positive significance and potential for the development
Husky, Mathilde M; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Stragalinou, Anastasia; Pez, Ondine; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health in Europe study. Maternal alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test. Child mental health was assessed using the mother and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the child self-reported Dominic interactive. Analyses were performed on 2,678 individuals, 6-11 year olds. Adjusting for variables associated with maternal drinking, among children eight years old or younger, excessive drinking was not significantly associated with mental health problems, whether reported by the mother, teacher or by the child. However, among girls eight years old and above, problem drinking was associated with conduct problems as reported by the mother (OR = 4.19), teacher reported total difficulties (OR = 4.69), and peer relationship problems (OR = 8.86). It was also associated with the presence of any child-reported disorder (OR = 3.88), externalizing (OR = 5.55) and internalizing disorders (OR = 4.42). Conclusions/Importance: Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and for psychological distress, maternal problem drinking was not significantly associated with child mental health problems in boys or in girls ages six to eight. The association was only present among girls ages 8-11. Examining relationships between mothers and their daughters in the peripubertal period may be a critical window for the development of effective intervention strategies.
Backović Dušan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourthyear medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: sociodemographic data, selfreported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly onehalf of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078
Backović, Dusan V; Maksimović, Milos; Davidović, Dragana; Zivojinović, Jelena Ilić; Stevanović, Dejan
Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio-demographic data, self-reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one-half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ-12 were above the threshold in 55.6% of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Heslop, Karen Ruth; Wynaden, Dianne Gaye
Sustaining a fall during hospitalization reduces a patient's ability to return home following discharge. It is well accepted that factors, such as alteration in balance, functional mobility, muscle strength, and fear of falling, are all factors that impact on the quality of life of elderly people following a fall. However, the impact that falls have on mental health outcomes in older adult mental health patients remains unexplored. The present study reports Health of the Nation Outcome Scale scores for people over the age of 65 (HoNOS65+), which were examined in a cohort of 65 patients who sustained a fall and 73 non-fallers admitted to an older adult mental health service (OAMHS). Results were compared with state and national HoNOS65+ data recorded in Australian National Outcome Casemix Collection data to explore the effect that sustaining a fall while hospitalized has on mental health outcomes. Australian state and national HoNOS65+ data indicate that older adults generally experience improved HoNOS65+ scores from admission to discharge. Mental health outcomes for patients who sustained a fall while admitted to an OAMHS did not follow this trend. Sustaining a fall while admitted to an OAMHS negatively affects discharge mental health outcomes. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Hodges, Craig A; O'Brien, Matthew S; McGorry, Patrick D
Mental health is the number one health issue affecting young people in Australia today, yet only one in four of these young people receive professional help. Approximately 14% of 12- to 17-year-olds and 27% of 18- to 25-year-olds experience mental health problems each year. However, many do not have ready access to treatment or are reluctant to seek that help. These issues might be exacerbated in the rural and remote regions of Australia where sociocultural barriers such as stigma, lack of anonymity and logistic difficulties including cost and availability of transport can hinder young people accessing mental health services. headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation has been funded to address these issues. headspace will provide funding for the establishment of communities of youth services across Australia, provide national and local community awareness campaigns and plans, establish a centre of excellence that will identify and disseminate evidence-based practice in addressing youth mental health issues, and translate findings into education and training programs that are targeted at service providers to work with youth mental health. The communities of youth services will build the capacity of local communities to identify early, and provide effective responses to, young people aged 12-25 years with mental health and related substance use disorders. Specific approaches in rural, regional and remote areas will be developed as well as specific programs to involve young Indigenous people.
Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan
Purpose: Previous cross-sectional research has examined effect of loneliness on mental health. This study aimed to examine longitudinal relationships in students. Design/Methodology: 454 British undergraduate students completed measures of loneliness and mental health at four time points.Findings: After controlling for demographics and baseline mental health, greater loneliness predicted greater anxiety, stress, depression and general mental health over time. There was no evidence that mental...
Hastings, Todd; Kroposki, Margaret; Williams, Gail
Nursing program graduates rarely choose mental health nursing as a career. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine attitudes of 310 nursing students towards persons with mental illness. Students completed surveys on the first and last days of their program's psychiatric mental health nursing course. The pre- and post-test survey analysis indicated that students improved their attitude, knowledge and preparedness to care for persons with mental illness. However, students maintained little interest in working as a mental health nurse. Modifications in mental health nursing courses could be made to improve students' interest in choosing a career in mental health nursing.
Stewart, Donna Eileen; Vigod, Simone Natalie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and occurs in more than one-third of American women and psychiatric patients. As well as physical injuries, it may cause mental health sequelae, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, inability to trust others, self-harm, and a host of psychosomatic conditions, that may be referred to psychiatrists. It is imperative that psychiatrists know the risk factors, how to assist disclosure of IPV, and how to safely respond. Psychiatrists must know the best evidence-based management of IPV and its mental health sequelae to best assist patients who have been exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Callaly, Tom; Arya, Dinesh
To discuss change management as applicable to mental health. As mental health care grows increasingly complex, and the network of accountability widens, change is both inevitable and necessary. Strategies to introduce change effectively are essential. Resistance by medical staff to change often has a sound basis and must be acknowledged and explored. Change in clinical systems and practice is facilitated by careful planning and preparation, and by engaging clinicians in all phases of the change process; change will fail if this is not achieved. A number of management models facilitate the understanding and process of change.
Full Text Available Autonomy is one of the most important variable that influences adolescent’s mental health. Though there have been many studies conducted on autonomy, there is no commonly accepted definition for it. Two approaches concerning autonomy have a dominant effect on studies. These are explanations of cultural psychology and psychoanalytic approach (autonomy as independent and explanation of Self Determination Theory (autonomy as self endorsed functioning about autonomy. This study aims to review main approaches related to autonomy and relations between autonomy and mental health.
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.
Eisenberg, Daniel; Druss, Benjamin G
In all countries of the world, fewer than half of people with mental disorders receive treatment. This treatment gap is commonly attributed to factors such as consumers' limited knowledge, negative attitudes, and financial constraints. In the context of other health behaviors, such as diet and exercise, behavioral economists have emphasized time preferences and procrastination as additional barriers. These factors might also be relevant to mental health. We examine conceptually and empirically how lack of help-seeking for mental health conditions might be related to time preferences and procrastination. Our conceptual discussion explores how the interrelationships between time preferences and mental health treatment utilization could fit into basic microeconomic theory. The empirical analysis uses survey data of student populations from 12 colleges and universities in 2011 (the Healthy Minds Study, N=8,806). Using standard brief measures of discounting, procrastination, and mental health (depression and anxiety symptoms), we examine the conditional correlations between indicators of present-orientation (discount rate and procrastination) and mental health symptoms. The conceptual discussion reveals a number of potential relationships that would be useful to examine empirically. In the empirical analysis depression is significantly associated with procrastination and discounting. Treatment utilization is significantly associated with procrastination but not discounting. The empirical results are generally consistent with the idea that depression increases present orientation (reduces future orientation), as measured by discounting and procrastination. These analyses have notable limitations that will require further examination in future research: the measures are simple and brief, and the estimates may be biased from true causal effects because of omitted variables and reverse causality. There are several possibilities for future research, including: (i
Full Text Available Background Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru
Toyama, Mauricio; Castillo, Humberto; Galea, Jerome T.; Brandt, Lena R.; Mendoza, María; Herrera, Vanessa; Mitrani, Martha; Cutipé, Yuri; Cavero, Victoria; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime
Background: Mental, neurological, and substance (MNS) use disorders are a leading cause of disability worldwide; specifically in Peru, MNS affect 1 in 5 persons. However, the great majority of people suffering from these disorders do not access care, thereby making necessary the improvement of existing conditions including a major rearranging of current health system structures beyond care delivery strategies. This paper reviews and examines recent developments in mental health policies in Peru, presenting an overview of the initiatives currently being introduced and the main implementation challenges they face. Methods: Key documents issued by Peruvian governmental entities regarding mental health were reviewed to identify and describe the path that led to the beginning of the reform; how the ongoing reform is taking place; and, the plan and scope for scale-up. Results: Since 2004, mental health has gained importance in policies and regulations, resulting in the promotion of a mental health reform within the national healthcare system. These efforts crystallized in 2012 with the passing of Law 29889 which introduced several changes to the delivery of mental healthcare, including a restructuring of mental health service delivery to occur at the primary and secondary care levels and the introduction of supporting services to aid in patient recovery and reintegration into society. In addition, a performance-based budget was approved to guarantee the implementation of these changes. Some of the main challenges faced by this reform are related to the diversity of the implementation settings, eg, isolated rural areas, and the limitations of the existing specialized mental health institutes to substantially grow in parallel to the scaling-up efforts in order to be able to provide training and clinical support to every region of Peru. Conclusion: Although the true success of the mental healthcare reform will be determined in the coming years, thus far, Peru has achieved a
Kutcher, S.; Wei, Y.; McLuckie, A.; Bullock, L.
Mental disorders make up close to one-third of the global burden of disease experienced during adolescence. Schools can play an important role in the promotion of positive mental health as well as an integral role in the pathways into mental health care for adolescents. In order for schools to effectively address the mental health problems of…
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health...
Full Text Available Protecting and promoting of mental health is one of the major application areas of public health. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii, which is a protozoal zoonosis common in Turkey, it is closely related to veterinary public health. In recent years, T.gondii can induce behavioral changes, may play a role in schizophrenia as an etiologic factor. Results of the recently performed studies shows that T.gondii may be a potential factor for some neuropathological changes in brain and suicide attemption. The purpose of this review is to present the data on recent epidemiology of T.gondii, mental health effects (changes in behavior, suicide, etc., the relationship between T.gondii and schizophrenia and offer some recommendations for protecting of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 199-208
implement a cost centred management approach. References. 1. Draft report: Cost Analysis Tool. Simplifying cost analysis for managers and staff of healthcare services. New York. 2000;. EngenderHealth. 2. Olukoga A. Unit costs of inpatient days in district hospitals in South. Africa. Singapore Med J 2007; 48 (2): pp143. 3.
Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter
To outline the development and content of a 'top-up' neuropharmacology module for mental health nurse prescribers and consider how much pharmacology training is required to ensure effective mental health prescribing practice. Debate about the content of prescribing training courses has persisted within the United Kingdom since the mid-1980s. In early 2003 supplementary prescribing was introduced and gave mental health nurses the opportunity to become prescribers. The challenge of the nurse prescribing curriculum for universities is that they have only a short time to provide nurses from a range of backgrounds with enough knowledge to ensure that they meet agreed levels of competency for safe prescribing. There is growing concern within mental health care that the prescribing of medication in mental health services falls short of what would be deemed good practice. Over the past two decades, nurse training has increasingly adopted a psychosocial approach to nursing care raising concerns that, although nurses attending prescribing training may be able to communicate effectively with service users, they may lack the basic knowledge of biology and pharmacology to make effective decisions about medication. Following the completion of a general nurse prescribing course, mental health nurses who attended were asked to identify their specific needs during the evaluation phase. Although they had covered basic pharmacological principles in their training, they stated that they needed more specific information about drugs used in mental health; particularly how to select appropriate drug treatments for mental health conditions. This paper describes how the nurses were involved in the design of a specific module which would enable them to transfer their theoretical leaning to practice and in so doing increase their confidence in their new roles. The findings of this study suggest that the understanding and confidence of mental health nurse prescribers about the drugs they
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.
Berenice Scaletzky Knuth
Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.
Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.
To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.
Furnham, A; Trezise, L
Because of the psychological stress associated with university life and the physical and mental stress associated with migration, researchers have become interested in psychological problems of foreign students. In this study four groups of foreign students from different parts of the world were compared with two British groups on a self-report measure of mental health. No sex differences were found yet the overseas students, as a whole, showed significantly more disturbance than either British control or first-year subjects. However, despite many differences between their countries of origin there were no significant differences between any of the overseas groups on the total scale score or any sub-scores. Further, with the exception of Malaysian students, the British subjects were significantly more satisfied with their social lives than the other groups. These findings are discussed in terms of the literature on life events and illness, culture shock and migration and mental health.
... December 11, 2013 • Science Update Join NIMH’s Jovier Evans, Ph.D., Chief of the Geriatric Translational Neuroscience ... 50 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . NIH Senior Health , with resources from the NIH ...
Jorm, Anthony F.
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Hyvonen, S; Nikkonen, M
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the content of mental health care from the practitioner's point of view. The specific aim of this paper was to outline the types of mental health care tools and the ways in which they are used by primary health care practitioners. The data were derived from interviews with doctors and nurses (n = 29) working in primary health care in six different health care centres of the Pirkanmaa region in Finland. The data were analysed by using qualitative content analysis. The tools of mental health care used in primary health care were categorized as communicative, ideological, technical and collaborative tools. The interactive tools are either informative, supportive or contextual. The ideological tools consist of patient initiative, acceptance and permissiveness, honesty and genuineness, sense of security and client orientation. The technical tools are actions related to the monitoring of the patient's physical health and medical treatment. The collaborative tools are consultation and family orientation. The primary health care practitioner him/herself is an important tool in mental health care. On the one hand, the practitioner can be categorized as a meta-tool who has control over the other tools. On the other hand, the practitioner him/herself is a tool in the sense that s/he uses his/her personality in the professional context. The professional skills and attitudes of the practitioner have a significant influence on the type of caring the client receives. Compared with previous studies, the present informants from primary health care seemed to use notably versatile tools in mental health work. This observation is important for the implementation and development of mental health practices and education.
Marsella, Anthony J.
Presents an overview of current knowledge regarding urbanization, mental health, and social deviancy. Discusses definitional, conceptual and methodological issues and challenges, and provides a review of the international research literature on the topic. Offers recommendations for improving research efforts. Contains over 100 references. (MMU)
Brooks, Deems M.
The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…
A quasi-experimental study, participants were recruited through an advertisement calling for volunteer trainees who filled the self-administered Socio-demographic, Eysenck personality (short-form), took part in focus group discussions, then a knowledge pretest questionnaire. They were trained using a mental health peer ...
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab…
Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby
Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…
Computer applications in support of mental health care and rehabilitation are becoming more widely used. They include technologies such as virtual reality, electronic diaries, multimedia, brain computing and computer games. Research in this area is emerging, and focussing on a variety of issues,
Frabutt, James M.
One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…
Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.
Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting
Psychotropic drug supply is limited and irregular. Families can buy newer antipsychotic drugs if they can afford them. Patients are not fed which is a major problem for those without families. Records and observations are minimal. There is no mental health legislation. The families carry out most of the care and family bonds ...
Background: Both hypertension and depression are common disorders and obesity is on the rise in low and middle-income countries. Because early life changes may prove to be precursors to the development of diseases in adult, assessing the mental and physical health of younger population is crucial. This study aimed ...
comprised of the NMHS's organising committee. It was chaired by. Prof. S Rataemane, with Prof. ... NMHS organising committee, a final draft of the MHAP was completed in line with key mental health policy and legislation, .... an effective impact on the management of services. Liaison on a provincial level should include, ...
Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic,…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza
Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…
Dusseldorp, L. van; Goossens, P.J.J.; Achterberg, T. van
The purpose of this literature review is to identify mental health nursing's contribution to the care and treatment of patients with a first episode of psychosis; A systematic literature review was undertaken, with 27 articles selected for study. Five domains were identified: development of
Apr 12, 2010 ... Contemporary research suggests that a path is now open for critical dialogue between mysticism and mental health. Data are accumulating regarding the frequency ... physician and in the doctor–patient relationship. ... self-delusion at best, or a form of uncritical superstition at worst, issues of authority arise.
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
McCullough, Paul M.
The purpose of this publication is to review manpower issues in the field of mental health, identifying their importance and initiating discussion about their resolution. Directed to an audience of manpower development specialists, several types of material are presented beginning with a brief background including a synthesis of recent literature…
Conclusions: The evidence from this study demonstrates that it is possible to establish, with careful planning, interprofessional teams who are able to integrate with primary care and specialist child and adolescent mental health staff, within the social environments of children and families to provide a more accessible and ...
Mental health and solitude in old age. Elderly people experience solitude as isolation, even more so when the person is ill. However, in the same circumstances, some people see solitude as an experience of maturity. Is it simply a question of inner strength?
Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey
Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…
... robust and inclusive knowledge base for child and adolescent mental health across diverse contexts. To this end the Journal seeks to promote coverage, representation and dissemination of high quality work from around the world that traverses high-, middle- and low- income contexts. Read more about the journal here.
Introduction. The media houses are important stakeholders in health service delivery and they have a great influence on fostering public attitudes through their vital role of sensitization and publicity. Considerable research has concluded that the media is the public's most significant source of information about mental.
Dusseldorp, R.L.C. van; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Derksen, J.J.L.
Aims. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. Background. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
This guide is concerned with productivity measurement and improvement in mental health centers, and focuses on the relationship between service outputs and available clinical staff, i.e., staff productivity. Staff productivity measures are described as useful in identifying existing levels of productivity, making comparisons to determine the…
Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…
... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...
Vézina, M; Gingras, S
Analysis of the Quebec Health survey identified those Quebec industrial sectors and professions in which workers are at risk of higher psychological distress and lower psychological well-being. Risk levels were measured by odds ratio, controlling for: health status, sex, social support and stressful life events. Results show that those at risk are blue collar workers and less qualified workers of traditional sectors. Lower job latitude could explain those results. Results show that risk of mental health problems is significantly higher in the following industrial sectors: leather, chemicals, paint and varnish industries; urban bus transport and taxi; shoe, clothing and textile retail stores; department stores; restaurant services; insurance and public administration (excluding defence). Risk of mental health problems is higher in the following professions road transport (excluding truck drivers); textile, leather, fur manufacturing and repairing; housekeeping and maintenance; painters, tapestry-workers, insulation and waterproofing, food and beverages sector; data processors; editors and university professors.
Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep
Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and/or welfare of the society. United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was adopted in 2006, which marks a paradigm shift in respect of disabilities (including disability due to mental illness) from a social welfare concern to a human right issue. The new paradigm is based on presumption of legal capacity, equality and dignity. Following ratification of the convention by India in 2008, it became obligatory to revise all the disability laws to bring them in harmony with the UNCRPD. Therefore, the Mental Health Act - 1987 and Persons with Disability Act - 1995 are under process of revision and draft bills have been prepared. Human right activists groups are pressing for provisions for legal capacity for persons with mental illness in absolute terms, whereas the psychiatrists are in favor of retaining provisions for involuntary hospitalization in special circumstances.
of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....
Following the introduction of the deprivation of liberty safeguards, the courts initially insisted that a deprivation of liberty for the treatment of a mental disorder was authorised under a section of the Mental Health Act 1983 as it had primacy in matters concerning mental disorder (GJ v The Foundation Trust ). The courts later refined that approach to primacy and accepted that, where appropriate, decision makers could use either the Mental Health Act 1983 or the Mental Capacity Act 2005 deprivation of liberty safeguards to authorise a deprivation of liberty for the treatment of a mental disorder. In this third article on the interface between the Mental Health Act 1983 and Mental Capacity Act 2005, the author considers when it would be necessary to detain an adult who lacked capacity under the Mental Health Act 1983 instead of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 deprivation of liberty safeguards.
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Martin, Angela; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Noblet, Andrew J; Milner, Allison J; Keegel, Tessa; Smith, Peter M
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health be...
countries, among others the increased challenges and risks involved in the increasing partnerships formation across the ethnic borders to health systems. To help meet this challenge, this project has two objectives. The objective in the first is to gain insights about the dynamics of intermarriage...... couples experiencing mental health problems. The theoretical framework of the project is interdisciplinary, combining transnationalism, narrative approach and life-course perspectives. Some statistical data pertaining to phenomenon of intermarriage in Denmark will also be presented. The investigation...
Susanta Kumar Padhy; Sidharth Sarkar; Mahima Panigrahi; Surender Paul
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more numb...
Jaruseviciene, L.; Valius, L.; Lazarus, J.V.
collaboration with mental health teams were a lack of GPs'confidence in their communication skills and ability to diagnose the most frequent mental disorders, prompt referral to mental health team specialists, low estimation of the prevalence of non-managed mental disorders, and location of mental health team......Background. General practitioners (GPs) often become the first point of care for mental health issues. Improved collaboration between GPs and mental health teams can make a GP's mental health services more efficient. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the collaboration between GPs...... and mental health team members and determine predictors for better collaboration. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, a 41- item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to obtain knowledge about current practices of GPs in providing...
... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...
... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...
... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...
Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban
In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.
Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T; Christodoulou, George N
Refugees have high rates of mental health morbidity as a result of conflict. However, their needs for mental healthcare and psychosocial support are often unmet, despite the efforts of professional and humanitarian organisations. The war refugee crisis is a global challenge that needs a global solution. We call on all governments, regional and international organisations to take responsible humanitarian actions to intervene and support people affected by these disasters and for all humanity to unite against the forces of injustice and degradation. The thematic papers in this issue report on the Syrian crisis from a variety of perspectives.
Drew, Natalie; Faydi, Edwige; Freeman, Melvyn; Funk, Michelle; Kettaneh, Audrey; Van Ommeren, Mark
.... It argues that mental health should be included in sectoral and broader development strategies and plans, and that development stakeholders have important roles to play in ensuring that people...
Sanchez, Francis; Gaw, Albert
Filipino Americans are the second-fastest-growing Asian immigrant group in the United States, following the Chinese. Yet there exists a dearth of information on mental health issues concerning Filipino Americans, who represent a diverse mixture of culture, beliefs, and practices and vary widely from other minorities as well as from the larger population. This group has experienced emotional and behavioral challenges in acclimatizing to Western culture. Their historical underpinnings, native core values, and traditions exert a crucial influence on their mental well-being. Filipino Americans underutilize existing mental health care services that are culturally, socially, and linguistically incompatible with their needs. Along with stigma, the adherence of traditional practices and healing methods remains a formidable barrier to the appropriate provision of care. The authors review factors influencing perceptions of mental health and illness, including religion, family, support systems, coping styles, and indigenous culture-bound traits. Recommendations for treatment consist of a structured, culturally sensitive, comprehensive approach that addresses the individual as well as the cultural milieu.
Funk, M; Lund, C; Freeman, M; Drew, N
To develop international guidance for improving the quality of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. A panel developed recommendations based on a comprehensive literature review, consultation with over 100 experts from 46 countries and an analysis of international best practices. Recommendations A 5-pronged approach to improving the quality of mental health care is recommended. Quality improvement requires the alignment of policy and legislation with the attainment of good quality mental health outcomes. Key partners must be brought into the quality improvement process. Funding can be an important tool for promoting good quality but needs to be correctly aligned to meet policy objectives and to promote evidence-based interventions. Accreditation procedures and quality standards need to be carefully developed and resources allocated for their implementation. Finally, quality improvement must be brought into routine service management and delivery. Through a systematic approach to quality improvement, it is possible to ensure that the best possible interventions are provided within the constraints of each country and that the rights and well-being of people with mental disorders is optimally promoted. Quality improvement is not a luxury but an integral part of ensuring that the best possible services are provided to all who need them.
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Cross, Matthew B; Santa Maria, Diane; Swank, Paul R; Bordnick, Patrick S
Youth experiencing homelessness have elevated rates of mental illness and substance use compared to the general population. However, the extent to which underlying mental health issues may contribute to substance use as a way to manage symptoms and whether mental health treatment may reduce risk for substance use is unclear. This paper investigated these relations in a community sample of homeless youth. Youth ages 13-24 (N=416) were interviewed as part of a community count and survey of homeless youth in Houston, Texas. A path analysis examined relations among lifetime diagnoses of ADHD, bipolar disorder, and depression; past-month marijuana, alcohol, and synthetic marijuana use, and hypothesized mediators of past-year mental health treatment and perceived unmet need for treatment. Rates of prior mental disorder diagnoses were high, with extensive comorbidity across the three diagnoses (n=114, 27.3% had all three diagnoses). Relations varied by diagnoses and substances. ADHD was positively related to current marijuana use (β=0.55 (0.16), p<0.001), a relation that mental health treatment did not mediate. Depression was positively related to synthetic marijuana use through unmet need (β=0.25 (0.09), p=0.004) and to alcohol use through unmet need (β=0.20 (0.10), p=0.04) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information about relations between prior mental health diagnoses and substance use in homeless youth. Findings support the need to consider prior mental disorder diagnoses in relation to current substance use and to assess for whether youth perceive they have unmet needs for mental health treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs.We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions.Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets", what they advocate for ("asks", how advocates reach their targets ("access", how they make their asks ("arguments", and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes".Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.
Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen
Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.
To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor
Kingston, Dawn E; Biringer, Anne; Toosi, Amy; Heaman, Maureen I; Lasiuk, Gerri C; McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Joshua; Sword, Wendy; Jarema, Karly; Austin, Marie-Paule
While women and healthcare providers have generally viewed perinatal mental health screening favorably, some qualitative studies suggest that some women intentionally decide not to reveal their symptoms during screening. The purpose of this study was to describe women's reported willingness to disclose mental health concerns during screening and factors associated with this. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women who were >16 years of age and could speak/read English. Women were recruited from five maternity clinics and two community hospitals in Alberta, Canada (May-December, 2013). Eligible women completed the online Barriers and Facilitators of Mental Health Screening Questionnaire on recruitment. The primary outcome for this analysis was women's level of honesty about mental health concerns (completely vs somewhat/not at all honest) during screening. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions to identify factors associated with honesty. Participation rate was 92% (460/500). Seventy-nine percent of women indicated that they could be 'completely honest' during screening. Women who feared their provider would view them as bad mothers were less likely to be honest. We found a significant association between 'less anonymous' modes of screening and honesty. Over eighty percent of women in this study were well-educated, partnered, Caucasian women. As such, generalizability of the study findings may be limited. Most women indicated they could be honest during screening. Stigma-related factors and screening mode influenced women's willingness to disclose. Strategies to reduce stigma during screening are warranted to enhance early detection of prenatal mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
LaMontagne, Anthony D; Martin, Angela; Page, Kathryn M; Reavley, Nicola J; Noblet, Andrew J; Milner, Allison J; Keegel, Tessa; Smith, Peter M
Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work-related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace.
Lohr, W David; Jones, V Faye
Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children. By taking a trauma-informed approach to understanding the unique needs and gaps in their health care, pediatricians can improve the mental health and maximize outcome for children in foster care. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e342-e348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Uecker, Jeremy E
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.
Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason
Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented. PMID:20806029
Fitzsimons, Emla; Goodman, Alissa; Kelly, Elaine; Smith, James P
Using data from the British Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 18,827 children born in the UK in 2000-2001, we investigate important correlates of mental health issues during childhood. MCS respondents were sampled at birth, at age 9 months, and then when they were 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old. Each sweep contains detailed information on the family's SES, parenting activities, developmental indicators, parental relationship status, and indicators of parental mental health. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the related Rutter scale were used to identify behavioral and emotional problems in children. In this paper, childhood problems are separated into four domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. We focus on two aspects of this relationship at ages 5 and 11-the role of temporary and persistent poverty and the role of temporary and persistent mental health problems of mothers and fathers. At ages 11 and 5, without other controls in the model, persistent and transitory poverty have strong estimated associations with all four domains, with somewhat stronger estimated effects for persistent poverty. After a set of controls are added, we document that both persistent levels of poverty and transitions into poverty are strongly associated with levels of and transitions into childhood mental health problems. Similarly, sustained levels and transitions into mothers' mental health problems are strongly associated with levels and transitions into children's mental health problems. This is much less so for fathers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape. Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher ...
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These guidelines are intended as a reference document to assist HIV nurse and doctor clinicians in managing mental health disorders. It is intended to improve awareness, knowledge and capacity to support patients living with HIV and mental health disorders.
Stillman, Steven; McKenzie, David; Gibson, John
People migrate to improve their well-being. Yet a large literature suggests that migration can be a stressful process, with potentially negative impacts on mental health. However, to truly understand the effect of migration one must compare the mental health of migrants to what their mental health would be had they stayed in their home country. The existing literature is not able to do this. New Zealand allows a quota of Tongans to immigrate each year with a random ballot used to choose amongst the excess number of applicants. Experimental estimates of the mental health effects of migration are obtained by comparing the mental health of migrants who were successful applicants in the random ballot to the mental health of those who applied to migrate under the quota, but whose names were not drawn. Migration is found to lead to improvements in mental health, particularly for women and those with poor mental health.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…
Wiechers, Ilse R; Karel, Michele J; Hoff, Rani; Karlin, Bradley E
National data from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic medical records were used to examine rates of mental illness and service use among older veterans since mental health care transformation efforts were implemented in 2005. Data were extracted from VHA electronic medical records for each fiscal year from 2005 through 2013 for veterans ages 65 and older. Among those receiving any health care services, the number and proportion treated for a confirmed mental illness and the utilization of non-mental health care services were identified. In 2013, 2.6 million older veterans utilized services in VHA, 14% of whom had a confirmed mental illness, which was a 57% increase from 2005. Older veterans with confirmed mental illness accounted for a sizable and growing proportion of non-mental health service utilization. Preparing the workforce to address the mental health needs of older veterans and nonveterans is essential.
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
The Youth Aware of Mental health (YAM) experience Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Conversations about mental health Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15–17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: “interested”, “foot in the door”, “respect for authority”, “careful”, and “not my topic”. Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: “engaged”, “initially hesitant”, “cautious”, “eager to please”, or “disengaged”. We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along
Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis
Since the mid-1990s, Spain has started to receive a great number of migrant populations. The migration process can have a significantly negative impact on mental health of immigrant population and, consequently, generate implications for the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this article is to provide empirical evidence to demonstrate that the mental health of immigrants in Spain deteriorates the longer they are resident in the country. An empirical approach to this relationship is carried out with data from the National Survey of Health of Spain 2011-2012 and poisson and negative binomial models. Results show that immigrants who reside Spain appear to be in a better state of mental health than that observed for the national population. Studying health disparities in the foreign population and its evolution are relevant to ensure the population's access to health services and care. The need for further research is especially true in the case of the immigrant population's mental health in Spain because there is scant evidence available on their situation.
The purpose of current literature review is to identify the association between stress, physical exercise, and mental health among athlete. The outcomes of this investigation reveal stress and physical exercise have crucial role on the level of mental health; they likewise can impact on mental health positively and negatively. As well, this study focused on mental health as a main factor among athlete that increase the level of their activities in sports fields. Moreover, lack of attention to...
Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi
As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.
Tomaras Vlassis D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this
Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of
Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation. PMID:22943579
McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank
It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a
Wittchen Hans-Ulrich; Knappe Susanne; Andersson Gerhard; Araya Ricardo; Banos Rivera Rosa M; Barkham Michael; Bech Per; Beckers Tom; Berger Thomas; Berking Matthias; Berrocal Carmen; Botella Christina; Carlbring Per; Chouinard Guy; Colom Francesc
Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories principles and methodological approaches to understand mental health abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective most maladaptive health behaviours...
Cooper, Sara; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kigozi, Fred; Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan
There has been increased global concern about the human rights violations experienced by people with mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse Uganda's mental health care system through a human rights lens. A survey of the existing mental health system in Uganda was conducted using the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems. In addition, 62 interviews and six focus groups were conducted with a broad range of mental health stakeholders at the national and district levels. Despite possessing a draft mental health policy that is in line with many international human rights standards, Uganda's mental health system inadequately promotes and protects, and frequently violates the human rights of people with mental disorders. The mental health legislation is offensive and stigmatizing. It is common for people accessing mental health services to encounter physical and emotional abuse and an inadequate quality of care. Mental health services are inequitably distributed. Within Ugandan society, people with mental disorders also frequently experience widespread stigma and discrimination, and limited support. Promoting and protecting the rights of people with mental disorders has ethical and public health imperatives. A number of policy, legislative and service development initiatives are required.
Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi
While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
Examines forces motivating reform in mental health services, suggesting that mental health practitioners and researchers have relied on traditional and apparently unsuccessful methods (with little or no scientific support) to ensure service quality and effectiveness; debunking six myths about mental health services; and suggesting that…
6The Mental Health and Poverty Project (MHaPP) is a Research Programme Consortium (RPC) funded by the UK Department for. International ... improving mental health care delivery, progress in the implementation of mental health policy still remains slow in. Sub-Saharan Africa? A qualitative survey of a selected group of ...
Banks, David; Ashmore, Russell
Sample of nursing students in mental health (n=173) completed a self-disclosure questionnaire; results were compared with earlier samples (n=50, 25). The mental health group would disclose significantly fewer items to patients than to parents or friends. Results have implications for the care of mental health patients. (Contains 53 references.)…
F. Kokabisaghi (Fatemeh); I. Bakx (Iris); B. Zenelaj (Blerta)
textabstractPeople with mental illness usually experience higher rates of disability and mortality. Often, health care systems do not adequately respond to the burden of mental disorders worldwide. The number of health care providers dealing with mental health care is insufficient in many countries.
Background: The department of Mental Health Nursing (MHN) at the University of Rwanda was founded in 1998.Until that time, Rwanda had faced a huge shortage of mental health professionals; specifically, there were 1 psychiatrist, 3 mental health nurses and very few clinical psychologists (less than 5) in the country.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Martin, Jennifer Marie
Stigma is a powerful force in preventing university students with mental health difficulties from gaining access to appropriate support. This paper reports on an exploratory study of university students with mental health difficulties that found most students did not disclose their mental health problems to staff at university. This was primarily…
Tramonte, Michael R.
The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712, 1712A...
Background: Community mental health services (CMHS) are a central objective of the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan. Three core components are described: residential facilities, day care and outpatient services. Primary mental health care with specialist support is required according to an ...
Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry
Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This background paper on children's mental health indicates that less than one-third of the children who have mental health problems receive treatment. Types of mental health problems are discussed, including intellectual, developmental, behavior, emotional, psychophysiological, and adjustment disorders. Enviromental risk factors of poverty and…
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…
provision of psychotropic drugs and other therapies, public education and consumer empowerment.7. Policy and Mental Health Legislation Reforms. This was key and required urgent attention. The policy on integration was entrenched in all Ministry of Health policy documents including the Strategic plan which is the basis ...
Menear, Matthew; Gilbert, Michel; Fleury, Marie-Josée
Objective The objectives of this review were to identify and compare major international initiatives aiming to integrate mental health services in primary care and to summarize the lessons learned for similar integration efforts in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We conducted a narrative review of the literature guided by a conceptual framework drawn from the literature on integrated care. We identified relevant initiatives to support primary mental health care integration through Pubmed searches and through previous systematic reviews on this topic. We then selected those initiatives that provided sufficient details on their key characteristics, outcomes, and implementation issues (e.g. barriers, facilitators). We focused our analysis on large-scale initiatives as these offered the most potential for impacts on population mental health. This process resulted in the selection of 20 initiatives that were described in 153 articles and reports. Our synthesis was guided by our conceptual framework, which distinguishes between five types of integration, namely clinical, professional, organizational, systemic and functional integration.Results Of the 20 primary mental health care integration initiatives, 3 targeted youth, 14 targeted adults or multiple age groups, and 3 were targeted towards seniors. Most initiatives aimed to implement collaborative care models for common mental disorders in primary care. Other initiatives focused on co-locating mental health professionals in primary care, supporting the emergence of a diversity of integration projects led by community-based primary care practices, or the merger of primary care and mental health organizations. Most initiatives were based on clinical, professional and functional integration strategies. Across initiatives, a range of positive outcomes were reported, notably to the accessibility and quality of services, the satisfaction of patients and providers, the costs of services, and impacts on patients' health
Bosco, M G; Salerno, S; Valcella, F
We analyzed occupational and mental health activities in an occupational health service and in a mental health service using the Method of Organizational Congruences (MOC). No technical actions in either services were dedicated to mental health at work although this is prescribed by the Italian law (833/76) and has a demand among the local shared users identified in this study. We propose integrated technical action for mental health in public health services to address the risk of stress, burnout and mobbing in the workplace. Attention is drawn to the need for further research on health services in the field of organization and mental well-being.
Lepiéce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Social inequality as a social and economic phenomenon has become an issue of common interest in Europe and other societies worldwide, mainly after the recent global financial and economic crisis that occurred in 2008. The increasing gap observed between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged people has caused intensive debates in politics, social sciences and in the field of public health. Today, poverty is considered as a major variable adversely influencing health. In this paper we will discuss the link between poverty and mental health. We conducted a literature search focusing on three main objectives: (I) to investigate the definition of "poverty"; (II) to determine the association between poverty and major mental health problems; and (III) to discuss the extent to which poverty could be both a cause and a consequence of mental health. We identified a total of 142 relevant papers, published between 1995 and 2014, only 32 were retained. Main findings are summarised in this paper. Poverty can be considered as a risk factor for mental illness. Yet the relation between poverty and mental health is complex, without direct causation, and bidirectional. As poverty has severe consequences not only on health but also on the whole society, combating poverty should be placed high on the political agenda.
Full Text Available Contemporary research suggests that a path is now open for critical dialogue between mysticism and mental health. Data are accumulating regarding the frequency with which mystical experience occurs in the general population. Social science researchers are undertaking studies to determine whether people can knowledgably differentiate between the presence of a mystical experience and other types of experience that occur in their lives. Psychologists are developing clinical criteria by which the mystical and psychotic experience can be differentiated. Neuropsychiatric researchers are exploring the effect of the mystical experience by way of enhanced brain imagery. Theologians are opening up the received wisdom of the mystical tradition and applying it to the present historical context. This paper drew these diverse disciplines together to demonstrate an emerging consensus with respect to the efficacy of mysticism in the field of mental health.
Richter, Dirk; Hoffmann, Holger
The physical environment of mental health institutions is regarded as a therapeutic agent within the treatment. There is only little scientific evidence on the consequences of architecture and design on psychiatric patients available. A systematic review was conducted on studies from adult mental health institutions. 25 studies were included into the review. Pre-post-studies and control group conditions were predominant study designs. Randomized controlled trials were not available. Interventions reached from art installations up to entire ward renovations. Outcome indicators were rather heterogeneous, including psychopathology, behavioural observations and aggression incidents. Overwhelmingly, the studies revealed positive results of interventions into the physical environment. We found positive outcomes independent from the intervention in detail. This result should be interpreted in the light of the generally low study quality and further methodological problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C
Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Boyko, Edward J.; Seelig, Amber D.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.
OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surve...
The present study is aimed at examining the association between Mental Health Stigma and Subjective Happiness. Self-Stigma of Seeking Help scale  was used to measure the degree of threat perceived by the participants to their self esteem in seeking psychological help, where as Subjective Happiness Scale  was used to measure the level of happiness among individuals. 264 students (130 Males and 134 Females) of University of Karachi participated in the study; they were asked to rate the it...
Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A
Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p crisis, are expected to reveal more reliable associations with mental health. Finally, these findings are expected to inform intervention programmes dealing with prevention or mitigation of the impact of economic crisis on citizens' mental health.
van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L
The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ahmad Ali Naji
Conclusion: Some features of mental toughness regardless of the effect of the character can cause mental health that According to the findings, emotional control and self-confidence are more important. It is suggested that these items be taught to improve mental health.
Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.
Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…
Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.
Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.
Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about
Sluyter, G V
The principles and techniques of total quality management (TQM) have only recently been applied to the field of mental health. This article reviews issues and offers some preliminary observations, based on the author's consultation and training work with ten state-operated mental health organizations in Missouri (Jul 1, 1994-Jun 30, 1995). Since many mental health organizations have operated in the public sector as part of large, hierarchical state agencies, the legacy of bureaucratic structures and a command and control leadership style may pose additional challenges. Two types of training have proven helpful in the Missouri project: general overview or awareness training for all staff and specialized training for team leaders and facilitators. To be successful with TQM, mental health organizations should clearly delineate their governing ideas, continuously reinforce them with all staff, and use the ideas as a measuring stick for progress. Some of the organizations in the Missouri project link their governing ideas and strategic planning efforts with critical success factors and the measurement methodology to track them. This dimension, which may include a quality council, a quality department, and quality improvement (QI) teams, also extends to the way in which facilities are organized and function. The structure evolving from a team-oriented, time-limited, data-based, and problem-solving approach can facilitate the functioning of the entire organization. The philosophy and techniques of TQM are as applicable to mental health as to health care in general--the question is one more of motivation than of fit.
Rodríguez, Jorge; De La Torre, Alejandro; Miranda, Claudio T
Mental health is a serious problem in Latin America where many communities have been directly affected by armed conflict, communities in which large population groups have been displaced or have sought refuge. Research studies and epidemiological statistics are summarized to emphasize the psychosocial consequences of traumatic events associated with armed conflict. In addition to specific psychological disorders, other more generalized are considered such as fear, affliction, diseases, social disorder, violence and psychoactive substance consumption. Finally, the main points of a mental health plan for emergency situations are described which include the following: (1) preliminary diagnosis, (2) increase, decentralize and strengthen mental health public services, (3) psychosocial attention to the prevailing disorders--with emphasis on childhood problems, (4) initiate training and use of non-specialized personnel, and (5) identification of special needs requiring attention by psychologists and psychiatrists. Other aspects emphasized were community education, training, social communication, community organization, social participation, interinstitutional coordination, flexibility, sustainability, and specific actions in accordance with local needs.
OBrien, L V; Berry, H L; Coleman, C; Hanigan, I C
The mental health impact of drought is poorly quantified and no previous research has demonstrated a relationship between distress and explicit environmentally based measures of drought. With continuing climate change, it is important to understand what drought is and how it may affect the mental health. We quantified drought in terms of duration and intensity of relative dryness and identified drought characteristics associated with poor mental health to evaluate any vulnerability in rural and urban communities. Our methods involved analysis of 100-year longitudinal records of monthly rainfall linked to one wave (2007-2008) of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Cluster analysis was used to characterise different patterns of dryness and linear regression analysis was used to examine associations with participant distress, as well as the moderating role of rural locality. The results showed that, during a seven-year period of major and widespread drought, one pattern of relative dryness (extreme cumulative number of months in drought culminating in a recent period of dryness lasting a year or more) was associated with increased distress for rural but not urban dwellers. The increase in distress was estimated to be 6.22%, based on 95% confidence intervals. Thus, we show that it is possible to quantitatively identify an association between patterns of drought and distress. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.
Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…
Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha
Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ben Natan, Merav; Drori, Tal; Hochman, Ohad
This study examined public perception of stigmas relating to mental illness six months after a reform, which integrated mental health care into primary care in Israel. The results reveal that the public feels uncomfortable seeking referral to mental health services through the public health system, with Arab Israelis and men expressing lower levels of comfort than did Jewish Israelis. The current reform has not solved the issue of public stigma regarding mental health care. The study suggests that the current reforms must be accompanied over time with appropriate public education regarding mental illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although qualitative research within the field of mental health is growing, few studies of everyday communication between service users and multidisciplinary professionals within mental health institutions exist. This study examines the everyday interactions between mental health professionals...... by discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the study is to shed light on how the professionals and users construct patient identities. How are the users and the professionals positioned in their interactions? How are concepts such as psychiatric diagnosis and mental illness negotiated within...
Wahlström, M; Sihvo, S; Haukkala, A; Kiviruusu, O; Pirkola, S; Isometsä, E
Few studies investigated the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by subjects with mental disorders. We examined the relationship between depressive, anxiety and alcohol-use disorders and their comorbidity, as well as the relationship between use of CAM and use of mental health services. The Finnish adult (> or =30 years) population-based Health 2000 Study (n = 5987) collected information on use of CAM plus health and mental health care services. Generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder were positively associated and alcohol abuse was negatively associated with use of CAM. The prevalence was highest in persons with comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders. The use or perceived usefulness of mental health services did not differ between CAM users and other participants. The relationship between the use of CAM and mental disorders appears to vary depending on the type of mental disorder. Use of CAM seems unrelated to the use and the perceived usefulness of mental health services.
Luís Henrique da Costa Leão
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.
... is divided into nine sections, namely organisational structure; education, training and research; mental health service provision; highly specialised services; community mental health services; forensic mental health services; mental health and the private sector; pharmaceutical services; and summary of recommendations.
Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A
Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p mental health recovery (p mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate the effects of psychotic symptomatology.
Moscovici, Leonardo; de Azevedo-Marques, Joao Mazzoncini; Bolsoni, Lívia Maria; Rodrigues-Junior, Antonio Luiz; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo
Aim To compare the impact of three different approaches to primary care mental health on the prevalence of mental disorders. Millions of people suffer from mental disorders. As entry point into the health service, primary healthcare plays an important role in providing mental health prevention and treatment. Random sample of households in three different areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil) were selected, and 20 trained medical students conducted interviews using a mental health screening instrument, the Mini-Screening of Mental Disorders, and a socio-demographic datasheet. Primary care mental health was provided in each area through a specific approach. The influence of the area of residence and the socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of mental disorder was explored and analyzed by univariate binary logistic regression and then by a multiple logistic regression model. Findings A total of 1545 subjects were interviewed. Comparison between the three areas showed a significantly higher number of people with mental disorders in the area covered by the primary care team that did not have physicians with specific primary care mental health training, even when this association was adjusted for the influence of age, education, and socio-economic status. Our results suggest that residing in areas with family physicians with mental health training is associated with a lower prevalence of mental disorders.
... Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health... facilities designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas... primary care, dental, or mental health services in these HPSAs. NHSC health [[Page 38839
Davis, Matthew J; Moore, Kelly M; Meyers, Katherine; Mathews, Jamie; Zerth, Erin O
Although the majority of mental health conditions are treated in primary care, treatment provided in this setting is often inadequate. In response to this problem, integrated mental health programs were created to enhance direct patient care and increase support for primary care providers. Data on the efficacy of these programs have suggested improved access, treatment outcomes, and patient satisfaction. However, infrequently examined is how interaction with integrated mental health providers impacts completion of referrals to specialty mental health (SMH) programs for patients whose treatment needs are too severe to treat in primary care alone. The current study examined referral acceptance rates among a veteran population at a large Midwest Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Results found that completion rates to SMH following integrated mental health contact (87.1%) were higher than published comparisons (32% in 1 study). It was found that a large proportion of these veterans maintained continued attendance to SMH treatment at 1- and 6-month follow-up (88.9% and 71.9%, respectively). Finally, data also suggest that only a small amount of contact (5 or more minutes) was needed to significantly increase the likelihood of SMH referral success but was not related to improved continued attendance in treatment at follow-up intervals. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
A principal purpose of this article has been to examine the gap between research and practice in relation to community factors in child mental health. Two caveats were introduced in preparation for this assessment. First, it was pointed out that the definition of communities has been expanded by considering the organizing properties of social aggregates that are not simply a function of the race, ethnicity, or social class of individuals who compose them. Having these definitions grounded in theory substantially advances the needs of research and the design and goals of community-level interventions. The second caveat relates to the boundaries of the disciplines that cater to the needs of children. During the same era when child psychiatry is largely occupied with placing psychotropic medications at the center of clinical approaches, there is an important effort in child psychology and sociology to cut across their disciplinary confines to form more comprehensive designs that are sensitive to experiences and circumstances that emerge from specific aspects of community context. Research from the PHDCN was used as an example of this new interdisciplinary approach. Several community-based research projects were selected for review based on their clear implications to improve context-sensitive assessment of child mental health and design effective community-based interventions to improve child mental health. The Healthy Start and CATCH programs indicate that involving child professionals at the grassroots of community life requires skill and patience but that the effort is satisfying and potentially effective. Other examples, exemplified by North Carolina's Smart Start initiative and the program of developmental assets from the Search Institute, demonstrate coherent approaches that provide a foundation for long-term capacity building in assessment, local decision making, and the design and evaluation of interventions. Three conclusions are warranted from this
Musyimi, Christine W.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Ndetei, David M.; Henderson, David C.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.
Task-shifting in mental health such as engaging Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) in appropriate management of mental disorders is crucial in reducing global mental health challenges. This study aims to determine the outcomes of using evidence-based mental health Global Action Programme
Interviews with Native American mental health and social workers discuss how Native mental health problems are related to historical trauma and chronically inadequate mental health services. Elements of culturally relevant mental health services include locally delivered workshops, kinship foster care, tribal elders, spirituality, and Native care…
Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Applying for asylum in the United States can be a strenuous process for both applicants and immigration attorneys. Mental health professionals with expertise in asylum law and refugee trauma can make important contributions to such cases. Not only can mental health professionals provide diagnostic information that may support applicants' claims, but they can evaluate how culture and mental health symptoms relate to perceived deficits in credibility or delays in asylum application. They can define mental health treatment needs and estimate the possible effects of repatriation on mental health. Mental health professionals can also provide supportive functions for clients as they prepare for testimony. Finally, in a consultative role, mental health experts can help immigration attorneys to improve their ability to elicit trauma narratives from asylum applicants safely and efficiently and to enhance their resilience in response to vicarious trauma and burnout symptoms arising from work with asylum seekers.
Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....
Gail Pacheco; Don J. Webber
This paper presents an investigation into the impacts of mental and physical health on the propensity to be employed. Health status is parameterised using three physical and three mental health indicators. After controlling for various socioeconomic factors, the application of limited dependent variable regression techniques generates results which indicate that activity-limiting physical health and accomplishment-limiting mental health issues significantly affect the propensity to be employe...
Ohrnberger, Julius; Fichera, Eleonora; Sutton, Matt
There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by ...
Full Text Available Mental illness stigma has been the focus of increasing attention in the past few years, with an exponential increase in scientific publications on the subject. This phenomenon is a source of suffering for the patient undermining the achievement of personal goals and full social integration. In this article, the authors present a selective review of the literature on mental illness stigma, going through its definition, origins, repercussions, patients’ subjective experiences and strategies to challenge stigma. The literature presents stigma as being a complex phenomenon, whose definitions derive from different epis- temological roots (sociology, psychology and psychiatry. Its impact on the lives of people with a mental illness is well acknowledged and seems to translate into decreased opportunities, loss of self-esteem and self-concept, decreased quality of life, social support and empowerment, thus limiting the adoption or performance of regular social roles. Stigma has also been shown to compromise access to health care, not only psychiatric treatment but also general medical care, thus increasing the morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. A considerable amount of effort has been put into the comprehension of this phenomenon and to designing strategies for fighting stigma, which also include promoting health-care professionals’ awareness of the topic in order to improve clinical practice and global quality of care.
McKeown, M; Mercer, D
Mental health nurses have a critical stake in resisting the right-wing ideology of British fascism. Particularly concerning is the contemporary effort of the British National Party (BNP) to gain credibility and electoral support by the strategic re-packaging of a racist and divisive political manifesto. Evidence that some public sector workers are affiliated with the BNP has relevance for nursing at a series of levels, not least the incompatibility of party membership with a requirement of the Professional Code to avoid discrimination. Progressive advances, though, need to account for deep rooted institutionalized racism in the discourse and practice of healthcare services. The anomalous treatment of black people within mental health services, alongside racial abuse experienced by ethnic minority staff, is discussed in relation to the concept of race as a powerful social category and construction. The murder of the mentally ill and learning disabled in Nazi Germany, as an adjunct of racial genocide, is presented as an extreme example where professional ethics was undermined by dominant political ideology. Finally, the complicity of medical and nursing staff in the state sanctioned, bureaucratic, killing that characterized the Holocaust is revisited in the context of ethical repositioning for contemporary practice and praxis.
Orpana, Heather; Vachon, Julie; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Jayaraman, Gayatri
Positive mental health is increasingly recognized as an important focus for public health policies and programs. In Canada, the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was identified as a promising measure to include on population surveys to measure positive mental health. It proposes to measure a three-factor model of positive mental health including emotional, social and psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the MHC-SF is an adequate measure of positive mental health for Canadian adults. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Mental Health Component (CCHS-MH), and cross-validated the model using data from the CCHS 2011-2012 annual cycle. We examined criterion-related validity through correlations of MHC-SF subscale scores with positively and negatively associated concepts (e.g. life satisfaction and psychological distress, respectively). We confirmed the validity of the three-factor model of emotional, social and psychological well-being through CFA on two independent samples, once four correlated errors between items on the social well-being scale were added. We observed significant correlations in the anticipated direction between emotional, psychological and social well-being scores and related concepts. Cronbach's alpha for both emotional and psychological well-being subscales was 0.82; for social well-being it was 0.77. Our study suggests that the MHC-SF measures a three-factor model of positive mental health in the Canadian population. However, caution is warranted when using the social well-being scale, which did not function as well as the other factors, as evidenced by the need to add several correlated error terms to obtain adequate model fit, a higher level of missing data on these questions and weaker correlations with related constructs. Social well-being is important in a comprehensive measure of positive mental health, and further
Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre
This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A declaration by the Mental Health Care Act (Act 17 of 2002) authorised police officers to assist mental health care users (MHCUs) they come across and needed help. As such, the purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge and skills of police officers regarding mental illness and the handling of MHCUs.
Climie, Emma; Altomare, Alyssa A.
There are a growing number of children who begin to develop mental concerns during the school-age years. As such, it is important that schools recognize and understand mental health issues and are actively engaged in supporting these students. This article provides a review of mental health in schools, highlighting the importance of school-health…
Background. Europe and North America have low rates of mental health service use despite high rates of mental disorder. Little is known about mental health service use among South Africans. Design. A nationally representative survey of 4 351 adults. Twelve-month DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition) ...
The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa's colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the ...
Objective: Approximately one in five children and adolescents (CA) suffer from mental disorders. This paper reports on the findings of a situational analysis of CA mental health policy and services in Ghana, Uganda, South Africa and Zambia. The findings are part of a 5 year study, the Mental Health and Poverty Project, ...
They were asked questions on how often they encountered children with mental health problems, facilities for the care of mentally ill children in their schools, the symptoms that could signify mental health problems in a school child and their first line of action in a situation where a child is found to have such problems.
Ngui, Emmanuel M; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ndetei, David; Roberts, Laura Weiss
The global burden of neuropsychiatry diseases and related mental health conditions is enormous, underappreciated and under resourced, particularly in the developing nations. The absence of adequate and quality mental health infrastructure and workforce is increasingly recognized. The ethical implications of inequalities in mental health for people and nations are profound and must be addressed in efforts to fulfil key bioethics principles of medicine and public health: respect for individuals, justice, beneficence, and non-malfeasance. Stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders affects their education, employment, access to care and hampers their capacity to contribute to society. Mental health well-being is closely associated to several Millennium Development Goals and economic development sectors including education, labour force participation, and productivity. Limited access to mental health care increases patient and family suffering. Unmet mental health needs have a negative effect on poverty reduction initiatives and economic development. Untreated mental conditions contribute to economic loss because they increase school and work absenteeism and dropout rates, healthcare expenditure, and unemployment. Addressing unmet mental health needs will require development of better mental health infrastructure and workforce and overall integration of mental and physical health services with primary care, especially in the developing nations.
During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf
these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...... mental health adversities and enhancing parental sensitivity and attachment security. Outcomes are measured at follow-up and include parental sensitivity and reflective functioning, child attachment, child social emotional and cognitive development. Results: Preliminary results from the study...... will be presented focusing mainly on the results from screening part of the study. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we will discuss the importance of screening programs for early infant mental risks and indicated prevention programs aiming at enhancing parental sensitivity and child attachment. If proved...
Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wasserman, Camilla; Postuvan, Vita; Herta, Dana; Iosue, Miriam; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir
Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity", "frustration
Full Text Available Youth stand at the core of much mental health promotion, yet little is written about their experiences of such efforts. We aimed to take this on by interviewing youth after they participated in Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM, a universal mental health promotion program. YAM has a non-anticipatory methodology that provides youth with a safe space for reflection, role-play, and discussion. Addressing everyday mental health, YAM invites the experiences and issues relevant to the youth present to influence the program in a slightly different direction every time. The YAM instructor guides the participants but does not present the youth with given formulas on how to solve their problems. Like any mental health promotion, YAM appeals to some more than others in its intended audience and individuals engage with the program in many different ways. We set out to learn more about these experiences.Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-17 year olds in Estonia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In these interviews, the researchers made an effort to discuss mental health in terms relevant to youth. Still, wide-ranging levels of motivation, ease with engaging in dialogue with mental health professionals, and comfort with the format and content of YAM were detected. The youth were clustered in five different groups relating to their positioning vis-à-vis the researcher during the interview. The following evocative labels were used: "interested", "foot in the door", "respect for authority", "careful", and "not my topic". Corresponding labels were devised for their YAM experience: "engaged", "initially hesitant", "cautious", "eager to please", or "disengaged". We also observed that the researchers brought their own expectations and employed a variety of approaches that led to anticipating answers, stating the obvious, or getting along better with some of the youth. These modes of interaction were categorized under: "favoritism", "familiarity
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: A number of studies have highlighted the physical health problems associated with adolescent pregnancy in Saudi Arabia , However there were few studies dealing with the postpartum psychiatric disorders .The study aims to determine the prevalence of postpartum psychological distress and to evaluate the associated risk factors in a sample of primigravid young women in Al Ahsa region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We assessed the prevalence of postnatal mental health in 190 young mothers attending the maternity hospital using general health questionnaire. We also assessed the relationship between socio-demographic, psychiatric and obstetric risk factors and the mental health. Results: The percent of women with psychological distress was 35.2%. Significant risk of psychological distress was associated with several socio-demographic, psychiatric and obstetric risk factors. Only four items were found to be significant predictors of postpartum psychological distress; low family income, poor husband support, birth of female baby and gestational diabetes. Conclusions: These results highlighted importance of screening for psychological distress and its associated risk factors in the implementation of proper perinatal care for the pregnant Saudi adolescents.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Barwick, Melanie A; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Ferguson, H Bruce; Blase, Karen; Fixsen, Dean
Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH) service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use - access, assess, adapt, and apply - research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.
Orlowski, Simone; Matthews, Ben; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Jones, Gabrielle; Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Collin, Philippa
Despite growing interest in the promise of e-mental and well-being interventions, little supporting literature exists to guide their design and the evaluation of their effectiveness. Both participatory design (PD) and design thinking (DT) have emerged as approaches that hold significant potential for supporting design in this space. Each approach is difficult to definitively circumscribe, and as such has been enacted as a process, a mind-set, specific practices/techniques, or a combination thereof. At its core, however, PD is a design research tradition that emphasizes egalitarian partnerships with end users. In contrast, DT is in the process of becoming a management concept tied to innovation with strong roots in business and education. From a health researcher viewpoint, while PD can be reduced to a number of replicable stages that involve particular methods, techniques, and outputs, projects often take vastly different forms and effective PD projects and practice have traditionally required technology-specific (eg, computer science) and domain-specific (eg, an application domain, such as patient support services) knowledge. In contrast, DT offers a practical off-the-shelf toolkit of approaches that at face value have more potential to have a quick impact and be successfully applied by novice practitioners (and those looking to include a more human-centered focus in their work). Via 2 case studies we explore the continuum of similarities and differences between PD and DT in order to provide an initial recommendation for what health researchers might reasonably expect from each in terms of process and outcome in the design of e-mental health interventions. We suggest that the sensibilities that DT shares with PD (ie, deep engagement and collaboration with end users and an inclusive and multidisciplinary practice) are precisely the aspects of DT that must be emphasized in any application to mental health provision and that any technology development process must
In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to
Full Text Available Mental ill health constitutes a huge portion of the GBD but the majority of people with mental health problems do not receive any treatment, a scenario much worse in developing countries where mental health personnel are in gross short supply. The mhGAP was launched to address this gap, especially by training non-mental health professionals to deliver effective services for selected priority mental health problems. Especially in developing countries, people with mental health problems consult traditional healers either as a first step in the pathway to biomedical mental health care or as the sole mental health service providers. Bridging the gap between mental health needs and available services in developing countries must incorporate traditional healers, who are ubiquitously available, easily accessible and acceptable to the natives. Although there are barriers in forging collaborations between traditional and biomedical mental health care providers, with mutual respect, understanding and adapted training using the mhGAP guide it should be possible to get some traditional healers to understand the core principles of some priority mental health problems identification, treatment and referral.
Donovan, Rob; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Robinson, Katy; Lin, Chad
To determine the impact of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign on people with a diagnosed mental illness or who had sought professional help for a mental health problem in the previous 12 months. In 2013 and 2014, 1,200 adults in Western Australia were interviewed by telephone. The questionnaire measured campaign reach, impact on beliefs about mental health and mental illness and behavioural impact. Campaign impact on changing the way respondents thought about mental health was significantly higher among those with a mental illness or who had sought help (41.4% vs 24.2%; pmental health as a result of their exposure to the campaign (20.5% vs 8.7%; pmental illness or who recently sought help to take steps of their own to enhance their mental health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Bruland, Dirk; Kornblum, Katharina; Harsch, Stefanie; Bröder, Janine; Okan, Orkan; Bauer, Ullrich
Students Having Parents with Mental Health Issues and Teachers' Mental Health Literacy Mental health issues of parents of school children often negatively affects the children as well, including their school performance and social behavior in the school setting. Teachers are then required to take actions with regards to supporting children in their coping with and mastering of their home situation and their responds to educational demands. As such, schools' and teachers' actions can either support affected children and fulfill a protective function or respond inappropriately, with negative impact on the affected children. Although the societal discussion about and acceptance of mental illnesses have increased in recent years, scientific knowledge on how well teachers are prepared for meeting the needs of affected students remains insufficient. Therefore, this research study examines teachers' attitudes towards, knowledge about, and competencies regarding children affected by a mentally ill parent. 15 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups (n = 11) with teachers from primary and secondary schools were conducted and systematically analyzed. Although burdens in the family are perceived as major influences on children's school day and performance, teachers report to not feel sufficiently prepared for and uncertain about supporting and coping with the special needs of affected students. Instead they report to "learn from a case to case" basis. Recognizing the family situation of children with mentally ill parents is reported to be especially difficult for teachers. Responding inadequately and insensitive to the needs of affected children was perceived as a serious burden for teachers themselves. While schools can function as entry points to professional social help systems, teachers frequently reported barriers and challenges in accessing, communicating, and collaborating with these systems. The practical implications of these results regarding the "Mental Health
Teismann, Tobias; Brailovskaia, Julia; Siegmann, Paula; Nyhuis, Peter; Wolter, Marcus; Willutzki, Ulrike
Positive and negative mental health are independent but correlated concepts. Yet, it is unknown whether positive mental health does co-occur with suicide ideation. The present study aimed to determine the proportion of patients who have positive mental health as well as suicide ideation. Inpatients (N=100) and outpatients (N=182) completed self-report measures of positive mental health, suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. Eleven outpatients (6%) and ten inpatients (10%) with suicide ideation reported moderate to high levels of positive mental health. Lifetime suicide attempts were less likely in inpatients who suffered from suicide ideation in the presence of positive mental health. Positive mental health does co-occur with suicide ideation and should be considered as a protective factor in suicide risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Manufacturing front-line workers were more likely to experience mental health problems. Personal resources and professional tasks were the major factors of workers’ mental health. Therefore, this study was to explore the interrelationship of these three key factors. A questionnaire including the revised Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90 covered 480 manufacturing front-line workers to measure their personal resources, professional tasks and mental health. Results showed that among manufacturing front-line workers, the status of mental health and professional tasks were below the national average level, and the personal resources were relatively deficient as well. Correlation analysis indicated a negative relation between the indicators of mental health and professional tasks (except responsibility, while personal resources and mental health were significantly positive correlation. These findings suggested that personal resources and professional tasks were highly related to mental health in manufacturing front-line workers.
Best, Patrick K.
Evaluated is the effect of deafness on healthy mental development based on Erikson's eight stages of man, and reported is a survey of the mental health status of students at the California School for the Deaf. (DB)
Westphal, Richard J
.... Semi-structured interviews and military policies were used as data sources to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health...
Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...
Objective: Mental health has been identified as a major priority in the Ugandan Health Sector Strategic Plan. Efforts are currently underway to integrate mental health services into the Primary Health Care system. In this study, we report aspects of the integration of mental health into primary health care in one rural district in ...
... National Institute of Mental Health) Also in Spanish Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Depression (For Teens) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder ... Guy's Guide to Body Image (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish How Can I ...
Full Text Available Amber Roegner,1 Federico Giannitti,2 Leslie W Woods,2 Asli Mete,2 Birgit Puschner1,2 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Lead intoxication in livestock has historically been associated with cattle turned out to pasture and accidental ingestion of lead from drinking crankcase oil, licking grease from machinery, chewing on plumbing or batteries, or drinking water contaminated from leaching materials. Even with the decrease in manufactured items produced with lead, contaminants persist in the landscape and may enter the food supply through animal products. Changing patterns of open range herds moving to new pasture and the increased popularity of urban/suburban backyard chickens or other livestock necessitates public awareness about the clinical signs of lead intoxication, the potential for subclinical animals, public health concerns, particularly for exposure in children, and testing options available. Cases of lead intoxication in livestock demand a thorough case work-up to identify all sources of lead, address subclinical cases, evaluate risk to consumers, and make management suggestions for future prevention. We discuss four recent cases of confirmed lead poisoning in backyard chickens and open range cattle and assess the public health implications therein. Taken as a whole and considering the potential of the remaining herd or flock to be affected without necessarily showing signs, public health officials and veterinarians should be prepared to advise clients on case work-up and management and prevention considerations. Backyard chickens and cattle may not present for suspected lead poisoning as in several of the cases discussed herein yet may still contain concerning tissue or blood levels. The authors believe increased
Leung, Lucinda B; Yoon, Jean; Escarce, José J; Post, Edward P; Wells, Kenneth B; Sugar, Catherine A; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V
Primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI) aims to increase access to general mental health specialty (MHS) care for primary care patients thereby decreasing referrals to non-primary care-based MHS services. It remains unclear whether new patterns of usage of MHS services reflect good mental health care. This study examined the relationship between primary care clinic engagement in PC-MHI and use of different MHS services. This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of 66,638 primary care patients with mental illnesses in 29 Southern California Veterans Affairs clinics (2008-2013). Regression models used clinic PC-MHI engagement (proportion of all primary care clinic patients who received PC-MHI services) to predict relative rates of general MHS visits and more specialized MHS visits (for example, visits for serious mental illness services), after adjustment for year and clinic fixed effects, other clinic interventions, and patient characteristics. Patients were commonly diagnosed as having depression (35%), anxiety (36%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (22%). For every 1 percentage point increase in a clinic's PC-MHI engagement rate, patients at the clinic had 1.2% fewer general MHS visits per year (pPrimary care clinics with greater engagement in PC-MHI showed reduced general MHS use rates, particularly for patients with depression, without accompanying reductions in use of more specialized MHS services.
Mental Health Services in South Africa: Scaling up and future directions. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... Abstract. “No health without mental health” has become a rallying call for the World Health Organization and numerous service providers, training institutions, health researchers, and advocacy groups around the world.
Moumita Maity; Barun Mukhopadhyay
One of the important public health issues worldwide is the rise of higher proportion of older aged with advancement of medicine, prolonged life expectancy and for improved health care facilities. Demographic projections suggest that mental illness along with heart diseases, AIDS and cancer will account for the top four illnesses around the globe very soon. It ranks up at the top along with heart disease, cancer, obesity, AIDS and injuries as leading causes of suffering. Increased longevity of...
The long-awaited Mental Health Law of China was passed on 26 October 2012 and took effect on 1 May 2013. Being the first national legislation on mental health, it establishes a basic legal framework to regulate mental health practice and recognizes the fundamental rights of persons with mental disorders. This article focuses on the system of involuntary detention and treatment of the mentally ill under the new law, which is expected to prevent the so-called "Being misidentified as mentally disordered" cases in China. A systematic examination of the new system demonstrates that the Mental Health Law of China implicitly holds two problematic assumptions and does not provide adequate protection of the fundamental rights of the involuntary patients. Administrative enactments and further national legislative efforts are needed to remedy these flaws in the new law. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saymah, Dyaa; Tait, Lynda; Michail, Maria
Mental health system reform is urgently needed in Gaza to respond to increasing mental health consequences of conflict. Evidence from mental health systems research is needed to inform decision-making. We aimed to provide new knowledge on current mental health policy and legislation, and services and resource use, in Gaza to identify quality gaps and areas for urgent intervention. As part of a mixed methods study, we used the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems Version 2·2 to collect data on mental health services and resources. Data collection was carried out in 2011, based on the year 2010. Gaza's mental health policy suggests some positive steps toward reform such as supporting deinstitutionalisation of mental health services. The decrease in the number of beds in the psychiatric hospital and the progressive transition of mental healthcare toward more community based care are indicative of deinstitutionalisation. However, mental health legislation in support of deinstitutionalisation in Gaza is lacking. The integration of mental health into primary healthcare and general hospitals has not been fully achieved. Mental health in Gaza is underfunded, human rights protection of service users is absent, and human resources, service user advocacy, and mental health training are limited. Priority needs to be given to human rights protection, mental health training, and investment in human and organisational resources. Legislation is needed to support policy and plan development. The ongoing political conflict and expected increase in need for mental health services demonstrates an urgent response is necessary.
Lepièce, Brice; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas
Since 2010, the Belgian mental healthcare system has been involved in a structural reform: the main objective of this reorganisation is to foster the reintegration in the community of patients suffering from a mental health disorder. In parallel, the role of mental health professionals has evolved these last years: from a strictly clinical role, to the preoccupation with the rehabilitation of social competencies such as enhancing patients' abilities to return to work. The aim of this paper is to explore, specifically for patients hospitalized for a common mental health disorder, the predictive variables of returning to work within 6 months after hospitalization (RTW6). Our sample was extracted from routinely collected data during the patients' hospital stay (10 days) at the Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Day Centre of CHU Godinne. A sample of 134 patients participated in our study. Those patients were contacted 6 months after their hospitalization to assess resumption of work. We found that a patient's sociodemographicand socioeconomic variables, and depressive symptoms at the beginning of hospitalization were not predictive of return to work within 6 months (RTW6). On the other hand, duration of absence from work before hospitalization and the diagnosis of a major depression in particular were negatively associated with RTW6, whereas improvement of depressive symptoms during hospitalization stay was positively associated to RTW6. Our study identified the diagnosis of major depression and the duration of absence from work before hospitalization as two important risk factors impeding a fast return to work for patients hospitalised for a common mental health disorder. As the preoccupation with patients' abilities to return to work is now on the agenda of mental health professionals, special support and supervision should be dedicated to the more vulnerable patients.
Karam, Elie; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami; Naja, Wadih; Fayyad, John; Ammar, Walid
The Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a National Mental Health Programme, which in turn has established the Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015-2020. In parallel, research involving refugees has been conducted since the onset of the Syrian crisis. The findings point to an increase in mental health disorders in the Syrian refugee population, which now numbers more than 1 million.
Paniagua Paniagua, Patricia; García Gómez, Juan Miguel
This book compiles the contributions presented during the 1st Workshop on ICT applied to Mental Health, where researchers from the Help4Mood and OPTIMI projects were joined to share and discuss their experience and vision about the development, use and business models of Personal Health Systems applied to Mental Health in a multidisciplinary forum. Paniagua Paniagua, P.; García Gómez, JM. (2012). Information and Communication. Technologies applied to Mental Health. Editorial Universi...
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675
Reavley, Nicola J; McCann, Terence V; Jorm, Anthony F
With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in tertiary education, these are potential settings for programmes to improve mental health literacy. A survey was carried out with students and staff of a tertiary education institution to investigate recognition of depression, help-seeking intentions, beliefs about interventions and stigmatizing attitudes. Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group) participated in a telephone interview. They answered questions relating to mental health literacy. Of the completed interviews, 774 (65%) were students and 422 (35%) were staff. Over 70% of students and staff were able to recognize depression in a vignette, with greater likelihood of recognition in students associated with older age, female gender, being born in Australia and a higher level of education. Over 80% of respondents said they would seek help if they had a problem similar to that of the vignette. However, rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, with only 26% nominating a general practitioner and only 10% nominating a student counsellor. Factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes included male gender, younger age, lower level of education, being born outside Australia and lack of recognition of depression. There is a need for mental health literacy interventions targeted at students, particularly those who are younger, male, born outside Australia and of a lower level of education. As rates of specific help-seeking intentions for students were relatively low, there is a need for further exploration of the barriers to help seeking from professional sources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, David; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye
To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-middle (LLMI) income countries totalling 101,258 adults interviewed with the WMH CIDI plus questions on use of care for mental health problems and religiosity. 1.1% of participants turned to religious providers for MHC in the past year. Among those using services, 12.3% used religious services; as much as 30% in some LLMI countries, around 20% in some UMI; in the HI income countries USA, Germany, Italy and Japan are between 15 and 10% whenever the remaining countries are much lower. In LLMI 20.9% used religious advisors for the most severe mental disorders compared to 12.3 in UMI and 9.5% in HI. For severe cases most of religious providers use occurred together with formal care except in Nigeria, Iraq and Ukraine where, respectively, 41.6, 25.7 and 17.7% of such services are outside any formal care. Frequency of attendance at religious services was a strong predictor of religious provider usage OR 6.5 for those who attended over once a week (p mental health care and require appropriate training and collaboration with formal mental healthcare systems. Religious attitudes are strong predictors of religious advisors usage.
Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656
Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H
While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.
Connell, Nadine M.
Objectives. We assessed mental health screening and medication continuity in a nationally representative sample of US prisoners. Methods. We obtained data from 18 185 prisoners interviewed in the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. We conducted survey logistic regressions with Stata version 13. Results. About 26% of the inmates were diagnosed with a mental health condition at some point during their lifetime, and a very small proportion (18%) were taking medication for their condition(s) on admission to prison. In prison, more than 50% of those who were medicated for mental health conditions at admission did not receive pharmacotherapy in prison. Inmates with schizophrenia were most likely to receive pharmacotherapy compared with those presenting with less overt conditions (e.g., depression). This lack of treatment continuity is partially attributable to screening procedures that do not result in treatment by a medical professional in prison. Conclusions. A substantial portion of the prison population is not receiving treatment for mental health conditions. This treatment discontinuity has the potential to affect both recidivism and health care costs on release from prison. PMID:25322306
Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie; Flisher, Alan
This paper describes current support for mental health care user participation in policy development and implementation in South Africa and suggests strategies for improving participation. The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Policy Checklist and WHO Mental Health Legislation Checklist were completed. Between August 2006 and August 2009 96 semi-structured interviews with national, regional and district stakeholders were conducted. Most respondents felt that inclusion of user perspectives in policy processes would improve policy development. In practice, mental health care user consultation in policy development and implementation has been limited during the 16 years of democracy in South Africa. Strategies to create a supportive environment for user participation include social action directed at reducing stigma, advocating for acceptance of users' rights to participate in decision making, crafting a supportive regulatory framework to promote participation, and equipping providers and policy makers to support inclusion. User capacity for participation could be strengthened through early and effective access to treatment and support, development of a national user lobby, skills training and practical exposure to the policy and service development environment.
Bracken, Pat; Khalfa, Jean; Thomas, Philip
The work of the French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault, often dealt with subjects either directly or indirectly related to psychiatry. In the past, his work has been largely ignored or rejected by mainstream psychiatry. In the period under review, two important English translations of Foucault's work on psychiatry have been published. Our review focuses on these books, and also looks at some of the recent secondary literature relating to Foucault and mental health. We argue that psychiatry has a lot to gain from a positive engagement with Foucault's ideas.
Jiloha, R. C.
Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245
Jiloha, R. C.
Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ?rape laws? began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ?rape and inclusion of ?marital rape? in the ambit of rape. Law Commis...
Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa
We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Zuberi, Daniyal
Rapid urbanization globally threatens to increase the risk to mental health and requires a rethinking of the relationship between urban poverty and mental health. The aim of this article is to reveal the cyclic nature of this relationship: Concentrated urban poverty cultivates mental illness, while the resulting mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors used theories about social disorganization and crime to explore the mechanisms through which the urban environment can contribute to mental health problems. They present some data on crime, substance abuse, and social control to support their claim that mental illness reinforces poverty. The authors argue that, to interrupt this cycle and improve outcomes, social workers and policymakers must work together to implement a comprehensive mental health care system that emphasizes prevention, reaches young people, crosses traditional health care provision boundaries, and involves the entire community to break this cycle and improve the outcomes of those living in urban poverty.
Cohen, Nicole J; Deeds, Jonathan R; Wong, Eugene S; Hanner, Robert H; Yancy, Haile F; White, Kevin D; Thompson, Trevonne M; Wahl, Michael; Pham, Tu D; Guichard, Frances M; Huh, In; Austin, Connie; Dizikes, George; Gerber, Susan I
Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin that occurs in select species of the family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish). It causes paralysis and potentially death if ingested in sufficient quantities. In 2007, two individuals developed symptoms consistent with tetrodotoxin poisoning after ingesting home-cooked puffer fish purchased in Chicago. Both the Chicago retailer and the California supplier denied having sold or imported puffer fish but claimed the product was monkfish. However, genetic analysis and visual inspection determined that the ingested fish and others from the implicated lot retrieved from the supplier belonged to the family Tetraodontidae. Tetrodotoxin was detected at high levels in both remnants of the ingested meal and fish retrieved from the implicated lot. The investigation led to a voluntary recall of monkfish distributed by the supplier in three states and placement of the supplier on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Import Alert for species misbranding. This case of tetrodotoxin poisoning highlights the need for continued stringent regulation of puffer fish importation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, education of the public regarding the dangers of puffer fish consumption, and raising awareness among medical providers of the diagnosis and management of foodborne toxin ingestions and the need for reporting to public health agencies.
Juan P. Gómez C
Full Text Available Venomous or poisonous animals are a very common cause of accidents in Colombia. Such accidents occur due to vertebrates such as snakes and fish or invertebrates such as scorpions, spiders, bees, etc. The most affected individuals are young people ages 15 to 45. They are mainly farmers and fishermen. These events can be considered work accidents given their characteristics. Nevertheless, the occupational risk insurance companies, the central Colombian government, and the regional, departmental, and municipal governmental authorities do not record or study these events. Therefore, the true magnitude of the problems caused by this, and the social, economic and occupational losses for Colombia and its companies are not perceived. Likewise, Colombian companies lack protocols, manuals, mechanisms for the identification of potentially dangerous animals to which workers are exposed based on their sector or occupation. This critical factor can have direct implications in the treatments applied to specific cases. This review article attempts to contextualize the impact of poisonous and venomous animals on the health of workers by presenting theoretical foundations and concepts for approaching this issue.
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.
Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Keyes, Cory L.M.
Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core
Laidlaw, Anita; McLellan, Julie; Ozakinci, Gozde
Despite relatively high levels of psychological distress, many students in higher education do not seek help for difficulties. This study explored undergraduate student understanding of the concepts of mental health and mental well-being and where undergraduate students would seek help for mental well-being difficulties. Semi-structured interviews…
Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad
Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region.
Jaruseviciene, L.; Valius, L.; Lazarus, J.V.
Background. General practitioners (GPs) often become the first point of care for mental health issues. Improved collaboration between GPs and mental health teams can make a GP's mental health services more efficient. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the collaboration between GPs...... and mental health team members and determine predictors for better collaboration. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, a 41- item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to obtain knowledge about current practices of GPs in providing...... mental health care for patients as well as GPs' collaboration with metal health teams. Results. The response rate was 52.2%. GPs collaborated closest with psychiatrists: 30.7% of them reported that they discuss the mental health care of their patients with psychiatrists. Predictors of greater...
Hamid, Hamada; Abanilla, Karen; Bauta, Besa; Huang, Keng-Yen
Mental health is a low priority in most countries around the world. Minimal research and resources have been invested in mental health at the national level. As a result, WHO has developed the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to encourage countries to gather data and to re-evaluate their national mental health policy. This paper demonstrates the utility and limitations of WHO-AIMS by applying the model to four countries with different cultures, political histories and public health policies: Iraq, Japan, the Philippines and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. WHO-AIMS provides a useful model for analysing six domains: policy and legislative framework; mental health services; mental health in primary care; human resources; education of the public at large; and monitoring and research. This is especially important since most countries do not have experts in mental health policy or resources to design their own evaluation tools for mental health systems. Furthermore, WHO-AIMS provides a standardized database for cross-country comparisons. However, limitations of the instrument include the neglect of the politics of mental health policy development, underestimation of the role of culture in mental health care utilization, and questionable measurement validity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.
Burns, J K
The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health