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Sample records for poisoning induced cardiomyopathy

  1. Cardiomyopathy induced by anthracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Isabel; Espinoza, Gerson; Poveda, Maria; Flores, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Anthracycline cardiomyopathy is less frequently encountered nowadays, due to the well recognized dose limitations and cardiac monitoring protocols used by chemotherapy centers. However, it is a condition that will persist due to the sensitivity of some patients to these drugs and the necessity for large doses to be used for certain individuals. We have demonstrated the benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and would consider introducing these compounds at the earliest opportunity. The use of probucol and vitamins as antioxidants capable of preventing the onset of cardiomyopathy in humans appears to require further investigation but may significantly reduce the incidence of this condition in the future. (The author)

  2. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Capel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC is an atypical, severe but reversible form of acute heart insufficiency. It typically presents with left ventricular failure, transient apical and mid-segments hypokinesis, absence of significant coronary stenosis and new electrographic abnormalities and/or elevation in serum cardiac enzymes. Although TC (‘broken heart syndrome’ has classically been associated with emotional trauma, evidence suggests that other precipitants might exist, including iatrogenic and thyroid-mediated forms. Thyroid disease is a relatively common comorbidity in TC patients. We report a case of TC in a postmenopausal female with no history of emotional trauma or other potential precipitant factors who was diagnosed with amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during her hospital stay. Though some case reports of thyroidrelated TC exist, we are not aware of any other reported case of TC precipitated by amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism.

  3. Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Mechanisms and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cun Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a lethal syndrome with a high incidence and a weighty economy burden. The pathophysiology of sepsis includes inflammation, immune dysfunction, and dysfunction of coagulation, while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC, defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by sepsis, plays a significant role in all of the aspects above in the pathogenesis of sepsis. The complex pathogenesis of SIC involves a combination of dysregulation of inflammatory mediators, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, disorder of calcium regulation, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and endothelial dysfunction. The treatments for SIC include the signal pathway intervention, Chinese traditional medicine, and other specific therapy. Here, we reviewed the latest literatures on the mechanisms and treatments of SIC and hope to provide further insights to researchers and create a new road for the therapy of sepsis.

  4. Adderall induced inverted-Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsidawi, Said; Muth, James; Wilkin, James

    2011-11-15

    Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TTC), also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, was initially described in Japan in 1990. Both illicit and prescription drugs have added to the growing list of insulting stressors. We describe an interesting case of atypical TTC triggered by adderall overdose. A 19-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Department after ingesting 30 Adderall tablets. She was complaining of pressure like chest pain and shortness of breath. Her cardiac enzymes were elevated but the electrocardiogram was unremarkable. Echocardiography identified an ejection fraction (EF) of 25-30% with severe hypokinesis of the base and a preserved apex. Cardiac angiography demonstrated normal coronary arteries with an EF of 35%, hyperkinetic apex and akinetic base consistent with the diagnosis of inverted-TTC. Her symptoms resolved in 24 hrs. Repeat echocardiogram performed 3 days later showed an EF of 60% with no regional wall motion abnormalities. TTC can be identified as a rapid development of severe and reversible left ventricular dysfunction extending beyond the territory of a single epicardial coronary artery in the absence of coronary artery disease or pheochromocytoma. Clinical presentation can be challenging and very hard to distinguish from acute myocardial infarction. Medication induced-TTC has been reported. In our case, the patient overdosed on Adderall which is a sympathomimetic medication. Cardiac imaging identified wall motion abnormalities consistent with inverted type TTC. Restoration of left ventricular function within days confirms the diagnosis of TTC. In conclusion, this case offers an interesting insight into the pathophysiology of TTC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The role of interpolation in PVC-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Hilal; Yokokawa, Miki; Baman, Timir; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Armstrong, William; Good, Eric; Chugh, Aman; Pelosi, Frank; Crawford, Thomas; Oral, Hakan; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) can cause cardiomyopathy. The mechanism is not known and may be multifactorial. This study assessed the role of PVC interpolation in PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. In 51 consecutive patients (14 women, age 49 ± 15 years, ejection fraction (EF) 0.49 ± 0.14) with frequent PVCs, 24-hour Holter recordings were performed. The amount of interpolation was determined and correlated with the presence of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. In addition, parameters measured during an electrophysiology study were correlated with the Holter findings. Fourteen of the 21 patients (67%) with cardiomyopathy had interpolated PVCs, compared with only 6 of 30 patients (20%) without PVC-induced cardiomyopathy (P PVC burden than patients without interpolation (28% ± 12% vs. 15% ± 15%; P = .002). The burden of interpolated PVCs correlated with the presence of PVC cardiomyopathy (21% ± 30% vs. 4% ± 13%; P = .008). Both PVC burden and interpolation independently predicted PVC-induced cardiomyopathy (odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.13, P = .02; and odds ratio 4.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 18.48, P = .04, respectively). The presence of ventriculoatrial block at a ventricular pacing cycle length of 600 ms correlated with the presence of interpolation (P = .004). Patients with interpolation had a longer mean ventriculoatrial block cycle length than patients without interpolated PVCs (520 ± 110 ms vs. 394 ± 92 ms; P = .01). The presence of interpolated PVCs was predictive of the presence of PVC cardiomyopathy. Interpolation may play an important role in the generation of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy due to pheochromocytoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satendra, Milan; de Jesus, Cláudia; Bordalo e Sá, Armando L; Rosário, Luís; Rocha, José; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Correia, Maria José; Nunes Diogo, António

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor originating from chromaffin tissue. It commonly presents with symptoms and signs of catecholamine excess, such as hypertension, tachycardia, headache and sweating. Cardiovascular manifestations include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, which may present as severe left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. We report a case of pheochromocytoma which was diagnosed following investigation of dilated cardiomyopathy. We highlight the dramatic symptomatic improvement and reversal of cardiomyopathy, with recovery of left ventricular function after treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often in middle-aged people and is more likely to affect men. The most common cause is coronary artery disease or heart attack. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This type involves abnormal thickening of ...

  8. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Ismael; Tasa-Vinyals, Elisabet; Cano-Palomares, Albert; Bergés-Raso, Irene; Albert, Lara; Rigla, Mercedes; Caixàs, Assumpta

    2017-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is an atypical, severe but reversible form of acute heart insufficiency. It typically presents with left ventricular failure, transient apical and mid-segments hypokinesis, absence of significant coronary stenosis and new electrographic abnormalities and/or elevation in serum cardiac enzymes. Although TC ('broken heart syndrome') has classically been associated with emotional trauma, evidence suggests that other precipitants might exist, including iatrogenic and thyroid-mediated forms. Thyroid disease is a relatively common comorbidity in TC patients. We report a case of TC in a postmenopausal female with no history of emotional trauma or other potential precipitant factors who was diagnosed with amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during her hospital stay. Though some case reports of thyroid-related TC exist, we are not aware of any other reported case of TC precipitated by amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. TC is a relatively new, rare, transient, severe, but reversible cardiovascular condition that is characterized by an acute left ventricular cardiac failure, which can clinically, analytically and electrocardiographically mimic an acute myocardial infarction.Many precipitant factors have been described in TC, being the most classical and emotional trauma. However, thyroid dysfunction is also a significant condition frequently found in patients with TC.A hypercatecholaminergic state leading to cardiomyocyte damage has been established as the main fact of TC physiopathology. Hyperthyroidism induces an upregulation of β-adrenergic receptors.Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been related with TC development. Most reported cases of TC involving thyroid dysfunction correspond to hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, but there are also descriptions with severe hypothyroidism, radioiodine treatment or thyroid surgery.Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic agent widely used, and it is a well-known cause of thyroid

  9. DKA-Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Patient with Known HOCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first published case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was in 2009. Our patient is the 1st reported case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis- (DKA- induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC in a patient with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM in the United States. In the literature, there are only two examples linking DKA to TC; however, this report focuses on the biochemical and physiological causes of TC in a patient with known HOCM and new-onset DKA. TC in previously diagnosed HOCM poses particular complications. With the above patient’s baseline outflow tract obstruction due to septal hypertrophy, the acute reduction in EF due to TC resulted in transient drop in brain perfusion and, therefore, syncope.

  10. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Capel; Elisabet Tasa-Vinyals; Albert Cano-Palomares; Irene Bergés-Raso; Lara Albert; Mercedes Rigla; Assumpta Caixàs

    2017-01-01

    Summary Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is an atypical, severe but reversible form of acute heart insufficiency. It typically presents with left ventricular failure, transient apical and mid-segments hypokinesis, absence of significant coronary stenosis and new electrographic abnormalities and/or elevation in serum cardiac enzymes. Although TC (?broken heart syndrome?) has classically been associated with emotional trauma, evidence suggests that other precipitants might exist, including iatroge...

  11. Arrhythmia-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Prevalent, Under-recognized, Reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Rahul; Gopinathannair, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) is a clinical condition in which a persistent tachyarrhythmia or frequent ectopy contribute to ventricular dysfunction leading to systolic heart failure. AIC can be partially or completely corrected with adequate treatment of the culprit arrhythmia. Several molecular and cellular alterations by which tachyarrhythmias lead to cardiomyopathy have been identified. AIC can affect children and adults, can be clinically silent in the form of asymptomatic tachycardia with cardiomyopathy, or can present with manifest heart failure. A high index of suspicion for AIC and aggressive treatment of the culprit arrhythmia can result in resolution of heart failure symptoms and improvement in cardiac function. Recurrent arrhythmia, following recovery from the index episode, can hasten the left ventricular dysfunction and result in HF, suggesting persistent adverse remodeling despite recovery of left ventricular function. Several aspects of AIC, such as predisposing factors, early diagnosis, preventive measures to avoid adverse remodeling, and long-term prognosis, remain unclear, and need further research.

  12. Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Induced by Ventricular Ectopy: a Novel Model for PVC-induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizar, Jose F.; Kaszala, Karoly; Potfay, Jonathan; Minisi, Anthony J.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Abbate, Antonio; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Chen, Qun; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Hoke, Nicholas N.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Wood, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) commonly coexist with cardiomyopathy. Recently, PVCs have been identified as possible cause of cardiomyopathy. We developed a PVC-induced cardiomyopathy animal model using a novel premature pacing algorithm to assess timeframe and reversibility of this cardiomyopathy and examine the associated histopathological abnormalities. Methods and Results Thirteen mongrel dogs were implanted with a specially programmed pacemaker capable of simulating ventricular extrasystoles. Animals were randomly assigned to either 12 weeks of bigeminal PVCs (n=7) or no PVCs (control, n=6). Continuous 24-hr Holter corroborated ventricular bigeminy in the PVC group (PVC 49.8% vs. control PVC group developed cardiomyopathy with a significant reduction in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (PVC 39.7±5.4% vs. control 60.7±3.8%, PPVC 33.3±3.5mm vs. control 23.7±3.6mm, PPVC group. PVC-induced cardiomyopathy was resolved within 2-4 weeks after discontinuation of PVCs. No inflammation, fibrosis, or changes in apoptosis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were observed with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Conclusions This novel PVC animal model demonstrates that frequent PVCs alone can induce a reversible form of cardiomyopathy in otherwise structurally normal hearts. PVC-induced CM lacks gross histopathological and mitochondrial abnormalities seen in other canine models of CM. PMID:21576277

  13. Recurrence of PVCs in patients with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Kazim; Bas, Hatice Duygu; LaBounty, Troy; Yokokawa, Miki; Good, Eric; Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2015-07-01

    The natural history of premature ventricular complex (PVC)-induced cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess long term follow-up data in patients who underwent successful PVC ablation for PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. The subjects of this study were 60 patients (17 women; mean age 52.5 ± 16.8 years; ejection fraction [EF] 37.3 ± 8.5%, median 40%, interquartile range [IQR] 15) with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy who underwent successful ablation of their predominant PVCs between 2005 and 2012. Patients were followed up for a mean of 23.6 ± 17.2 months. EF improved to 57.2 ± 4.7% (median 55%, IQR 5; P = .0001) within 9.6 ± 8.4 months of the ablation procedure. During follow-up, 10 of 60 patients (16.7%) had recurrent frequent PVCs and 50 patients (83.3%) did not. Patients underwent repeat assessment of EF and PVC burden. During follow-up of 23.6 ± 17.2 months, 10 patients had recurrent frequent PVCs, with an increase of their PVC burden from 1.4 ± 0.9% (median 1.05%, IQR 1.59) after the initial ablation to 27.2 ± 8.8% (median 26.0%, IQR 18.2; P = .018). Their EF decreased from 55.7 ± 3.4% (median 55%, IQR 5.8) after the initial ablation to 40.2 ± 5.1% (median 40%, IQR 15; P = .005). In the remaining patients with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy, EF and PVC burden remained unchanged during follow-up. Patients with PVC recurrence had a higher number of pleomorphic PVC morphologies during initial presentation (4.7 ± 2.2 vs 2.5 ± 2.8, P = .002). Recurrence of frequent PVCs in patients with a history of PVC cardiomyopathy can result in recurrence of cardiomyopathy. Follow-up in patients with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy is important, especially if patients were asymptomatic from the PVCs and have pleomorphic PVCs. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo – broken heart and mind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redfors B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Björn Redfors, Yangzhen Shao, Elmir Omerovic Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by severe but potentially reversible regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, ie, akinesia, in the absence of explanatory angiographic evidence of a coronary occlusion. The typical pattern is that of an akinetic apex with preserved contractions in the base, but other variants are also common, including basal or midmyocardial akinesia with preserved apical function. The pathophysiology of SIC remains largely unknown but catecholamines are believed to play a pivotal role. The diverse array of triggering events that have been linked to SIC are arbitrarily categorized as either emotional or somatic stressors. These categories can be considered as different elements of a continuous spectrum, linked through the interface of neurology and psychiatry. This paper reviews our current knowledge of SIC, with focus on the intimate relationship between the brain and the heart. Keywords: stress-induced cardiomyopathy, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, catecholamine, cerebral injury, emotional stress, somatic stress

  15. FOLFOX Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Treated with Impella Assist Device

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    Swethika Sundaravel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity is becoming increasingly prevalent with several new agents being used recently. The incidence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapeutic regimens like FOLFOX is not uncommon. It is also seen with platinum based chemotherapy. Most of these patients have reversible cardiotoxicity and the cardiac function recovers within a short period with supportive treatment. Here we have a patient who presented with cardiogenic shock after 5 days of receiving FOLFOX regimen for colorectal adenocarcinoma. She was treated with a percutaneous left ventricular assist device, Impella CP, for hemodynamic support with excellent outcome.

  16. Simultaneous interstitial pneumonitis and cardiomyopathy induced by venlafaxine

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    Pedro Gonçalo Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used as an antidepressant. Interindividual variability and herb-drug interactions can lead to drug-induced toxicity. We report the case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with synchronous pneumonitis and acute cardiomyopathy attributed to venlafaxine. The patient sought medical attention due to dyspnea and dry cough that started three months after initiating treatment with venlafaxine for depression. The patient was concomitantly taking Centella asiatica and Fucus vesiculosus as phytotherapeutic agents. Chest CT angiography and chest X-ray revealed parenchymal lung disease (diffuse micronodules and focal ground-glass opacities and simultaneous dilated cardiomyopathy. Ecocardiography revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of 21%. A thorough investigation was carried out, including BAL, imaging studies, autoimmune testing, right heart catheterization, and myocardial biopsy. After excluding other etiologies and applying the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, a diagnosis of synchronous pneumonitis/cardiomyopathy associated with venlafaxine was assumed. The herbal supplements taken by the patient have a known potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme complex, which is responsible for the metabolization of venlafaxine. After venlafaxine discontinuation, there was rapid improvement, with regression of the radiological abnormalities and normalization of the LVEF. This was an important case of drug-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity. The circumstantial intake of inhibitors of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme and the presence of a CYP2D6 slow metabolism phenotype might have resulted in the toxic accumulation of venlafaxine and the subsequent clinical manifestations. Here, we also discuss why macrophage-dominant phospholipidosis was the most likely mechanism of toxicity in this case.

  17. Radiologic evaluation of adriamycin induced toxic cardiomyopathy in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Joo; Moon, Young Hee; Kang, Kyung Jin; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    The cardiomyopathy associated with Adriamycin is frequently fatal and full clinical recovery is uncommon. To evaluate the radiological manifestation and the outcome of Adriamycin induced cardiac toxicity, we retrospectively reviewed the serial chest X-ray films of children treated with Adriamycin. Among 154 children with leukemia, fourteen patients developed clinical and radiologic evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). Six out of 14 (43%) died of CHF within 2 weeks after attack and eight children survived after their acute episodes of CHF, were controlled following digoxin and diuretic therapy. Despite the improving clinical evidence of heart failure, the follow-up chest roentgenograms of these 8 children showed definite cardiomegaly as compared with the pre-treatment chest X-ray. Three children among 8 had minimal cardiomegaly and the remaining five children showed persistent, marked cardiomegaly during the period of 9-25 months of follow up. In summary, when CHF develops during chemotherapy in leukemic children, the possibility of Adriamycin induced cardiac toxicity should be suspected. Our findings showed that persistence of cardiomegaly represented significant cardiomyopathy despite clinical improvement of CHF

  18. Escin attenuates cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Han, Bing; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Tongshen; Fu, Fenghua; Zhao, Delu

    2011-06-01

    Organophosphorus exposure affects different organs such as skeletal muscles, the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, and brain. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of escin on cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered subcutaneously with omethoate at a single dose of 60 mg/kg followed by escin treatment. The results showed that escin reduced the brain water content and the amount of Evans blue in omethoate-poisoned animals. Treatment with escin decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in the brain. Escin also alleviated the histopathological change induced by acute omethoate poisoning. The findings demonstrated that escin can attenuate cerebral edema induced by acute omethoate poisoning, and the underlying mechanism was associated with ameliorating the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.

  19. Mid-Ventricular Variant of Dobutamine-Induced Stress Cardiomyopathy.

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    Chandraprakasam, Satish; Kanuri, Swapna; Hunter, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Dobutamine stress testing is a commonly used modality in detecting and estimating the prognosis in coronary artery disease (CAD). Although it is well tolerated by most patients, adverse events have been reported. Rarely, transient wall motion abnormalities can occur in the absence of obstructive CAD to suggest stress cardiomyopathy. We report a 48-year-old female with intermittent chest pain. Her physical exam, cardiac enzymes and transthoracic echocardiogram were unremarkable. She underwent dobutamine stress echocardiogram to rule out obstructive CAD. After 40 micrograms (mcg)/kg/minute and 0.5 mg atropine, she complained of intense chest pain and became hypertensive. Stress echocardiogram demonstrated mid-anterior and mid-septal hypokinesis. Emergent coronary angiogram demonstrated normal coronaries. Left ventricular angiogram in the right anterior oblique projection revealed mid-ventricular ballooning during systole with apical and basal hypercontractility. Patient demonstrated excellent recovery with expectant management. The mechanism of mid-variant of Dobutamine-induced stress cardiomyopathy remains unclear. We think that multiple mechanisms are involved and this risk should be considered in patients with comorbid psychiatric conditions and with use of centrally acting stimulants.

  20. PVCs, PVC-Induced Cardiomyopathy, and the Role of Catheter Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Esseim; Arunachalam, Karuppiah; Di, Mengyang; Chu, Antony; Maan, Abhishek

    2017-06-01

    Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common arrhythmias noticed in the clinical setting because of premature depolarization of the ventricular myocytes. Although often thought to be reflective of underlying disease rather than intrinsically harmful, PVCs have recently been linked with worse outcomes in patients without significant cardiac disease. Long-term exposure to a high PVC burden can lead to the development of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis of this condition is poorly understood at the current time. Many studies have suggested that catheter ablation of these PVCs may result in reversal of the PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. This article will go over the natural history of PVCs and PVC-induced cardiomyopathy, as well as review the current literature on the role of catheter ablation in treating PVC-induced cardiomyopathy.

  1. Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and clastogens by using toad bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. ... Egyptian Journal of Biology ... The used chemicals induced high percentages of micronuclei with variable sizes, which clarify the sensitivity of bone marrow cells of Bufo regularis to ...

  2. Newborn infant with maternal anti-SSA antibody-induced complete heart block accompanying cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Midori; Inamura, Noboru; Takeuchi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Newborn case of maternal anti-SSA antibody-induced congenital complete heart block (CCHB) accompanying cardiomyopathy is presented. Unexpectedly, she died of ventricular tachycardia, not bradycardia, 6 days after birth. Autopsy revealed left ventricular cardiomyopathy with endocardial fibroelastosis. Thus, when evaluating fetal cardiac performance in cases of maternal anti-SSA antibody-induced CCHB, it is necessary to pay attention to myocardial attributes such as endocardial hyperplasia.

  3. Flow-Induced Mitral Leaflet Motion in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschini, Valentina; Mittal, Rajat; Verzicco, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is considered the cause of sudden cardiac death in developed countries. Clinically it is found to be related to the thickening of the intra-ventricular septum combined with elongated mitral leaflets. During systole the low pressure, induced by the abnormal velocities in the narrowed aortic channel, can attract one or both the mitral leaflets causing the aortic obstruction and sometimes instantaneous death. In this paper a fluid structure interaction model for the flow in the left ventricle with a native mitral valve is employed to investigate the physio-pathology of HCM. The problem is studied using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations with a two-way coupled structural solver based on interaction potential approach for the structure dynamics. Simulations are performed for two different degrees of hypertrophy, and two values of pumping efficiency. The leaflets dynamics and the ventricle deformation resulting from the echocardiography of patients affected by HCM are well captured by the simulations. Moreover, the procedures of leaflets plication and septum myectomy are simulated in order to get insights into the efficiency and reliability of such surgery.

  4. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-03-18

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures.

  5. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  6. [Thallium poisoning induced polyneuropathy--clinical and electrophysiological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Miklós

    2003-11-20

    The aim of the study was the electrophysiological investigation of thallium induced polyneuropathy. Beyond the rarity of the illness, the motivation of this work was the possibility of following up the pattern of neuronal damage. Thallium is one of the most toxic heavy metal and its wide use increases the chance of chronic or accidental acute poisoning. The entero-hepatic circulation makes the accumulation of this toxic agent in tissues possible, mostly in neurons, in the epithelial cells of the digestive tract, in the germinative cells of the skin and testicles. In addition to alopecia and digestive complaints, the clinical picture of thallium poisoning is dominated by neurological signs. Severe axonal polyneuropathy develops in almost all cases, with further damage to the retina and impairment of cognitive functions being not unusual. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding high levels of thallium in body fluids, especially in saliva and urine. Electrophysiological examination of our accidentally poisoned patient revealed severe, sensory-motor, predominant motor axonal polyneuropathy and pointed out some aspects of the pattern of neurotoxic process: the initially distal lesion, the dying-back course and the capacity for regeneration. Because thallium has the same molecular targets as potassium ion thus impairing the energetical supply of the nerve cell, the most effective treatment is carefully loading with potassium. If recognized and treated early, thallium poisoning has a favourable prognosis.

  7. Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy in a 12-Year-Old Child With Long QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC is a ventricular dysfunction secondary to chronic and persistent tachycardia that can regress partially or completely following heart rate normalization. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia are two types of frequent arrhythmias that can cause cardiomyopathy in children. Case Presentation A 12-year-old child with obesity (body mass index > 26.8 was admitted with fatigue, pallor and tachypnea to the clinic. He had palpitation for the past 24 hours. On the cardiac auscultation, holosystolic 2/6 murmur was heard in the apex as well as gallop rhythm. Electrocardiogram revealed heart rate of 150 - 160 bpm and negative P waves in II, III and AVF leads. The echocardiography revealed dilated cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of 30%. Conclusions Diagnosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in children is important, since appropriate treatment improves the prognosis. Every child with recurrent and persistent palpitation with the first episode of congestive heart failure should be evaluated for tachycardia- induced cardiomyopathy.

  8. Human herpesvirus 6-induced inflammatory cardiomyopathy in immunocompetent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 has been implicated in the etiology of pediatric myocarditis and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. This review provides an overview of recent literature investigating the pathophysiological relevance of HHV-6 in inflammatory cardiomyopathy. We examined 11 cases of previously published pediatric myocarditis and/or DCM associated with HHV-6 and also our experience of detection of virus particles in vascular endothelium of HHV-6 positive endomyocardial biopsy tissue by electron microscopy. The exact role of the presence of HHV-6 and its load remains controversial as the virus is also found in the heart of healthy controls. Therefore, the question remains open whether and how cardiac HHV-6 may be of pathogenetic importance. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction or mRNA testing allows differentiation between low-level latent virus found in asymptomatic myocardium and active HHV-6 infection. Although only a small number of pediatric cases have been reported in literature, HHV-6 should be considered as a causative agent of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, especially in children under three who might be experiencing a primary infection. Future studies are needed to establish a threshold for determining active infection in biopsy samples and the role of coinfections other cardiotropic viruses.

  9. Functional brown adipose tissue limits cardiomyocyte injury and adverse remodeling in catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Robrecht; Ernande, Laura; Cheng, Juan; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Yao, Vincent; Miranda-Bezerra, Alexandre; Chen, Chan; Chao, Wei; Panagia, Marcello; Sosnovik, David E; Puppala, Dheeraj; Armoundas, Antonis A; Hindle, Allyson; Bloch, Kenneth D; Buys, Emmanuel S; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has well recognized thermogenic properties mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1); more recently, BAT has been demonstrated to modulate cardiovascular risk factors. To investigate whether BAT also affects myocardial injury and remodeling, UCP1-deficient (UCP1(-/-)) mice, which have dysfunctional BAT, were subjected to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. At baseline, there were no differences in echocardiographic parameters, plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or myocardial fibrosis between wild-type (WT) and UCP1(-/-) mice. Isoproterenol infusion increased cTnI and myocardial fibrosis and induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in both WT and UCP1(-/-) mice. UCP1(-/-) mice also demonstrated exaggerated myocardial injury, fibrosis, and adverse remodeling, as well as decreased survival. Transplantation of WT BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice prevented the isoproterenol-induced cTnI increase and improved survival, whereas UCP1(-/-) BAT transplanted to either UCP1(-/-) or WT mice had no effect on cTnI release. After 3 days of isoproterenol treatment, phosphorylated AKT and ERK were lower in the LV's of UCP1(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Activation of BAT was also noted in a model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, and was correlated to LV dysfunction. Deficiency in UCP1, and accompanying BAT dysfunction, increases cardiomyocyte injury and adverse LV remodeling, and decreases survival in a mouse model of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Myocardial injury and decreased survival are rescued by transplantation of functional BAT to UCP1(-/-) mice, suggesting a systemic cardioprotective role of functional BAT. BAT is also activated in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Toxin-Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenai, Kwaku Barima

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or round heart disease is a muscle disease of the heart which is characterized by ventricular dilatation and abnormal systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. In animals, including turkeys and humans, DCM is the major cause of morbidity and mortality which results from heart failure. In the turkey, DCM can be idiopathic or induced. Since idiopathic or spontaneous DCM occurs in about 1-4% of normal turkeys, it is of significant concern to the poultry indus...

  11. Renal Denervation Findings on Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis in Rats with Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shengchan; Lu, Dasheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Geng, Jie; Fang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Shan, Qijun

    2015-12-01

    Cardio-renal fibrosis plays key roles in heart failure and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on cardiac and renal fibrosis in rats with isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Control (n = 10) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiomyopathy group (n = 50). At week 5, 31 survival ISO-induced cardiomyopathy rats were randomized to RDN (n = 15) and Sham group (n = 16). Compared with Control group, ejection fraction was decreased, diastolic interventricular septal thickness and left atrial dimension were increased in ISO-induced cardiomyopathy group at 5 week. After 10 weeks, cardio-renal pathophysiologic results demonstrated that the collagen volume fraction of left atrio-ventricular and kidney tissues reduced significantly in RDN group compared with Sham group. Moreover the pro-fibrosis factors (TGF-β1, MMP2 and Collagen I), inflammatory cytokines (CRP and TNF-α), and collagen synthesis biomarkers (PICP, PINP and PIIINP) concentration significantly decreased in RDN group. Compared with Sham group, RDN group showed that release of noradrenaline and aldosterone were reduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) axis was downregulated. Meanwhile, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7))/mas receptor (Mas-R) axis was upregulated. RDN inhibits cardio-renal fibrogenesis through multiple pathways, including reducing SNS over-activity, rebalancing RAAS axis.

  12. Study familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu; Li, Yang; Tchao, Jason; Kaplan, Aaron D.; Lin, Bo; Li, You; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Lis, Agnieszka; Hassan, Narmeen; London, Barry; Bett, Glenna C.L.; Tobita, Kimimasa; Rasmusson, Randall L.; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aims Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one the most common heart disorders, with gene mutations in the cardiac sarcomere. Studying HCM with patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) would benefit the understanding of HCM mechanism, as well as the development of personalized therapeutic strategies. Methods and results To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormal CM functions in HCM, we derived iPSCs from an HCM patient with...

  13. Chronic oral exposure to the aldehyde pollutant acrolein induces dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Hamid, Tariq; Haberzettl, Petra; Gu, Yan; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental triggers of dilated cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Acute exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, impairs cardiac function and cardioprotective responses in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oral exposure to acrolein induces inflammation and cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6 mice were gavage-fed acrolein (1 mg/kg) or water (vehicle) daily for 48 days. The dose was chosen based on estimates of human daily unsaturated aldehyde consumption. Compared with vehicle-fed mice, acrolein-fed mice exhibited significant (P acrolein adduct formation indicative of physical translocation of ingested acrolein to the heart. Acrolein also induced myocyte hypertrophy (∼2.2-fold increased myocyte area, P acrolein-exposed hearts, along with upregulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Long-term oral exposure to acrolein, at an amount within the range of human unsaturated aldehyde intake, induces a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy in the mouse. Human exposure to acrolein may have analogous effects and raise consideration of an environmental, aldehyde-mediated basis for heart failure. PMID:21908791

  14. Sepsis-Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Leading to Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is sudden and reversible myocardial dysfunction often attributable to physical or emotional triggers. Case Report. We describe a 51-year-old man presented to emergency department with sepsis from urinary tract infection (UTI. He was placed on cefepime for UTI and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction protocol given elevated troponins with chest pain. Subsequently, patient was pulseless with torsades de pointes (TdP and then converted to sinus rhythm with cardioversion. An echocardiogram revealed low ejection fraction with hypokinesis of the apical wall. Over 48 hours, the patient was extubated and stable on 3 L/min nasal cannula. He underwent a cardiac catheterization to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD and was found to have mild nonobstructive CAD with no further findings. Conclusion. TCM is a rare disorder presenting with symptoms similar to acute coronary syndrome. Though traditionally elicited by physical and emotional triggers leading to transient left ventricular dysfunction, our case suggests that it may also be triggered by a urinary tract infection and lead to severe QT prolongation and a malignant ventricular arrhythmia in TdP.

  15. Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, K.; Khan, M.Y.; Minhas, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three sub-groups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrificed on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle. Conclusion: Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers. The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  16. Recurrent Direct Current Cardioversion Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Smyrlis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM, also called broken heart syndrome and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly reported syndrome generally characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical and or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Typically patients present within a few hours of exposure to physical or emotional stress. However, the mechanism by which these stressors result in myocardial dysfunction is unclear. Proposed factors include catecholamine excess and coronary vasospasm1. We present the case of a 61-year-old female who experienced acute pulmonary edema secondary to stress cardiomyopathy, on two occasions immediately after undergoing elective direct current cardioversion (DCCV for atrial fibrillation (Afib. After an urgent hospitalization for management of acute left ventricular failure, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. The incidence, clinical implications and prognosis of DCCV induced SCM is unknown. Given DCCV for Afib is a common outpatient procedure and DCCV induced SCM can lead to acute clinical deterioration it is important that physicians are vigilant about this newly recognized DCCV complication.

  17. Anabolic steroids abuse-induced cardiomyopathy and ischaemic stroke in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad

    2014-02-26

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.

  18. Successful treatment of arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy in an infant with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Yohei; Nishimura, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Koike, Kenichi

    2016-01-25

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome that is characterized by the development of distinctive benign tumors and malformations in multiple organ systems (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006). Cardiac rhabdomyomas are intracavitary or intramural tumors observed in 50-70 % of infants with TSC but only cause serious clinical problems in a very small fraction of these patients (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006; Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994); most individuals have no clinical symptoms and their tumors spontaneously regress. However, despite being clinically silent, these lesions can provoke arrhythmias and heart failure (Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994). We here report the clinical findings of an infant suffering from TSC complicated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) after the regression of cardiac rhabdomyomas. Although his tumors improved spontaneously, tachycardia and irregular heart rate due to frequent premature ventricular and supraventricular contractions persisted from the newborn period and were refractory to several medications. His cardiomyopathy was suspected to have been induced by the tachycardia or arrhythmia. We found carvedilol therapy to be safe and highly effective in treating the cardiomyopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of TSC with DCM after regression of cardiac tumors and its successful treatment. The patient's clinical course suggests that careful life-long disease management is important, even in TSC patients without apparent symptoms.

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  20. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  1. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; De Geest, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (h...

  2. Sulforaphane prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiomyopathy by activation of Nrf2 via stimulating the Akt/GSK-3ß/Fyn pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    2018-05-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that Nrf2 plays a central role in the prevention of Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy, and SFN prevents Ang II-induced cardiomyopathy partially via the Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn-mediated Nrf2 activation.

  3. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  4. Disease Modeling and Phenotypic Drug Screening for Diabetic Cardiomyopathy using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye M. Drawnel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes, with known contributions of lifestyle and genetics. We develop environmentally and genetically driven in vitro models of the condition using human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes. First, we mimic diabetic clinical chemistry to induce a phenotypic surrogate of diabetic cardiomyopathy, observing structural and functional disarray. Next, we consider genetic effects by deriving cardiomyocytes from two diabetic patients with variable disease progression. The cardiomyopathic phenotype is recapitulated in the patient-specific cells basally, with a severity dependent on their original clinical status. These models are incorporated into successive levels of a screening platform, identifying drugs that preserve cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro during diabetic stress. In this work, we present a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC model of a complex metabolic condition, showing the power of this technique for discovery and testing of therapeutic strategies for a disease with ever-increasing clinical significance.

  5. Disease modeling and phenotypic drug screening for diabetic cardiomyopathy using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye M; Boccardo, Stefano; Prummer, Michael; Delobel, Frédéric; Graff, Alexandra; Weber, Michael; Gérard, Régine; Badi, Laura; Kam-Thong, Tony; Bu, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Hoflack, Jean-Christophe; Kiialainen, Anna; Jeworutzki, Elena; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Carlson, Coby; Burcin, Mark; Gromo, Gianni; Boehringer, Markus; Stahlberg, Henning; Hall, Benjamin J; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Kolaja, Kyle; Chien, Kenneth R; Bailly, Jacques; Iacone, Roberto

    2014-11-06

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes, with known contributions of lifestyle and genetics. We develop environmentally and genetically driven in vitro models of the condition using human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes. First, we mimic diabetic clinical chemistry to induce a phenotypic surrogate of diabetic cardiomyopathy, observing structural and functional disarray. Next, we consider genetic effects by deriving cardiomyocytes from two diabetic patients with variable disease progression. The cardiomyopathic phenotype is recapitulated in the patient-specific cells basally, with a severity dependent on their original clinical status. These models are incorporated into successive levels of a screening platform, identifying drugs that preserve cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro during diabetic stress. In this work, we present a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of a complex metabolic condition, showing the power of this technique for discovery and testing of therapeutic strategies for a disease with ever-increasing clinical significance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stem cells rescue cardiomyopathy induced by P. gingivalis-LPS via miR-181b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Battsengel, Sarnai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Pan, Lung-Fa; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-12-11

    Systemic inflammation induced by bacterial infection is one of several causative agents for cardiovascular disorders in patients with periodontal disease. Experimental results indicate that miRNAs play important roles in systemic inflammation induced by endotoxins. Further evidence states that stem cell based therapy shows potential in the treatment of inflammatory responses induced by sepsis. This study investigates if stem cells show protective effects on cardiomyocyte damage induced by porphyromonas gingivalis-LPS (Pg-LPS) through regulating miRNAs. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were damaged using Pg-LPS in this study. Pg-LPS damaged H9c2 or NRCMs were then rescued using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). The experimental results reveal that Pg-LPS treatment is capable of inducing TLR4/NFκB axis activation, cell death signaling and IGF1R/PI3 K/Akt axis suppression. miR181b was downregulated in Pg-LPS damaged H9c2/NRCMs. All markers were improved in H9c2/NRCMs cocultured with ADSC. miR181b mimic and inhibitor confirmed that miR181b plays a central role in regulating the cardio protective effect on Pg-LPS damaged H9c2/NRCMs cocultured with ADSC. miR181b acts as potential therapeutic marker in cardiomyopathy induced by Pg-LPS. Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells show potential in the treatment of cardiomyopathy induced by porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxin via regulation of miR181b. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  8. Dexmedetomidine alleviates LPS-induced septic cardiomyopathy via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weilan; Kang, Kai; Gao, Yang; Liu, Haitao; Meng, Xianglin; Yang, Songliu; Yu, Kaijiang; Zhao, Mingyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in LPS-induced septic cardiomyopathy in mice. C57BL/6 mice were used to construct septic cardiomyopathy models. The optimal duration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment was determined by HE staining and TUNEL assay. Blank controls were intraperitoneally injected with saline and models were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg) (LPS), α-bungarotoxin (BT-LPS), BT and dexmedetomidine (BT-DEX-LPS). The pathological examinations were performed on HE- stained myocardium tissues, apoptosis was determined using TUNEL assay, mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and α7nACh was quantified using qRT-PCR, protein levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) were analyzed using Western blot analysis. HE staining and TUNEL assays showed that the optimal LPS treatment time for septic cardiomyopathy induction was 16 h. Compared with the blank control, mice in LPS group had significantly higher apoptosis, while DEX and BT reduced apoptosis when they were used separately and increased apoptosis when they were used jointly. In the LPS-treated mice, the levels of NF-κb p65, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bax, p53, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and p-STAT3 were significantly increased, while α7nAChR level was decreased significantly ( P < 0.01); DEX alone had no impact on the expression of these proteins but significantly up-regulated the expression of these genes except α7nAChR when used jointly with BT ( P < 0.01). It is clear that DEX can alleviate heart injury, while α7nAChR-specific blocker BT is antagonistic against the anti-inflammatory effect of DEX on sepsis in mice.

  9. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney transplantation may be needed. Prevent absorption of poison Stomach emptying (inducing vomiting or stomach pumping), once ... iron, or many household chemicals. Increase elimination of poison If a poison remains life threatening despite the ...

  10. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens D; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhosis is known to cause alterations in the systemic haemodynamic system. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy designates a cardiac dysfunction that includes impaired cardiac contractility with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as well as electromechanical abnormalities in the absence of other known...... causes of cardiac disease. This condition is primarily revealed by inducing physical or pharmacological stress, but echocardiography is excellent at revealing diastolic dysfunction and might also be used to detect systolic dysfunction at rest. Furthermore, measurement of circulating levels of cardiac...

  11. Cardiogenic Shock due to Psychosis-Induced Inverted Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Bridged-to-Recovery with a Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Korabathina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, a less common variant in the spectrum of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is increasingly being reported. This report describes an acute psychiatric illness leading to the onset of this syndrome. The patient presented here developed cardiogenic shock but successfully recovered with the use of a percutaneous left ventricular assist device.

  12. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher ( p coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold ( p coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower ( p coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  13. Left Ventricular Thrombus as a Complication of Clozapine-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Shahbaz A; Malik, Sarah; Dowsley, Taylor F; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old male with history of schizoaffective disorder on clozapine presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and new left bundle branch block. He underwent coronary angiography, which revealed no atherosclerosis. The patient's workup was unrevealing for a cause for the cardiomyopathy and thus it was thought that clozapine was the offending agent. The patient was taken off clozapine and started on guideline directed heart failure therapy. During the course of hospitalization, he was also discovered to have a left ventricular (LV) thrombus for which he received anticoagulation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy complicated by a LV thrombus.

  14. Left Ventricular Thrombus as a Complication of Clozapine-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz A. Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old male with history of schizoaffective disorder on clozapine presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and new left bundle branch block. He underwent coronary angiography, which revealed no atherosclerosis. The patient’s workup was unrevealing for a cause for the cardiomyopathy and thus it was thought that clozapine was the offending agent. The patient was taken off clozapine and started on guideline directed heart failure therapy. During the course of hospitalization, he was also discovered to have a left ventricular (LV thrombus for which he received anticoagulation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy complicated by a LV thrombus.

  15. Prevalence of exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, J S

    2008-10-01

    Resting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) occurs in 25% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is an important cause of symptoms and disease progression. The prevalence and clinical significance of exercise induced LVOTO in patients with symptomatic non-obstructive HCM is uncertain.

  16. Arrhythmias induced cardiomyopathies: the riddle of the chicken or the egg still unresolved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simantirakis, E.; Koutalas, E.; Vardas, P.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis testing of inappropriate fast, irregular, or asynchronous myocardial contraction provoking cardiomyopathy has been the primary focus of numerous research efforts, especially during the last few decades. Rapid ventricular rates resulting from supraventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation (AF), irregularity of heart rhythm basic element of AF and asynchrony, as a consequence of right ventricular pacing, bundle branch block, or frequent premature ventricular complexes, have been established as primary causes of arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy. The main pathophysiological pathways involved have been clarified, including neurohumoral activation, energy stores depletion, and abnormalities in stress and strain. Unfortunately, from a clinical point of view, patients usually seek medical advice only when symptoms develop, while the causative arrhythmia may be present for months or years, resulting in myocardial remodelling, diastolic, and systolic dysfunction. In some cases, making a definite diagnosis may become a strenuous exercise for the treating physician, as the arrhythmia may not be present and, additionally, therapy must be applied for the diagnosis to be confirmed retrospectively. The diagnostic process is also hardened due to the fact that strict diagnosing criteria are still a matter of discrepancy

  17. Neurotoxicity in rats induced by the poisonous dreamfish (Sarpa salpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    Consumption of Sarpa salpa Linn. (Sparidae) in certain periods of the year is inadvisable because it can cause central nervous system disorders resulting in sea food poisoning. The present study assesses the cytotoxic effects of compounds, not-yet identified, present in the organ extracts of S. salpa, collected in autumn, the period corresponding to the peak in human health problems. The toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of aqueous extract of the fish organs. Wistar rats received daily extracts of different organs of S. salpa by gastric gavage for 7 d (0.3 mL of extract/100 g body weight BW). The dose of tissue extracts of viscera, liver, brain, and flesh of S. salpa administered to rats was as follows: 172, 313, 2050, and 2660 mg/kg BW, respectively. No deaths occurred during the period of treatment. The lethal dose (LD50) determined for the crude ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain, and flesh of S. salpa was as follows: 1.2, 2.2, 14.4, and 18.6 g/kg mouse, respectively. Changes in locomotor activity during the first 2 h and failure in breathing and no evident signs of gastrointestinal problems were recorded. We observed (1) induction of oxidative stress, indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in groups that received extracts of liver (+425%) or viscera (+433%), and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx) in cerebral cortex tissue by 13%, 25%, and 25% (LT: animals receiving liver extracts) and by 16%, 26%, and 27% (VT: animals receiving viscera extracts), respectively. In contrast, the administration of extracts of flesh and brain induced an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx) in cerebral cortex tissue by 26%, 23%, and 44% (FT: flesh extract) and 28%, 24%, and 46% (BT: brain extract), respectively; (2) a significant decrease for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in cerebral cortex was recorded in FT, BT, LT, and VT by 27, 34, 58, and 78

  18. (123) I-MIBG imaging for detection of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Thune, Jens Jakob; Hutchings, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Due to improvements in early detection and treatment of malignant disease, the population of cancer survivors is constantly expanding. Cancer survivors are faced with chemotherapy-related long-term side effects, including irreversible cardiac injury with risk of heart failure (HF). Numerous...... tool for early detection of chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity is still lacking and alternative non-invasive imaging modalities are therefore being investigated. (123) I-MIBG is a noradrenaline (NA) analogue used for evaluation of cardiac adrenergic function, including assessment of HF prognosis...... and evaluation of HF treatment response. However, the role of (123) I-MIBG for monitoring chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity is still unclear. Here, we review the value of (123) I-MIBG imaging for early detection and prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy....

  19. Metallothionein as a compensatory component prevents intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xia; Zhou, Shanshan [The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 (China); KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Zheng, Yang, E-mail: zhengyang@jlu.edu.cn [The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021 (China); Tan, Yi [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Chinese–American Research Institute for Diabetic Complications, Wenzhou Medical College School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Kong, Maiying [Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Wang, Bo [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Department of Pathology, Inner Mongolia Forestry General Hospital, Yakeshi, 022150 (China); Feng, Wenke [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Epstein, Paul N. [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Cai, Jun, E-mail: j0cai002@louisville.edu [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Cai, Lu [KCHRI at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States); Chinese–American Research Institute for Diabetic Complications, Wenzhou Medical College School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, 40202 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) to induce cardiovascular disease, which may be related to oxidative damage. Metallothionein (MT) has been extensively proved to be an endogenous and highly inducible antioxidant protein expressed in the heart. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that oxidative stress plays a critical role in OSA induced cardiac damage and MT protects the heart from OSA-induced cardiomyopathy. To mimic hypoxia/reoxygenation events that occur in adult OSA patients, mice were exposed to IH for 3 days to 8 weeks. The IH paradigm consisted of alternating cycles of 20.9% O{sub 2}/8% O{sub 2} F{sub I}O{sub 2} (30 episodes per hour) with 20 s at the nadir F{sub I}O{sub 2} for 12 h a day during daylight. IH significantly increased the ratio of heart weight to tibia length at 4 weeks with a decrease in cardiac function from 4 to 8 weeks. Cardiac oxidative damage and fibrosis were observed after 4 and 8 weeks of IH exposures. Endogenous MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH, but significantly decreased at 4 and 8 weeks of IH. In support of MT as a major compensatory component, mice with cardiac overexpression of MT gene and mice with global MT gene deletion were completely resistant, and highly sensitive, respectively, to chronic IH induced cardiac effects. These findings suggest that chronic IH induces cardiomyopathy characterized by oxidative stress-mediated cardiac damage and the antioxidant MT protects the heart from such pathological and functional changes. - Highlights: • The effect of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on cardiac metallothionein (MT) • Cardiac MT expression was up-regulated in response to 3-day IH. • Exposure to 4- or 8-week IH downregulated cardiac MT expression. • Overexpression of cardiac MT protects from IH-induced cardiac damage. • Global deletion of MT gene made the heart more sensitive to IH damage.

  20. S-diclofenac Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Mice via Ameliorating Cardiac Gap Junction Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Alian; Guo, Changfa; Shi, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qing; Sparatore, Anna; Wang, Changqian

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a novel gaseous mediator, plays important roles in mammalian cardiovascular tissues. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino] benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester), a novel H2S-releasing derivative of diclofenac, in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. After a single dose injection of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), male C57BL/6J mice were given daily treatment of S-diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), NaHS (50 µmol/kg, i.p.), or same volume of vehicle. The cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac was observed after 14 days. It showed that S-diclofenac, but not diclofenac, dose-dependently inhibited the doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cardiac gap junction proteins (connexin 43 and connexin 45) and thus reversed the remodeling of gap junctions in hearts. It also dose-dependently suppressed doxorubicin-induced activation of JNK in hearts. Furthermore, S-diclofenac produced a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in this model. As a result, S-diclofenac significantly attenuated doxorubicin-related cardiac injury and cardiac dysfunction, and improved the survival rate of mice with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These effects of S-diclofenac were mimicked in large part by NaHS. Therefore, we propose that H2S released from S-diclofenac in vivo contributes to the protective effect in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These data also provide evidence for a critical role of H2S in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:22039489

  1. S-diclofenac protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice via ameliorating cardiac gap junction remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S, as a novel gaseous mediator, plays important roles in mammalian cardiovascular tissues. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenylamino] benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-ylphenyl ester, a novel H(2S-releasing derivative of diclofenac, in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. After a single dose injection of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p., male C57BL/6J mice were given daily treatment of S-diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p., diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p., NaHS (50 µmol/kg, i.p., or same volume of vehicle. The cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac was observed after 14 days. It showed that S-diclofenac, but not diclofenac, dose-dependently inhibited the doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cardiac gap junction proteins (connexin 43 and connexin 45 and thus reversed the remodeling of gap junctions in hearts. It also dose-dependently suppressed doxorubicin-induced activation of JNK in hearts. Furthermore, S-diclofenac produced a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in this model. As a result, S-diclofenac significantly attenuated doxorubicin-related cardiac injury and cardiac dysfunction, and improved the survival rate of mice with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These effects of S-diclofenac were mimicked in large part by NaHS. Therefore, we propose that H(2S released from S-diclofenac in vivo contributes to the protective effect in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These data also provide evidence for a critical role of H(2S in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

  2. S-diclofenac protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice via ameliorating cardiac gap junction remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Alian; Guo, Changfa; Shi, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qing; Sparatore, Anna; Wang, Changqian

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), as a novel gaseous mediator, plays important roles in mammalian cardiovascular tissues. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino] benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester), a novel H(2)S-releasing derivative of diclofenac, in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. After a single dose injection of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), male C57BL/6J mice were given daily treatment of S-diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (25 and 50 µmol/kg, i.p.), NaHS (50 µmol/kg, i.p.), or same volume of vehicle. The cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac was observed after 14 days. It showed that S-diclofenac, but not diclofenac, dose-dependently inhibited the doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cardiac gap junction proteins (connexin 43 and connexin 45) and thus reversed the remodeling of gap junctions in hearts. It also dose-dependently suppressed doxorubicin-induced activation of JNK in hearts. Furthermore, S-diclofenac produced a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect in this model. As a result, S-diclofenac significantly attenuated doxorubicin-related cardiac injury and cardiac dysfunction, and improved the survival rate of mice with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These effects of S-diclofenac were mimicked in large part by NaHS. Therefore, we propose that H(2)S released from S-diclofenac in vivo contributes to the protective effect in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These data also provide evidence for a critical role of H(2)S in the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

  3. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05 in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64 during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01 higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001 was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001 higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001 higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05 in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  4. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  5. NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-hoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ha, E-mail: shakim@lgls.com [LG Life Sciences Ltd., R and D Park, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 μM. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ► NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ► NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ► NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ► Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  6. Radiodiagnosis of pulmonary alterations induced by organophosphorus insecticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishkovskij, A.N.; Tyutin, L.A.; Ivanov, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess possibilities of radiodiagnosis of pulmonary complications, developing as a result of organophosphorus insecticides poisoning, clinical and X-ray examination of 400 patients, aged 17 to 73 years, has been carried out. The lung plethora was manifested by a symmetric emlargement of the lung roots and vessels. A diffuse cleaness of the lung pattern, lung root widening and structural disorder, as well as an appearance of the small focal shadows in the hilar zones, were all characteristic of interstitial edema. X-ray signs of alveolar edema were confined to the coalescing shadows of different size and intensity, and to a massive infiltration of both the lung roots and emphysematous zones. The pneumonic infiltration foci of the lung parenchyma were usually distributed in the peripheral segments. Routine radiography in lateral projection played a decisive role in atelectasis diagnosis

  7. Autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saygili, Erol, E-mail: erol.saygili@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Noor-Ebad, Fawad; Schröder, Jörg W.; Mischke, Karl [Department of Cardiology, University RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Saygili, Esra [Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Rackauskas, Gediminas [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Marx, Nikolaus [Department of Cardiology, University RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Malte; Rana, Obaida R. [Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-09-11

    Background: Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with DCM show elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose source is unknown. Besides its well-investigated effects on angiogenesis, evidence is present that VEGF signaling is additionally involved in fibroblast proliferation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, hence in cardiac remodeling. Whether autoimmune effects in DCM impact cardiac VEGF signaling needs to be elucidated. Methods: Five DCM patients were treated by the immunoadsorption (IA) therapy on five consecutive days. The eluents from the IA columns were collected and prepared for cell culture. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats (NRCM) were incubated with increasing DCM-immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations for 48 h. Polyclonal IgG (Venimmun N), which was used to restore IgG plasma levels in DCM patients after the IA therapy was additionally used for control cell culture purposes. Results: Elevated serum levels of VEGF decreased significantly after IA (Serum VEGF (ng/ml); DCM pre-IA: 45 ± 9.1 vs. DCM post–IA: 29 ± 6.7; P < 0.05). In cell culture, pretreatment of NRCM by DCM-IgG induced VEGF expression in a time and dose dependent manner. Biologically active VEGF that was secreted by NRCM significantly increased BNP mRNA levels in control cardiomyocytes and induced cell-proliferation of cultured cardiac fibroblast (Fibroblast proliferation; NRCM medium/HC-IgG: 1 ± 0.0 vs. NRCM medium/DCM-IgG 100 ng/ml: 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study extends the knowledge about the possible link between autoimmune signaling in DCM and VEGF induction. Whether this observation plays a considerable role in cardiac remodeling during DCM development needs to be further elucidated. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are not fully understood. • Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors

  8. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  9. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II......-inactive 3 carbon linker bisdioxopiperazine analog ICRF-161 as a cardioprotectant. We demonstrate that this compound does chelate iron and protects against doxorubicin-induced LDH release from primary rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, similarly to ICRF-187. The compound does not target topoisomerase II in vitro...... chelation alone does not appear to be sufficient for protection against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/8...

  10. Dysregulation of intracellular calcium transporters in animal models of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A; Edgecomb, Jessica; LaBarge, Kara; Colucci, Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) develops as the result of myocardial calcium (Ca) dysregulation. Here we reviewed all published studies that quantified the dysfunction of intracellular Ca transporters and the myofilaments in animal models of SIC. Cardiomyocytes isolated from septic animals showed, invariably, a decreased twitch amplitude, which is frequently caused by a decrease in the amplitude of cellular Ca transients (ΔCai) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load (CaSR). Underlying these deficits, the L-type Ca channel is downregulated, through mechanisms that may involve adrenomedullin-mediated redox signaling. The SR Ca pump is also inhibited, through oxidative modifications (sulfonylation) of one reactive thiol group (on Cys) and/or modulation of phospholamban. Diastolic Ca leak of ryanodine receptors is frequently increased. In contrast, Na/Ca exchange inhibition may play a partially compensatory role by increasing CaSR and ΔCai. The action potential is usually shortened. Myofilaments show a bidirectional regulation, with decreased Ca sensitivity in milder forms of disease (due to troponin I hyperphosphorylation) and an increase (redox mediated) in more severe forms. Most deficits occurred similarly in two different disease models, induced by either intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, substantial cumulative evidence implicates various Ca transporters and the myofilaments in SIC pathology. What is less clear, however, are the identity and interplay of the signaling pathways that are responsible for Ca transporters dysfunction. With few exceptions, all studies we found used solely male animals. Identifying sex differences in Ca dysregulation in SIC becomes, therefore, another priority.

  11. Dysregulation of intracellular calcium transporters in animal models of sepsis induced cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A.; Edgecomb, Jessica; LaBarge, Kara; Colucci, Wilson S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) develops as the result of myocardial calcium (Ca2+) dysregulation. Here we reviewed all published studies that quantified the dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ transporters and the myofilaments in animal models of SIC. Cardiomyocytes isolated from septic animals showed, invariably, a decreased twitch amplitude, which is frequently caused by a decrease in the amplitude of cellular Ca2+ transients (ΔCai) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load (CaSR). Underlying these deficits, the L-type Ca2+ channel is downregulated, through mechanisms that may involve adrenomedullin-mediated redox signaling. SR Ca2+ pump (SERCA) is also inhibited, through oxidative modifications (sulphonylation) of one reactive thiol group (on Cys674), and/or modulation of phospholamban. Diastolic Ca2+ leak of ryanodine receptors is frequently increased. In contrast, Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibition may play a partially compensatory role by increasing CaSR and ΔCai. The action potential is usually shortened. Myofilaments show a bidirectional regulation, with decreased Ca2+ sensitivity in milder forms of disease (due to troponin I hyperphosphorylation) and a (redox mediated) increase in more severe forms. Most deficits occurred similarly in two different disease models, induced by either intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In conclusion, substantial cumulative evidence implicates various Ca2+ transporters and the myofilaments in SIC pathology. What is less clear, however, is the identity and interplay of the signaling pathways that are responsible for Ca2+ transporters dysfunction. With few exceptions, all studies we found used solely male animals. Identifying sex differences in Ca2+ dysregulation in SIC becomes, therefore, another priority. PMID:25186837

  12. EET intervention on Wnt1, NOV, and HO-1 signaling prevents obesity-induced cardiomyopathy in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Singh, Shailendra P; McClung, John A; Joseph, Gregory; Vanella, Luca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Arad, Michael; Shapiro, Joseph I; Abraham, Nader G

    2017-08-01

    We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on vascular function; in addition to its antiapoptotic action, it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. To uncover the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that EET infusion might ameliorate obesity-induced cardiomyopathy by improving heme oxygenase (HO)-1, Wnt1, thermogenic gene levels, and mitochondrial integrity in cardiac tissues and improved pericardial fat phenotype. EET reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and proinflammatory adipokines, including nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) signaling, while increasing echocardiographic fractional shortening and O 2 consumption. Of interest, we also noted a marked improvement in mitochondrial integrity, thermogenic genes, and Wnt 1 and HO-1 signaling mechanisms. Knockout of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in EET-treated mice resulted in a reversal of these beneficial effects including a decrease in myocardial Wnt1 and HO-1 expression and an increase in NOV. To further elucidate the effects of EET on pericardial adipose tissues, we observed EET treatment increases in adiponectin, PGC-1α, phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, insulin receptor phosphorylation, and thermogenic genes, resulting in a "browning" pericardial adipose phenotype under high-fat diets. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that an EET agonist increased Wnt1 and HO-1 signaling while decreasing NOV pathways and the progression of cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this report presents a portal into potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure and metabolic syndrome. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The mechanism by which EET acts on obesity-induced cardiomyopathy is unknown. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized function of EET infusion that inhibits nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) levels and activates Wnt1, hence identifying NOV inhibition

  13. [Case of law-evading herbs poisoning that induced shock and myocardial damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Minoru; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Miyazaki, Dai; Okamori, Satoshi; Akuzawa, Hisashi; Yuasa, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Law-evading herbs may induce poisoning symptoms, especially when they contain synthetic cannabinoids. However, their detailed pharmacological effects have not yet been clarified. Some reports have previously described symptoms of poisoning, but only a few reports have so far described shock and myocardial damage (MD). We experienced a case of shock and MD in a patient who had smoked law-evading herbs. A 61-year-old male presented at an emergency department 8 hours after smoking law-evading herbs (Rush Trip, High Men Monster) with chest pain. A vasopressor agent was administered to treat shock and antiarrhythmic drugs were administered due to ventricular arrhythmia. The contents of the law-evading herbs were unknown, so an in-hospital follow-up was conducted to treat the patient's symptoms. The follow-up blood test showed an increased level of cardiac enzymes, which thereafter demonstrated a spontaneous remission. The systemic conditions tended to improve and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 5th hospital day. The contents of the law-evading herbs in question were thereafter,analyzed, and synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-210, JWH-081 and JWH-122) as well as caffeine were detected. The cause for the poisoning symptoms were suspected to be the presence of synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine. Such law-evading herbs may contain synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine which both may induce shock and MD.

  14. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanka Angelo Maia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 received 20 daily doses of 2g kg-1 of C. retusa seeds, followed by 7 daily doses of 4g kg-1. To determine the duration of resistance the sheep in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged orally, 3, 7 and 15 days, respectively, after receiving the last dose of 4g kg-1, with a single dose of 5g kg-1. Sheep of groups 1 and 2 did not develop overt signs of poisoning. Two sheep of group 3, challenged 15 days after the end of the resistance induction period, showed signs of acute poisoning and died. These results suggest that the induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by C. retusa seeds is of short duration, from 7 to 15 days.

  15. The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor induces an inflammatory cardiomyopathy independent of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Stella; Smith, Julie; Caruso, Laura; Balan, Marko; Opavsky, Mary Anne

    2011-05-01

    The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a viral receptor for Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) and adenoviruses. CAR has been linked with the innate immune response to CVB myocarditis, and with activation of inflammatory cells in vitro. We hypothesized that CAR activates signals that promote inflammation in the myocardium independent of viral infection. To test this we conditionally overexpressed murine CAR in cardiomyocytes of adult binary transgenic mice under the control of a tetracycline-responsive (tet-off) α-myosin heavy chain (αMtTA) promoter (mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice). An inflammatory cardiomyopathy developed in both lines generated (6-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) and 12-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+)) following withdrawal of doxycycline. Cardiac CAR was upregulated at 4weeks of age in 6-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice and induced a mild inflammatory infiltrate (score 1.3 of 4.0±0.3) at 6weeks, with 95% of mice surviving to that time. In the second line, 12-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice, CAR was upregulated in the majority of mice by 3weeks of age, and by 5weeks of age more severe cardiac inflammation (score 2.8 of 4.0±0.4) developed with only 56% of mice surviving. The cardiac inflammatory infiltrate was primarily natural killer cells and macrophages in both mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) lines. A proinflammatory cytokine response with increased cardiac interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 was detected by real-time RT-PCR. CAR has been linked to signaling via the inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; therefore, we evaluated the response of these pathways in hearts with upregulated CAR. Both stress-activated JNK and p38MAPK were activated in mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) hearts prior to onset of inflammation and in isolated mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, we show for the first time that CAR upregulation in the adult mouse heart induces cardiac inflammation reminiscent of early viral myocarditis. CAR-induced stress-activated MAPK

  16. Peripheral blood derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a female with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Barratt Ross

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from a 62-year-old female with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. PBMCs were reprogrammed to a pluripotent state following transfection with non-integrative episomal vectors carrying reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, KLF4 and L-MYC. iPSCs were shown to express pluripotency markers, possess trilineage differentiation potential, carry rare variants identified in DNA isolated directly from the patient's whole blood, have a normal karyotype and no longer carry episomal vectors for reprogramming. This line is a useful resource for identifying unknown genetic causes of HCM.

  17. S-diclofenac Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Mice via Ameliorating Cardiac Gap Junction Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huili; Zhang, Alian; Guo, Changfa; Shi, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qing; Sparatore, Anna; Wang, Changqian

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), as a novel gaseous mediator, plays important roles in mammalian cardiovascular tissues. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino] benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester), a novel H(2)S-releasing derivative of diclofenac, in a murine model of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. After a single dose injection of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), male C57BL/6J mice were given dail...

  18. Contrast Media–Induced Anaphylaxis Causing a Stress-Related Cardiomyopathy Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Seecheran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a sudden-onset, severe hypersensitivity reaction that can be potentially fatal. It can often transition to refractory hemodynamic instability, eventually resulting in death. Stress-related cardiomyopathies (SRCs have multifactorial etiologies, including being linked to excessive catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. This novel case report recounts a SRC caused by contrast-induced anaphylaxis within 1 hour post percutaneous coronary intervention. Both acutely life-threatening conditions may occur simultaneously and are implicated with devastating complications. Further research is required to understand this cardiac-neuroaxis interplay in SRC to identify risk factors and develop management strategies.

  19. Contrast Media–Induced Anaphylaxis Causing a Stress-Related Cardiomyopathy Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seecheran, Rajeev; Seecheran, Valmiki; Persad, Sangeeta; Lalla, Sasha; Seecheran, Naveen Anand

    2017-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a sudden-onset, severe hypersensitivity reaction that can be potentially fatal. It can often transition to refractory hemodynamic instability, eventually resulting in death. Stress-related cardiomyopathies (SRCs) have multifactorial etiologies, including being linked to excessive catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. This novel case report recounts a SRC caused by contrast-induced anaphylaxis within 1 hour post percutaneous coronary intervention. Both acutely life-threatening conditions may occur simultaneously and are implicated with devastating complications. Further research is required to understand this cardiac-neuroaxis interplay in SRC to identify risk factors and develop management strategies. PMID:28607937

  20. Contrast Media-Induced Anaphylaxis Causing a Stress-Related Cardiomyopathy Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seecheran, Rajeev; Seecheran, Valmiki; Persad, Sangeeta; Lalla, Sasha; Seecheran, Naveen Anand

    2017-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a sudden-onset, severe hypersensitivity reaction that can be potentially fatal. It can often transition to refractory hemodynamic instability, eventually resulting in death. Stress-related cardiomyopathies (SRCs) have multifactorial etiologies, including being linked to excessive catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. This novel case report recounts a SRC caused by contrast-induced anaphylaxis within 1 hour post percutaneous coronary intervention. Both acutely life-threatening conditions may occur simultaneously and are implicated with devastating complications. Further research is required to understand this cardiac-neuroaxis interplay in SRC to identify risk factors and develop management strategies.

  1. Morphometric study of myocardial changes during doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijgh, Wim J.F.; van Velzen, Dick; van der Poort, Jos S.E.; Schlüper, Henny M.M.; Mross, Klaus; Feijen, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M.

    1988-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs in oncology, but may cause a cumulative dose-dependent cardiomyopathy in a number of cancer patients. The effect of DOX on the heart was studied in mice treated with i.v. injections of 2 mg/kg by measuring morphometric parameters,

  2. BPA-induced DNA hypermethylation of the master mitochondrial gene PGC-1α contributes to cardiomyopathy in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Xia, Wei; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yingshuang; Chang, Huailong; Liu, Juan; Huo, Wenqian; Xu, Bing; Chen, Xi; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-03-02

    Implication of environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), on the development of cardiopathy has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to BPA at the reference dose on the myocardium of rats, and the underlying mechanisms. Male rats received corn oil or 50 μg/kg/day of BPA since delactation. At 24 and 48 weeks (wk), cardiac function and mitochondrial function were examined. The mRNA expression and the methylation status of PCG-1α, a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle, were also tested. At 48 wk, BPA-exposed rats displayed cardiomyopathy, characterized by myocardium hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte enlargement, and impairment of cardiac function. At 24 wk, significantly reduced ATP production, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and declined mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) activity in cardiomyocytes were observed in BPA-exposed rats compared with the control rats, indicating a decrease in mitochondrial function occurs before the development of cardiomyopathy. Additionally, BPA exposure decreased the expression of PGC-1α and induced hypermethylation of PGC-1 α in heart tissue in 24- and 48-week-old rats. The change in methylation of PGC-1α was observed more pronounced in BPA-exposed rats at 48 wk. Overall, long-term BPA exposure induces cardiomyopathy in male rats, and the underlying mechanism may involve the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and the disturbance of methylation of PGC-1α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.; Cuocolo, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques are easily obtainable, noninvasive examinations that provide useful information in the evaluation, diagnosis and management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The gated blood pool scan allows the assessment of ventricular size, configuration, and wall and septal thickness. These data allow the functional class of the cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) to be defined. Often THallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging adds further information and is particularly useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and in depicting septal abnormalities in hipertrophic cardiomyopathy. Useful as these techniques are, they are not substitutes for conventional approaches to diagnosis. Careful history taking and physical examination, as well as scrutiny of the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and echocardiogram should be standard practice for the evaluation of patients with suspected cardiomyopathy. Judicious use of noninvasive techniques may obviate the need for cardiac catheterization in many patients

  4. Effect of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism on left ventricular outflow obstruction after septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Stone, Neil J; Passman, Rod; Oyer, David; Rigolin, Vera H; Bonow, Robert O

    2010-12-01

    Patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who undergo septal myectomy are at risk for developing postoperative atrial fibrillation. Amiodarone is effective in treating this arrhythmia but is associated with multiple adverse effects, often with delayed onset. A novel case is described of a patient who developed type 2 amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism that presented as recurrence of outflow obstruction after septal myectomy. The patient's symptoms and echocardiographic findings of outflow obstruction resolved substantially with the treatment of the amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism of delayed onset can be a subtle diagnosis, requiring a high index of suspicion. In conclusion, recognition of this diagnosis in patients with recurrence of outflow obstruction by symptoms and cardiac imaging after septal myectomy may avoid unnecessary repeat surgical intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatotoxicity in rats induced by the poisonous dreamfish (Sarpa salpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2014-02-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems. The toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of extract of the fish's organs. Wistar rats received daily extracts of different organs of S. salpa by gastric gavage for 7 d (0.3 ml of extract/100 g body weight, BW). The dose of tissue extracts of viscera, liver, brain and flesh of S. salpa administered to rats were as follows: 17.2, 31.3, 205, 266 mg/100g BW, respectively. No deaths occurred during the period of treatment. The lethal dose (LD50%) determined for the crude ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain and flesh of S. salpa were as follows: 1.2, 2.2, 14.4, 18.6 g/kg mouse, respectively. Changes in locomotor activity during the first 2 h and failure breathing and no evident signs of gastrointestinal problems were recorded. We observed: (1) Induction of oxidative stress, indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in groups that received extracts of liver (+490%) or viscera (+592%). Accompanied by a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in liver tissue by 15%, 17%, 18% (LT: animals receiving liver extracts) and by 19%, 22%, 22% (VT: animals receiving viscera extracts), respectively. In contrast the administration of extracts of flesh and brain induced an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in liver tissue by 15%, 19%, 15% (FT: flesh extract) and 18%, 55%, 55% (BT: brain extract), respectively; (2) A significant increase in total metallothionein levels in liver tissue was recorded in (FT), (BT), (LT) and (VT) by 55%, 88%, 255% and 277%, respectively, (3) The histological findings confirmed the biochemical results. Liver and especially visceral part of S. salpa presented toxicity, which clearly indicates the danger of using this fish as food.

  6. Hypoxia induces dilated cardiomyopathy in the chick embryo: mechanism, intervention, and long-term consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tintu

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased future risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Hypoxia in utero is a common clinical cause of fetal growth restriction. We have previously shown that chronic hypoxia alters cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The aim of this study was to further characterize cardiac disease in hypoxic chick embryos.Chick embryos were exposed to hypoxia and cardiac structure was examined by histological methods one day prior to hatching (E20 and at adulthood. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography and ex vivo by contractility measurements in isolated heart muscle bundles and isolated cardiomyocytes. Chick embryos were exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its scavenger soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1 to investigate the potential role of this hypoxia-regulated cytokine.Growth restricted hypoxic chick embryos showed cardiomyopathy as evidenced by left ventricular (LV dilatation, reduced ventricular wall mass and increased apoptosis. Hypoxic hearts displayed pump dysfunction with decreased LV ejection fractions, accompanied by signs of diastolic dysfunction. Cardiomyopathy caused by hypoxia persisted into adulthood. Hypoxic embryonic hearts showed increases in VEGF expression. Systemic administration of rhVEGF(165 to normoxic chick embryos resulted in LV dilatation and a dose-dependent loss of LV wall mass. Lowering VEGF levels in hypoxic embryonic chick hearts by systemic administration of sFlt-1 yielded an almost complete normalization of the phenotype.Our data show that hypoxia causes a decreased cardiac performance and cardiomyopathy in chick embryos, involving a significant VEGF-mediated component. This cardiomyopathy persists into adulthood.

  7. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    Anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy is a major problem in anti-cancer therapy. The only approved agent for alleviating this serious dose limiting side effect is ICRF-187 (dexrazoxane). The current thinking is that the ring-opened hydrolysis product of this agent, ADR-925, which is formed inside...... of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II......-inactive 3 carbon linker bisdioxopiperazine analog ICRF-161 as a cardioprotectant. We demonstrate that this compound does chelate iron and protects against doxorubicin-induced LDH release from primary rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, similarly to ICRF-187. The compound does not target topoisomerase II in vitro...

  8. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant women. The pathophysiology is poorly understood. Echocardiography is central to diagnosis of PPCM and effective treatment monitoring in patients of PPCM. The outcome ... Keywords: Cardiomyopathy, Echocardiography, Peripartum, Pregnancy ... complicated by pre‑eclampsia, gestational hypertension,.

  9. Dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Valve replacement or repair For advanced cardiomyopathy: A heart transplant may be recommended if standard treatments have not ... accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health ...

  10. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be mistaken for a condition called constrictive pericarditis. This condition causes the sac-like membrane around ... inflamed and thickened. Surgery can usually correct constrictive pericarditis. On the other hand, restrictive cardiomyopathy cannot be ...

  11. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman W. El-Hattab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA while more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA. Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular noncompaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain (ETC complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial tRNAs, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, and translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  12. Misoprostol-induced pulmonary edema in a parturient with postpartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Ranjan Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 analogue, although not the first-line drug in the management of postpartum hemorrhage, is frequently used for this purpose due to its safety profile and cost-effectiveness. Cardio-pulmonary complications have been previously reported with use of prostaglandin analogues but not with misoprostol. We describe a case of pulmonary edema after the use of vaginal misoprostol for treatment of postpartum vaginal bleed in an otherwise healthy asymptomatic patient, who was later diagnosed as a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

  13. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  14. Epidemiology and outcomes of poisoning-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Park, Chang Bae; Ro, Young Sun; Kwak, Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to describe and compare the epidemiologic features and outcomes among patients with poisoning-induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (POHCAs) according to causative agent groups. We identified emergency medical service (EMS)-treated POHCA patients from a nationwide OHCA registry between 2006 and 2008, which was derived from EMS run sheets and followed by hospital record review. Utstein elements were collected and hospital outcomes (survival to admission and to discharge) were measured. We compared risk factors and outcomes according to the main poisons. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from a multivariate logistic regression model for hospital outcomes. The total number of non-cardiac aetiology OHCAs was 20,536. Of these, the number of EMS-assessed and EMS-treated POHCAs was 900 (4.4%). For EMS-treated POHCAs, insecticides (n=111, 15.5%) including organophosphate and carbamates; herbicides (n=94, 13.2%); unknown pesticides (n=142, 19.9%); non-pesticide drugs (n=120, 16.8%); and unknown poisons (n=247, 6%) were identified. The survival to admission rate was 22.5% for insecticides, 3.2% for herbicides, 16.2% for unknown pesticides, 16.7% for non-pesticides and 11.3% for the unknown group. The survival to discharge rates were 9.9% for insecticides, 0.0% for herbicides, 2.1% for unknown pesticides, 3.3% for non-pesticides and 3.2% for the unknown group. The adjusted OR for each group for survival to admission was significantly lower when compared with insecticides: herbicides (OR=0.11, 95% CI=0.03-0.44), non-pesticide drugs (OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.13-0.61) and unknown group (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.21-0.76). The adjusted OR for each group for survival to discharge was significantly lower when compared with insecticides: herbicides (OR99.9), unknown pesticides (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.0.06-0.87), non-pesticide drugs (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.04-0.54) and unknown group (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.11-0.83). Using a nationwide OHCA registry, we found

  15. Brodifacoum induces early hemoglobinuria and late hematuria in rats: novel rapid biomarkers of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Kyle M; Feinstein, Douglas L; Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy; Rovin, Brad H; Hebert, Lee; Muni, Navin; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Satoskar, Anjali A; Nadasdy, Tibor; Brodsky, Sergey V

    2015-01-01

    Brodifacoum (BDF) is a superwarfarin that is used primarily as a rodenticide. There have been increasing numbers of reports of human cases of accidental or intentional BDF ingestion with high mortality rate. Its broad availability and high lethality suggest that BDF should be considered a potential chemical threat. Currently, there is no biomarker for early detection of BDF ingestion in humans; patients typically present with severe coagulopathy. Since we demonstrated earlier that warfarin can induce acute kidney injury with hematuria, we tested whether BDF would also lead to change in urinary biomarkers. BDF was administered to Sprague Dawley rats via oral gavage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was given per os in drinking water 24 h prior to BDF. Urinalysis was performed at different times after BDF administration. Anticoagulation and serum creatinine levels were analyzed in the blood. We observed that within a few hours the animals developed BDF-dose-dependent transient hemoglobinuria, which ceased within 24 h. This was accompanied by a transient decrease in hematocrit, gross hemolysis and an increase in free hemoglobin in the serum. At later times, animals developed true hematuria with red blood cells in the urine, which was associated with BDF anticoagulation. NAC prevented early hemoglobinuria, but not late hematuria associated with BDF. We propose that transient early hemoglobinuria (associated with oxidative stress) with consecutive late hematuria (associated with anticoagulation) are novel biomarkers of BDF poisoning, and they can be used in clinical setting or in mass casualty with BDF to identify poisoned patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Yogurt Containing the Probacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus Combined with Natural Antioxidants Mitigates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elsaad, Nashwa M; Abd Elhameed, Ahmed G; El-Karef, Amr; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2015-09-01

    Probiotics and antioxidants have a definite improving effect in cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at mitigating doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac function through consuming a functional food. Five groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used along 22 weeks. Group I received 30 g/kg/day food enriched with yogurt, green tea extract, and carrots (80, 0.84, and 100 g/kg diet, respectively) from the first week, group II received carvedilol 30 mg/kg/day orally from week 17, group III received both carvedilol and tested food, and groups IV and V were +ve and -ve control groups, respectively. In week 17, cardiomyopathy was induced by i.p. injection of 2.5 mg/kg doxorubicin every 48 h for 2 weeks. Histopathological and electrophysiological examinations and biochemical analysis were done. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant effect, heart failure compensatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed. Tested food normalized time between the start of Q wave and the end of T wave on electrocardiogram (QT interval) and heart rate compared to the doxorubicin group (Pcholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was observed in addition to an increase in serum Na(+)/K(+) ATP1A1 and cardiac reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Tested food also lowered the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum levels significantly (P<.01). Probiotic food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, green tea, and carrots can improve membrane integrity and cardiac contractility in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing TNF-α, IL-6, MDA, increasing GSH, and modulating compensatory mediators such as Ang-II and ANP.

  17. Iron-Induced Damage in Cardiomyopathy: Oxidative-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gammella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cardiomyopathy in patients with hemosiderosis, particularly in transfusional iron overload, strongly indicates that iron accumulation in the heart plays a major role in the process leading to heart failure. In this context, iron-mediated generation of noxious reactive oxygen species is believed to be the most important pathogenetic mechanism determining cardiomyocyte damage, the initiating event of a pathologic progression involving apoptosis, fibrosis, and ultimately cardiac dysfunction. However, recent findings suggest that additional mechanisms involving subcellular organelles and inflammatory mediators are important factors in the development of this disease. Moreover, excess iron can amplify the cardiotoxic effect of other agents or events. Finally, subcellular misdistribution of iron within cardiomyocytes may represent an additional pathway leading to cardiac injury. Recent advances in imaging techniques and chelators development remarkably improved cardiac iron overload detection and treatment, respectively. However, increased understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of iron overload cardiomyopathy is needed to pave the way for the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

  18. Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning-Induced Reversible Myocardial Dysfunction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Bishav; Gupta, Vivek; Ralhan, Sarju; Gupta, Dinesh; Puri, Sandeep; Wander, Gurpreet Singh; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-11-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning carries a high rate of mortality despite intensive care management, primarily because of refractory myocardial depression, resistant hypotension, and severe metabolic acidosis as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified "heart-lung" machine to provide temporary cardiorespiratory support. We studied the novel use of ECMO in the management of a subset of patients with AlP poisoning. In this case series, seven patients with AlP poisoning suffering from severe metabolic acidosis and refractory cardiogenic shock with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (poisoning-induced severe metabolic acidosis and refractory cardiogenic shock may lead to a significant improvement in overall survival. Therefore, ECMO might be considered as a bridge therapy for patients with intractable cardiorespiratory failure caused by AlP poisoning who are not responding to conventional treatment. ECMO, however, also is associated with significant complication rates, which must be incorporated into the risk-benefit analysis while considering treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tempol ameliorates cardiac fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: role of oxidative stress in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Ashraf; Abouzied, Mekky M; Mohafez, Omar M M

    2013-12-01

    Long-standing diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiac fibrosis. This, in turn, contributes to the progression of cardiomyopathy. The present study was sought to investigate whether the free radical scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidinoxyl (tempol) can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and to explore the specific underlying mechanism(s) in this setting. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). These animals were treated with tempol (18 mg kg(-1) day(-1), orally) for 8 weeks. Our results showed significant increases in collagen IV and fibronectin protein levels and a marked decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity measured by gelatin-gel zymography alongside elevated cardiac transforming growth factor (TGF)-β level determined using ELISA or immunohistochemistry in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats compared with control. This was accompanied by an increased in the oxidative stress as evidenced by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity along with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) serum levels as compared with the control. Tempol treatment significantly corrected the changes in the cardiac extracellular matrix, TGF-β, ROS or serum LDH, CK-MB levels, and normalized MMP-2 activity along with preservation of cardiac tissues integrity of diabetic rats against damaging responses. Moreover, tempol normalized the elevated systolic blood pressure and improved some cardiac functions in diabetic rats. Collectively, our data suggest a potential protective role of tempol against diabetes-associated cardiac fibrosis in rats via reducing oxidative stress and extracellular matrix remodeling.

  20. Modeling and study of the mechanism of dilated cardiomyopathy using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD, and is characterized by progressive weakness in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Currently, dilated cardiomyopathy due to cardiac muscle loss is one of the major causes of lethality in late-stage DMD patients. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD heart, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs from DMD and healthy control induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. DMD iPSC-derived CMs (iPSC-CMs displayed dystrophin deficiency, as well as the elevated levels of resting Ca2+, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Additionally, we found an activated mitochondria-mediated signaling network underlying the enhanced apoptosis in DMD iPSC-CMs. Furthermore, when we treated DMD iPSC-CMs with the membrane sealant Poloxamer 188, it significantly decreased the resting cytosolic Ca2+ level, repressed caspase-3 (CASP3 activation and consequently suppressed apoptosis in DMD iPSC-CMs. Taken together, using DMD patient-derived iPSC-CMs, we established an in vitro model that manifests the major phenotypes of dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD patients, and uncovered a potential new disease mechanism. Our model could be used for the mechanistic study of human muscular dystrophy, as well as future preclinical testing of novel therapeutic compounds for dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD patients.

  1. Modeling and study of the mechanism of dilated cardiomyopathy using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Li, Yang; Han, Lu; Kaplan, Aaron D; Ao, Ying; Kalra, Spandan; Bett, Glenna C L; Rasmusson, Randall L; Denning, Chris; Yang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD), and is characterized by progressive weakness in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Currently, dilated cardiomyopathy due to cardiac muscle loss is one of the major causes of lethality in late-stage DMD patients. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD heart, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) from DMD and healthy control induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). DMD iPSC-derived CMs (iPSC-CMs) displayed dystrophin deficiency, as well as the elevated levels of resting Ca(2+), mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Additionally, we found an activated mitochondria-mediated signaling network underlying the enhanced apoptosis in DMD iPSC-CMs. Furthermore, when we treated DMD iPSC-CMs with the membrane sealant Poloxamer 188, it significantly decreased the resting cytosolic Ca(2+) level, repressed caspase-3 (CASP3) activation and consequently suppressed apoptosis in DMD iPSC-CMs. Taken together, using DMD patient-derived iPSC-CMs, we established an in vitro model that manifests the major phenotypes of dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD patients, and uncovered a potential new disease mechanism. Our model could be used for the mechanistic study of human muscular dystrophy, as well as future preclinical testing of novel therapeutic compounds for dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD patients. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. [The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ainong; Ren, Siqing; Jian, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    To observe the prevention effects of patients with lung exudation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning in sodium bicarbonate (SB) with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection. To collect 38 patients with paraquat poisoning in hospital, after poison immediately with gastric lavage of 1.5% SB, and atomization inhalation of 5% SB 10~15 ml twice daily and intravenous injection of 5% SB twice a day, continuous application of 5~7 days. and the HRCT score and liver and kidney function was performed on patients with lung after treatment. And the extraction of 38 SB patients with previously untreated with SB for comparison. Lung HRCT average score in 72 h, 7 d, 30 d on patients with paraquat poisoning untreated with SB reached 2.87, 3.12, 2.13, HRCT display shows that the appearance of the wear glass shadow, grid shadow, honeycomb shadow, and other signs of fibrosis. Average HRCT reached 1.95, 2.20, 1.67 on patients treated with SB,signs of lung exudation and fibrosis was significantly reduced,compare two groups,there was statistically significance (Pparaquat poisoning with triple application of SB, the level of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) significantly decreased, the difference is statistically significant (Pparaquat poisoning,and protective effect on the function of liver and kidney is obvious, suggesting that the method for treatment of paraquat poisoning, prevention of paraquat lung and improve survival rate has the exact effect.

  3. MuRF2 regulates PPARγ1 activity to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhance weight gain induced by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Quintana, Megan T; Sullivan, Jenyth; L Parry, Traci; J Grevengoed, Trisha; Schisler, Jonathan C; Hill, Joseph A; Yates, Cecelia C; Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel; Stansfield, William E; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Han, Yipin; Clarke, Brian A; Willis, Monte S

    2015-08-05

    In diabetes mellitus the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease is increased and represents an important independent mechanism by which heart disease is exacerbated. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy involves the enhanced activation of PPAR transcription factors, including PPARα, and to a lesser degree PPARβ and PPARγ1. How these transcription factors are regulated in the heart is largely unknown. Recent studies have described post-translational ubiquitination of PPARs as ways in which PPAR activity is inhibited in cancer. However, specific mechanisms in the heart have not previously been described. Recent studies have implicated the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-2 (MuRF2) in inhibiting the nuclear transcription factor SRF. Initial studies of MuRF2-/- hearts revealed enhanced PPAR activity, leading to the hypothesis that MuRF2 regulates PPAR activity by post-translational ubiquitination. MuRF2-/- mice were challenged with a 26-week 60% fat diet designed to simulate obesity-mediated insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mice were followed by conscious echocardiography, blood glucose, tissue triglyceride, glycogen levels, immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling, heart and skeletal muscle morphometrics, and PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ1-regulated mRNA expression. MuRF2 protein levels increase ~20% during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by high fat diet. Compared to littermate wildtype hearts, MuRF2-/- hearts exhibit an exaggerated diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by an early onset systolic dysfunction, larger left ventricular mass, and higher heart weight. MuRF2-/- hearts had significantly increased PPARα- and PPARγ1-regulated gene expression by RT-qPCR, consistent with MuRF2's regulation of these transcription factors in vivo. Mechanistically, MuRF2 mono-ubiquitinated PPARα and PPARγ1 in vitro, consistent with its non-degradatory role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However

  4. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitric oxide inhibits topoisomerase II activity and induces resistance to topoisomerase II-poisons in human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Tokar, Erik J; Mason, Ronald P; Sinha, Birandra K

    2016-07-01

    Etoposide and doxorubicin, topoisomerase II poisons, are important drugs for the treatment of tumors in the clinic. Topoisomerases contain several free sulfhydryl groups which are important for their activity and are also potential targets for nitric oxide (NO)-induced nitrosation. NO, a physiological signaling molecule nitrosates many cellular proteins, causing altered protein and cellular functions. Here, we have evaluated the roles of NO/NO-derived species in the activity/stability of topo II both in vitro and in human tumor cells, and in the cytotoxicity of topo II-poisons, etoposide and doxorubicin. Treatment of purified topo IIα with propylamine propylamine nonoate (PPNO), an NO donor, resulted in inhibition of both the catalytic and relaxation activity in vitro, and decreased etoposide-dependent cleavable complex formation in both human HT-29 colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PPNO treatment also induced significant nitrosation of topo IIα protein in these human tumor cells. These events, taken together, caused a significant resistance to etoposide in both cell lines. However, PPNO had no effect on doxorubicin-induced cleavable complex formation, or doxorubicin cytotoxicity in these cell lines. Inhibition of topo II function by NO/NO-derived species induces significant resistance to etoposide, without affecting doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human tumor cells. As tumors express inducible nitric oxide synthase and generate significant amounts of NO, modulation of topo II functions by NO/NO-derived species could render tumors resistant to certain topo II-poisons in the clinic. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Smooth muscle LDL receptor-related protein-1 deletion induces aortic insufficiency and promotes vascular cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Basford

    Full Text Available Valvular disease is common in patients with Marfan syndrome and can lead to cardiomyopathy. However, some patients develop cardiomyopathy in the absence of hemodynamically significant valve dysfunction, suggesting alternative mechanisms of disease progression. Disruption of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (Lrp1 in smooth muscle cells has been shown to cause vascular pathologies similar to Marfan syndrome, with activation of smooth muscle cells, vascular dysfunction and aortic aneurysms. This study used echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring in mouse models to determine whether inactivation of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle leads to cardiomyopathy, and if so, whether the mechanism is a consequence of valvular disease. Hemodynamic changes during treatment with captopril were also assessed. Dilation of aortic roots was observed in young Lrp1-knockout mice and progressed as they aged, whereas no significant aortic dilation was detected in wild type littermates. Diastolic blood pressure was lower and pulse pressure higher in Lrp1-knockout mice, which was normalized by treatment with captopril. Aortic dilation was followed by development of aortic insufficiency and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy due to valvular disease. Thus, smooth muscle cell Lrp1 deficiency results in aortic dilation and insufficiency that causes secondary cardiomyopathy that can be improved by captopril. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms of cardiomyopathy associated with vascular activation and offer a new model of valvular cardiomyopathy.

  7. Cardiomyopathy induced by artificial cardiac pacing: myth or reality sustained by evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrés Di Leoni; Borges, Anibal Pires; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Sussenbach, Carolina Pelzer; da Rosa, Priscila Raupp; Piantá, Ricardo Medeiros; Wiehe, Mario; Goldani, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Implantable cardiac pacing systems are a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic irreversible bradycardia. Under the proper indications, cardiac pacing might bring significant clinical benefit. Evidences from literature state that the action of the artificial pacing system, mainly when the ventricular lead is located at the apex of the right ventricle, produces negative effects to cardiac structure (remodeling, dilatation) and function (dissinchrony). Patients with previously compromised left ventricular function would benefit the least with conventional right ventricle apical pacing, and are exposed to the risk of developing higher incidence of morbidity and mortality for heart failure. However, after almost 6 decades of cardiac pacing, just a reduced portion of patients in general would develop these alterations. In this context, there are not completely clear some issues related to cardiac pacing and the development of this cardiomyopathy. Causality relationships among QRS widening with a left bundle branch block morphology, contractility alterations within the left ventricle, and certain substrates or clinical (previous systolic dysfunction, structural heart disease, time from implant) or electrical conditions (QRS duration, percentage of ventricular stimulation) are still subjecte of debate. This review analyses contemporary data regarding this new entity, and discusses alternatives of how to use cardiac pacing in this context, emphasizing cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25372916

  8. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  14. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Bedside identification of patients at risk for PVC-induced cardiomyopathy: Is ECG useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garster, Noelle C; Henrikson, Charles A

    2017-07-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are an underrecognized cause of cardiomyopathy. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has potential to direct attention toward at-risk patients. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review of 1,240 patients who completed ECG and Holter monitoring at Oregon Health and Science University Hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 to investigate the relationship of PVC frequency on ECG with burden on Holter. Primary outcome measures included PVC quantity on ECG, mean PVC quantity on Holter, and percentage of total beats on Holter recorded as PVCs. High PVC burden was defined as ≥10% of total beats. Weighted mean percentages of total beats on Holter monitor recorded as PVCs were calculated for 0, 1, 2, and ≥3 PVCs on ECG and found to be 1.4% (n = 1,128), 3.5% (n = 32), 4.3% (n = 25), and 16.6% (n = 55), respectively, which represent statistically significant differences (P PVC Holter burden was 58%. Negative predictive value for 0 PVCs on ECG was 98%. The sensitivity and specificity of ECG to identify high PVC burden on Holter was 72% and 93.6%, respectively, when utilizing a positive ECG result as one PVC or more, and 44% and 98.9%, respectively, with ≥3 PVCs on ECG. The positive likelihood ratio corresponding to ≥3 PVCs on ECG was 40. These findings demonstrate that the number of PVCs on ECG can be utilized for quick bedside estimation of high PVC burden. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differentiation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from left ventricular hypertrophy induced by essential hypertension using magnetic resonance imaging

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    Doyoshita, Hiroko; Murakami, Eiji; Takekoshi, Noboru; Matsui, Shinobu; Nakato, Hideaki; Enyama, Hiroto

    1988-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 patients with HCM and 14 hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy (LDH) were studied using a 0.5 Tesla Siemens MRI apparatus equipped with cardiac gating. In HCM, left ventricular hypertrophy was localized to the septal wall in four, to the apical wall in two, to both the septal and apical walls in two, and to the apical and inferior walls in one, and it was diffuse in seven patients. In hypertensives, LVH was localized to the septal wall in three, to both the septal and anterior walls in two, to the free wall in one, and it was diffuse in eight patients. The distribution of the hypertrophic portion was nearly equal in both groups. The thickest portion of the left ventricular wall was 24.6 +- 4.8 mm in HCM and 21.6 +- 5.4 mm in hypertension, and there was no significant difference between them. The T/sub 2/ relaxation time of the hypertrophic portion was 52.2 +- 4.8 msec in HCM and 45.3 +- 6.1 msec in hypertension, and there was a significant difference between them (p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences between the T/sub 2/ relaxation times of the hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic protions in both groups. In conclusion, it may be difficult to differentiate HCM from hypertension based on the distribution of hypertrophic portions, but measurements of the T/sub 2/ relaxation times may be useful for making the differential diagnosis.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation does not improve Western diet-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Jeckel

    Full Text Available Obesity increases risk for cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or ischemia. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy. We sought to identify gross, cellular and ultrastructural myocardial changes associated with Western diet intake, and subsequent modification with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation. Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats received 1 of 3 diets: control (CON; Western (WES; Western + DHA (WES+DHA. After 12 weeks of treatment, echocardiography was performed and myocardial adiponectin, fatty acids, collagen, area occupied by lipid and myocytes, and ultrastructure were determined. Strain effects included higher serum adiponectin in Wistar rats, and differences in myocardial fatty acid composition. Diet effects were evident in that both WES and WES+DHA feeding were associated with similarly increased left ventricular (LV diastolic cranial wall thickness (LVW(cr/d and decreased diastolic internal diameter (LVID(d, compared to CON. Unexpectedly, WES+DHA feeding was associated additionally with increased thickness of the LV cranial wall during systole (LVW(cr/s and the caudal wall during diastole (LVW(ca/d compared to CON; this was observed concomitantly with increased serum and myocardial adiponectin. Diastolic dysfunction was present in WES+DHA rats compared to both WES and CON. Myocyte cross sectional area (CSA was greater in WES compared to CON rats. In both fat-fed groups, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed myofibril degeneration, disorganized mitochondrial cristae, lipid inclusions and vacuolation. In the absence of hypertension and whole body insulin resistance, WES+DHA intake was associated with more global LV thickening and with diastolic dysfunction, compared to WES feeding alone. Myocyte hypertrophy, possibly related to subcellular injury, is an early change that may contribute

  19. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Considerations in cardio-oncology: Multiple mobile left-sided cardiac thrombi in chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamishima, Toshinori; Matsushita, Kenichi; Morikubo, Hiromu; Isaka, Aoi; Matsushita, Noriko; Endo, Hidehito; Kubota, Hiroshi; Sakata, Konomi; Satoh, Toru; Yoshino, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    With advances in cancer chemotherapy, the importance of the new clinical discipline of cardio-oncology, which is concerned with the cardiac effects of chemotherapy, is increasing. Herein we describe the case of a 48-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer who presented with symptoms of heart failure due to chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Treatment for the patient's breast cancer had included surgery and chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. Echocardiography revealed multiple mobile thrombi in the left ventricle and atrium. In addition, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed small acute cerebral infarctions due to embolization. Given the high risk of re-embolization, surgical thrombectomy was performed. Thus far, there are no standardized therapeutic guidelines for left-sided cardiac thrombi and the optimal treatment remains contentious. Although this patient was managed successfully with surgical thrombectomy, patients should be managed individually, taking into consideration embolization, bleeding, and surgical risks. With further improvements in cancer chemotherapy, there may be an increase in the incidence of complications such as multiple cardiac thrombi. From the cardio-oncology standpoint, we propose close interactions between cardiologists and oncologists for the optimal care of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Divergent effects of adrenaline in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes obtained from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prajapati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a common inherited cardiac disease that affects the heart muscle with diverse clinical outcomes. HCM can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD during or immediately after mild to rigorous physical activity in young patients. However, the mechanism causing SCD as a result of exercise remains unknown, but exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias are thought to be responsible for this fatal consequence. To understand the disease mechanism behind HCM in a better way, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs from HCM patients carrying either the MYBPC3-Gln1061X or TPM1-Asp175Asn mutation. We extensively investigated the effects of low to high concentrations of adrenaline on action potential characteristics, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the presence of various concentrations of adrenaline and in wash-out condition. We classified and quantified different types of arrhythmias observed in hiPSC-CMs, and found that the occurrence of arrhythmias was dependent on concentrations of adrenaline and positions of mutations in genes causing HCM. In addition, we observed ventricular tachycardia types of arrhythmias in hiPSC-CMs carrying the TPM1-Asp175Asn mutation. We additionally examined the antiarrhythmic potency of bisoprolol in HCM-specific hiPSC-CMs. However, bisoprolol could not reduce the occurrence of arrhythmias during administration or during the wash-out condition of adrenaline in HCM-specific hiPSC-CMs. Our study demonstrates hiPSC-CMs as a promising tool for studying HCM. The experimental design used in this study could be suitable and beneficial for studying other components and drugs related to cardiac disease in general.

  2. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  3. Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues Created Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveal Functional Characteristics of BRAF-Mediated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Cashman

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death that often goes undetected in the general population. HCM is also prevalent in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS, which is a genetic disorder characterized by aberrant signaling in the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. Understanding the mechanisms of HCM development in such RASopathies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, but relevant experimental models of the human condition are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop the first 3D human engineered cardiac tissue (hECT model of HCM. The hECTs were created using human cardiomyocytes obtained by directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with CFCS due to an activating BRAF mutation. The mutant myocytes were directly conjugated at a 3:1 ratio with a stromal cell population to create a tissue of defined composition. Compared to healthy patient control hECTs, BRAF-hECTs displayed a hypertrophic phenotype by culture day 6, with significantly increased tissue size, twitch force, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP gene expression. Twitch characteristics reflected increased contraction and relaxation rates and shorter twitch duration in BRAF-hECTs, which also had a significantly higher maximum capture rate and lower excitation threshold during electrical pacing, consistent with a more arrhythmogenic substrate. By culture day 11, twitch force was no longer different between BRAF and wild-type hECTs, revealing a temporal aspect of disease modeling with tissue engineering. Principal component analysis identified diastolic force as a key factor that changed from day 6 to day 11, supported by a higher passive stiffness in day 11 BRAF-hECTs. In summary, human engineered cardiac tissues created from BRAF mutant cells recapitulated, for the first time, key aspects of the HCM phenotype, offering a new in vitro model for studying intrinsic mechanisms and

  4. Activation of nuclear β-catenin/c-Myc axis promotes oxidative stress injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Su, Jianfang; Song, Xixi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-12-02

    Myocardial oxidative stress injury plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been reported to involve in various heart diseases. However, the underlying mechanism associated with β-catenin in DCM remains elusive. This study intended to explore the effect of β-catenin on oxidative damage of DCM by establishing streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-treated myocardial cell model. Cardiac oxidative stress in DCM was detected by measurements of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative enzyme activities as well as DHE staining. Nuclear β-catenin activity and oxidative damage degree were measured by western blotting, qPCR, MTT assay and TUNEL staining. Cardiac function and morphology were evaluated by echocardiography and histopathology. Under diabetic oxidative stress or H 2 O 2 stimulation, nuclear β-catenin accumulation upregulated downstream c-Myc and further facilitated DNA damage and p53-mediated apoptosis as well as cell viability reduction, followed by phenotypic changes of cardiac dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis deposition and myocardial atrophy. Conversely, through directly inhibiting nuclear β-catenin/c-Myc axis, not only did siRNA knockdown of β-catenin or c-Myc attenuate cell injury in H 2 O 2 -stimulated cardiomyocytes, but also diabetic cardiac-specific β-catenin-knockout mice displayed the same prevention of heart injury as insulin-treated diabetic mice. The present study demonstrated that activated nuclear β-catenin/c-Myc axis was responsible for oxidative cardiac impairment of DCM. Therefore, repressing functional nuclear β-catenin may provide a hopeful therapeutic strategy for DCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiomyopathies and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Juneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy is considered as a heart muscle disease of multiple aetiologies, unlike other cardiac diseases related to a definitive pathophysiology. With more and more research and with the advent of genetic analysis pin pointing the disease causing mutations, causative factors have been defined and classifications and definitions have changed over time. Patients with these conditions present to anaesthesiologists in elective and emergency situations, placement of automated internal cardioverter defibrillator (AICD devices or biventricular pacing but may also be diagnosed at anaesthetic pre-assessment. We describe cardiomyopathies such as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, post-partum cardiomyopathy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in brief and their anaesthetic management.

  6. Poisonous Plants

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    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  7. Deodorant poisoning

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002696.htm Deodorant poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Deodorant poisoning occurs when someone swallows deodorant. This article ...

  8. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  9. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...

  10. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  11. MR imaging in cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Riessen, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to the WHO classification, cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases which are associated with myocardial dysfunction and can be classified either as primary or secondary cardiomyopathies. Genetic disorders have been identified in certain primary cardiomyopathies, however often the etiology remains unknown. The term ''secondary cardiomyopathy'' is used to specify diseases with the clinical indications of a cardiomyopathy, but can be attributed to a certain pathophysiological mechanism such as exposure to toxic substances, metabolic syndromes or systemic diseases. Based on morphological and functional criteria, primary cardiomyopathies are divided into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). During the last two decades MR imaging has emerged to a well established diagnostic tool for the understanding and treatment of cardiomyopathies. Morphological and functional information can be achieved with a high level of accuracy and reproducibility. Tissue alteration of the myocardium can be detected assessing regional contrast enhancement, T1- and T2-signal intensities and chemical shift phenomena. This article describes characteristic aspects of MR imaging for the diagnosis of primary and secondary cardiomyopathies. (orig.)

  12. Peripartum cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez V, Jorge E; Duque R, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a clinical entity with a variable frequency according to the zone of the study. It is characterized by a systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle and posterior appearance of heart failure symptoms that occur during the last month of pregnancy and the first post-partum months. Its etiology isn't still clear, but different theories are proposed based on inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune processes. Alterations related to oxidative stress that could largely explain this pathology were recently described. Its clinical presentation has a big similitude with all other causes of heart failure although atypical presentations have been described. Its diagnosis requires a high suspicion level and must be considered in any woman with symptoms of heart failure during the peripartum. The conventional treatment of chronic heart failure that includes beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics, in addition to the advances in diagnosis and management of acute heart failure, allowed changing the history of the disease by lowering mortality and recovering systolic function of the left ventricle. Gestations posterior to the development of this entity will depend on the complete recovery of heart function without lowering the risk of recurrence. There still remain many questions to answer in areas like etiology, risk factors, treatment and prognosis markers that may allow to prevent and to manage in an appropriate and safe way both the mother and her son.

  13. DNA damage response (DDR) induced by topoisomerase II poisons requires nuclear function of the small GTPase Rac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartlick, Friedrich; Bopp, Anita; Henninger, Christian; Fritz, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Here, we investigated the influence of Rac family small GTPases on mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR) stimulated by topoisomerase II poisons. To this end, we examined the influence of the Rac-specific small molecule inhibitor EHT1864 on Ser139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX, a widely used marker of the DDR triggered by DNA double-strand breaks. EHT1864 attenuated the doxorubicin-stimulated DDR in a subset of cell lines tested, including HepG2 hepatoma cells. EHT1864 reduced the level of DNA strand breaks and increased viability following treatment of HepG2 cells with topo II poisons. Protection by EHT1864 was observed in both p53 wildtype (HepG2) and p53 deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cells and, furthermore, remained unaffected upon pharmacological inhibition of p53 in HepG2. Apparently, the impact of Rac on the DDR is independent of p53. Protection from doxorubicin-induced DNA damage by EHT1864 comprises both S and G2 phase cells. The inhibitory effect of EHT1864 on doxorubicin-stimulated DDR was mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of various protein kinases, including JNK, ERK, PI3K, PAK and CK1. EHT1864 and protein kinase inhibitors also attenuated the formation of the topo II-DNA cleavable complex. Moreover, EHT1864 mitigated the constitutive phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα at positions S1106, S1213 and S1247. Doxorubicin transport, nuclear import/export of topoisomerase II and Hsp90-related mechanisms are likely not of relevance for doxorubicin-stimulated DDR impaired by EHT1864. We suggest that multiple kinase-dependent but p53- and heat shock protein-independent Rac-regulated nuclear mechanisms are required for activation of the DDR following treatment with topo II poisons. © 2013.

  14. Transcriptional profile of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy and comparison to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy and human cardiac failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Lauren J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice has been used in a number of studies to model human cardiac disease. In this study, we compared the transcriptional response of the heart in this model to other animal models of heart failure, as well as to the transcriptional response of human hearts suffering heart failure. Results We performed microarray analyses on RNA from mice with isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mice with exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy and identified 865 and 2,534 genes that were significantly altered in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy models, respectively. We compared our results to 18 different microarray data sets (318 individual arrays representing various other animal models and four human cardiac diseases and identified a canonical set of 64 genes that are generally altered in failing hearts. We also produced a pairwise similarity matrix to illustrate relatedness of animal models with human heart disease and identified ischemia as the human condition that most resembles isoproterenol treatment. Conclusion The overall patterns of gene expression are consistent with observed structural and molecular differences between normal and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and support a role for the immune system (or immune cell infiltration in the pathology of stress-induced hypertrophy. Cross-study comparisons such as the results presented here provide targets for further research of cardiac disease that might generally apply to maladaptive cardiac stresses and are also a means of identifying which animal models best recapitulate human disease at the transcriptional level.

  15. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  16. Nitric oxide inhibits ATPase activity and induces resistance to topoisomerase II-poisons in human MCF-7 breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Birandra K; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-07-01

    Topoisomerase poisons are important drugs for the management of human malignancies. Nitric oxide ( • NO), a physiological signaling molecule, induces nitrosylation (or nitrosation) of many cellular proteins containing cysteine thiol groups, altering their cellular functions. Topoisomerases contain several thiol groups which are important for their activity and are also targets for nitrosation by nitric oxide. Here, we have evaluated the roles of • NO/ • NO-derived species in the stability and activity of topo II (α and β) both in vitro and in human MCF-7 breast tumor cells. Furthermore, we have examined the effects of • NO on the ATPase activity of topo II. Treatment of purified topo IIα and β with propylamine propylamine nonoate (PPNO), an NO donor, resulted in inhibition of the catalytic activity of topo II. Furthermore, PPNO significantly inhibited topo II-dependent ATP hydrolysis. • NO-induced inhibition of these topo II (α and β) functions resulted in a decrease in cleavable complex formation in MCF-7 cells in the presence of m-AMSA and XK469 and induced significant resistance to both drugs in MCF-7 cells. PPNO treatment resulted in the nitrosation of the topo II protein in MCF-7 cancer cells and inhibited both catalytic-, and ATPase activities of topo II. Furthermore, PPNO significantly affected the DNA damage and cytotoxicity of m-AMSA and XK469 in MCF-7 tumor cells. As tumors express nitric oxide synthase and generate • NO, inhibition of topo II functions by • NO/ • NO-derived species could render tumors resistant to certain topo II-poisons in the clinic.

  17. Effects of acetamide on experimentally-induced Palicourea marcgravii (St Hill) poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, S L; Palermo-Neto, J; Spinosa, H S

    1994-04-01

    High indices of mortality in cattle have been reported in Brazil as a consequence of Palicourea marcgravii (Pm) acute intoxications. It has been established that Pm leaves contain monofluoroacetic acid (MFA), the active toxic principle of the plant. Rational therapy for MFA poisoning involves the use of a substance that might prevent fluorocitric acid formation. The present work was undertaken to verify if acetamide, a MFA antidote and an acetate donor, protects rats against both Pm and MFA intoxications. It was verified that acetamide protected rats from both convulsions and death. Future experiments should be carried out on cattle to examine the efficiency of acetamide, and particularly under field conditions.

  18. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... whitish-green fruits hang in loose clusters. Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  19. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  20. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Paradichlorobenzene is a white, solid chemical with a very strong odor. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this chemical. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with ...

  1. Locally expressed IGF1 propeptide improves mouse heart function in induced dilated cardiomyopathy by blocking myocardial fibrosis and SRF-dependent CTGF induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Touvron

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is critically involved in the adverse remodeling accompanying dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs, which leads to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, a profibrotic cytokine, plays a key role in this deleterious process. Some beneficial effects of IGF1 on cardiomyopathy have been described, but its potential role in improving DCM is less well characterized. We investigated the consequences of expressing a cardiac-specific transgene encoding locally acting IGF1 propeptide (muscle-produced IGF1; mIGF1 on disease progression in a mouse model of DCM [cardiac-specific and inducible serum response factor (SRF gene disruption] that mimics some forms of human DCM. Cardiac-specific mIGF1 expression substantially extended the lifespan of SRF mutant mice, markedly improved cardiac functions, and delayed both DCM and HF. These protective effects were accompanied by an overall improvement in cardiomyocyte architecture and a massive reduction of myocardial fibrosis with a concomitant amelioration of inflammation. At least some of the beneficial effects of mIGF1 transgene expression were due to mIGF1 counteracting the strong increase in CTGF expression within cardiomyocytes caused by SRF deficiency, resulting in the blockade of fibroblast proliferation and related myocardial fibrosis. These findings demonstrate that SRF plays a key role in the modulation of cardiac fibrosis through repression of cardiomyocyte CTGF expression in a paracrine fashion. They also explain how impaired SRF function observed in human HF promotes fibrosis and adverse cardiac remodeling. Locally acting mIGF1 efficiently protects the myocardium from these adverse processes, and might thus represent a therapeutic avenue to counter DCM.

  2. Oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats induced by poisonous pufferfish (Lagocephalus lagocephalus meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saoudi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pufferfish (Lagocephalus lagocephalus meat poisoning on hepatic functions of Wistar rats. For this purpose, groups of rats (Lcr, Lcu+b and Lcu-b received diet supplemented with 10% of raw or cooked meat, respectively, with or without cooking water of L. lagocephalus while groups Mcr and Mcu+b received diet supplemented with 10% of raw or cooked meat of Liza aurata, which were used as a negative control. In Lcu+b group, ALT, AST and ALP rates (hepatic enzyme markers decreased after two months of treatment, indicating liver damage. We also observed an increase of 54 and 65% of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in their livers respectively 48 hours and two months after treatment compared to controls. The catalase (CAT activity in group Lcu+b decreased (p < 0.05 after two periods of treatment, whereas metallothionein (MT level significantly increased and decreased, respectively after 48 hours and two months. In fact, in the histological analysis of the livers from Lcu+b treated group, we observed an increase in vacuolisation, necrosis, hepatocytes ballooning and sinusoids dilation. These results indicate that L. lagocephalus meat cooked with water produces hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage.

  3. Cardiomyopathy in Vici syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... Cardiomyopathy in Vici syndrome. Dear Editor,. A 7 month old boy was referred to our clinic with provisional diagnosis of Pompe disease because of his Echocardiographic find- ings of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Although the patient had severe hypotonia and increased CPK level characteristics of ...

  4. Paraquat Poisoning Induces TNF-α-Dependent iNOS/NO Mediated Hyporesponsiveness of the Aorta to Vasoconstrictors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Rosária D.; Capettini, Luciano S. A.; Silva, Josiane F.; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Pinho, Vanessa; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Cortes, Steyner F.; Lemos, Virginia S.

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a toxic herbicide that may induce acute lung injury, circulatory failure and death. The present work aimed at investigating whether there is systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction after paraquat exposure and whether these parameters were related. There was neutrophilia and accumulation of neutrophils in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage of animals given paraquat. This was associated with an increase in serum levels of TNF-α. In rats given paraquat, the relaxant response of aortic rings to acetylcholine was not modified but the contractile response to phenylephrine was greatly reduced. Endothelium removal or treatment with non-selective (L-NAME) or selective (L-NIL) inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) restored contraction of aortas. There was greater production of nitric oxide (NO), which was restored to basal level by L-NIL, and greater expression of iNOS in endothelial cells, as seen by Western blot analyses and confocal microscopy. Blockade of TNF-α reduced pulmonary and systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Together, our results clearly show that paraquat causes pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and vascular dysfunction in rats. Vascular dysfunction is TNF-α dependent, associated with enhanced expression of iNOS in aortic endothelial cells and greater NO production, which accounts for the decreased responsiveness of aortas to vasoconstrictors. Blockers of TNF-α may be useful in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:24039983

  5. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002510.htm Nicotine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nicotine is a bitter-tasting compound that naturally occurs ...

  6. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  7. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care Wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth. Rinse the person's eyes and skin well if they touched the plant. Give milk to drink. Call poison control for more guidance. ...

  8. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  9. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pyrethrins. These chemicals were originally isolated from chrysanthemum flowers and are generally not harmful. However, they can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  10. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  11. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...

  12. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Davison K, Frank BL. Ethnobotany: ...

  13. Antifreeze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If ... little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce or 30 milliliters) can kill a ...

  14. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can ... under the following brand names: Eyesine Geneye Murine Tears Plus Opti-Clear ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cardiomyopathy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Cardiomyopathy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Overview of Abnormal Heart Rhythms My46 Trait Profile Orphanet: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Orphanet: Familial isolated ...

  16. A Case of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mimicking Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy; Demonstration of Typical Echocardiographic Finding Correlated with Unusual Distribution of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sung Kyun; Jin, Seon-Ah; Park, Yong Kyu; Park, Jae-Hyeong

    2010-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCMP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. Because of sharing many common clinical features with SCMP, acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can be misdiagnosed as SCMP. However, it can be associated with fatal outcome of the patient. Also, diagnosis of SCMP seems to be always challenging to clinicians, especially in the decision of taking coronary angiography which is still invasive ...

  17. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl and rest {sup 123}I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise {sup 201}Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed {sup 201}Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p<0.01, McNemar symmetry test). Such disparity between {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise {sup 201}Tl defects (p<0.001). Our results indicate that exercise-induced myocardial ischemia exists in HCM, resulting in metabolic abnormalities. The combination of {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  18. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Ha, J.-W. [Cardiology Division, Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H. [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). The serum NA level also showed no statistical difference until 4 weeks and was significantly increased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). MIBG uptake was decreased in the 6- and 8-week groups (P<0.05), and was closely correlated with the reduction in the number of nerve fibres on PGP 9.5 stain. Myocyte damage was seen only in the 8-week group. Neuronal population and the {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the

  19. DNA content determination of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by clastogens and spindle poisons in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J.; Amneus, H. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Zetterberg, G. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed.

  20. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise 201 Tl and rest 123 I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise 201 Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed 201 Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise 201 Tl defects (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  2. [Using L-carnitine to improve the adaptation of young athletes to physical load and the correction of stress-induced cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykova, L A; Shirokova, A A; Soldatov, O M; Shchekina, N V; Urziaeva, A N

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of L-carnitine action and ergogenic pleiotropic effects of drugs, which play important role in sports medicine are described. Results of a comparative, parallel-group randomized clinical trial of L-carnitine (Elkar, PikFarma) in young athletes (football players, walkers) are reported. Elkar increases the body adaptation to physical stress and has a pronounced therapeutic effect in athletes with stress-induced cardiomyopathy by reducing the representation of potentially dangerous arrhythmia (sinus bradycardia less than 2 - 5 centile, 2nd degree atrioventricular block type II, T-wave inversion in more than 2 leads, and/or ST segment depression) and severity of benign ECG disturbances and hemodynamic changes, and decreasing the concentration of biochemical markers of myocardial damage (troponin, natriuretic peptide, creatine phosphokinase MB fraction) and cortisol. In general, Elkar contributed to a significant reduction in symptoms of cardiac remodeling in 75% of patients and had a weak effect in 25% of patents. It is concluded that the use of Elkar in playing sports and sports coaching quality of endurance is appropriate, especially in terms of myocardial remodeling.

  3. Sex differences in cardiomyopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Sven; van der Meer, Peter; van Tintelen, J. Peter; van den Berg, Maarten P.

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases with a variety of specific phenotypes. According to the contemporary European Society of Cardiology classification, they are classified into hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC), restrictive

  4. Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Takotsubo (Stress) Cardiomyopathy Scott W. Sharkey , John R. Lesser , Barry ... heart contraction has returned to normal. Importance of Stress In 85% of cases, takotsubo is triggered by ...

  5. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  6. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...

  7. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  8. Mushroom Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dibek Misirlioglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. Best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 281-284

  9. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, McGuigan ...

  10. A blinded, randomized, controlled trial of three doses of high-dose insulin in poison-induced cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J B; Stellpflug, S J; Ellsworth, H; Anderson, C P; Adams, A B; Engebretsen, K M; Holger, J S

    2013-05-01

    High dose insulin (HDI) has proven superior to glucagon and catecholamines in the treatment of poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) in previous animal studies. Standard recommendations for dosing of insulin vary and the optimal dose of HDI in PICS has not been established. Our hypothesis was a dose of 10 U/kg/hr of HDI would be superior to 1 U/kg/hr with cardiac output (CO) as our primary outcome measure in pigs with propranolol-induced PICS. This was a blinded, prospective, randomized trial with 4 arms consisting of 4 pigs in each arm. The arms were as follows: placebo (P), 1 U/kg/hr (HDI-1), 5 U/kg/hr (HDI-5), and 10 U/kg/hr (HDI-10). Cardiogenic shock was induced with a bolus of 0.5 mg/kg of propranolol followed by an infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/min until the point of toxicity, defined as 0.75 x (HR x MAP) was reached. At this point the propranolol infusion was decreased to 0.125 mg/kg/min and a 20 mL/kg bolus of normal saline (NS) was administered. The protocol was continued for 6 hours or until the animals died. 2 pigs died in the P arm, 1 pig died each in the HDI-1 and HDI-5 arms, and all pigs lived in the HDI-10 arm. There was a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on CO of 1.13 L/min over the 6 hr study period (p = < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference in dose by time interaction on MAP, HR, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). No statistically significant difference was found between any of the arms regarding glucose utilization. HDI was statistically and clinically significantly superior to placebo in this propranolol model of PICS. Furthermore a dose response over time was found where CO increased corresponding to increases in doses of HDI.

  11. New perspectives in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Kofflard (Marcel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. Although relatively uncommon, the disease has been studied extensively as appears from the numerous studies that have explored specific facets of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review will focus

  12. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  13. Analysis of a survey database of pet food-induced poisoning in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Agnew, Dalen; Maxie, Grant; Hoff, Brent; Page, Connie; Curran, Paul; Powers, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Following the outbreak of pet food-induced nephrotoxicity in March 2007, a voluntary online survey of all AAVLD-accredited laboratories, commercial laboratories, and veterinary clinics across North America was conducted. There was no information on toxicity of melamine or factors affecting the disease outcome following exposure to melamine in pets. Data were collected from affected pets to learn about the disease outcome and the affected pet population. The web-based electronic survey used the online tool, Survey Monkey™. Data were collected between April 5 and October 31, 2007. Four hundred fifty-one cases of 586 reported cases met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Most reported cases were from California, Texas, Michigan, Florida, and Ontario. Of the 451 cases, 424 were reported as affected. Of these, 278 cases (65.6%) were cats and 146 (34.4%) were dogs. A total of 278 pets (171 cats and 107 dogs) were reported to have died (a ratio of 1.6:1). However, within species, there was a higher percentage of deceased dogs (73.3%) than cats (61.5%). Of the affected pet population, older male cats with preexisting disease conditions were more likely to be deceased. Analysis of the pets in this large database of naturally affected pets yielded interesting findings. It showed that more cats than dogs were affected and also that preexisting renal diseases and old age predicted the most severe outcome (death or euthanasia) than any other factors.

  14. Exercise Rehabilitation in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Somarriba, Gabriel; Extein, Jason; Miller, Tracie L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with cardiomyopathy carry significant risk of morbidity and mortality. New research and technology have brought about significant advancements to the diagnosis and clinical management of children with cardiomyopathy. However, currently heart transplantation remains the standard of care for children with symptomatic and progressive cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular rehabilitation programs have yielded success in improving cardiac function, overall physical activity, and quality of life i...

  15. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  16. Disfunção ventricular esquerda transitória por cardiomiopatia induzida por estresse Transient left ventricular dysfunction due to stress-induced cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Simões

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso de uma paciente de 71 anos que preencheu os critérios diagnósticos para cardiomiopatia induzida por estresse que foi desencadeada por intenso estresse emocional após atropelamento por bicicleta. O quadro clínico mimetizou o infarto agudo do miocárdio, manifestando-se com dor precordial, supradesnivelamento do segmento ST, seguido por ondas T profundas e prolongamento do intervalo QT, elevação discreta de enzimas cardíacas e cursando com disfunção sistólica apical do ventrículo esquerdo e hipercinesia das porções basais (conferindo o aspecto de "abaloamento apical", mas na ausência de obstrução coronariana subepicárdica. A função ventricular normalizou-se após a segunda semana de evolução.The case presented here is of a 71-yr-old female patient who met the diagnostic criteria for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, which was triggered by intense emotional stress after being hit by a bicycle. The clinical picture mimicked that of an acute myocardial infarction, manifesting as precordial pain, ST-segment depression followed by deep negative T waves and prolonging of the QT interval, slight increase in cardiac enzymes and coursing with transient apical ballooning of the left ventricle and hyperkinesis of the basal walls (conferring the aspect of "apical ballooning", although in the absence of subepicardial coronary obstruction. Ventricular function normalized after the second week of clinical evolution.

  17. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  18. HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY IN MULTIMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lakhonina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of diagnosis, difficulties in the diagnosis and optimal therapeutic strategies in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and comorbid conditions such as arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, stenosis of the left renal artery, obesity are reviewed on the example of clinical case. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy combined with multimorbidity conditions requires a high-quality medical management, where the main goal is to improve the quality and duration of patient's life. This goal is being achieved by optimizing patient's lifestyle and assigning only the minimum amount of medications. Necessity of careful diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, evaluation of the risk of sudden death and search of optimal treatment in patients with multimorbidity pathology are demonstrated in clinical case.

  19. Treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botoni, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Marinho, Carolina Coimbra; Lima, Marcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C

    2013-01-01

    Chagas' disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909. After a century of original description, trypanosomiasis still brings much misery to humanity and is classified as a neglected tropical disease prevalent in underdeveloped countries, particularly in South America. It is an increasing worldwide problem due to the number of cases in endemic areas and the migration of infected subjects to more developed regions, mainly North America and Europe. Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its social, clinical, and epidemiological importance, the therapeutic approach of CCC is still transposed from the knowledge acquired from other cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its peculiarities.

  20. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient can be found in: Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy , poison oak, ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  1. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  2. Cuticle remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Blue nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Shaving cream poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Hair bleach poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Black nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. A Case of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mimicking Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy; Demonstration of Typical Echocardiographic Finding Correlated with Unusual Distribution of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Kyun; Jin, Seon-Ah; Park, Yong Kyu; Park, Jae-Hyeong

    2010-09-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCMP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. Because of sharing many common clinical features with SCMP, acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can be misdiagnosed as SCMP. However, it can be associated with fatal outcome of the patient. Also, diagnosis of SCMP seems to be always challenging to clinicians, especially in the decision of taking coronary angiography which is still invasive and even risky. Here, we present a case with acute STEMI mimicking SCMP as a result of anatomical variation of coronary circulation. In this patient, prompt and early coronary angiography and stent implantation was very helpful.

  14. Preparation and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from green poison frogs, Dendrobates auratus, following hormonal induced spermiation (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Christian; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Meyer, Wilfried; Meinecke, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    Few ultrastructural studies have been performed on members of the Dendrobatidae, although such investigations can be useful for the understanding of reproductive patterns, as a diagnostic method for males in breeding programs for endangered amphibians and for phylogenetic analysis. The sperm ultrastructure of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus, from Panama is described following induced spermiation in living animals. To date only testicular spermatozoa in other dendrobatid frogs have been analysed. Moreover, an electron microscopic preparation method (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) for dendrobatid sperm cells in low concentration is presented. Sperm cells from stimulated frogs (100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, twice at an interval of 1h) were recovered via cloaca lavage using 600 microl isotonic phosphate-free amphibian saline (IPS). Centrifuged flushings (5 min, 173 x g) were deposited on microscopic slides. Adherent spermatozoa were treated with Karnovsky fixative (overnight, 4 degrees C). After postfixation (2h, 1% osmium tetroxide), samples were dehydrated in series of ascending acetones (30-100%). For transmission electron microscopy sperm cells were encapsulated using Epon and 1.5% 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (DMP 30). Ultrathin sections (70 nm) were cut and stained with uranyl acetate (30 min) and lead citrate (5 min). Sperm cells are filiform with a 21.1+/-2.7 microm long and arcuated head and a single tail (35.0+/-4.2 microm length). Their acrosomal complex is located at the anterior portion of the head and consists of the acrosomal vesicle which has low electron density, and the subjacent electron-dense subacrosomal cone. In transverse section, the nucleus is circular (1.9+/-0.2 microm diameter) and conical in longitudinal section. It is surrounded by several groups of mitochondria. The chromatin is highly condensed and electron-dense but shows numerous electron-lucent inclusions. A short midpiece has a

  15. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  16. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  17. Opposite effects of catalase and MnSOD ectopic expression on stress induced defects and mortality in the desmin deficient cardiomyopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Kleopatra; Diokmetzidou, Antigoni; Kloukina, Ismini; Milner, Derek J; Varela, Aimilia; Davos, Constantinos H; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked strongly to cell death and cardiac remodeling processes, all hallmarks of heart failure. Mice deficient for desmin (des-/-), the major muscle specific intermediate filament protein, develop dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure characterized by mitochondrial defects and cardiomyocyte death. The cellular and biochemical alterations in the hearts of these mice strongly suggest that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of the phenotype. Recently, we showed that indeed the desmin deficient cardiomyocytes are under increased oxidative stress. In order to verify these findings in vivo, we generated transgenic animals overexpressing SOD2 (MnSOD) and/or catalase in the heart and crossed them with des-/- mice, thus allowing us to evaluate the contribution of oxidative injury in inherited cardiomyopathies, as well as the therapeutic potential of antioxidant strategies. Moderate MnSOD and/or catalase overexpression in des-/- hearts leads to a marked decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), ameliorates mitochondrial and other ultrastructural defects, minimizes myocardial degeneration and leads to a significant improvement of cardiac function. Importantly, catalase overexpression increased the 50% survival rate of des-/- mice in an obligatory exercise to 100%. In contrast, MnSOD overexpression enhanced the lethality of des-/- mice, underscoring the importance of a fine balanced cellular redox status. Overall, the present study supports the contribution of oxidative stress in the development of des-/- cardiomyopathy and points to a well-considered antioxidant treatment as therapeutic for cardiomyopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  19. Disruption of Intracellular ATP Generation and Tight Junction Protein Expression during the Course of Brain Edema Induced by Subacute Poisoning of 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore changes in intracellular ATP generation and tight junction protein expression during the course of brain edema induced by subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE. Mice were exposed to 1.2 g/m3 1,2-DCE for 3.5 h per day for 1, 2, or 3 days, namely group A, B, and C. Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activity, ATP and lactic acid content, intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and ZO-1 and occludin expression in the brain were measured. Results of present study disclosed that Ca2+-ATPase activities in group B and C, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in group C decreased, whereas intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations in group B and C increased significantly compared with control. Moreover, ATP content decreased, whereas lactic acid content increased significantly in group C compared with control. On the other hand, expressions of ZO-1 and occludin at both the protein and gene levels in group B and C decreased significantly compared with control. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that calcium overload and depressed expression of tight junction associated proteins, such as ZO-1 and occludin might play an important role in the early phase of brain edema formation induced by subacute poisoning of 1,2-DCE.

  20. Cardiomyopathy in Vici syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... The syndrome was first described in 1988, in two brothers with ACC, bilateral cataracts, ... syndrome with brain anomalies, cardiomyopathy, and severe intellectual disability. Case Reports in Genetics 2011, Volume 2011. [6] Finocchi A, Angelino G, Cantarutti N, Corbari M, Bevivino E, Cascioli S, et al.

  1. Cardiomyopathy Following Latrodectus Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latrodectus envenomations are common throughout the United States and the world. While many envenomations can result in catecholamine release with resultant hypertension and tachycardia, myocarditis is very rare. We describe a case of a 22- year-old male who sustained a Latrodectus envenomation complicated by cardiomyopathy. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:521-523.

  2. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be donated to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. iGive.com - Online Shopping Joing iGive.com to earn money for the ... it works, check out the iGive website . AmazonSmile - Online Shopping Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price ...

  3. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  4. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  5. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Venous Air Embolism During Craniotomy in the Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimann, Florian; Senft, Christian; Honold, Jörg; Zacharowski, Kai; Seifert, Volker; Mersmann, Jan

    2017-11-01

    We present a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) caused by a venous air embolism during a craniotomy performed in the sitting position. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the neurosurgical department and scheduled for elective resection of a cerebellar metastasis in the sitting position. After craniotomy and opening of the posterior fossa, a venous air embolism was detected via transesophageal echocardiography. The patient immediately presented with cardiac decompensation with signs of takotsubo or stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Intensivists and anesthesiologists in the operating room and in intensive care units need to be aware of stress-induced cardiomyopathy as a probably underdiagnosed disease entity, especially as management differs significantly from other forms of cardiogenic shock. Diagnosis can be accomplished quickly by bedside echocardiography, emphasizing the need for availability of this tool and the integration of stress-induced cardiomyopathy in diagnostic algorithms in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  7. Major determinant of the occurrence of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy in complete atrioventricular block: a multicentre, retrospective analysis over a 15-year period in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Kang, Ki-Woon; Chin, Jung Yeon; Kim, Tae-Seok; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Choi, Yu Jeong

    2018-02-08

    The predictors of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) for complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the major determinant of the occurrence of PICM. This is a multicentre, retrospective analysis of CAVB from tertiary referral centres in Daejeon, South Korea. A cohort of 900 consecutive patients with an implanted pacemaker was collected from December 2001 to August 2015. Of these, a total of 130 patients with CAVB with pacing-dependent rhythm who underwent ECG and echocardiogram before and after implantation were analysed for the occurrence of PICM. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the determinant of PICM by ECG, device parameters and echocardiogram over a mean of 4.5 years. PICM was observed in 16.1% (n=21) of all patients with CAVB (age, 64±11 years; male, 36.2%). The preimplant left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (66%±9% vs 66%±8%) and non-apical pacing (40.4% vs 33.3%) were similar; however, the native QRS duration (124±34 ms vs 149±32 ms) and the paced QRS duration (pQRSd) (139±29 ms vs 167±28 ms) were significantly different between the two groups. The postimplant LV ejection fraction (61%±7% vs 31%±8%) was also significantly different at the end of follow-up. A pQRSd significantly correlated with PICM (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09, P=0.001). A pQRSd with a cut-off value of above 140 ms had a sensitivity of 95% while a pQRSd with a cut-off value of above 167 ms had a specificity of 90% for PICM. In patients with CAVB with pacing-dependent rhythm, regardless of the pacing site, the pQRSd is a major determinant of the occurrence of PICM. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  9. Takotsubo (Stress Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J Hourmozdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department in shock from pneumonia. The patient was initially afebrile, pulse rate 120 beats per minute, blood pressure 117/69 mmHg, respiratory rate 42 breaths per minute, pulse oximetry 94% on a non-rebreather mask and a lactate of 14 mmol/L. He became progressively more hypotensive despite fluid resuscitation and was started on norepinephrine. Shortly after, the patient developed torsades de pointes that was terminated with intravenous push magnesium. His initial ECG had shown sinus tachycardia; however, repeat ECG showed ST-segment elevation in the inferolateral leads and the patient had troponin I elevation that peaked at 16 ng/mL. Significant findings: Bedside echocardiography showed the findings consistent with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Echocardiographic images are shown in subxiphoid (A and apical four chamber (B views. Note the apical ballooning appearance (asterisk of the left ventricle (LV. Discussion: Formal echocardiography confirmed features classic for Takotsubo (stress cardiomyopathy, including globally depressed left ventricle (LV ejection fraction, systolic apical ballooning appearance of the LV, mid and apical segments of LV depression, and hyper kinesis of the basal walls. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome known to cause ST-segment elevation on ECG, transient LV dysfunction, and dysrhythmia in the absence of acute obstructive coronary disease. There is no consensus on diagnostic criteria; however, these criteria are commonly used: 1 transient hypokinesis, akinesis, or dyskinesis in the LV mid-segments with or without apical involvement; regional wall motion abnormalities that extend beyond a single epicardial vascular distribution; and frequently, but not always, a stressful trigger 2 the absence of acute coronary disease or angiographic evidence of acute plaque rupture 3 new ECG abnormalities (ST-segment elevation and/or T-wave inversion or modest

  10. Reversible ischaemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, H.; Fong, W.; Stafford, W.; Frenneaux, M.

    1995-01-01

    Atypical and typical chest pains are common symptoms in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some of these chest pains seem to be caused by ischaemia. It is difficult to objectively demonstrate ischaemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The first line treatment for chest pain considered to be ischaemic in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the use of either a beta blocker or calcium blocker. Septal myectomy can be effective in patients with symptoms refractory to conventional t...

  11. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on aluminum phosphide-induced oxidative stress in acute human poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Hiva; Halvaie, Zahra; Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas (PH₃). PH₃ is a mitochondrial poison which inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, it leads to generation of reactive oxygen species; so one of the most important suggested mechanisms for its toxicity is induction of oxidative stress. In this regard, it could be proposed that a drug like N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant would improve the tolerance of aluminum phosphide-intoxicated cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of NAC on acute aluminum phosphide poisoning. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled open-label trial. All patients received the same supportive treatments. NAC treatment group also received NAC. The blood thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as a marker of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of plasma were analyzed. Mean ingested dose of aluminum phosphide in NAC treatment and control groups was 4.8 ± 0.9 g vs. 5.4 ± 3.3 g, respectively (p = 0.41). Significant increase in plasma malonyldialdehyde level in control group was observed (139 ± 28.2 vs. 149.6 ± 35.2 μmol/L, p = 0.02). NAC infusion in NAC treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde level (195.7 ± 67.4 vs. 174.6 ± 48.9 μmol/L, p = 0.03), duration of hospitalization (2.7 ± 1.8 days vs. 8.5 ± 8.2 days, p = 0.02), rate of intubation and ventilation (45.4% vs. 73.3%, p = 0.04). Mortality rate in NAC treatment and control groups were 36% and 60%, respectively with odds ratio 2.6 (0.7-10.1, 95% CI). NAC may have a therapeutic effect in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

  12. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Brian A; Stevens, Gerin R

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a global disease with cases reported in all continents, affecting people of both genders and of various racial and ethnic origins. Widely accepted as a monogenic disease caused by a mutation in 1 of 13 or more sarcomeric genes, HCM can present catastrophically with sudden cardiac death (SCD) or ventricular arrhythmias or insidiously with symptoms of heart failure. Given the velocity of progress in both the fields of heart failure and HCM, we present a revi...

  13. MRI of the cardiomyopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it

    2001-06-01

    We examined the potentialities of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the main cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive and arrhythmogenic right ventricular. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is generally adequately investigated by echocardiography, that well defines the myocardial thickening and the obstruction of the left ventricular output. However, by echocardiography we still have difficulties in the evaluation of the apex of the left ventricle and the right ventricle involvement. MRI provides a complete evaluation of the heart with a clear evidence also of the echocardiographic dark zones by means of a clear evidence of the apex of the right ventricle. The dilated form is also well investigated by MRI that provides a clear evaluation of the volumes, mass and ejection fraction by means of the 3D analysis including conditions of the ventricular remodelling. Moreover, this technique helps in the differential diagnosis of acute myocarditis. In the acute phase of myocarditis (first 2 weeks), in fact, the myocardium produces high signal intensity on the T2 weighted sequences due to the presence of oedema. The third form of cardiomyopathy is the restrictive one, characterised by reduced diastolic filling and diastolic volume, normality of the systolic function and parietal thickness, interstitial fibrosis and enlargement of both atria. The mean potentiality of MRI is related to the differential diagnosis with constrictive pericarditis. Only in the former, the pericardium appears irregularly thickened with areas exceeding 4 mm of pericardial thickness. Finally, the right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy represents the main indication to MRI evaluation. With this imaging modality we are can obtain a clear morpho-functional evaluation of the right ventricle and distinguish the intramyocardial adipose substitution characterised by areas of high signal in the myocardium.

  14. MRI of the cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    We examined the potentialities of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the main cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive and arrhythmogenic right ventricular. The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is generally adequately investigated by echocardiography, that well defines the myocardial thickening and the obstruction of the left ventricular output. However, by echocardiography we still have difficulties in the evaluation of the apex of the left ventricle and the right ventricle involvement. MRI provides a complete evaluation of the heart with a clear evidence also of the echocardiographic dark zones by means of a clear evidence of the apex of the right ventricle. The dilated form is also well investigated by MRI that provides a clear evaluation of the volumes, mass and ejection fraction by means of the 3D analysis including conditions of the ventricular remodelling. Moreover, this technique helps in the differential diagnosis of acute myocarditis. In the acute phase of myocarditis (first 2 weeks), in fact, the myocardium produces high signal intensity on the T2 weighted sequences due to the presence of oedema. The third form of cardiomyopathy is the restrictive one, characterised by reduced diastolic filling and diastolic volume, normality of the systolic function and parietal thickness, interstitial fibrosis and enlargement of both atria. The mean potentiality of MRI is related to the differential diagnosis with constrictive pericarditis. Only in the former, the pericardium appears irregularly thickened with areas exceeding 4 mm of pericardial thickness. Finally, the right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy represents the main indication to MRI evaluation. With this imaging modality we are can obtain a clear morpho-functional evaluation of the right ventricle and distinguish the intramyocardial adipose substitution characterised by areas of high signal in the myocardium

  15. Hypoxia-Targeted Drug Q6 Induces G2-M Arrest and Apoptosis via Poisoning Topoisomerase II under Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chang

    Full Text Available In spite of the tremendous efforts dedicated to developing hypoxia-activated prodrugs, no agents yet have been approved for clinical therapy. In the present study, the hypoxic selective anti-cancer activity as well as the cellular target of a novel tirapazamine (TPZ analogue, 7-methyl-3-(3-chlorophenyl-quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (Q6 were investigated. Q6 implemented anti-cancer effects via poisoning topoisomerase II (topo II under hypoxia. Modified trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining (TARDIS assay showed more topo II-DNA cleavage complexes trapped by Q6 than TPZ at even lower concentration. In addition, by introducing ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM kinase inhibitors caffeine and KU-60019, we displayed that Q6-triggered apoptosis was attributed, at least partially, to DNA double-strand breaks generated by the topo II-targeting effect. Collectively, Q6 stood out for its better hypoxia-selectivity and topo II-poisoning than the parental compound TPZ. All these data shed light on the research of Q6 as a promising hypoxia-activated prodrug candidate for human hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  16. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  17. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  18. NPRL-Z-1, as a new topoisomerase II poison, induces cell apoptosis and ROS generation in human renal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-01-01

    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4"-benzamido)-amino]-4'-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)-DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma.

  19. New perspectives in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kofflard, Marcel

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. Although relatively uncommon, the disease has been studied extensively as appears from the numerous studies that have explored specific facets of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review will focus on the anatomic abnormalities, the prevalence, symptoms and clinical outcome, therapeutic interventions and genetic mutations responsible for the disease.

  20. Cardiomyopathy in the pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a group of myocardial diseases with complex taxonomies. Cardiomyopathy can occur in children at any age, and it is a common cause of heart failure and heart transplantation in children. The incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy is increasing with time. They may be associated with variable comorbidities, which are most often arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden death. Medical imaging technologies, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, and nuclear cardiology, are helpful in reaching a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, endomyocardial biopsy is the final diagnostic method of diagnosis. Patients warrant surgical operations, such as palliative operations, bridging operations, ventricular septal maneuvers, and heart transplantation, if pharmaceutical therapies are ineffective. Individual therapeutic regimens due to pediatric characteristics, genetic factors, and pathogenesis may improve the effects of treatment and patients' survival. Key Words: cardiomyopathy, classification, pediatrics

  1. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  2. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  3. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  4. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  5. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  6. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  8. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  9. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patient with the pathogenic variant p.Val698Ala in beta-myosin heavy chain (MYH7 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Barratt Ross

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs isolated from the whole blood of a 43-year-old male with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM who carries the pathogenic variant p.Val698Ala in beta-myosin heavy chain (MYH7. Patient-derived PBMCs were reprogrammed using non-integrative episomal vectors containing reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, KLF4 and L-MYC. iPSCs were shown to express pluripotent markers, have trilineage differentiation potential, carry the pathogenic MYH7 variant p.Val698Ala, have a normal karyotype and no longer carry the episomal reprogramming vector. This line is useful for studying the link between variants in MYH7 and the pathogenesis of HCM.

  10. ACE I/D polymorphism in Indian patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Dhandapany, Perundurai Subramaniam; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)....

  11. Peripartum cardiomyopathy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Anne S; Johansen, Marianne; Damm, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and searched for cardiomyopathy and heart failure ICD-10 diagnoses in a period of nine months before to 12 months after a delivery from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014. Diagnoses were validated and additional data were extracted from patient charts. A total of 61 women met the inclusion criteria...... equalling 1 in 10 149 deliveries. The majority recovered left ventricular systolic function within one year, but 14.8% suffered a major adverse event with 3.3% mortality, 8.2% mechanical circulatory support requirement and/or heart transplantation and 4.9% persistent severe heart failure. Half of the women...

  12. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Human poisoning with chemicals, including drugs, is emotive because of the real possibility that it often culminates in death. In acute poisoning, clinical symptoms such as vomiting, delirium, diarrhoea, convulsions, et cetera, are very dramatic, yet the onlookers with no medical background can only watch helplessly as the ...

  13. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  14. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  15. The effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on aluminum phosphide poisoning inducing cardiovascular toxicity: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Mahdi; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Hajihosseini, Morteza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a very effective indoor and outdoor pesticide. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the survival time, hemodynamics, and cardiac biochemical parameters at various time intervals in some cases of AlP poisoning. This research was a case-control study to evaluate 63 AlP poisoned patients during 2010-2012. Patients with cardiovascular complications of AlP to be treated with intravenous NAC plus conventional treatment were considered as the case group and compared with patients who did not receive NAC. NAC infusion was administered to the case group at 300 mg/kg for 20 h. The data gathered included age, sex, heart rate, Systolic blood pressure (SBP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), and ECG at the admission time and 12, 18, and 24 h after admission. Analysis of repeated measures was performed to check the variability of parameters over time. The mean ages in the case and control groups were 26.65 ± 1.06 (19-37 years) and 28.39 ± 1.11 (18-37 years), respectively (P = 0.266). Most of the patients were female (56.5%). CK-MB means were significantly different between the two groups, but no differences between the other variables were observed. Also, CK-MB, CPK, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure means became significantly different over time (0, 12, 18, and 24 h) in both groups (P < 0.001). NAC prevented sharp heart rate fluctuations in AlP patients in the case group. Regarding the outcomes, 17 patients died (10 patients in the control and 7 patients in the case groups). No side-effects of NAC were observed. Our patients could be managed by the positive role of NAC as the biochemical index of cardiotoxicity was found to elevate in both the case and control groups. Therefore, for the management protocol optimization, NAC evaluation should be done in further cases.

  16. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Nadia; Dietrich, Jennifer; Nyhan, Daniel; Mitter, Nanhi; Yee, May-Sann; Brady, MaryBeth

    2015-03-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively common disorder that anesthesiologists encounter among patients in the perioperative period. Fifty years ago, HCM was thought to be an obscure disease. Today, however, our understanding and ability to diagnose patients with HCM have improved dramatically. Patients with HCM have genotypic and phenotypic variability. Indeed, a subgroup of these patients exhibits the HCM genotype but not the phenotype (left ventricular hypertrophy). There are a number of treatment modalities for these patients, including pharmacotherapy to control symptoms, implantable cardiac defibrillators to manage malignant arrhythmias, and surgical myectomy and septal ablation to decrease the left ventricular outflow obstruction. Accurate diagnosis is vital for the perioperative management of these patients. Diagnosis is most often made using echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular outflow tract gradients, systolic and diastolic function, and mitral valve anatomy and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging also has a diagnostic role by determining the extent and location of left ventricular hypertrophy and the anatomic abnormalities of the mitral valve and papillary muscles. In this review on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for the noncardiac anesthesiologist, we discuss the clinical presentation and genetic mutations associated with HCM, the critical role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and the assessment of surgical interventions, and the perioperative management of patients with HCM undergoing noncardiac surgery and management of the parturient with HCM.

  17. Microfibrillar cardiomyopathy: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfibrillar cardiomyopathy is a very rare cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM. The index case was a male patient who presented with shortness of breath and pedal edema. Further clinical investigations favored a clinical diagnosis of RCM. An endomyocardial biopsy revealed subendocardial and interstitial hyaline eosinophillic material resembling amyloid that did not stain with Congo red. An electron microscopic examination showed that this material was composed of twisted linear and bundles of tangled microfibrils. The etiology of the microfibrillar deposition is currently unknown. The pathologists should entertain the diagnosis of microfibrillar cardiomyopathy in suspected cases of amyloidosis that are negative for Congo red.

  18. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  19. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  20. [Congestive cardiomyopathy in addiction to clobenzorex, an anorexigenic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaert, P; Camblin, J; Graux, P; Anaye, B; Dutoit, A; Croccel, L

    1986-04-01

    Cardiac failure caused by high doses of amphetamine-like drugs is rare. We report a case of decompensated congestive cardiomyopathy occurring in a 29 year old woman addicted to clobenzorex (Dinintel). This patient had been taking 5 to 7 capsules per day for 5 years. No other cause of cardiac failure was detected. A rapid improvement was obtained by digitalis and diuretic therapy; no further episodes of cardiac failure were observed after one year. However, the drug could not be completely withdrawn and echocardiography has shown increasing left ventricular dilatation. The possible mechanisms of amphetamine induced myocardial toxicity are discussed and the analogy with the group of adrenergic cardiomyopathies is underlined.

  1. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after a dancing session: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaballo, Mohammed A; Yousif, Abdelazim; Abdelrazig, Awadalla M; Ibrahim, Ammar A; Hennessy, Terence G

    2011-10-31

    Stress-induced (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy which presents in a manner similar to that of acute coronary syndrome. This sometimes leads to unnecessary thrombolysis therapy. The pathogenesis of this disease is still poorly understood. We believe that reporting all cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy will contribute to a better understanding of this disease. Here, we report a patient who, in the absence of any recent stressful events in her life, developed the disease after a session of dancing. A 69-year-old Caucasian woman presented with features suggestive of acute coronary syndrome shortly after a session of dancing. Echocardiography and a coronary angiogram showed typical features of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and our patient was treated accordingly. Eight weeks later, her condition resolved completely and the results of echocardiography were totally normal. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, though transient, is a rare and serious condition. Although it is commonly precipitated by stressful life events, these are not necessarily present. Our patient was enjoying one of her hobbies (that is, dancing) when she developed the disease. This case has particular interest in medicine, especially for the specialties of cardiology and emergency medicine. We hope that it will add more information to the literature about this rare condition.

  2. Genetics of cardiomyopathies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vatta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the heart muscle leading to heart failure and/or an increased risk of arrhythmogenic sudden cardiac death. These disorders represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In childhood forms of cardiomyopathy, genetic etiologies are frequent, but non-genetic or acquired causes, such viral infection, also play a significant role. In the last twenty years, the genetic causes of cardiomyopathies have been increasingly identified and clinical correlations are beginning to be defined. Here we present an overview of the recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of cardiomyopathies in children and what is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these gene-related forms of disease.

  3. New insights into cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Hove, Jens D; Dixen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy designates a cardiac dysfunction, which includes reduced cardiac contractility with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and presence of electrophysiological abnormalities in particular prolongation of the QT interval. Several pathophysiological mechanisms including reduced...... beta-receptor function seem involved in the autonomic and cardiac dysfunction. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be revealed by tissue Doppler imaging but is best demasked by physical or pharmacological stress. Liver transplantation may revert cardiac dysfunction but surgery and shunt insertion may also...

  4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Roopali; Oade, Yvette

    2011-08-24

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disease of the heart muscle that causes ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in young people and athletes. It results in fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle, and the subepicardial region of the left ventricle. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people after hypertrophic heart disease. Diagnosis can be difficult and at present there is no cure for ARVC. Prevention of sudden death is the most important management strategy. Paediatricians need to be aware of the possibility of ARVC in adolescents and young adults presenting with palpitations, fatigue, syncope or cardiac arrest. The authors present two cases of apparently healthy teenage boys who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem examination of the myocardium was strongly suggestive of ARVC in both cases.

  5. [Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchmer-Krivitzky, S; Espinosa-Fernández, R; Sánchez-Aranda, A; LópezRioja, M J; Monzalbo-Núñez, D

    2016-08-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy also known as cardiomyopathy associated with pregnancy, is rarely a cause of heart failure, it affects pregnant or puerperal women in the first 5 months. Although the first case reported was in 1849, it was recognized until 1930. In 2010 the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripartum cardiomyopathy, defined this pathology as an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that affects pregnant women between the third trimester and five months after delivery. Characterized by a left ventricular failure with an ejection fraction of ≤45% and an end-diastolic dimension ≥2.7 cm/m2 , in absence of an identifiable cause of heart failure. We report a case of a 39-year-old patient, diagnosed with a peripartum cardiomyopathy in the early puerperium, characterized by hypertension, tachycardia, dyspnea and oxygen desaturation. The transesophageal echocardiogram reported heart failure, a hypokinetic left ventricle and a ventricular failure with an ejection fraction <40%. We could not identify an other cause to justify heart failure. Multidisciplinary management was administered successfully. The importance of this article relies in the fact that eripartum cardiomyopathy has a high morbidity and mortality. The impact of this pathology is unknow in our country. Here we establish and discuss the multidisciplinary management held in our hospital with this specific patient in order to improve the prognosis on future occasions.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Leontyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common form of cardiomyopathy, occurring in childhood, occurring when a gene is mutated that encodes proteins of sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric complexes. The diagnosis of the disease is based on the data of echocardiography, revealing structural changes in the heart muscle according to the type of hypertrophy, while the genesis of these changes remains unclear. The causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood are diverse. Of great importance is the early diagnosis of metabolic forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, so in some cases regress of hypertrophy is possible against the background of enzyme-substitution or other drug therapy. The article presents a clinical (cardiac and extracardiac symptoms and laboratory markers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations of genes of proteins of the sarcomeric complex, congenital metabolic disorders (glycogenoses, lysosomal pathology, fatty acid metabolism disorders, and mitochondrial diseases, genetic syndromes (Noonan, LEOPARD, Costello, cardio-fascial-cutaneous, neuromuscular diseases. The criteria for differential diagnosis of genetic forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocardial hypertrophy in athletes are presented. 

  7. Comparison of Valsalva manoeuvre and exercise in echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Krogh; Havndrup, Ole; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    Several methods are used to induce latent left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We compared LVOT gradients induced by Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) and exercise echocardiography (EE) in patients with HCM treated with percutaneous transluminal...

  8. Recurrent Stress Cardiomyopathy During COPD Exacerbation: Are Beta-adrenergic Agonists Only to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsa, Ioanna; Christia, Panagiota; Massera, Daniele; Faillace, Robert

    2017-04-14

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a variant of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction that may be associated with emotional or physical triggers. We present the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian female with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who presented with syncope and was found to have her second lifetime episode of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Eight months prior, she had been admitted with a COPD exacerbation and was found to have left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with ejection fraction (EF) of 22% attributed to TCM with subsequent normalization of her left ventricular function. Recurrence of stress-induced cardiomyopathy associated with COPD is a rare phenomenon and its presentation raises the possibility of a common underlying mechanism.

  9. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Gales, V.

    1992-12-31

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.

  10. Risk of Cardiomyopathy in Younger Persons With a Family History of Death from Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (<50 years) aggregates in families at the populat......BACKGROUND: Recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (families...... at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (... ascertained family history of premature (

  11. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  12. One man's poison is another man's meat: using azithromycin-induced phospholipidosis to promote ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R; Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A

    2014-06-05

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a common adverse effect which has led to the termination of clinical trials for many candidate pharmaceuticals. However, this lipid-inducing effect may be beneficial in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the major cause of dry eye disease (DED), which affects 40 million people in the USA and has no cure. Azithromycin (AZM) is a PLD-inducing antibiotic that is used off-label to treat MGD, and is presumably effective because it suppresses the MGD-associated conjunctival inflammation (i.e. posterior blepharitis) and growth of lid bacteria. We hypothesize that AZM can act directly to promote the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells by inducing PLD in these cells, characterized by the accumulation of lipids and lysosomes. Immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGEC) were cultured with or without azithromycin for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol (Filipin) and neutral lipid (LipidTox) staining, as well as the appearance of lysosomes (LysoTracker) and lamellar bodies (transmission electron microscopy, TEM). The lipid composition of cellular lysates was analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography. Our findings demonstrate that AZM stimulates the accumulation of free cholesterol, neutral lipids and lysosomes in HMGEC. This AZM-induced increase of neutral lipid content occurred predominantly within lysosomes. Many of these vesicles appeared to be lamellar bodies by TEM, which is the characteristic of PLD. Our findings also show that AZM promotes an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, as well as phospholipids in HMGECimmortalized. Our results support our hypothesis and confirm the beneficial effect of PLD induced by AZM on HMGEC. Our discovery reveals a new potential use of PLD-inducing drugs, and makes this adverse effect a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  14. Oxaliplatin-induced acquired long QT syndrome with torsades de pointes and myocardial injury in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei-Yeuh Chang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman presented with a history of dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure since 2003, who subsequently developed lower rectal cancer (adenocarcinoma with liver, bone, and lymph node metastasis. Abdominoperineal resection and hepatectomy were performed. The patient received two rounds of intravenous chemotherapy, including 12 and six courses of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; 85 mg/m2 per cycle. She underwent a third round of intravenous FOLFOX4 because of tumor progression. During the 21st course of FOLFOX4 regimen, the patient developed ST segment depression in lead II and prolongation of QT interval with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes right after the start of oxaliplatin infusion. Immediate defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were administered, and the patient regained spontaneous circulation and consciousness. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in III, aVF, and ST segment depression in V4–6 after resuscitation. To our knowledge, prolongation of QT interval with torsades de pointes and coronary spasm with myocardial injury that were stabilized in one patient following oxaliplatin infusion has not been reported. We present a patient with these rare complications.

  15. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Osiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP is a relatively common disease with genetic predisposition, that is widely spread irrespective of gender, race or ethnicity. The cause of this pathology are mutations of genes encoding synthesis of contracting proteins. Degree and type of mutations define clinical manifestation of the disease and its prognosis. HCMP is classified according to four main criteria: depending on morphology, presence of left ventricular outlet obstruction, pressure gradient and hemodynamic parameters. Its prevalence amounts to 1:500, and in the recent years mortality has decreased significantly to 1%. Main symptoms of HCMP include dyspnoea, dizziness, syncope, angina, and heart arrhythmias. HCMP does not manifest obligatorily with all above mentioned signs and symptoms. Presence and severity of any symptoms depend on morphological particulars of the disease. Particular attention should be paid to arrhythmias, with atrial fibrillation among them, that may cause hazardous and occasionally lethal complications. Electrocardiography and echocardiography are recognized as the “golden standard” of HCMP diagnostics, while in the recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has become a highly informative diagnostic tool. Radionuclide diagnostics is used less frequently, while physical examination and assessments have been moving backwards. At present, main strategies in HCMP include medical treatment with β-blockers, calcium antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and anti-arrhythmics. There are two techniques for surgical treatment, i.e. myectomy by Morrow and alcohol septal ablation that is becoming increasingly popular. The article reviews literature on state-of-the-art diagnostics and treatment of HCMP patients.

  16. Peripartum cardiomyopathy - case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gowri Sayi; Bhupali, Ashok; Prasad, Sayi; Patil, Ajit N; Deka, Yashodhan

    2014-01-01

    To study the pattern of presentation, course of disease and outcome of pregnancy in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. A prospective study of sixteen cases of PPCM was conducted at Apple Saraswati Multispecialty Hospital and Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India from January 2006 to December 2012. Data included age distribution, parity, gestational age, symptoms and risk factors. Medical management and pregnancy outcome were documented. Serial echocardiography data was compiled for a period of one year. In our study 9/16 (56%) were primigravidae, 4/16 (25%) had pre-eclamsia and 6/16 (35%) had co-existing hypertension. The difference in Echocardiography parameters observed between recovered and non-recovered patients was significant: Left Ventricular End diastolic dimension (5.6 cm vs 6.06 cm), Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (28.7% vs 22.4%) and Left Ventricular fractional shortening (17.5% vs 13.4%). Thirteen out of sixteen patients were followed up for a period of one year out of which 61% (8/13) patients recovered completely. There was one mortality. PPCM is a diagnosis of exclusion. Majority were young primigravidae presenting postnatally. Pre-eclampsia and hypertension were risk factors. ECHO parameters were reliable predictors of recovery. Future pregnancies are better avoided. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  18. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  19. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  20. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...

  1. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  2. Heart transplantation for Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Ana Rita; Prieto, David; Antunes, Pedro; Franco, Fátima; Antunes, Manuel J

    2017-11-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic disease in Latin America that is increasingly found in non-endemic areas all over the world due to the flow of migrants from Central and South America. We present the case of a Brazilian immigrant in Portugal who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation for end-stage Chagas cardiomyopathy. Immunosuppressive therapy included prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Twelve months after the procedure she is asymptomatic, with good graft function, and with no evidence of complications such as graft rejection, opportunistic infections, neoplasms or reactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. By reporting the first case in Portugal of heart transplantation for Chagas cardiomyopathy, we aim to increase awareness of Chagas disease as an emerging global problem and of Chagas cardiomyopathy as a serious complication for which heart transplantation is a valuable therapeutic option. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1, a component of the human 19S proteasome, enhances mitotic apoptosis induced by spindle poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi Y; Gorbsky, Gary J

    2006-01-01

    Mitotic spindle poisons (e.g., Taxol and vinblastine), used as chemotherapy drugs, inhibit mitotic spindle function, activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint, arrest cells in mitosis, and then cause cell death by mechanisms that are poorly understood. By expression cloning, we identified a truncated version of human TRIP1 (also known as S8, hSug1), an AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family ATPase subunit of the 19S proteasome regulatory complex, as an enhancer of spindle poison-mediated apoptosis. Stable expression of the truncated TRIP1/S8/hSug1 in HeLa cells [OP-TRIP1(88-406)] resulted in a decrease of measurable cellular proteasome activity, indicating that OP-TRIP1(88-406) had a dominant-negative effect on proteasome function. OP-TRIP1(88-406) revealed an increased apoptotic response after treatment with spindle poisons or with proteasome inhibitors. The increased apoptosis coincided with a significant decrease in expression of BubR1, a kinase required for activation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle checkpoint in response to treatment with spindle poisons. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 resulted in a reduction of general proteasome activity and an increase in mitotic index. The siRNA treatment also caused increased cell death after spindle poison treatment. These results indicate that inhibition of TRIP1/S8/hSug1 function by expression of a truncated version of the protein or by siRNA-mediated suppression enhances cell death in response to spindle poison treatment. Current proteasome inhibitor drugs in trial as anticancer agents target elements of the 20S catalytic subcomplex. Our results suggest that targeting the ATPase subunits in 19S regulatory complex in the proteasome may enhance the antitumor effects of spindle poisons.

  4. Cell therapy in dilated cardiomyopathy: from animal models to clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. del Corsso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy can be the end-stage form and common denominator of several cardiac disorders of known cause, such as hypertensive, ischemic, diabetic and Chagasic diseases. However, some individuals have clinical findings, such as an increase in ventricular chamber size and impaired contractility (classical manifestations of dilated cardiomyopathy even in the absence of a diagnosed primary disease. In these patients, dilated cardiomyopathy is classified as idiopathic since its etiology is obscure. Nevertheless, regardless of all of the advances in medical, pharmacological and surgical procedures, the fate of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (of idiopathic or of any other known cause is linked to arrhythmic episodes, severe congestive heart failure and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. In this review, we will summarize present data on the use of cell therapies in animal models of dilated cardiomyopathies and will discuss the few clinical trials that have been published so far involving patients affected by this disease. The animal models discussed here include those in which the cardiomyopathy is produced by genetic manipulation and those in which disease is induced by chemical or infectious agents. The specific model used clearly creates restrictions to translation of the proposed cell therapy to clinical practice, insofar as most of the clinical trials performed to date with cell therapy have used autologous cells. Thus, translation of genetic models of dilated cardiomyopathy may have to wait until the use of allogeneic cells becomes more widespread in clinical trials of cell therapies for cardiac diseases.

  5. Determination of poisonous metals in wastewater collected from paint manufacturing plant using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M A; Hussain, T

    2007-01-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was developed for determination of toxic metals in wastewater collected from local paint manufacturing plant. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm on the solid residue from wastewater collected from paint industry. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like, lead, copper, chromium, calcium, sulphur, magnesium, zinc, titanium, strontium, nickel, silicone, iron, aluminum, barium, sodium, potassium and zirconium, in paint wastewater were 6, 3, 4, 301, 72, 200, 20, 42, 4, 1, 35, 120, 133, 119, 173, 28 and 12mg kg(-1), respectively. The evaluation of potential and capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for paint industry effluent characterization is discussed in detail. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of our LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). The relative accuracy of our LIBS system for various elements as compared with ICP method is in the range of 0.03-0.6 at 2.5% error confidence. Limits of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements.

  6. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...... and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein-heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces...... of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants....

  7. The role of fluorescence polarization immuno-assay in the diagnosis of plant-induced cardiac glycoside poisoning livestock in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Schultz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning with cardiac glycoside-containing plants is collectively the most important plant-associated poisoning of livestock in southern Africa. As a diagnosis of this significant poisoning is currently based on circumstantial evidence, a practical chemical procedure indicating the presence of cardiac glycosides in plants and animal specimens would be of considerable benefit. The fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA method, used to determine digoxin plasma levels in humans and dogs, was adapted to estimate cardiac glycoside levels in known cardiac-glycoside- containing plants as well as in the rumen and organs of dosed sheep. Positive FPIA values were obtained with bufadienolide-containing plants, while negative results were obtained with plants not known to contain cardiac glycosides. The FPIA has aided in the diagnosis of cardiac glycoside poisoning in livestock and game in 30 outbreaks examined at the Division of Toxicology, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Each outbreak is briefly described. As a result of this assay, a better understanding of cardiac glycoside poisoning has been reached.

  8. Diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite in diethylene glycol poisoning inducing necrosis in human proximal tubule cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Martin, Sarah; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2011-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a solvent and chemical intermediate, can produce an acute toxic syndrome, the hallmark of which is acute renal failure due to cortical tubular degeneration and proximal tubular necrosis. DEG is metabolized to two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA), which are believed to be the proximate toxicants. The precise mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated, so these studies were designed to determine which metabolite was responsible for the proximal tubule cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells in culture, obtained from normal cortical tissue and passaged 3-6 times, were incubated with increasing concentrations of DEG, 2-HEAA, or DGA separately and in combination for 48 h at pH 6 or 7.4, and various parameters of necrotic and apoptotic cell death were measured. DEG and 2-HEAA did not produce any cell death. DGA produced dose-dependent necrosis at concentrations above 25 mmol/l. DGA did not affect caspase-3 activity and increased annexin V staining only in propidium iodide-stained cells. Hence, DGA induced necrosis, not apoptosis, as corroborated by severe depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. DGA is structurally similar to citric acid cycle intermediates that are taken up by specific transporters in kidney cells. HPT cells, incubated with N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, a sodium dicarboxylate-1 transporter inhibitor showed significantly decreased cell death compared with DGA alone. These studies demonstrate that DGA is the toxic metabolite responsible for DEG-induced proximal tubular necrosis and suggest a possible transporter-mediated uptake of DGA leading to toxic accumulation and cellular dysfunction.

  9. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A known unknown foe of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Ourania S; Douras, Alexandros; Makris, Demosthenes; Mpaka, Nikoleta; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2017-10-01

    Patients with uncontrolled asthma are at a greater risk of asthma attacks requiring emergency room visits or hospital admissions. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is potentially a significant complication in a course of status asthmaticus. We describe a 43-year-old female patient who presented with status asthmaticus that was further complicated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Recognizing apical ballooning syndrome is challenging in patients with a history of respiratory disease because the symptoms of the last entity may complicate the diagnostic approach. It is difficult to distinguish clinically apical ballooning syndrome from the acute airway exacerbation itself. Both asthma and takotsubo cardiomyopathy share the same clinical presentation with dyspnea and chest tightness. In our patient, the electrocardiographic abnormalities, the rapidly reversible distinctive characteristics of echocardiography, and the modest elevation of serum cardiac biomarkers levels, in combination with the presence of a stress trigger (severe asthma attack), strongly supported the diagnosis of broken heart syndrome. Clinicians should re-evaluate asthma management and be aware of the complications associated with asthma attacks such as stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  10. Psychological Features of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Report of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Yaser; Hashemi, Seyedeh Roghaieh; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Zafarghandi, Hoda; Shahmansouri, Nazila

    2017-04-01

    Takotsubo or stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a cardiomyopathy in which the patient has a sudden onset, reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction without any significant coronary artery disease. Four women, who were at a mean age of 64 years and suffered from chest pain exacerbated by emotional stress, were admitted as cases of acute coronary syndrome and were completely evaluated through precise history taking, physical examination, and ECG. Coronary angiography or coronary multidetector computed tomography was used to exclude significant coronary artery disease. In these patients with confirmed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in addition to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) criteria, a 71-item form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-Mini-Mult-was employed for psychological assessment. The main common elevated scale was hypochondriasis. Individuals with high scores on this scale are obsessed with themselves, especially in regard to their body, and often use their disease symptoms in order to manipulate others. They are mainly passive aggressive, critical, and demanding, which stems from their lack of effective verbal abilities as a means of communication, specifically when it comes to anger or hostility expression. To the best of our knowledge, there is no available study evaluating patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy using the Mini-Mult questionnaire for psychological assessment.

  11. The Effects of the Adenosine Receptor Antagonists on the Reverse of Cardiovascular Toxic Effects Induced by Citalopram In-Vivo Rat Model of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan Büyükdeligöz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that requires routine cardiac monitoring to prevent a toxic dose. Prolongation of the QT interval has been observed in acute citalopram poisoning. Our previous experimental study showed that citalopram may be lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine. Aims: We examined the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists in reversing the cardiovascular toxic effects induced by citalopram in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups randomly (n=7 for each group. Sodium cromoglycate (20 mg/kg was administered to all rats to inhibit adenosine A3 receptor mast cell activation. Citalopram toxicity was achieved by citalopram infusion (4 mg/kg/min for 20 minutes. After citalopram infusion, in the control group (Group 1, rats were given an infusion of dextrose solution for 60 minutes. In treatment groups, the selective adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX (Group 2, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 20 μg/kg/min or the selective A2a antagonist CSC (Group 3, 8-(3-chlorostyrylcaffeine, 24 μg/kg/min was infused for 60 minutes. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, QRS duration and QT interval measurements were followed during the experiment period. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results: Citalopram infusion reduced MAP and HR and prolonged the QT interval. It did not cause any significant difference in QRS duration in any group. When compared to the control group, DPCPX after citalopram infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval after 40, 50 and 60 minutes (p<0.01. DPCPX infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT interval at 60 minutes compared with the CSC group (p<0.05. CSC infusion shortened the prolongation of the QT at 60 minutes compared with the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: DPCPX improved QT

  12. Animal models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, Alexander; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is an autosomal-dominant disease that is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Disease-causing mutations have been found in eight genes encoding structural components of the thick and thin filament systems of the cardiac myocyte; it has therefore

  13. Improving Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Vriesendorp (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractImproving outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is focused on the improvement of the therapeutic strategies for patients with HCM. First it demonstrates that individual patient selection in patients with obstructive and symptomatic HCM can lead to near normal life-expectancy;

  14. Cor triatriatum and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellaton, Cyril; O'Mahony, Costas; Ludman, Andrew J; Sekhri, Neha; Mohiddin, Saidi

    2016-12-01

    : Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital anomaly known to be associated with other inherited heart diseases. We present a nonrestrictive cor triatriatum sinistrum associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to illustrate how different multimodality noninvasive imaging techniques complement each other and can help with the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this coexistence has not been previously reported.

  15. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  16. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  17. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  18. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will be followed soon after by strange sensations that may include numbness or tingling in your mouth, headache, dizziness, and hot and cold temperature reversal. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: This is a ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. The Poisons Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  2. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  3. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  4. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  5. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from the shoreline or hunting Cable ... wash any other contaminated items — such as outdoor gear, garden tools, jewelry, shoes and even shoelaces — as ...

  6. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. Medical therapy versus interventional therapy in hypertropic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seggewiss Hubert

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical treatment in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy aims to reduce the outflow tract gradients, and to improve diastolic dysfunction and rhythm disorders. Surgical myectomy is the standard treatment in patients with drug refractory symptoms. Since the early 1990s, dual-chamber (DDD-pacemaker implantation and percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation by alcohol-induced septal branch occlusion have widened treatment options in this subgroup of patients. An overview of medical and interventional treatment is presented.

  8. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  9. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  10. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  11. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  12. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parra, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...

  13. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  14. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed.

  15. Burnable poison irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The topical report describes the irradiation program developed to investigate different burnable poison rod material and designs. The purpose of the report is to present (1) technical support for the irradiation of several test burnable poison rod designs that have not been previously reviewed, and (2) describe the parameters that will be employed in the surveillance program for Combustion Engineering's (CE) standard burnable poison rod for 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. The test burnable poison rods will be placed in a CE reactor using 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, the first such reactor is Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2. The irradiation program has four phases. Phase I involves the irradiation of 48 standard burnable poison rods which (1) will be extensively precharacterized prior to irradiation and (2) will undergo interim performance evaluation and detailed post-irradiation examination. Phase II, III, and IV involve irradiation and performance evaluation of a small number of burnable poison rods of different proprietary designs. The report discusses the materials to be used in each phase, the methods of fabricating the rods, and the rods expected behavior in a reactor

  16. Metabolic remodeling associated with subchronic doxorubicin cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Rui A.; Sousa, Rui P.B.; Cadete, Virgilio J.J.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Palmeira, Carlos M.M.; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin ® ) is a potent and broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, the clinical utility of which is restricted by a cumulative and progressive cardiomyopathy that develops with repeated dosing. Fundamental to the cardiac failure is an interference with mitochondrial respiration and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Global gene expression arrays in cardiac tissue indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by doxorubicin (DOX) is accompanied by a decreased expression of genes related to aerobic fatty acid oxidation and a corresponding increase in expression of genes involved in anaerobic glycolysis, possibly as an alternate source for ATP production. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether this is also manifest at the metabonomic level as a switch in metabolic flux in cardiac tissue, and whether this can be averted by co-administering the cardioprotective drug, dexrazoxane (DZR). 13 C-isotopomer analysis of isolated perfused hearts from male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 6 weekly s.c. injections of 2 mg/kg DOX demonstrated a shift from the preferential oxidation of fatty acids to enhanced oxidation of glucose and lactate plus pyruvate, indicative of a compensatory shift towards increased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Substrate-selective isotopomer analysis combined with western blots indicate an inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation and not MCAD activity or fatty acyl-carnitine transport. Co-administering DZR averted many treatment-related changes in cardiac substrate metabolism, consistent with DZR being an effective cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. This switch in substrate metabolism resembles that described for other models of cardiac failure; accordingly, this change in metabolic flux may represent a general compensatory response of cardiac tissue to imbalances in bioenergetic demand and supply, and not a characteristic unique to DOX-induced cardiac failure itself.

  17. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and infiltrative cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, R.; Manacho, K.; Castelletti, S.; Moon, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) an important modality. CMR provides a number of different techniques in one examination: structure and function, flow imaging and tissue characterisation particularly with the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. Other techniques include vasodilator perfusion, mapping (especially T1 mapping and ex...

  19. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pregnancy in women with a cardiomyopathy: Outcomes and predictors from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billebeau, Gilles; Etienne, Martin; Cheikh-Khelifa, Riadh; Vauthier-Brouzes, Daniele; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Isnard, Richard; Nizard, Jacky; Komajda, Michel; Dommergues, Marc; Charron, Philippe

    2017-10-25

    Pregnancies in women with pre-existing cardiomyopathies are considered at high risk for complications. However, few data are available to characterize their natural history and predict the outcome. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of acute cardiac and obstetric events in women with a cardiomyopathy during pregnancy, excluding peripartum cardiomyopathy. In this retrospective study in a referral centre for cardiomyopathies, we included 43 consecutive pregnancies in 36 women with dilated, hypertrophic, arrhythmogenic right ventricular or tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, or left ventricular non-compaction. We observed a major cardiovascular event during 15 pregnancies (35%), including three cardiac deaths, which occurred in patients who did not follow our usual early multidisciplinary protocol. The Carpreg score was predictive of maternal complication rate (67%, 36% and 31% in women with a Carpreg score of 2, 1 and 0, respectively). However, major cardiac complications occurred in four women with no risk factors. Left ventricular ejection fraction alone, gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the Zahara score and the modified World Health Organization score appeared to be less discriminant than Carpreg for maternal outcome. There were two intrauterine fetal deaths, nine premature deliveries (23%), 17 low neonatal birth weights (40%) and 11 cases of hypoglycaemia (26%). Pregnancy in women with a cardiomyopathy is at high risk for both women and neonates. The highest risks are observed in women who do not benefit from early multidisciplinary team management, and in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Our findings suggest that the Carpreg score is the most appropriate predictor of maternal complications, although the stratification might be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of Thyrotoxic Cardiomyopathy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Oliveros-Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the effect of the disease duration prior to treatment, thyroid hormones level, or both on the reversibility of dilated cardiomyopathy. Between January 2006 and December 2010, a longitudinal study with a 6 months follow-up was carried on. One hundred and seventy patients with hyperthyroidism were referred to the cardiologist, and 127 had a 6 months followup after antithyroid treatment and were evaluated by echocardiography. Dilated cardiomyopathy reversibility criteria were established according to echocardiographic parameters. Complete reversibility existed when all parameters were met, partial reversibility when LVEF was ≥55% plus two or three other parameters, and no reversibility when LVEF was ≤55% regardless of other parameters. The results showed that echocardiography parameters related to the regression of myocardial mass were associated with a disease duration shorter than 10.38 months. This was the main predictive variable for reversal of dilated cardiomyopathy, followed by β-blocker treatment, and the last predictive variable was the serum level of free triiodothyronine. This study showed that the effect on the myocardium related to thyrotoxicosis was associated with the disease duration before treatment.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in a home and poison the people and animals inside. Every year, at least 430 people die ... build up in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces. People and animals in these spaces can be poisoned and can ...

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  5. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  7. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, J C; Essaïd el Feydi, A; Kadiri, A

    Different diseases as viral or bacterian gastro-enteritis, Tiphoid, viral hepatitis can come from shellfishes. Less known is the shellfish poisoning although recent outbreaks took place in Spain, France, England, Morocco. Toxic poisoning is caused by a poison produced by dinoflagelates of plankton which get developped in shells and make them dangerous, even cooked, to be eaten. A respiratory failure can result from this neurotropic poison.

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...

  9. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  10. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  11. Thallium poisoning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  12. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfü Bekar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and it can be mistaken for coronary artery disease due to the symptoms and electrocardiography findings. In this report, we aimed to present a patient referred to our clinic with complaints of chest pain and electrocardiography findings who had been misdiagnosed as non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

  13. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hoes; I.M. van Hagen (Iris); F. Russo; D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); M.P. van den Berg (Maarten); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); K.Y. van Spaendonck-Zwarts (Karin); P. van der Meer (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPeripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The

  14. Peripartum cardiomyopathy : Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, M. F.; van Hagen, I.; Russo, F.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van den Berg, M. P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K. Y.; van der Meer, P.

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The pathophysiology

  15. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, M. F.; van Hagen, I.; Russo, F.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K. Y.; van der Meer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The pathophysiology

  16. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy after a quarrel.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We report a case of Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy after a quarrel, implicating that severe emotional or physical stress could trigger myocardial stunning. Keywords: Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, ocular trauma, blindness, postmenopause. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i4.39. Cite as: Jiang D-M, Sun Z-W, Han ...

  17. Haemarthrosis after superwarfarin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsaftis, Panagiotis; Girtovitis, Fotios; Boutou, Afroditi; Ntaios, George; Makris, Pantelis E

    2007-09-01

    Superwarfarins are widely used as rodenticides. They are similar to warfarin, but they are more potent and act longer. In case of poisoning, they cause severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. A 67-yr-old man was admitted with melaena, epistaxis and haemarthrosis in his left knee. PT, INR and aPTT were markedly increased. Initially, the patient was treated with blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions. However at the second day, PT, INR and aPTT were even worse. The combination of persistent coagulopathy, normal mixing studies, normal liver function tests and absence of hepatic failure or malabsorption syndromes lead to the suspicion of vitK dependent clotting factors deficiency due to superwarfarin poisoning. Indeed, the patient admitted a suicide attempt with rodenticide, although he had previously denied it. Psychiatric evaluation revealed a disturbed personality. Melaena stopped after 7 d. Then, the patient was administered 30 mg of vitK daily for a total period of 4 months. Superwarfarin poisoning leads to severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. Prolonged treatment with high doses of vitK is necessary. Haemarthrosis, as a complication of superwarfarin poisoning, is presented here for the first time in literature.

  18. Ink remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  19. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  20. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  1. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...

  2. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  3. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outcome will depend on the extent of this damage. Opening a large bucket of chlorine tablets can expose you to a powerful chlorine gas that can be very poisonous. Always open the container outdoors. Keep your face as far away from ...

  4. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes used. With this procedure, a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by vein to make the urine ... acetaminophen (antidote is N - acetylcysteine ), aspirin (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone ). Some poisonous bites ...

  5. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  6. Update on Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy: Reemergence of Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Fernando; Kühl, Uwe; Pieske, Burkert; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Myocarditis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle and is an important cause of acute heart failure, sudden death, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Viruses account for most cases of myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which could induce an immune response causing inflammation even when the pathogen has been cleared. Other etiologic agents responsible for myocarditis include drugs, toxic substances, or autoimmune conditions. In the last few years, advances in noninvasive techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance have been very useful in supporting diagnosis of myocarditis, but toxic, infectious-inflammatory, infiltrative, or autoimmune processes occur at a cellular level and only endomyocardial biopsy can establish the nature of the etiological agent. Furthermore, after the generalization of immunohistochemical and viral genome detection techniques, endomyocardial biopsy provides a definitive etiological diagnosis that can lead to specific treatments such as antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. Endomyocardial biopsy is not commonly performed for the diagnosis of myocarditis due to safety reasons, but both right- and left endomyocardial biopsies have very low complication rates when performed by experienced operators. This document provides a state-of-the-art review of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with special focus on the role of endomyocardial biopsy to establish specific treatments. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in the Setting of Tension Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is defined as a transient left ventricular dysfunction, usually accompanied by electrocardiographic changes. The literature documents only two other cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the latter setting. Methods. A 78-year-old female presented to the ED with severe shortness of breath, hypertension, and tachycardia. On physical exam, heart sounds (S1 and S2 were regular and wheezing was noticed bilaterally. We found laboratory results with a WBC of 20.0 (103/μL, troponin of 16.52 ng/mL, CK-mb of 70.6%, and BNP of 177 pg/mL. The patient was intubated for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. A chest X-ray revealed a large left-sided tension pneumothorax. Initial echocardiogram showed apical ballooning with a LVEF of 10–15%. A cardiac angiography revealed normal coronary arteries with no coronary disease. After supportive treatment, the patient’s condition improved with a subsequent echocardiogram showing a LVEF of 60%. Conclusion. The patient was found to have Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the setting of a tension pneumothorax. The exact mechanisms of ventricular dysfunction have not been clarified. However, multivessel coronary spasm or catecholamine cardiotoxicity has been suggested to have a causative role. We suggest that, in our patient, left ventricular dysfunction was induced by the latter mechanism related to the stress associated with acute pneumothorax.

  8. Trace elements in diabetic cardiomyopathy: An electrophysiological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Semir

    2013-08-15

    There is a growing body of evidence that Diabetes Mellitus leads to a specific cardiomyopathy apart from vascular disease and bring about high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent clinical and experimental studies have extensively demonstrated that this cardiomyopathy causes impaired cardiac performance manifested by early diastolic and late systolic dysfunction. This impaired cardiac performance most probably have emerged upon the expression and activity of regulatory proteins such as Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. Over years many therapeutic strategies have been recommended for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Lately, inorganic elements have been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects due to their suggested ability to regulate glucose homeostasis, reduce oxidative stress or suppress phosphatases. Recent findings have shown that trace elements exert many biological effects including insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity and in this manner they have been recommended as potential candidates for treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac complications, an effect based on their modes of action. Some of these trace elements are known to play an essential role as component of enzymes and thus modulate the organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides, they can also manipulate redox state of the channels via antioxidant properties and thus contribute to the regulation of [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis and cardiac ion channels. On account of little information about some trace elements, we discussed the effect of vanadium, selenium, zinc and tungstate on diabetic heart complications.

  9. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Current Review

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    Katie M. Twomley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 1 : 3,000 live births in the United States although some series report a much higher incidence. African-American women are particularly at risk. Diagnosis requires symptoms of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within five months of delivery in the absence of recognized cardiac disease prior to pregnancy as well as objective evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This paper provides an updated, comprehensive review of PPCM, including emerging insights into the etiology of this disorder as well as current treatment options.

  10. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Sandeep; Prasad, Heramba; Kozman, Hani

    2007-01-01

    A 57-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department with chest discomfort after testifying in a child custody battle in court. Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed ST-segment elevation in the lateral leads, and T-wave inversions in the inferior and lateral leads. The creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and troponin I concentrations were elevated on presentation. Despite the ECG changes and elevated cardiac markers, coronary angiography demonstrated normal arteries. Left ventricular angiogram revealed an aneurysm at the apex. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was diagnosed on the basis of these characteristic findings. The patient was discharged on her third hospital day without any complications from the coronary angiography.

  11. Microvascular dysfunction in nonfailing arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Matthias [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); University Hospital Muenster, Institute for Genetics of Heart Diseases, Muenster (Germany); Rahbar, Kambiz; Kies, Peter; Schober, Otmar [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Gerss, Joachim [University of Muenster, Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Muenster (Germany); Schaefers, Klaus; Schaefers, Michael [University of Muenster, European Institute for Molecular Imaging - EIMI, Muenster (Germany); Breithardt, Guenter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Schulze-Bahr, Eric [University Hospital Muenster, Institute for Genetics of Heart Diseases, Muenster (Germany); Wichter, Thomas [Marienhospital Osnabrueck, Department of Cardiology, Niels-Stensen-Kliniken, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a nonischaemic cardiomyopathy and leading cause of sudden death in the young. It has been shown that microvascular dysfunction reflected by an impaired myocardial blood flow (MBF) response to stress is present in patients with other forms of nonischaemic cardiomyopathy, e.g. dilated cardiomyopathy, and that the reduced MBF may be related to a poor prognosis. Therefore, we quantified MBF, coronary flow reserve and coronary vascular resistance in patients with nonfailing ARVC using H{sub 2}{sup 15} O and PET. In ten male patients with ARVC (mean age 49 {+-} 14 years), MBF was quantified at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia using H{sub 2}{sup 15} O PET. Results were compared with those obtained in 20 age-matched healthy male control subjects (mean age 46 {+-} 14 years). Resting MBF was not significantly different between patients with ARVC and controls (MBF{sub rest} 1.19 {+-} 0.29 vs. 1.12 {+-} 0.20 ml/min/ml). However, hyperaemic MBF was significantly lower in patients with ARVC than in controls (2.60 {+-} 0.96 vs. 3.68 {+-} 0.84 ml/min/ml; p = 0.005). Consequently, patients with ARVC had a significantly lower coronary flow reserve than control subjects (2.41 {+-} 1.34 vs. 3.39 {+-} 0.93; p = 0.030). In addition, hyperaemic coronary vascular resistance was increased in patients with ARVC (36.79 {+-} 12.91 vs. 26.31 {+-} 6.49 mmHg x ml{sup -1} x min x ml; p = 0.007), but was found to be unchanged at rest. In this small well-characterized cohort of patients with nonfailing ARVC, we found a significantly reduced hyperaemic MBF and increased coronary vascular resistance. Further studies are necessary to corroborate this potential new functional aspect of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ARVC. (orig.)

  12. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

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    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  13. Renal failure prevalence in poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to

  14. Prooxidant Mechanisms in Iron Overload Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC, defined as the presence of systolic or diastolic cardiac dysfunction secondary to increased deposition of iron, is emerging as an important cause of heart failure due to the increased incidence of this disorder seen in thalassemic patients and in patients of primary hemochromatosis. At present, although palliative treatment by regular iron chelation was recommended; whereas IOC is still the major cause for mortality in patient with chronic heart failure induced by iron-overloading. Because iron is a prooxidant and the associated mechanism seen in iron-overload heart is still unclear; therefore, we intend to delineate the multiple signaling pathways involved in IOC. These pathways may include organelles such as calcium channels, mitochondria; paracrine effects from both macrophages and fibroblast, and novel mediators such as thromboxane A2 and adiponectin; with increased oxidative stress and inflammation found commonly in these signaling pathways. With further understanding on these complex and inter-related molecular mechanisms, we can propose potential therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the cardiac toxicity induced by iron-overloading.

  15. Anatomopathological study of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin in rats Estudo anatomopatológico da miocardiopatia induzida pela doxorrubicina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dorsa Vieira Pontes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The development of an experimental model of myocardiopathy induced by Doxorubicin in rats. METHODS: 16 wistar male rats were randomized in two groups: Group I (placebo and Group II (Doxorubicin - 5mg/kg. After six months, the animals were subjected to cardiotomy and their hearts were weighted and submitted to transversal cuts, from which fragments for a macro and micro study were obtained. These fragments were studied considering their external and internal diameters and the thickness of the left ventricle (LV. The histological pieces were analyzed for the presence of fibrosis, cytoplasmic vacuolization, necrosis and size of nucleus variation. Data obtained was submitted to statistical analysis with Student's t test. RESULTS: The hearts of the animals in Group II increased 41% in relation to their weight; 33% in the internal diameter and 14% in the external diameter of the LV cavity; and 24% in the thickness of the wall. Fibrosis of the myocardial tissue was observed in 75% of the animals of Group II; all the animals presented miocyte cytoplasmatic vacuolization; myocardial necrosis was present in 75% of the animals; and 87/% presented variation in the size of myocite nuclei. The presence of polymorphonuclear cells was also observed. CONCLUSION: Doxorubicin was effective in the promotion of macro and microscopic alterations in the cardiac tissue of rats, possibly constituting a model for the experimental study of myocardiopathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de miocardiopatia induzida por doxorrubicina em ratos. MÉTODOS: 16 ratos Wistar machos foram randomizados em 2 grupos: Grupo I (placebo e Grupo II (doxorrubicina 5mg/kg. Após 6 meses, os animais foram submetidos a cardiotomia e seus corações foram pesados e submetidos a cortes transversais. Estes fragmentos foram estudados considerando seus diâmetros externos e internos e a espessura do ventrículo esquerdo. As peças histológicas foram analisadas quanto

  16. Cardiomyopathy due to ingestion of Adderall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Donald H

    2008-01-01

    A patient is described who developed cardiomyopathy after receiving a therapeutic course of dextroamphetamine/amphetamine. The patient's cardiac function deteriorated to the point of heart failure, necessitating a heart transplantation. Cardiomyopathy associated with amphetamine use is a serious and potentially lethal condition. With early diagnosis, identification of the cause, and treatment, cardiomyopathy may be reversible. The dangers of therapeutic use of amphetamines are discussed, as well as problems and assumptions associated with U.S. Food and Drug Administration monitoring and removal from the market of harmful substances.

  17. Does Body Mass Index Predict Premature Cardiomyopathy Onset for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKane, Meghann; Soslow, Jonathan H; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Slaughter, James C; Burnette, W Bryan; Markham, Larry W

    2017-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of body mass index with cardiomyopathy onset. Cardiomyopathy was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction Duchenne muscular dystrophy subjects and age of cardiomyopathy onset.

  18. Restrictive cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy overlap: the importance of the phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Kaski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM is defined on the basis of the haemodynamic finding of restrictive ventricular physiology. However, restrictive ventricular pathophysiology is also a feature of other subtypes of cardiomyopathy, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Clinically and aetiologically, there is an overlap between RCM and HCM with restrictive physiology. However, the clinical distinction between these two entities can be an important pointer towards the underlying aetiology. This review highlights the importance of the recognition of the clinical phenotype as the first step in the classification of cardiomyopathies.

  19. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  20. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  1. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  2. Management of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, P W

    2000-09-01

    A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.

  3. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  4. Lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  5. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  6. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  7. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  8. [Recurrence of stress cardiomyopathy after an earthquake: report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela U, Cecilia; Bohn R, Ricardo; Varleta O, Paola; Concepción C, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Symptoms recur after a physical or emotional stress. We report a 77-year-old female that in 2004, suffered an episode of stress cardiomyopathy after an intense physical effort. In February 2010, immediately after the earthquake that occurred in Chile, the patient consulted for chest pain, ST segment elevation and enzyme elevation. An echocardiography showed a left ventricular anteroseptal akinesia with an ejection fraction of 35%. Coronary arteriography did not show significant alterations.

  9. Serum Metabolomics in Rats after Acute Paraquat Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyi; Ma, Jianshe; Zhang, Meiling; Wen, Congcong; Huang, Xueli; Sun, Fa; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and is highly toxic to humans and animals. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method based on GC/MS to evaluate the effects of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the level of octadecanoic acid, L-serine, L-threonine, L-valine, and glycerol in the acute paraquat poisoning group (36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of hexadecanoic acid, D-galactose, and decanoic acid decreased. These findings provide an overview of systematic responses to paraquat exposure and metabolomic insight into the toxicological mechanism of paraquat. Our results indicate that metabolomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate the mechanism of acute paraquat poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers.

  10. Metaldehyde poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.

  11. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  12. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  13. [Ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K.; Christensen, A.H.; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of cardiomyopathies as the aetiology of ventricular tachyarrhythmias among patients discharged from the Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective review......), 57 (45%) patients had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and 13 (10%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The average age was 44 years for HCM, 41 years for ARVC and 58 years for DCM. The majority of the patients were male. ICD treatment was used in 95% of the patients...... cardiology department. Implantation of an ICD device has a central position in the treatment of patients with cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachyarrythmias and is primarily used as a prophylactic treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/16...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... familial dilated cardiomyopathy can include an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), extreme tiredness (fatigue), fainting ... Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary National DNA Day 2018 Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act Turns 10 All Bulletins ...

  15. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)

  16. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy after a quarrel.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    com. Tel: +86571 85519933;. Fax:+8657187236569. It was first recognized in Japan ... coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization8. The pathophysiological mechanism associated with. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is higher prevalence in.

  17. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  18. Mechanical aberrations in hypetrophic cardiomyopathy: emerging concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eNtelios

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common monogenic disorder in cardiology. Despite important advances in understanding disease pathogenesis, it is not clear how flaws in individual sarcomere components are responsible for the observed phenotype. The aim of this article is to provide a brief interpretative analysis of some currently proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with a special emphasis on alterations in the cardiac mechanical properties.

  19. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic bases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Rampazzo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is a heart muscle disease in which the pathological substrate is a fibro-fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. The major clinical features are different types of arrhythmias with a left branch block pattern. ARVC shows autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Recessive forms were also described, although in association with skin disorders. Ten genetic loci have been discovered so far and mutations were reported in five different genes. ARVD1 was associated with regulatory mutations of transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFβ3, whereas ARVD2, characterized by effort-induced polymorphic arrhythmias, was associated with mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptor-2 (RYR2. All other mutations identified to date have been detected in genes encoding desmosomal proteins: plakoglobin (JUP which causes Naxos disease (a recessive form of ARVC associated with palmoplantar keratosis and woolly hair; desmoplakin (DSP which causes the autosomal dominant ARVD8 and plakophilin-2 (PKP2 involved in ARVD9. Desmosomes are important cell-to-cell adhesion junctions predominantly found in epidermis and heart; they are believed to couple cytoskeletal elements to plasma membrane in cell-to-cell or cell-to-substrate adhesions.

  2. [Recurrent postpartum pyoderma gangrenosum and fatal cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, I; Meziane, M; Benzekri, L; Ghaouti, M; Senouci, K; Hassam, B

    2017-12-06

    We report a case of recurrent post-partum pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) complicated by post-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). A 23-year-old woman presented with a previous medical history of aseptic abscess of the left breast in her fourth pregnancy, which developed after surgical drainage of an inflammatory ulceration treated by atraumatic topical care. During her fifth pregnancy, the patient presented a large and painful ulceration in relation to the scar of the Caesarean section, despite the introduction of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Bacteriological samples were negative. Histological examination militated in favor of PG. One week after initiation of corticosteroid therapy, the patient suddenly showed signs of heart failure. Based on trans-thoracic echocardiography PPCM was diagnosed, and the outcome was fatal. This observation raises the question of the relationship between PG and pregnancy and describes the association of PG and PPCM. PG occurs rarely during pregnancy and it may be induced by the rise in G-CSF levels found in pregnant women. The association with PPCM seen in our patient could have been due to the development of an anti-angiogenic climate at the end of pregnancy, together with inflammatory myocardial aggression linked to the PG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.

  4. Stimulant-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Mike; Riguzzi, Christine; Frenkel, Oron; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare but increasingly recognized mimic of acute coronary syndrome. Patients present with angina,ST-segment changes on electrocardiogram (both elevations and depressions),and rapid rises in cardiac biomarkers. Many kinds of stressful events have been associated with TC, but only a handful of drug-related cases have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed TC 2 days after crack cocaine use, a diagnosis first suggested as bedside echocardiography in the emergency department.Recognition of the classic echocardiographic appearance of TC—apical hypokinesis causing “ballooning” of the left ventricle during systole—may greatly assist providers in the early identification of this condition.

  5. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras K. Mishra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM. These early events are followed by steatosis (accumulation of lipid droplets in cardiomyocytes, which is followed by apoptosis, changes in immune responses with a consequent increase in fibrosis, remodeling of cardiomyocytes, and the resultant decrease in cardiac function. The heart is an omnivore, metabolically flexible, and consumes the highest amount of ATP in the body. Altered myocardial substrate and energy metabolism initiate the development of DCM. Diabetic hearts shift away from the utilization of glucose, rely almost completely on fatty acids (FAs as the energy source, and become metabolically inflexible. Oxidation of FAs is metabolically inefficient as it consumes more energy. In addition to metabolic inflexibility and energy inefficiency, the diabetic heart suffers from impaired calcium handling with consequent alteration of relaxation–contraction dynamics leading to diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR plays a key role in excitation–contraction coupling as Ca2+ is transported into the SR by the SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2a during cardiac relaxation. Diabetic cardiomyocytes display decreased SERCA2a activity and leaky Ca2+ release channel resulting in reduced SR calcium load. The diabetic heart also suffers from

  6. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  9. Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Care at Mayo Clinic Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flow to the damaged or weakened heart muscle Heart transplant that may be tried when all other treatments ... accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health ...

  11. New syndromes in mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Danel, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Several new mushroom poisoning syndromes have been described since the early 1990s. In these syndromes, the onset of symptoms generally occurs >6 hours after ingestion. Treatment is mainly supportive. The syndrome induced by Amanita smithiana/proxima consists of acute tubulopathy, which appears earlier and does not have the same poor prognosis as the orellanine-induced syndrome. It has been described since 1992 in the US and Canada with A. smithiana; in France, Spain and Italy with A. proxima; and in Japan with A. pseudoporphyria. The responsible toxin is probably 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid. The erythromelalgia syndrome has been described as early as the late 19th century in Japan and South Korea with Clitocybe acromelalga, and since 1996 in France and then Italy with C. amoenolens. Responsible toxins are probably acromelic acids identified in both species. Several cases of massive rhabdomyolysis have been reported since 1993 in France and 2001 in Poland after ingestion of large amounts of an edible and, until then, valuable species called Tricholoma equestre. These cases of rhabdomyolysis are associated with respiratory and cardiac (myocarditis) complications leading to death. Rhabdomyolysis with an apparently different mechanism was described in Taiwan in 2001 with Russula subnigricans. Finally, cases of encephalopathy were observed twice after ingestion of Hapalopilus rutilans in Germany in 1992 and Pleurocybella porrigens in Japan in 2004, where a convulsive encephalopathy outbreak was reported in patients with history of chronic renal failure.

  12. Cyanide Self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  14. The prognosis following amphetamine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc

    2017-01-01

    the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...

  15. Genotype-specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Ilse A E; Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pinto, Jose R; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-07-15

    Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3 p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and reduced length-dependent activation. TNNT2 p.K217del caused increased passive tension. A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM-causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3 p.98truncation ) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2 p.K217deletion ; also known as the p.K210del) and the non-sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3 p.98trunc and TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3 p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and impaired length-dependent activation. The TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild-type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of controls in the TNNI3

  16. Genotype‐specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Pinto, Jose R.; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Key points Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and reduced length‐dependent activation. TNNT2p.K217del caused increased passive tension.A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy.Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non‐sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM‐causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3p.98truncation) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2p.K217deletion; also known as the p.K210del) and the non‐sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNAp.R331Q). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane‐permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3p.98trunc and TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and impaired length‐dependent activation. The TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild‐type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of

  17. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  18. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Athlete's heart or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauschke, Jörg; Maisch, Bernhard

    2009-02-01

    Intensive endurance training is able to cause a distinct pattern of functional and structural changes of the cardiovascular system. In an unknown proportion of athletes a so called "athlete's heart" develops. There is an overlap between this type of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common genetic disorder of the cardiovascular system with a prevalence of 0.2%. HCM is caused by mutations in 14 genes coding for sarcomere proteins. In the literature up to 50% of cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in younger sportsmen were connected to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is therefore the most common cause of SCD in highly trained young athletes. Because of this data a great interest in distinguishing these two diagnoses exists. Apart from clinical examination and some non-specific ECG-changes, Echocardiography is the method of choice. The athlete's heart shows an eccentric biventricular hypertrophy with wall thicknesses under 15 mm and a moderately dilated left ventricle (LVEDD up to 58 mm). HCM is commonly characterized by asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy with a reduced LV-diameter. In up to 70% of cases left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is evident during stress echocardiography. Systolic function is normal in highly trained athletes and the majority of HCM patients as well. There are important differences regarding diastolic filling patterns. Physiological hypertrophy is consistent with a normal diastolic function with even increased early diastolic filling. In case of HCM diastolic dysfunction (mostly relaxation disturbances) occurs in the majority of patients and is therefore inconsistent with an athlete's heart. If the diagnosis could not be stated using echocardiography, methods like cardiac-MRI, metabolic exercise testing, histological studies of endomyocardial biopsies and genetic testing can provide further information. A correct diagnosis may on the one hand prevent some athletes from

  20. MR imaging in cardiomyopathies; MR-tomographische Diagnostik von Kardiomyopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany); Riessen, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik

    2005-11-15

    According to the WHO classification, cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases which are associated with myocardial dysfunction and can be classified either as primary or secondary cardiomyopathies. Genetic disorders have been identified in certain primary cardiomyopathies, however often the etiology remains unknown. The term ''secondary cardiomyopathy'' is used to specify diseases with the clinical indications of a cardiomyopathy, but can be attributed to a certain pathophysiological mechanism such as exposure to toxic substances, metabolic syndromes or systemic diseases. Based on morphological and functional criteria, primary cardiomyopathies are divided into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). During the last two decades MR imaging has emerged to a well established diagnostic tool for the understanding and treatment of cardiomyopathies. Morphological and functional information can be achieved with a high level of accuracy and reproducibility. Tissue alteration of the myocardium can be detected assessing regional contrast enhancement, T1- and T2-signal intensities and chemical shift phenomena. This article describes characteristic aspects of MR imaging for the diagnosis of primary and secondary cardiomyopathies. (orig.)

  1. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  2. Metabolic imaging of patients with cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geltman, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiomyopathies comprise a diverse group of illnesses that can be characterized functionally by several techniques. However, the delineation of derangements of regional perfusion and metabolism have been accomplished only relatively recently with positron emission tomography (PET). Regional myocardial accumulation and clearance of 11C-palmitate, the primary myocardial substrate under most conditions, demonstrate marked spatial heterogeneity when studied under fasting conditions or with glucose loading. PET with 11C-palmitate permits the noninvasive differentiation of patients with nonischemic from ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, since patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy demonstrate large zones of intensely depressed accumulation of 11C-palmitate, probably reflecting prior infarction. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy demonstrate relatively unique patterns of myocardial abnormalities of perfusion and metabolism. The availability of new tracers and techniques for the evaluation of myocardial metabolism (11C-acetate), perfusion (H2(15)O), and autonomic tone (11-C-hydroxyephedrine) should facilitate further understanding of the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathies

  3. Riboflavin alleviates cardiac failure in Type I diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common and serious comorbidity of diabetes. Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. The ability of antioxidants to inhibit injury has raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatment for diabetic heart diseases. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and animals and it is an important food additive. Riboflavin, a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, enhances the oxidative folding and subsequent secretion of proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of riboflavin in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ (70 mg /kg. Riboflavin (20 mg/kg was orally administered to animals immediately after induction of diabetes and was continued for eight weeks. Rats were examined for diabetic cardiomyopathy by left ventricular (LV remadynamic function. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein level. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CTGF level was measured by Western blot in all rats at the end of the study. In the untreated diabetic rats, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP rate of pressure rose (+dp/dt, and rate of pressure decay (−dp/dt were depressed while left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP was increased, which indicated the reduced left ventricular contractility and slowing of left ventricular relaxation. The level of SOD decreased, CTGF and HO-1 protein expression and MDA content rose. Riboflavin treatment significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic rats, there were persistent increases in significant activation of SOD and the level of HO-1 protein, and a decrease in the level of CTGF. These results suggest

  4. [Acute poisoning with carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Frédéric J

    2009-05-01

    A critical analysis of acute CO and CN poisonings evidences that the lone toxicological similarity between CO and CN is their ability to avidly bind iron ions in the different hemoproteins. Otherwise, CO is a stable not-metabolized molecule while CN is a highly reactive molecule with extensive metabolism. CO impairs the ability of erythrocytes to transfer oxygen while CN has no effect. Both toxicants act in the mitochondria with CN resulting in the complete and sustained blockade of cellular respiration inducing severe lactic acidosis while CO does not. Acute CO poisoning mostly alters neurological cognitive function and even consciousness without significant alteration of vital functions while CN primarily alters consciousness with early onset of severe alteration of vital functions. Severe CO poisonings requires hours of exposure while severe CN poisoning occurs within seconds or minutes of exposure. Both gases may result in brain damage and sequelae. Brain imaging clearly shows significant differences in the locations and types of CO- and CN-induced brain damages, further supporting different mechanisms of action. Oxygen is the lone treatment of CO poisoning while in CN poisonings antidotes associated to oxygen are more efficient than oxygen alone. Unfortunately, there are several conditions where the easily detected and potentially toxic CO still continues to mask other potent toxicants. The lack of awareness of emergency physicians, clinical toxicologists, and neuroradiologists regarding the role of other toxic gases whose important role is recognized in combustion toxicology or environmental medicine precludes any progress in the understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity and in the treatment of these poisonings resulting in a particularly high rate of morbi-mortality.

  5. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  6. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  7. Peripartum cardiomyopathy – case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gowri Sayi; Bhupali, Ashok; Prasad, Sayi; Patil, Ajit N.; Deka, Yashodhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the pattern of presentation, course of disease and outcome of pregnancy in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Methods A prospective study of sixteen cases of PPCM was conducted at Apple Saraswati Multispecialty Hospital and Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India from January 2006 to December 2012. Data included age distribution, parity, gestational age, symptoms and risk factors. Medical management and pregnancy outcome were documented. Serial echocardiography data was compiled for a period of one year. Results In our study 9/16 (56%) were primigravidae, 4/16 (25%) had pre-eclamsia and 6/16 (35%) had co-existing hypertension. The difference in Echocardiography parameters observed between recovered and non-recovered patients was significant: Left Ventricular End diastolic dimension (5.6 cm vs 6.06 cm), Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (28.7% vs 22.4%) and Left Ventricular fractional shortening (17.5% vs 13.4%). Thirteen out of sixteen patients were followed up for a period of one year out of which 61% (8/13) patients recovered completely. There was one mortality. Conclusion PPCM is a diagnosis of exclusion. Majority were young primigravidae presenting postnatally. Pre-eclampsia and hypertension were risk factors. ECHO parameters were reliable predictors of recovery. Future pregnancies are better avoided. PMID:24814122

  8. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Recurrent Syncope, a Clue in Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Marin-Acevedo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative cardiomyopathies include a variety of disorders that lead to myocardial thickening resulting in a constellation of clinical manifestations and eventually heart failure that could be the first clue to reach the diagnosis. Among the more described infiltrative diseases of the heart is amyloid cardiomyopathy. The disease usually presents with subtle, nonspecific symptoms. Herein, we illustrate a case of recurrent syncope as the initial presenting symptom for systemic amyloid with polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy as a cause of syncope. The article illustrates the role of advanced cardiac imaging in the diagnosis of the disease with a focused literature review. We also highlight the role of early, shared decision-making between patient, family, and medical team in the management of cardiac amyloidosis.

  10. Cardiomyopathie hypertrophique neonatale de diagnostic etiologique difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Hammami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La cardiomyopathie hypertrophique neonatale est une entite rare, heterogene regroupant plusieurs formes cliniques et donc de diagnostic etiologique difficile. Nous rapportons l�observation d�un nouveau ne issu d�une grossesse gemellaire, ayant presente a la naissance un tableau d�insuffisance cardiaque, l�echocardiographie avait conclut a une cardiomyopathie hypertrophique obstructive. Le bilan etiologique etait negatif notamment une mere non diabetique. L�evolution etait favorable avec regression de l�hypertrophie 2 semaines apres la naissance. L�etiologie finalement suggeree etait une cardiomyopathie secondaire a l�injection antenatale de corticoides dans le but d�accelerer la maturation pulmonaire. L�etablissement par les societes savantes d�un consensus de bilan etiologique minimal standard selon une chronologie bien determinee serait d�un grand apport dans la prise en charge de cette anomalie.

  11. Diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapezzi, Claudio; Arbustini, Eloisa; Caforio, Alida L P

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, The ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases proposed an updated classification of cardiomyopathies based on morphological and functional phenotypes and subcategories of familial/genetic and non-familial/non-genetic disease. In this position statement, we propose a framew...... conventional cardiological assessment with non-cardiac and molecular parameters increases diagnostic accuracy and thus improves advice and treatment for patients and families....... a framework for the clinical approach to diagnosis in cardiomyopathies based on the recognition of diagnostic 'red flags' that can be used to guide rational selection of specialized tests including genetic analysis. The basic premise is that the adoption of a cardiomyopathy-specific mindset which combines...

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and infiltrative cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Schofield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR an important modality. CMR provides a number of different techniques in one examination: structure and function, flow imaging and tissue characterisation particularly with the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE technique. Other techniques include vasodilator perfusion, mapping (especially T1 mapping and extracellular volume quantification [ECV] and diffusion-weighted imaging with its potential to detect disarray. Clinically, the uses of CMR are diverse. The imaging must be considered within the context of work-up, particularly the personal and family history, Electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiogram findings. Subtle markers of possible HCM can be identified in genotype positive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH-negative subjects. CMR has particular advantages for assessment of the left ventricle (LV apex and is able to detect both missed LVH (apical and basal antero-septum, when the echocardiography is normal but the ECG abnormal. CMR is important in distinguishing HCM from both common phenocopies (hypertensive heart disease, athletic adaptation, ageing related changes and rarer pheno and/or genocopies such as Fabry disease and amyloidosis. For these, in particular the LGE technique and T1 mapping are very useful with a low T1 in Fabry’s, and high T1 and very high ECV in amyloidosis. Moreover, the tissue characterisation that is possible using CMR offers a potential role in patient risk stratification, as scar is a very strong predictor of future heart failure. Scar may also play a role in the prediction of sudden death. CMR is helpful in follow-up assessment, especially after septal alcohol ablation and myomectomy.

  13. [Poisonous animals at bathing beaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, T; Bodio, M

    2000-05-18

    Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.

  14. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  15. [Study on repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai-hong; Ji, Zhi-ying; Li, Gui-lan; Yin, Song-nian

    2006-07-01

    To explore the repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisonings. 63 workers suffered from chronic benzene poisonings and 45 workers exposed to benzene, who were engaged in the same job title, were investigated. Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) detection were used to evaluate gamma-radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage and repair capacity in peripheral blood lymphocyte. The comet tail length difference of the benzene poisoning group (4.64 +/- 1.57 microm) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3.77 +/- 1.30 microm) (P = 0.0029). There was no significant difference of the 3AB index between the poisoning group and the control group. The relative risk of benzene poisoning in the subject with comet tail length difference > 3.81 was significantly higher than that in the subject with comet tail length difference poisoning in the subject with 3AB index or = 0.20. DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level might tightly associate with chronic benzene poisoning. The DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level would be worse, and the benzene poisoning risk could be higher. There was no clear relation between the DNA repair capacity on chromosome level and the benzene poisoning risk.

  16. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Pakravan, Nasrin; Ghazizadeh, Zeynab

    2010-09-01

    This descriptive and retrospective study was conducted at the poisoning ward of Imam teaching hospital, Sari, Iran, with the aim of evaluating the pattern of poisoning. Hence, the medical profiles of 2057 patients, who were admitted, were carefully reviewed during the period from April 2006 to March 2008 for 2 years. During this period, 2057 cases, 53.9% female and 46.1% male, were admitted with the indication of acute poisoning. The greatest proportion of poisoning occurred between the ages of 18 and 29 years, with suicidal intentions. Most cases of poisoning were intentional (85%). The most common agents involved in acute poisoning were drugs (77.7%), especially sedatives/hypnotics such as benzodiazepines, followed by opioid analgesics. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the third major agent that induced poisoning. Twenty-seven patients (1.3%) who were mostly females and young adults died. Death mostly occurred due to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides (19 cases) poisoning, followed by sedatives/hypnotics like benzodiazepines (3 cases). High prevalence of intentional overdose and mortality among young adults requires considerable attention and further studies to find out the underlying causes. In addition, strict rules must be followed regarding the sale of central nervous system drugs and pesticides, particularly organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Establishing poison information centers in different parts of the country, preparing national treatment guidelines, training healthcare providers, and ensuring easy availability of the antidotes are also recommended.

  17. Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

  18. X-linked cardiomyopathy is heterogeneous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.J.; Sillence, D.O.; Mulley, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Two major loci of X-linked cardiomyopathy have been mapped by linkage analysis. The gene for X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLCM) is mapped to the dystrophin locus at Xp21, while Barth syndrome has been localised to distal Xq28. XLCM usually presents in juvenile males with no skeletal disease but decreased dystrophin in cardiac muscle. Barth syndrome most often presents in infants and is characterized by skeletal myopathy, short stature and neutropenia in association with cardiomyopathy of variable severity. Prior to carrier or prenatal diagnosis in a family, delineation of the cardiomyopathy locus involved is essential. We report the linkage mapping of a large kindred in which several male infants have died with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a family history of unexplained death of infant males less than 6 months old over 4 generations. Features of Barth syndrome such as short stature, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia have not been observed. Genotyping at 10 marker loci in Xq28 has revealed significant pairwise lod scores with the cardiomyopathy phenotype at DXS52 (Z=2.21 at {theta}=0.0), at markers p26 and p39 near DXS15 (Z=2.30 at {theta}=0.0) and at F8C (Z=2.24 at {theta}=0.0). A recombinant detected with DXS296 defines the proximal limit to the localization. No recombinants were detected at any of the loci distal to DXS296. The most distal marker in Xq28, DXS1108, is within 500 kb of the telomere. As the gene in this family is localized to Xq28, it is possible that this disorder is an allelic variant at the Barth syndrome locus.

  19. Rachitic hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahab T.H. Elidrissy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in apparently normal children without previous organic cardiac lesions. Cardiomyopathy has been found to comprise four types. Rickets is common in Saudi Arabia, that is why I reviewed this subject. Recently this case with classical features of rickets being admitted in a serious state we thought of publishing it. The infant responded well to treatment and full recovery was achieved. Follow up biochemistry, radiology cardiac function completely recovered and bony abnormalities showed evidence of healing. This case might have been missed as respiratory infection. We recommend meticulous look for biochemical features of rickets in infants admitted with respiratory symptoms.

  20. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Rosario; Mirabella, Francesca; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Fattori, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease. PMID:25276293

  1. Effects of Maternal Pb 2+ Poisoning during Pregnancy on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that lead poisoning during the period of organogenesis can induce disturbances in the development and differentiation of the fetal stomatognathic system. Reducing the consumption of alcoholic beberages and smoking cessation by women in childbearing age, along with a strict policy of control of the ...

  2. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: an overlooked cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hackbart Bermudes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC, also known as apical ballooning syndrome, broken heart syndrome, or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is defined as a transient disturbance of the left ventricle, which is quite often associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities that may mimic acute myocardial infarction. The syndrome is also characterized by a mild alteration of cardiac biomarkers in absence of coronary blood flow obstruction on the coronariography. Clinical presentation is often manifested by angina, dyspnea, syncope, and arrhythmias. Peculiarly, the left ventricle takes the form of “tako-tsubo” (a Japanese word for “octopus trap” on the imaging workup. The authors report the case of a post-menopausal, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and type-II diabetic woman admitted at the emergency service with acute chest pain post physical exertion. Electrocardiogram showed signs of ischemia and myocardial necrosis markers were mildly increased. Echocardiography and ventriculography showed apical and mid-ventricular akinesia, with mild atherosclerotic coronary lesions. Thus diagnostic workup and the outcome followed the diagnostic criteria for TTC. The authors called attention to the potential of overlooking this diagnosis, since this syndrome is still not widely recognized.

  3. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Dilated Phase of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Diagnosed with Histological and Genetic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kuno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case with 46-year-old man diagnosed with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Since cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, beta-methyl-p-I123-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic myocardial scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed no remarkable findings, we performed electron microscopic examination, which aided in diagnosing mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy was also compatible with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes and DNA analysis also concluded it. Since muscle biopsy is less invasive for patients compared to endomyocardial biopsy, cardiologists need to consider it. The diagnosis of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy is helpful because it is a genetic condition and also for consideration of device therapy, as well as management for acute crisis.

  4. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled...

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  8. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  9. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  10. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  11. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  12. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  13. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  14. One man's poison is another man's meat: Using azithromycin-induced phospholipidosis to promote ocular surface health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is a common adverse effect which has led to the termination of clinical trials for many candidate pharmaceuticals. However, this lipid-inducing effect may be beneficial in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the major cause of dry eye disease (DED), which affects 40 million people in the USA and has no cure. Azithromycin (AZM) is a PLD-inducing antibiotic that is used off-label to treat MGD, and is presumably effective because it suppresses the MGD-associated conjunctival inflammation (i.e. posterior blepharitis) and growth of lid bacteria. We hypothesize that AZM can act directly to promote the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells by inducing PLD in these cells, characterized by the accumulation of lipids and lysosomes. Immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGEC) were cultured with or without azithromycin for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol (Filipin) and neutral lipid (LipidTox) staining, as well as the appearance of lysosomes (LysoTracker) and lamellar bodies (transmission electron microscopy, TEM). The lipid composition of cellular lysates was analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography. Our findings demonstrate that AZM stimulates the accumulation of free cholesterol, neutral lipids and lysosomes in HMGEC. This AZM-induced increase of neutral lipid content occurred predominantly within lysosomes. Many of these vesicles appeared to be lamellar bodies by TEM, which is the characteristic of PLD. Our findings also show that AZM promotes an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, as well as phospholipids in HMGECimmortalized. Our results support our hypothesis and confirm the beneficial effect of PLD induced by AZM on HMGEC. Our discovery reveals a new potential use of PLD-inducing drugs, and makes this adverse effect a beneficial effect

  15. Effects of Paraquat Ban on Herbicide Poisoning-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Ryul; Chung, Sung Phil; You, Je Sung; Cho, Soohyung; Park, Yongjin; Chun, Byeongjo; Moon, Jeongmi; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyung Woo; Choi, SangChun; Park, Junseok; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Seung Whan; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Su Jin; Kang, Hyunggoo; Hong, Dae Young; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2017-07-01

    In Korea, registration of paraquat-containing herbicides was canceled in November 2011, and sales thereof were completely banned in November 2012. We evaluated the effect of the paraquat ban on the epidemiology and mortality of herbicide-induced poisoning. This retrospective study analyzed patients treated for herbicide poisoning at 17 emergency departments in South Korea between January 2010 and December 2014. The overall and paraquat mortality rates were compared pre- and post-ban. Factors associated with herbicide mortality were evaluated using logistic analysis. To determine if there were any changes in the mortality rates before and after the paraquat sales ban and the time point of any such significant changes in mortality, R software, version 3.0.3 (package, bcp) was used to perform a Bayesian change point analysis. We enrolled 2257 patients treated for herbicide poisoning (paraquat=46.8%). The overall and paraquat poisoning mortality rates were 40.6% and 73.0%, respectively. The decreased paraquat poisoning mortality rate (before, 75% vs. after, 67%, p=0.014) might be associated with increased intentionality. The multivariable logistic analysis revealed the paraquat ban as an independent predictor that decreased herbicide poisoning mortality (p=0.035). There were two major change points in herbicide mortality rates, approximately 3 months after the initial paraquat ban and 1 year after complete sales ban. This study suggests that the paraquat ban decreased intentional herbicide ingestion and contributed to lowering herbicide poisoning-associated mortality. The change point analysis suggests a certain timeframe was required for the manifestation of regulatory measures outcomes. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  16. Methylene Blue Is Effective to Reverse Refractory Hemodynamic Instability due to Dimethoate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Youssefi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion:MB treatment was effective to reverse hypotension and restore hemodynamic instability caused by dimethoate poisoning. This index case may pave way to further investigation of MB therapy for OP-induced hemodynamic instabilities.

  17. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  18. Drugs and dilated cardiomyopathies: a case/noncase study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Guillaume; Favreliere, Sylvie; Sommet, Agnès; Pathak, Atul; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate putative associations between drugs and dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were all the observations with dilated cardiomyopathy registered into the FPVD between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2007. Noncases were all other reports other than those studied. Anthracyclines were used as positive controls. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Out of the 258 729 adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports recorded in the FPVD between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2007, 47 (22 men, mean age 49 years) were defined as dilated cardiomyopathy. In these 47 patients, 67 drugs were ‘suspect’. A significant ROR was found with cytotoxic (epirubicin, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, fluorouracil) and antiretroviral (lamividune, zidovudine, abacavir) but also with isotretinoin, prednisone, appetite suppressant (clobenzorex) and psychotropic [antipsychotic (clozapine, olanzapine), lithium, antidepressant (clomipramine, amitriptyline, fluvoxamine)] drugs. CONCLUSIONS The present study describes an association between some drugs and reports of dilated cardiomyopathies. This relationship involves not only some already suspected drugs (anthracyclines, antiretrovirals), but also other drugs (antipsychotics, lithium, antidepressants, retinoids) less known to induce such an ADR. Despite the mandatory limits of this kind of study (underreporting, confounding factors …), these data represent a pharmacovigilance signal and could contribute to establish further prospective studies in order to confirm such signals. PMID:20233200

  19. Drugs and dilated cardiomyopathies: A case/noncase study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Guillaume; Favreliere, Sylvie; Sommet, Agnès; Pathak, Atul; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate putative associations between drugs and dilated cardiomyopathy. We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were all the observations with dilated cardiomyopathy registered into the FPVD between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2007. Noncases were all other reports other than those studied. Anthracyclines were used as positive controls. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence intervals. Out of the 258 729 adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports recorded in the FPVD between 1 January 1990 and 30 June 2007, 47 (22 men, mean age 49 years) were defined as dilated cardiomyopathy. In these 47 patients, 67 drugs were 'suspect'. A significant ROR was found with cytotoxic (epirubicin, mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, fluorouracil) and antiretroviral (lamividune, zidovudine, abacavir) but also with isotretinoin, prednisone, appetite suppressant (clobenzorex) and psychotropic [antipsychotic (clozapine, olanzapine), lithium, antidepressant (clomipramine, amitriptyline, fluvoxamine)] drugs. The present study describes an association between some drugs and reports of dilated cardiomyopathies. This relationship involves not only some already suspected drugs (anthracyclines, antiretrovirals), but also other drugs (antipsychotics, lithium, antidepressants, retinoids) less known to induce such an ADR. Despite the mandatory limits of this kind of study (underreporting, confounding factors . . .), these data represent a pharmacovigilance signal and could contribute to establish further prospective studies in order to confirm such signals.

  20. The follow-up of progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using magnetic resonance rotating frame relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Arsalan; Laakso, Hanne; Laidinen, Svetlana; Kettunen, Sanna; Heikura, Tommi; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Liimatainen, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance rotating frame relaxation times are an alternative non-contrast agent choice for the diagnosis of chronic myocardial infarct. Fibrosis typically occurs in progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Fibrosis has been imaged in myocardial infarcted tissue using rotating frame relaxation times, which provides the possibility to follow up progressive cardiomyopathy without contrast agents. Mild and severe left ventricular hypertrophy were induced in mice by transverse aortic constriction, and the longitudinal rotating frame relaxation times (T 1ρ ) and relaxation along the fictitious field (T RAFF2 , T RAFF3 ) were measured at 5, 10, 24, 62 and 89 days after transverse aortic constriction in vivo. Myocardial fibrosis was verified using Masson's trichrome staining. Increases in the relative relaxation time differences of T 1ρ , together with T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 , between fibrotic and remote tissues over time were observed. Furthermore, T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 showed higher relaxation times overall in fibrotic tissue than T 1ρ . Relaxation time differences were highly correlated with an excess of histologically verified fibrosis. We found that T RAFF2 and T RAFF3 are more sensitive than T 1ρ to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related tissue changes and can serve as non-invasive diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging markers to follow up the mouse model of progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive

  2. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  3. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  4. Fabry Disease in Families With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adalsteinsdottir, Berglind; Palsson, Runolfur; Desnick, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The screening of Icelandic patients clinically diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulted in identification of 8 individuals from 2 families with X-linked Fabry disease (FD) caused by GLA(α-galactosidase A gene) mutations encoding p.D322E (family A) or p.I232T (family B...

  5. Contractile Dysfunction in Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, David H; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotype of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. The development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension and aortic stenosis is usually described as a compensatory mechanism that normalizes wall stress. We suggest that an important abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reduced contractile stress (the force per unit area) generated by myocardial tissue secondary to abnormalities such as cardiomyocyte disarray. In turn, a progressive deterioration in contractile stress provokes worsening hypertrophy and disarray. A maintained or even exaggerated ejection fraction is explained by the increased end-diastolic wall thickness producing augmented thickening. We propose that the nature of the hemodynamic load in an individual with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could determine its phenotype. Hypertensive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are more likely to develop exaggerated concentric hypertrophy; athletic individuals an asymmetric pattern; and inactive individuals a more apical hypertrophy. The development of a left ventricular outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation may be explained by differential regional strain resulting in mitral annular rotation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Update on Prognosis and Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Lee (Christiaan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an intriguing disease due to its heterogeneity in genetic, morphologic, and clinical spectrum. The insights in the prognosis and natural history of HCM have evolved tremendously over the past 40 years. The fi rst studies, which contained data

  7. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Athletes: Catching a Killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J.

    1993-01-01

    A leading cause of sudden death among young athletes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) does not always present cardiac signs and symptoms. Echocardiography offers the most effective means for diagnosis. Some patients require pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. Patients with HCM should not engage in organized competitive sports or…

  8. Clinical and molecular classification of cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cecchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “cardiomyopathies” was used for the first time 55 years ago, in 1957. Since then awareness and knowledge of this important and complex group of heart muscle diseases have improved substantially. Over these past five decades a large number of definitions, nomenclature and schemes, have been advanced by experts and consensus panel, which reflect the fast and continued advance of the scientific understanding in the field. Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of inherited myocardial diseases, which represent an important cause of disability and adverse outcome. Although considered rare diseases, the overall estimated prevalence of all cardiomyopathies is at least 3% in the general population worldwide. Furthermore, their recognition is increasing due to advances in imaging techniques and greater awareness in both the public and medical community. Cardiomyopathies represent an ideal translational model of integration between basic and clinical sciences. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore essential in order to ensure their correct diagnosis and management. In the present work, we aim to provide a concise overview of the historical background, genetic and phenotypic spectrum and evolving concepts leading to the various attempts of cardiomyopathy classifications produced over the decades.

  9. Functional effects of losartan in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin Irene; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. METHODS: Echocardiography, exercise...

  10. Pregnancy in women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, P. G.; Walker, F.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is increasingly being diagnosed in pregnant women. Women with HCM generally tolerate pregnancy well. The risk is however higher in women who are symptomatic before pregnancy or in those with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The incidence of

  11. Advanced biotherapy for the treatment of sulfur mustard poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxue; Yang, Yuyan; Meng, Wenqi; Xu, Qingqiang; Lin, Fengwu; Chen, Yongchun; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Kai

    2018-04-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress. By highlighting these and other research studies, we hereby summarize the progress in this field in an effort to provide useful information on the clinical treatment of SM poisoning. This review summarizes the major advances of SM poisoning therapy by means of biological products (peptide and protein drugs, polysaccharides drugs, nucleic acid drugs, etc.), and cell transplantation (e.g., bone marrow, limbal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells), as well as other relevant biotherapeutic approaches. We searched the database PubMed for published domestic and international articles using web based resources for information on histological, immunochemical, ultrastructural, and treatment features of SM-induced manifestations in both animal models and human tissues. To this end, we applied keywords containing mustard gas, chemical warfare, SM, eye, lung and skin. Our review provides a comprehensive understanding of the advances of available biotherapies in SM poisoning, and its potential for the treatment of SM-induced injuries. Potentially, our review will provide new insights for future research studies in this field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  13. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  14. A Systematic Review of Phenotypic Features Associated With Cardiac Troponin I Mutations in Hereditary Cardiomyopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jens; Hey, Thomas; Lambrecht, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic investigations have established that mutations in proteins of the contractile unit of the myocardium, known as the sarcomere, may be associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It has become clinical...

  15. Gene-specific increase in the energetic cost of contraction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by thick filament mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjas-Paalberends, E.R.; Guclu, A.; Germans, T.; Knaapen, P.; Harms, H.J.; Vermeer, A.M.C.; Christiaans, I.; Wilde, A.A.M.; dos Remedios, C.; Lammertsma, A.A.; van Rossum, A.C.; Stienen, G.J.M.; van Slegtenhorst, M.; Schinkel, A.F.; Michels, M.; Ho, C.Y.; Poggesi, C.; van der Velden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Disease mechanisms regarding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are largely unknown and disease onset varies. Sarcomere mutations might induce energy depletion for which until now there is no direct evidence at sarcomere level in human HCM. This study investigated if mutations in genes encoding

  16. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuyuan [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Chen, Jiaxi [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Medical School, 5235 Harry Hine Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States); Huang, Pintong [Department of Ultrasonography, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Meng, Xing-Li; Clayton, Sandra; Shen, Jin-Song [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Grayburn, Paul A., E-mail: paulgr@baylorhealth.edu [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 621 N. Hall St, Suite H030, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation.

  17. [Living conditions and pattern of acute poisonings in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvik, Hallgeir Mæsel; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Bjørnaas, Mari Asphjell; Hovda, Knut Erik; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-08-09

    Hospitalized patients with acute poisoning come from all classes of society. The relationship between living conditions and pattern of poisoning is, however, unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the connection between living conditions in Oslo and the pattern of acute poisonings, measured by incidence, main toxic agents and intention. A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all patients ≥ 18 years of age with a registered address in Oslo admitted to an Oslo hospital with acute poisoning from 1 April 2003 through 31 March 2004. The 15 city districts were grouped into three, according to the official living conditions index in Oslo: city district group 1 (best living conditions), city district group 2 (average living conditions) and city district group 3 (most difficult living conditions). Of a total of 947 patients admitted with acute poisoning as their main diagnosis in the study period, 691 were included in the study, 660 of whom had self-inflicted poisoning. In city district group 3, the annual incidence of acute poisonings was 2.14 per 1000 inhabitants, significantly higher than city district group 2, with 1.50 (p < 0.001), and city district group 1, with 1.36 (p < 0.001). Measured as intention assessed by the treating physician, suicidal and drug related poisonings and those induced by a "cry for help" were more common in city district group 3 (0.74, 0.59 and 0.74 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively) than in city district group 2 (0.62, 0.40 and 0.41, respectively) and city district group 1 (0.52, 0.32 and 0.45, respectively). The main toxic agents were predominantly benzodiazepines (20 %), ethanol (18 %) and paracetamol (12 %). There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of main toxic agents between the city district groups. The findings show a social gradient, with the highest incidence of poisonings in the city district group with the most difficult living conditions.

  18. Severe acute caffeine poisoning due to intradermal injections: Mesotherapy hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caffeine is indicated in the treatment of migraine headaches, as well as neonatal apnea and bradycardia syndrome. In mild poisoning, the most prevalent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tremor, anxiety and headache. In more severe cases, symptoms consist of heart rythym abnormalities, myocardial infarction and seizures. Due to its common lipolytic effect, caffeine is used in mesotherapy, usually in combination with drugs of similar effect. We presented a patient with acute iatrogenic caffeine poisoning. Case report. A 51-year-old woman, with preexisting hypertension and hypertensive cardiomyopathy was subjected to cosmetic treatment in order to remove fat by intradermal caffeine injections. During the treatment the patient felt sickness, an urge to vomit, and a pronounced deterioration of general condition. Upon examination, the patient exhibited somnolence, hypotension and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, which was sufficient enough evidence for further hospitalization. On admission to the intensive care unit the patient was anxious with increased heart rate, normotensive, with cold, damp skin, and visible traces of injection sites with surrounding hematomas on the anterior abdominal wall. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT on electrocardiographic monitoring was found. The laboratory analysis determined a lowered potassium level of 2.1 mmol/L (normal range 3,5 - 5.2 mmol/L, and a toxicological analysis (liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection proved a toxic concentration of caffeine in plasma - 85.03 mg/L (toxic concentration over 25 mg/L. On application of intensive therapy, antiarrhythmics, and substitution of potassium, as well as both symptomatic and supportive therapy, there was a significant recovery. The patient was discharged without any sequele within four days. Conclusion. A presented rare iatrogenic acute caffeine poisoning occured due to massive absorption of caffeine from the

  19. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular torsion in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christian; Faber, Lothar; Horstkotte, Dieter; Körperich, Hermann; Moysich, Axel; Haas, Nikolaus; Kececioglu, Deniz; Thorsten Laser, Kai

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of torsion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in children. A total of 88 children with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 24) and concentric hypertrophy (n = 20) were investigated with speckle-tracking echocardiography and compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 44). In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we found increased torsion (2.8 ± 1.6 versus 1.9 ± 1.0°/cm [controls], p Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients demonstrated a negative correlation between left ventricular muscle mass and torsion (r = -0.7, p hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterised by predominantly enhanced systolic basal clockwise rotation. Diastolic untwisting is delayed in both groups. Torsion may be an interesting marker to guide patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  2. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy and neonatal hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Masson, P; Millet, V; Simeoni, U

    2004-10-01

    Cushing's syndrome is rare in pregnancy but can cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth or premature birth. We report a case of transient hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in a newborn whose mother had hypercortisolism due to a primary adrenal lesion. There was no family history of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Follow-up revealed complete resolution of the cardiac abnormalities in the infant. Cushing's syndrome in the mother resolved after delivery. Although maternal hypercortisolism seldom results in symptomatic hypercortisolism in the newborn, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy can occur.

  3. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in cattle in the region of Pernambuco, Brazil and to determine if it is possible to induce food aversion by P. aeneofusca poisoning in cattle raised under extensive ...

  4. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  7. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress with genetic cardiomyopathies: Screening, counseling, and testing in dilated, hypertrophic and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Ray E.; Cowan, Jason; Morales, Ana; Siegfried, Jill D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on the genetic cardiomyopathies: principally dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), with salient features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), regarding genetic etiology, genetic testing, and genetic counseling. Enormous progress has recently been made in identifying genetic causes for each cardiomyopathy, and key phenotype and genotype information is reviewed. Clinical genetic testing is rapidly emerging with a principal rationale of identifying at-risk asymptomatic or disease-free relatives. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation can guide clinical surveillance for disease onset, thereby enhancing preventive and treatment interventions. Genetic counseling is also indicated for patients and their family members regarding the symptoms of their cardiomyopathy, its inheritance pattern, family screening recommendations, and genetic testing options and possible results. PMID:19808347

  9. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  10. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  11. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... public education about poison prevention and clinical toxicology training for many different healthcare... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and education... currently provide poison center services to the citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

  12. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  13. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (ALP is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  14. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  15. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  16. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  17. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  18. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...

  19. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  20. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  1. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Fukiko; Hamamichi, Yuuji; Hashimoto, Ikuo; Tsubata, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ayumi; Okada, Toshio; Futatsuya, Ryuusuke; Okada, Eikichi (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    To evaluate the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the anatomical diagnosis and tissue characterization, 8 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied comparing with echocardiography and [sup 201]Tl myocardial imaging. The severity and distribution of hypertrophy were comparable on echocardiography and MRI. MRI was superior to echocardiography to demonstrate the apical hypertrophy. In 4 patients with severe hypertrophy, heterogenous high signal intensity was demonstrated in the site of hypertrophy, which was enhanced by T[sub 2] weighted imaging. In the patient with decreased cardiac performance and progressed cardiac failure, the heterogeneity and high signal intensity progressed in one year interval. Simultaneously performed [sup 201]Tl myocardial imaging showed patchy perfusion defect. Histological findings of the left ventricle demonstrated hypertrophy, degeneration and marked dysarray of the myocytes and fibrosis. MRI has the potential ability for the evaluation and sequential monitoring of myocardial tissue characterization as well as cardiac anatomy in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author).

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Parga, Jose Rodrigues; Arteaga, Edmundo; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Setor de Tomografia Computarizada e Ressonancia Magnetica Cardiovascular]. E-mail: rochitte@incor.usp.br; Kim, Raymond J. [Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tassi, Eduardo Marinho [Diagnosticos da America S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sector of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography

    2007-03-15

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequent genetic cardiac disease that causes sudden death in young people, with an incidence of 1:500 adults. The routinely used criteria for worst prognosis have limited sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the estimated risk of evolving to dilated cardiomyopathy or sudden death is somewhat inaccurate, leading to management uncertainty of HCM patients. Therefore, an accurate noninvasive method for the diagnosis of HCM with prognostic value is of great importance. In the last years, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) emerged not only as a diagnostic tool, but also as a study with prognostic values, by characterizing myocardial fibrosis with great accuracy in HCM patients. Additionally, CMR identifies the types of hypertrophy, analyses the ventricular function, estimates the intraventricular gradient and allows the determination of differential diagnosis. Moreover, CMR can uniquely access myocardial fibrosis in HCM. (author)

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Parga, Jose Rodrigues; Arteaga, Edmundo; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Tassi, Eduardo Marinho

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequent genetic cardiac disease that causes sudden death in young people, with an incidence of 1:500 adults. The routinely used criteria for worst prognosis have limited sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the estimated risk of evolving to dilated cardiomyopathy or sudden death is somewhat inaccurate, leading to management uncertainty of HCM patients. Therefore, an accurate noninvasive method for the diagnosis of HCM with prognostic value is of great importance. In the last years, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) emerged not only as a diagnostic tool, but also as a study with prognostic values, by characterizing myocardial fibrosis with great accuracy in HCM patients. Additionally, CMR identifies the types of hypertrophy, analyses the ventricular function, estimates the intraventricular gradient and allows the determination of differential diagnosis. Moreover, CMR can uniquely access myocardial fibrosis in HCM. (author)

  6. Developments in the management of Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S; Spray, David C; Friedman, Joel M; Weiss, Oren S; Lora, Jose N; Nagajyothi, Jyothi; Moraes, Diego N; Garg, Nisha Jain; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2015-12-01

    Over 100 years have elapsed since the discovery of Chagas disease and there is still much to learn regarding pathogenesis and treatment. Although there are antiparasitic drugs available, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, they are not totally reliable and often toxic. A recently released negative clinical trial with benznidazole in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy further reinforces the concerns regarding its effectiveness. New drugs and new delivery systems, including those based on nanotechnology, are being sought. Although vaccine development is still in its infancy, the reality of a therapeutic vaccine remains a challenge. New ECG methods may help to recognize patients prone to developing malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The management of heart failure, stroke and arrhythmias also remains a challenge. Although animal experiments have suggested that stem cell based therapy may be therapeutic in the management of heart failure in Chagas cardiomyopathy, clinical trials have not been promising.

  7. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  8. [Severity factors of aluminium phosphide poisoning (Phostoxin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajouji Idrissi, M; Oualili, L; Abidi, K; Abouqal, R; Kerkeb, O; Zeggwagh, A A

    2006-04-01

    To determine characteristics of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning (AAlPP) and to evaluate its severity factors. Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive cases of AAlPP admitted in medical ICU (Hospital Avicenne, Rabat, Morocco) between January 1992 and December 2002 were studied. AAlPP was identified by history, symptoms and toxicological results. Almost 50 parameters have been collected and compared between survivors and non-survivors groups. Data were analyzed using Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney test. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled: 17 female and 11 male, average age = 24+/-11 years, SAPS II = 24.4+/-14.5. The ingested dose was 3.3+/-1.8 g. The self-poisoning was observed in 27 cases and delay before hospital admission was 11+/-13 hours. Mean Glasgow coma scale was 14+/-2. Shock was found in 22 (79%) cases. Average pH was 7.1+/-0.4 and bicarbonate concentration was 16.3+/-8.8 mmol/l. The ECG abnormalities were noted in 20 (72%) cases. The average mortality rate was 61%. The prognostic factors were SAPS II (p = 0.031), Apache II (p = 0.037), shock (p = 0.022), ECG abnormalities (p = 0.05), use of vasoactive drugs (p = 0.05) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.003). AAlPP induced a significantly high mortality and haemodynamic disturbances were a risk factor of poor outcome.

  9. Electrolyte Disorders as Triggers for Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Andreozzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman presented with cognitive impairment, confusion and slowed speech, muscle cramps and peripheral paraesthesia preceded by vomiting. Blood tests revealed severe hypokalaemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcaemia. Following a diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy based on ultrasonography, the patient was treated with electrolyte supplementation and recovered within 48h. When heart failure is suspected, electrolyte abnormalities should be carefully ruled out as they can affect cardiac function.

  10. Are bacterial volatile compounds poisonous odors to a fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, alarm signals to Arabidopsis seedlings for eliciting induced resistance, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min eRyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control (biocontrol agents act on plants via numerous mechanisms, and can be used to protect plants from pathogens. Biocontrol agents can act directly as pathogen antagonists or competitors or indirectly to promote plant induced systemic resistance (ISR. Whether a biocontrol agent acts directly or indirectly depends on the specific strain and the pathosystem type. We reported previously that bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs are determinants for eliciting plant ISR. Emerging data suggest that bacterial VOCs also can directly inhibit fungal and plant growth. The aim of the current study was to differentiate direct and indirect mechanisms of bacterial VOC effects against Botrytis cinerea infection of Arabidopsis. Volatile emissions from Bacillus subtilis GB03 successfully protected Arabidopsis seedlings against B. cinerea. First, we investigated the direct effects of bacterial VOCs on symptom development and different phenological stages of B. cinerea including spore germination, mycelial attachment to the leaf surface, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro and in planta. Volatile emissions inhibited hyphal growth in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and interfered with fungal attachment on the hydrophobic leaf surface. Second, the optimized bacterial concentration that did not directly inhibit fungal growth successfully protected Arabidopsis from fungal infection, which indicates that bacterial VOC-elicited plant ISR has a more important role in biocontrol than direct inhibition of fungal growth on Arabidopsis. We performed qRT-PCR to investigate the priming of the defense-related genes PR1, PDF1.2, and ChiB at 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours post-infection and 14 days after the start of plant exposure to bacterial VOCs. The results indicate that bacterial VOCs potentiate expression of PR1 and PDF1.2 but not ChiB, which stimulates SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways in plant ISR and protects plants against pathogen

  11. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-03-14

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Two different cardiomyopathies in a single patient : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, M; Ozben, B; Mutlu, B

    2013-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a complex and relatively common genetic disorder characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, usually associated with a nondilated and hyperdynamic chamber with heterogeneous phenotypic expression and clinical course. On the other hand, LV noncompaction is an uncommon cardiomyopathy characterized by the persistence of fetal myocardium with a pattern of prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses, systolic dysfunction, and LV dilatation. We report a 29-year-old man with these two different inherent conditions. Our case raises the possibility of a genetic mutation common to these two clinical entities or different gene mutations existing in the same individual.

  13. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Veronica; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndrome often affects post-menopausal women and is triggered by sympathetic overstimulation, like intense physical or emotional stress, so that it is called the “broken heart syndrome”. Although left-ventricular systolic dysfunction usually fully recovers within few days, heart failure can still complicate the early phase. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy that had full recovery after 4 weeks of follow up. The main electrocardiographic, angiographic and imaging features are discussed. PMID:24689016

  14. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  15. Shared Genetic Predisposition in Peripartum and Dilated Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, James S; Li, Jian; Mazaika, Erica; Yasso, Christopher M; DeSouza, Tiffany; Cappola, Thomas P; Tsai, Emily J; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Kamiya, Chizuko A; Mazzarotto, Francesco; Cook, Stuart A; Halder, Indrani; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pisarcik, Jessica; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Alharethi, Rami; Damp, Julie; Hsich, Eileen; Elkayam, Uri; Sheppard, Richard; Kealey, Angela; Alexis, Jeffrey; Ramani, Gautam; Safirstein, Jordan; Boehmer, John; Pauly, Daniel F; Wittstein, Ilan S; Thohan, Vinay; Zucker, Mark J; Liu, Peter; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-01-21

    Background Peripartum cardiomyopathy shares some clinical features with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder caused by mutations in more than 40 genes, including TTN, which encodes the sarcomere protein titin. Methods In 172 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, we sequenced 43 genes with variants that have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. We compared the prevalence of different variant types (nonsense, frameshift, and splicing) in these women with the prevalence of such variants in persons with dilated cardiomyopathy and with population controls. Results We identified 26 distinct, rare truncating variants in eight genes among women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of truncating variants (26 in 172 [15%]) was significantly higher than that in a reference population of 60,706 persons (4.7%, P=1.3×10(-7)) but was similar to that in a cohort of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (55 of 332 patients [17%], P=0.81). Two thirds of identified truncating variants were in TTN, as seen in 10% of the patients and in 1.4% of the reference population (P=2.7×10(-10)); almost all TTN variants were located in the titin A-band. Seven of the TTN truncating variants were previously reported in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In a clinically well-characterized cohort of 83 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, the presence of TTN truncating variants was significantly correlated with a lower ejection fraction at 1-year follow-up (P=0.005). Conclusions The distribution of truncating variants in a large series of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy was remarkably similar to that found in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. TTN truncating variants were the most prevalent genetic predisposition in each disorder.

  16. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  17. Fuel elements containing burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)

  18. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  19. Poisoning Safety Fact Sheet (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Control Website. Unintentional poisoning fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ injury/ wisqars/ . Accessed February 23, ... In-Depth Look at Keeping Young Children Safe Around Medicine. Washington, DC: Safe Kids Worldwide, ...

  20. Intensive therapy for chloroquine poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lavage, intravenous diazepam, mechanical ventilation when necessary, and occasionally inotropic infusions. Four patients suffered cardiac arrest during gastric lavage. There were 6 deaths (mortality 20.7%). Conclusions. This study indicates the common clinical features of acute chloroquine poisoning. A survival rate of.

  1. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  2. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  3. Myocardial overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ebermann, Linda; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wika, Sylwia; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Dörner, Andrea; Walther, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a common complication of diabetes. Adenosine nucleotide translocase (ANT) translocates ADP/ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that overexpression of ANT1 in cardiomyocytes has cardioprotective effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Mice specifically overexpressing murine ANT1 in the heart were generated using alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Expression of ANT1 mRNA and protein in hearts was characterized by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Five- to 6-month-old male transgenic mice and their age-matched wild-type littermates were subjected to type 1 diabetes induced by STZ. Six weeks later, haemodynamic measurement was performed to assess cardiac function. Ventricular mRNA expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, a molecular marker of heart failure, was characterized by RNase-protection assay. Both ANT1 mRNA and ANT1 protein were specifically overexpressed in the heart of transgenic mice. Heart weight was decreased and cardiac function was dramatically impaired in wild-type mice 6 weeks after induction of diabetes, but ANT1 overexpression prevented these significant changes. The mRNA expression level of atrial natriuretic peptide confirmed the haemodynamic findings, being upregulated in wild-type mice receiving STZ, but showing no statistical differences in ANT1 transgenic mice. Cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of ANT1 prevents the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy; therefore, accelerated ADP/ATP exchange could be a new promising target to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers after anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Edward J; Nair, Anju; Daoud, Yahya; Blum, Joanne L

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer remains the fourth-leading cause of death in the United States. Nearly 10% of breast cancers are hereditary, with deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes being the leading cause. Anthracycline chemotherapy, used commonly for breast cancer, carries cardiotoxicity risk. Recent studies demonstrated anthracycline-induced cardiac failure in homozygous BRCA2-deficient mice and increased rates of heart failure in homozygous BRCA1-deficient mice following ischemic insult. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective matched cohort study to determine the rates of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in breast cancer patients with germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes compared to age-matched patients without a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. The primary endpoint was to determine the rate of cardiomyopathy defined as either congestive heart failure or asymptomatic decline in ejection fraction to BRCA1, 45 BRCA2, and two with both), who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy were compared to a matched cohort of breast cancer patients with wild-type BRCA gene status. We found a 4.9% rate of cardiomyopathy in the BRCA mutation carriers and 5.2% in the matched controls (p = 0.99). Cox proportional hazards model showed that only trastuzumab and hypertension were significantly associated with the development of cardiomyopathy in both groups (p BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 gene mutations treated with standard doses of anthracycline compared to the general population.

  5. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a snake bite victim: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in patients with severe emotional or physiologic stress. The prognosis is usually favorable, and the left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis normalizes within days to weeks. In this paper we report a case of snake bite complicated by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We advise physicians to ...

  6. Multivessel myocardial bridging in a patient with spiral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Timothy; Abdallah, Wissam; McNamara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, usually confined to the left anterior descending (LAD), and correlates to the hypertrophic septum. We present a patient with unique spiral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and compression of all three coronary arteries corresponding to this hypertrophy pattern.

  7. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with 3rd-degree atrioventricular block.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, K L; Cameron, R W; Bigham, P J; Neish, S R

    1997-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with exercise intolerance and near syncope. Electrocardiography showed 3rd-degree atrioventricular block. He was treated emergently with temporary transvenous ventricular pacing. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Subsequently, a permanent, transvenous, dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rarely causes complete atrioventricular block. It is particularly unusual for the presenting symptoms of hypertro...

  8. Septal alcoholization in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: about 11 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcomes of septal alcoholization in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are not enough studied in all centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes of septal alcoholization in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in our hospital. A retrospective and prospective descriptive study focused on all ...

  9. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  10. Bilateral brachial plexus injury following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mounia; Belaidi, Halima; Benabdeljlil, Maria; Bouchhab, Wafa; El Jazouli, Nadia; El Brini, Asmae; Aidi, Saadia; Ouazzani, Reda M; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. It consists usually in a demyelinating polyneuropathy or mononeuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs. Isolated involvement of both upper extremities has been described in only 4 patients related to root damage. We report the first case of bilateral brachial plexus injury following CO poisoning and review all previous CO-induced neuropa...

  11. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region. PMID:22923947

  12. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region.

  13. Basal wall hypercontraction of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient who had been diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Noboru; Fujita, Shuichi; Kanzaki, Yumiko; Fujisaka, Tomohiro; Ozeki, Michishige; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-12-12

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by the basal hypercontractility and apical ballooning of the left ventriculum and T-wave inversion in the electrocardiogram. It has been suggested that Takotsubo cardiomyopathy might underlie the pathogenesis of persistent cardiac dysfunction; however, few reports are present demonstrating the advent of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy. A 64-year-old women was admitted due to dyspnea on effort and lower extremity edema. She had been diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy 2.5 years before owing to the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (24%), normal coronary artery, and interstitial fibrosis of the myocardial samples. On admission, her electrocardiogram showed giant negative T wave in II, III, aVF, and precordial leads. Echocardiography showed dyskinesis of the left ventricular apex and hypercontraction of the basal wall, which had not been observed in the previous examinations. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries, and apical ballooning and basal hypercontractility was confirmed by left ventriculography. On day 15 of admission, contraction of apical wall was recovered, and basal hypercontraction was disappeared. The present case is the first report demonstrating appearance the transient basal wall hypercontraction along with the advent of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. Whether such findings are indicative of fair prognosis and have the utility of understanding the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy needs further investigation.

  14. Current Understanding of Molecular Pathology and Treatment of Cardiomyopathy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirsa L. E. van Westering

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a genetic muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene resulting in the loss of the protein dystrophin. Patients do not only experience skeletal muscle degeneration, but also develop severe cardiomyopathy by their second decade, one of the main causes of death. The absence of dystrophin in the heart renders cardiomyocytes more sensitive to stretch-induced damage. Moreover, it pathologically alters intracellular calcium (Ca2+ concentration, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS localization and mitochondrial function and leads to inflammation and necrosis, all contributing to the development of cardiomyopathy. Current therapies only treat symptoms and therefore the need for targeting the genetic defect is immense. Several preclinical therapies are undergoing development, including utrophin up-regulation, stop codon read-through therapy, viral gene therapy, cell-based therapy and exon skipping. Some of these therapies are undergoing clinical trials, but these have predominantly focused on skeletal muscle correction. However, improving skeletal muscle function without addressing cardiac aspects of the disease may aggravate cardiomyopathy and therefore it is essential that preclinical and clinical focus include improving heart function. This review consolidates what is known regarding molecular pathology of the DMD heart, specifically focusing on intracellular Ca2+, nNOS and mitochondrial dysregulation. It briefly discusses the current treatment options and then elaborates on the preclinical therapeutic approaches currently under development to restore dystrophin thereby improving pathology, with a focus on the heart.

  15. [Star anise poisoning in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L

    2003-07-01

    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  16. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  17. Cardiomyopathy Associated with Celiac Disease in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Boskovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is predominantly a disease of the small intestine characterized by chronic malabsorption in genetically susceptible individuals who ingest grains containing gluten, such as wheat, barley, and rye. Although previously believed to be uncommon, celiac disease may be present in up to 1% of the adult and children population. Celiac disease is associated frequently with iron-deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, selective IgA deficiency, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and various connective tissue disorders but is rarely associated with cardiomyopathy.

  18. The Role of Echocardiography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ping Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a common genetic cardiovascular disease and appears in all ethnic groups. HCM is diagnosed on the basis of left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography is a key technique in the diagnosis of HCM, the prognosis of patients with HCM, the management strategy for HCM, and the follow-up of patients with HCM. This review briefly describes and discusses the practical use of established echocardiography techniques and the current and emerging echocardiographic methods that can help physicians in the correct diagnostic and pathophysiological assessment of patients with HCM.

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy following use of xenadrine EFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Graziano; Speziale, Giuseppe; Scotti, Luca; Bucciarelli, Valentina; Cappetti, Silvia; Nasso, Giuseppe; Gallina, Sabina; Bucciarelli, Tonino

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 35-year-old man presented at the emergency room of our institution with acute onset of dyspnea and dizziness. He was a body builder and had been using Xenadrine EFX for weight loss reduction. The laboratory analyses were normal. A chest radiograph showed an enlarged cardiac silhouette with clear lung fields. Transtoracic two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography revealed a diffuse hypokinesia with a marked decreased in systolic function and a high teledyastolic diameter. This case document the possible relation to use of Xenadrine EFX for weight loss and the recurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26680256

  20. Dilated cardiomyopathy - approach made simplified with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and cardiac viability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, Shwetal; Maitra, R.; Tilve, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To differentiate the ischemic vs nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and to assess myocardial viability in the ischemic cardiomyopathy. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (24 males and 10 females) with dilated cardiomyopathy diagnosed on echocardiography with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and global hypokinesia were included between the period of Jan 2009 and July 2010. All the patients underwent rest myocardial perfusion scintigraphy first; 45 minutes after intravenous injection of 7 mCi of 99m Tc MIBI. The stress myocardial perfusion imaging (after physical stress or gm/kg/min; 6 min infusion) was pharmacological stress with adenosine; 140 performed in the patients with normal perfusion at rest. The 18 F FDG (5 mCi) cardiac viability studies were performed in patient with abnormal rest myocardial perfusion. The images were acquired on GE Infinia systems and processed on Emory toolbox (ECT) to study the ischemia and viability. Results: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was found to be 27.38% at rest. The stress and rest perfusion scintigraphy was carried out in 20/34(58%) patients in whom 9(45%) patients underwent pharmacological stress with Inj adenosine and 11(55%) patients underwent physical stress. The stress induced ischemia was diagnosed in 12(60%) patients and infarct in 2(10%) patients with mixed ischemia and infarct pattern in 2(10%) patients. The nonischemic cause was diagnosed in 4 patients. The cardiac viability study was carried out in 14/34 (42%) patients with 6(42%) viable, 5(35%) nonviable and 3(21%) mixed viable and nonviable patterns were identified. Conclusion: The myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was the simplified approach for differentiating ischemic verses nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with addition of cardiac viability study ( 18 FDG) made it one stop shop for the complete work-up of patients for further management