WorldWideScience

Sample records for poison gas impurities

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  2. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black...

  3. Fuel clean-up: poisoning of palladium-silver membranes by gaseous impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.; Lecomte, J.; Grumet, C.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of a permeation process using a palladium-silver alloy membrane, to separate deuterium and tritium from fusion reactor gaseous wastes needs demonstration owing to poisoning effects of impurities. A parametric investigation of the poisoning by the most important expected gaseous impurities (C0, C0 2 and CH 4 ) is carried out with the loop PALLAS, in function of membrane temperature (100 to 450 0 C), H 2 pressure (0.3 to 14 kPa) and impurity concentration (0.2 to 9.5 vol. %). The poisoning effect of C0 is a concern for the process while C0 2 and CH 4 appear to have no practical effect on the permeation rate. Depending on C0 concentration optimal operating temperatures of the membrane should lie between 250 and 375 0 C limits

  4. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugov, Yu.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of concentration, separation, detection in gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds including low-boiling gases, reactive gases, organometallic compounds, free metals, anions, etc. are reviewed. Methods of reaction gas chromatography for determining reactive gases, water, anions, metal chelates are considered in detail as well as methods of reaction-sorption concentration and reaction gas extraction. The application of gas chromatograpny ior anaiysis of water and atmosphere contamination, for determination of impurities in highly pure solid substances and gases is described

  6. Experimental Characterization of the Poisoning Effects of Methanol-Based Reformate Impurities on a PBI-Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon Araya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of reformate gas impurities on a H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC are studied. A unit cell assembly with a BASF Celtec®-P2100 high temperature membrane electrode assembly (MEA of 45 cm2 active surface area is investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy. The concentrations in the anode feed gas of all impurities, unconverted methanol-water vapor mixture, CO and CO2 were varied along with current density according to a multilevel factorial design of experiments. Results show that all the impurities degrade the performance, with CO being the most degrading agent and CO2 the least. The factorial analysis shows that there is interdependence among the effects of the different factors considered. This interdependence suggests, for example, that tolerances to concentrations of CO above 2% may be compromised by the presence in the anode feed of CO2. Methanol has a poisoning effect on the fuel cell at all the tested feed ratios, and the performance drop is found to be proportional to the amount of methanol in feed gas. The effects are more pronounced when other impurities are also present in the feed gas, especially at higher methanol concentrations.

  7. Noble gas atoms as chemical impurities in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Mudryi, A.V.; Minaev, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of noble gas atoms implanted in silicon is studied by the luminescence method. The energy position of Moessbauer-type luminescence bands with zero-phonon lines 1.0148, 1.0120, 1.0097, 1.0048 eV and others connected with implanted atoms of neon, helium, argon, krypton, respectively, indicates the formation of deep energy levels in the forbidden gap of silicon. Implantation of the noble gas isotopes confirms their participation in formation processes of the luminescence centers in silicon. The temperature range of existence and the symmetry of defects incorporating the noble gas atoms are found. It is noted that noble gas atoms form impurity complexes with deep energy levels and their behaviour in crystals does not differ from that of main doped or residual technological impurity atoms. (author)

  8. Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco; Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the authors (Vega Reyes et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306). Two routes have been considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences) and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross-coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime) large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of the parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier–Stokes domain

  9. Hydrogen gas getters: Susceptibility to poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroz, E.J.; Dye, R.C.; Duke, J.R.; Weinrach, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 40% (∼9,000) of the ∼23,000 transuranic (TRU) waste drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are presently unshippable because conservative calculations suggest that the hydrogen concentration may exceed the lower explosive limit for hydrogen. This situation extends across nearly all DOE sites holding and generating TRU waste. The incorporation of a hydrogen getter such as DEB into the waste drums (or the TRUPACT II shipping containers) could substantially mitigate the explosion risk. The result would be to increase the number of drums that qualify for transportation to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without having to resort to expensive re-packaging or waste treatment technologies. However, before this approach can be implemented, key technical questions must be answered. Foremost among these is the question of whether the presence of other chemical vapors and gases in the drum might poison the catalytic reaction between hydrogen and DEB. This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to obtain fundamental information on the chemical mechanism of the catalytic reaction of hydrogen with one commonly used hydrogen getter, DEB. Experiments with these materials showed that the method of exposure affects the nature of the reaction products. The results of this work contributed to the development of a mechanistic model of the reaction

  10. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. Regularly test and replace the batteries. Poisoning treatment Treatment depends on the person and the type ... Injury Prevention, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: chemical ... poison treatments, snakebite, syrup of ipecac July 12, 2017 Featured ...

  11. [Poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas: 22 cases study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Min; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Ming-Chang; He, Meng

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the case characteristics of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas and provide references for forensic identification and prevention of such accidents. Twenty-two cases of poisoning by exhaust gas of the imperfect combustion of natural gas in Minhang District during 2004 to 2013 were collected. Some aspects such as general conditions of deaths, incidence time, weather, field investigation, and autopsy were retrospectively analyzed. In the 22 cases, there were 15 males and 16 females. The age range was between 2 and 82 years old. The major occurring time was in January or February (8 cases in each) and the cases almost occurred in small area room (21 cases). There was wide crack next to the exhaust port when the gas water heater was been used in all cases. There are more prone to occurrence of exhaust gas poisoning of imperfect combustion of natural gas in small area room with a ventilation window near the exhaust port of gas water heated. It shows that the scene of combustion exhaust gas poisoning should be more concerned in the cold season.

  12. Sulfur Poisoning of the Water Gas Shift Reaction on Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke

    2013-01-01

    resistance increased both in the high and low frequency region, which indicates a strong poisoning of the water gas shift reaction and thus a lack of hydrogen fuel in addition to the poisoning of the electrochemical hydrogen oxidation. All poisoning effects are reversible under the applied operating...

  13. Gas generation in pure and impure plutonium-bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.; Allen, T.; Eller, P.G.; Hagan, R.; Horrell, D.; Rink, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) materials identification and surveillance (MIS) project identifies materials to be stored in DOE-STD-3013-96 containers, determines the chemical and physical character of stored materials, and evaluates processing to be used to stabilize materials to meet the standard. The project has completed processing and analysis of 9 Hanford items and 24 Rocky Flats items, representing a substantial portion of the oxides to be packaged for long-term storage. The resultant data provide insight into the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials at the sites. A component of the study was to investigate gas generation for representative materials. These studies included headspace gas measurements over the 9 Hanford items, measurement of gas generation in 10-g surveillance samples of MIS powders, and pressure monitoring. Before examining the Hanford cans, sampling and analysis methods were demonstrated on HRA-905191, an item from the LANL vault. This item was not typical of materials designated to be stored in 3013 cans, as it contained plastic vials, emery cloths, paper towels, and a large percentage of thorium. However, it was one of the items that contained significant hydrogen in the headspace. A mass spectrometer was used to determine the composition of headspace gases. Oxygen was substantially depleted in all cases, and the percent of nitrogen in many items was greater than that found in air. In both cans with a high hydrogen content, the corresponding oxygen content was near zero (HRA905191 and ARF-102-85-365). In some cases, carbon dioxide was generated in the cans. Carbon monoxide was found in item BLO-39-11-85-295. This item has a high americium content, thus higher temperature than other materials examined. The only notable impurities in item BLO-39-11-85-295 were carbon at ≅0.1 wt% and chlorides at 0.2 wt%. Seven long-term surveillance vessels each holding approximately10 g of MIS powders have been monitored

  14. A conceptual and calculational model for gas formation from impure calcined plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, John L.; Eller, P. Gary

    2000-01-01

    Safe transport and storage of pure and impure plutonium oxides requires an understanding of processes that may generate or consume gases in a confined storage vessel. We have formulated conceptual and calculational models for gas formation from calcined materials. The conceptual model for impure calcined plutonium oxides is based on the data collected to date

  15. Real-Time Dynamics of an Impurity in an Ideal Bose Gas in a Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a harmonically trapped system consisting of an impurity in a dilute ideal Bose gas after the boson-impurity interaction is suddenly switched on. As theoretical framework, we use a field theory approach in the space-time domain within the T-matrix approximation. We...

  16. Novel techniques of oxygen bleeding for polymer electrolyte fuel cells under impure anode feeding and poisoning condition: A computational study using OpenFOAM®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafttananian, M.; Ramiar, A.; Ranjbar, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxygen bleeding as a treatment of poisoned fuel cells is simulated. • Oxygen bleeding, depended on impurity concentration, has an optimize range. • Three novel techniques of oxygen bleeding are introduced. • The OBME parameter is introduced to compare oxygen bleeding methods. • Pulsating and sinusoidal methods lead to 2.74 and 1.74 effectiveness, respectively. - Abstract: PEM fuel cells fed by steam methane reformate (SMR) and water gas shift reformate (WGSR) are always subjected to catalyst poisoning due to trace amounts of carbon monoxide in the fuel stream. Air or oxygen bleeding are the most common, cost-effective and easy-to-implement methods of mitigation for such conditions. In the present work, important restrictions of oxygen bleeding and disadvantages of continuous constant O_2 bleeding are introduced. In order to simulating the problem, a mathematical model containing reaction kinetics, governing equations, boundary conditions and constitutive relations are presented and according to these, a comprehensive OpenFOAM transient multicomponent solver having the capability of simulating anode side of PEM fuel cell is developed, introduced and validated with existing experimental data. In addition, three novel methods of oxygen bleeding: namely pulsating, exponential and sinusoidal methods are introduced which are practical for both open-end and dead-end fuel cells. A quantitative criterion, Oxygen Bleeding Method Effectiveness (OBME), is also introduced to attain comparability of novel methods with continuous constant O_2 bleeding as common method. Results showed up to more than 5% increase in recovery ratio accompanied with up to 63% save in oxygen consumption.

  17. Quantum Impurity in a One-dimensional Trapped Bose Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for describing an impurity in a trapped Bose system in one spatial dimension. The theory handles any external confinement, arbitrary mass ratios, and a weak interaction may be included between the Bose particles. To demonstrate our technique, we calculate th...... the ground state energy and properties of a sample system with eight bosons and find an excellent agreement with numerically exact results. Our theory can thus provide definite predictions for experiments in cold atomic gases....

  18. Impurity coupled to an artificial magnetic field in a Fermi gas in a ring trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, F. Nur; Hetényi, B.; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of a single impurity interacting with a many-particle background is one of the central problems of condensed-matter physics. Recent progress in ultracold-atom experiments makes it possible to control this dynamics by coupling an artificial gauge field specifically to the impurity. In this paper, we consider a narrow toroidal trap in which a Fermi gas is interacting with a single atom. We show that an external magnetic field coupled to the impurity is a versatile tool to probe the impurity dynamics. Using a Bethe ansatz, we calculate the eigenstates and corresponding energies exactly as a function of the flux through the trap. Adiabatic change of flux connects the ground state to excited states due to flux quantization. For repulsive interactions, the impurity disturbs the Fermi sea by dragging the fermions whose momentum matches the flux. This drag transfers momentum from the impurity to the background and increases the effective mass. The effective mass saturates to the total mass of the system for infinitely repulsive interactions. For attractive interactions, the drag again increases the effective mass which quickly saturates to twice the mass of a single particle as a dimer of the impurity and one fermion is formed. For excited states with momentum comparable to number of particles, effective mass shows a resonant behavior. We argue that standard tools in cold-atom experiments can be used to test these predictions.

  19. Poison gas and thefirst World War: key role ofpharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Poison gas has been the subject of attention from the French army (Grand Quartier General). The 22sd of April 1915, General Joffre decided that the General Direction for Health Service was in charge of the protection of troops against what he called "this new mode of terror, disease, and death". Actions are been launched to found ways for the protection means and to obtain for the army at least equivalent weapons. Pharmacists will have a leading role thanks to their knowledge in chemistry. Research laboratories were working in two areas: individual protection and production of aggressive agents. Paul Lebeau, Gabriel Bertrand, Alexandre Degrez, Charles Moureu were among many others very committed to fight and remains at the top and to react quickly to ennemy's attacks. At the end of the war, Paul Lebeau received the Legion d'Honneur medal for his contribution to war. The school of pharmacy was recognized as faculty of pharmacy, by a decree of May 14th, 1920. The knowledge that were obtained during this period will be used for the second World War, but the chemical weapon was not much used, as opposed to more recent usage in Vietnam, Irak and Syria.

  20. Analysis of impurity effect on Silicide fuels of the RSG-GAS core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran-Surbakti

    2003-01-01

    Simulation of impurity effect on silicide fuel of the RSG-GAS core has been done. The aim of this research is to know impurity effect of the U-234 and U-236 isotopes in the silicide fuels on the core criticality. The silicide fuels of 250 g U loading and 19.75 of enrichment is used in this simulation. Cross section constant of fuels and non-structure material of core are generated by WIMSD/4 computer code, meanwhile impurity concentration was arranged from 0.01% to 2%. From the result of analysis can be concluded that the isotopes impurity in the fuels could make trouble in the core and the core can not be operated at critical after a half of its cycle length (350 MW D)

  1. Use of nonlocal helium microplasma for gas impurities detection by the collisional electron spectroscopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly A., E-mail: akud@ak2138.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University, 7-9 Universitetskaya nab., 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stefanova, Margarita S.; Pramatarov, Petko M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-15

    The collisional electron spectroscopy (CES) method, which lays the ground for a new field for analytical detection of gas impurities at high pressures, has been verified. The CES method enables the identification of gas impurities in the collisional mode of electron movement, where the advantages of nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are fulfilled. Important features of dc negative glow microplasma and probe method for plasma diagnostics are applied. A new microplasma gas analyzer design is proposed. Admixtures of 0.2% Ar, 0.6% Kr, 0.1% N{sub 2}, and 0.05% CO{sub 2} are used as examples of atomic and molecular impurities to prove the possibility for detecting and identifying their presence in high pressure He plasma (50–250 Torr). The identification of the particles under analysis is made from the measurements of the high energy part of the EEDF, where maxima appear, resulting from the characteristic electrons released in Penning reactions of He metastable atoms with impurity particles. Considerable progress in the development of a novel miniature gas analyzer for chemical sensing in gas phase environments has been made.

  2. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  3. Density and impurity profile behaviours in HL-2A tokamak with different gas fuelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Ying, Cui; Yan, Zhou; Wei, Li; Bei-Bin, Feng; Ping, Sun; Chun-Feng, Dong; Yi, Liu; Wen-Yu, Hong; Qing-Wei, Yang; Xuan-Tong, Ding; Xu-Ru, Duan

    2009-01-01

    The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle locations. The density profile becomes more peaked when the line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit n G and, consequently, impurity accumulation is often observed. A linear increase regime in the density range n e G and a saturation regime in n e > 0.6n G are obtained. There is no significant difference in achieved density peaking factor f ne between the supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber. However, the achieved f ne is relatively low, in particular, in the case of density below 0.7n G , when the working gas is puffed into the divertor chamber. A discharge with a density as high as 1.2n G , i.e. n e = 1.2n G , can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall conditioning. The metallic impurities, such as iron and chromium, also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens. The mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density peaking. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  4. [Chronic CO poisoning. Use of generator gas during the second world war and recent research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H

    1997-06-30

    The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family.

  5. Effect of impurities on the two-dimensional electron gas polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The polarizability for a two-dimensional electron gas is calculated in the presence of impurities by a Green function formalism. This leads to a system with finite mean free path due to electrons scattering off impurities. The calculated polarizability is found to be strongly dependent on the mean free path. The main feature is the suppression of the sharp corner at wave vector 2ksub(F) for finite mean free paths, and the pure metal result is recovered for the infinite mean free path. A possible application of the results to the transport properties of semiconductor inversion layers is discussed. (author)

  6. Impurity of Sulfur Layers and Magmatic Gas Scrubbing: Implications for Gas Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.

    2017-12-01

    The evidence of bodies of elemental sulfur (Se) beneath acid crater lakes at the summit of composite active volcanoes has been recognized several decades ago (Oppenheimer and Stevenson, 1989; Christenson and Woods, 1993). But Se accumulation was already hypothesized a century ago at Kusatzu Shirane (Japan) based on the observation of sulfur spherules floating on its crater-lake (Ohashi, 1919). Since these pioneering works, other studies have focused on understanding key aspects of molten sulfur bodies, considered a feature unique of volcanic lakes. Instead, it is reasonable to assume that Se bodies occur in several volcanic settings because a) several reactions may lead to Se deposition from S-bearing gases, and b) crater-lakes, surface expressions of hydrothermal systems, are transient features. The scrubbing of several magmatic gases, some of which critical for volcano monitoring, has been attributed to ground/surface waters (Symonds et al. 2001). Nevertheless, gas scrubbing could reflect viscosity variations of impure Se within hydrothermal systems. Industrial experiments indicated that impurities (organics, H2S, ammonia, HCl, HF, HBr, HI) hinder Se polymerization at T ≥ 160ºC, allowing viscosity to remain low for long time depending on the maximum T achieved and heating rates (Bacon and Fanelli, 1943). However, a prolonged heating destroys the viscosity-modifying substances (e.g. H2Sx formed by reactions with organics, H2S, or ammonia) and dramatic Se viscosity increases occur after a certain number of heating and cooling cycles. A prolonged boiling of Se with organics was observed to release H2S, following H2Sx disruption. Some gases (e.g. SO2) do not affect Se viscosity. In volcanic environments gases such as SO2, CO2 could escape under Selow viscosity regimes. Also, halogens absence in gas emissions could be caused by their participation in reactions within S-layers causing its viscosity to remain low. More data are needed to validate the hypothesis

  7. Reduction of impurity contamination in a working gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Shioda, S.

    1989-01-01

    The reduction of impurity contamination in a working inert gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation is examined. A conceptual operation system of regenerative heat exchangers is proposed for minimizing the amount of combustion gas which mixes in the working inert gas. Experiments have shown that this mixing can be reduced significantly by evacuating and flushing the heat exchangers after being heated by combustion gas. Calculations have shown that, among the main molecular contaminants in the working inert gas, CO 2 , H 2 O and O 2 can be removed as compounds with the seed material, while N 2 and H 2 can be reduced by a partial purification of the circulating working inert gas. (author)

  8. The behaviour of impurities in a steady-state DT gas-blanket reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markvoort, J.A.

    1975-11-01

    A four-fluid model of a cylindrical steady-state DT gas-blanket reactor is analysed. The four fluids are electrons, deuterium-tritium, helium and a high -Z impurity. The behaviour of the plasma is described by the multifluid MHD-equations which are numerically solved with the aid of a Runge Kutta method. Whether impurities tend to concentrate on the axis is found to depend on how, in the collision term, the Nernst effect is taken into account. In order to show the influence of the Nernst terms arising from electron-ion collisions and the Nernst terms due to ion-ion collisions separately, the thermal force is dealt with in two ways. In model A, only the contribution from electron-ion collisions was considered. The computer calculations show that the impurities have their maximum concentration on the axis. A theoretical analysis explains this result. In model B, which is more realistic, these ion-ion collisions are included. The computer calculations as well as the theoretical analysis show that the influence of the thermoforce due to ion-ion collisions on the density profiles dominates over the force due to electron collisions, and lead to a minimum in the impurity density on the axis. As in model A, the analytical analysis yields relationships between the various density profiles and the temperature profile

  9. Influence of additives and impurities in sweep gas and solid tritium release behaviour from lithium ceramics (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1991-01-01

    Tritium release from solid breeding material is affected by small amounts of additives or impurities in the sweep gas or solid itself. Addition of hydrogen or water vapor to the sweep gas is reported to enhance the surface reaction of tritium release. Doping to solid breeder with elements of different valence from lithium has a possibility to improve tritium diffusion in the solid. Surface reaction and migration behavior in bulk are believed to be also affected by impurities in the sweep gas and in the solid. In order to model tritium release behavior in the blanket of fusion reactor, the mechanism of interaction with these additives or impurities must be quantitatively formulated. However, the mechanism of these remains to be elucidated. In this paper effects of these additives and impurities on tritium migration are reviewed. The mechanism of surface reaction for He+H 2 sweep gas is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Phase transitions and steady-state microstructures in a two-temperature lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2000-01-01

    The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....

  11. Chromatographic measurement of hydrogen isotopic and permanent gas impurities in tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.K.; Kinard, C.; Bohl, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a gas chromatograph that was designed for dedicated analysis of hydrogen isotopic and permanent gas impurities in tritium and tritium-deuterium mixtures. The instrument that was developed substantially improved the accuracy and precision of hydrogen isotopic analysis in the 20 ppM to one mole percent range as compared with other analytical methods. Several unique design features of the instrument were required due to the radiation and isotopic exchange properties of the tritium in the samples; descriptions of these features are presented along with details of the complete chromatographic system. The experimental procedures used to calibrate the detector and statistically evaluate its performance are given, and the sources of analytical error are cited. The limitations of the present system are also discussed

  12. Accidental Phosphine Gas Poisoning with Fatal Myocardial Dysfunction in Two Families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Rehman, A.; Haque, A.; Bano, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is commonly used as a rodenticide and insecticide and is one of the most fatal poisons. The active ingredient is Phosphine gas which inhibits cytochrome oxidase and cellular oxygen utilization. The clinical symptoms are due to multiorgan involvement including cardiac toxicity which is the most common cause of mortality. Severity of clinical manifestations depends upon the amount of the gas to which a person is exposed. There is no specific antidote available. High index of suspicion and early aggressive treatment is the key to success. We report 2 cases of aluminum phosphide toxicity in 2 families due to incidental exposure after fumigation. (author)

  13. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MM Hall

    2006-01-01

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing

  14. Trapping of He clusters by inert-gas impurities in tungsten: First-principles predictions and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Manh, Duc, E-mail: duc.nguyen@ccfe.ac.uk; Dudarev, S.L.

    2015-06-01

    Properties of point defects resulting from the incorporation of inert-gas atoms in bcc tungsten are investigated systematically using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most stable configuration for the interstitial neon, argon, krypton and xenon atoms is the tetrahedral site, similarly to what was found earlier for helium in W. The calculated formation energies for single inert-gas atoms at interstitial sites as well as at substitutional sites are much larger for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe than for He. While the variation of the energy of insertion of inert-gas defects into interstitial configurations can be explained by a strong effect of their large atomic size, the trend exhibited by their substitutional energies is more likely related to the covalent interaction between the noble gas impurity atoms and the tungsten atoms. There is a remarkable variation exhibited by the energy of interaction between inert-gas impurities and vacancies, where a pronounced size effect is observed when going from He to Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe. The origin of this trend is explained by electronic structure calculations showing that p-orbitals play an important part in the formation of chemical bonds between a vacancy and an atom of any of the four inert-gas elements in comparison with helium, where the latter contains only 1s{sup 2} electrons in the outer shell. The binding energies of a helium atom trapped by five different defects (He-v, Ne-v, Ar-v, Kr-v, Xe-v, where v denotes a vacancy in bcc-W) are all in excellent agreement with experimental data derived from thermal desorption spectroscopy. Attachment of He clusters to inert gas impurity atom traps in tungsten is analysed as a function of the number of successive trapping helium atoms. Variation of the Young modulus due to inert-gas impurities is analysed on the basis of data derived from DFT calculations.

  15. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) poisoning: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, Y; Nishi, K

    1996-10-25

    Two autopsy cases of men who died while connecting a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipe are reported. Their blood concentrations of propane (the main content of LPG) were 0.12 and 3.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The cause of death after exposure of LPG has generally been considered to be asphyxia from hypoxia. The large differences in the blood propane levels found here and reported in the literature, however, suggest that direct toxic effects of propane poisoning may be the cause of death in some cases. Propane concentrations and the cause of death are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Vapor Delivery Systems for the Study of the Effects of Reformate Gas Impurities in HT-PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2011-01-01

    , impurities in the reformate gas produced from methanol steam reforming can affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. In this paper different vapor delivery systems, intended to assist in the study of the effects of some of the impurities, are described and compared with each other. A system based...... on a pump and electrically heated evaporator was found to be more suitable for the typical flow rates involved in the anode feed of an H3PO4/PBI based HT-PEMFC unit cell assembly. Test stations composed of vapor delivery systems and mass flow controllers for testing the effects of methanol slip, water vapor...

  17. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr-W-C alloys in impure helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Taizo; Sahira, Kensho; Sakonooka, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Noboru

    1976-01-01

    Influence of the minor alloy constituents such as Al, Mn and Si on the hot corrosion behavior of Ni-20Cr-20W-0.07C alloy was studied in 99.995% helium gas at 1000 0 C, comparing with that behavior of commercial Ni-base superalloys (Hastelloy X and Inconel 617). The low oxidizing potential in the impure helium gas usually causes selective oxidation of these elements and the growth of oxide whiskers on the surface of specimen at elevated temperature. The intergranular attack was caused by selective oxidation of Al, Si and Mn. The spalling of oxide film was restrained by addition of Mn and Si, providing tough spinel type oxide film on the surface and 'Keyes' on the oxide-matrix interface respectively. The amount and the morphology of the oxide whiskers depended on Si and Mn content. More than 0.29% of Si content without Mn always caused the growth of rather thinner whiskers with smooth surface, and the whiskers analyzed by electron diffraction patterns and EPMA to be Cr 2 O 3 containing Si. Mn addition changed the whiskers to thicker ones of spinel type oxide (MnCr 2 O 1 ) with rough surface. On the basis of these results, the optimum content of Al, Mn and Si to minimize the growth of whiskers, the intergranular attack and the spalling of oxide film was discussed. (auth.)

  18. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr-W-C alloys in impure He gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Taizo; Sahira, Kensho; Sakonooka, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Noboru

    1977-01-01

    Influence of the minor alloy constituents such as Al, Mn and Si on the hot corrosion behavior of Ni-20Cr-20W-0.07C alloy was studied in 99.995%He gas at 1,000 0 C, in comparison with the behavior of commercial Ni-base superalloys (Hastelloy X and Inconel 617). The low oxidizing potential in the impure He gas usually causes selective oxidation of the elements described above and the growth of oxide whiskers on the surface of specimen at elevated temperatures. The intergranular attack was caused by selective oxidation of Al, Si and Mn. The spalling of oxide film was restrained by additions of Mn and Si, providing tough spinel type oxide film on the surface and 'keys' on the oxide-matrix interface respectively. The amount and morphology of the oxide whiskers depended on Si and Mn contents. Si of more than 0.29% without Mn always caused the growth of rather thinner whiskers with smooth surface, and the whiskers analyzed by electron diffraction patterns and EPMA to be Cr 2 O 3 containing Si. Mn addition changes the whiskers to thicker ones of spinel type oxide (MnCr 2 O 4 ) with rough surface. On the basis of these results, the optimum contents of Al, Mn and Si to minimize the growth of whiskers, the intergranular attack, and the spalling of oxide film were discussed. (auth.)

  19. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  20. Evaluation of cover gas impurities and their effects on the dry storage of LWR [light-water reactor] spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R.W.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1987-11-01

    The purposes of this report are to (1) identify the sources of impurity gases in spent fuel storage casks; (2) identify the expected concentrations and types of reactive impurity gases from these sources over an operating lifetime of 40 years; and (3) determine whether these impurities could significantly degrade cladding or exposed fuel during this period. Four potential sources of impurity gases in the helium cover gas in operating casks were identified and evaluated. Several different bounding cases have been considered, where the reactive gas inventory is either assumed to be completely gettered by the cladding or where all oxygen is assumed to react completely with the exposed fuel. It is concluded that the reactive gas inventory will have no significant effect on the cladding unless all available oxygen reacts with the UO 2 fuel to produce U 3 O 8 at one or two cladding breaches. Based on Zircaloy oxidation data, the oxygen inventory in a fully loaded pressurized water reactor cask such as the Castor-V/21 will be gettered by the Zircaloy cladding in about 1 year if the peak cladding temperature within the task is ≥300 0 C. Only a negligible decrease in the thickness of the cladding would result. 24 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Effects of a delta-attractive impurity in the thermodynamics properties of an one-dimensional ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioriatti Junior, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the one-dimensional bose gas-attractive delta impurity system is studied. The system is shown to undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation and the cause of the phase transition is attributed to the bound state introduced by the impurity in the free particle energy spectrum. The condensed phase is composed by particles captured by the impurity, forming a drop of particles well localized in space. This gives to the Bose-Einstein condensation in this system the appearance of the ordinary vapor-liquid phase transition. The order of the phase transition is analized with the aid of the Clausius-Clayperon equation, leading to the conclusion that the transition is a first order one. This reinforces the interpretation of a vapor-liquid transition. The evaluation of the heat capacity at constant length shows the existence of a finite discontinuity at the transition temperature [pt

  2. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical weapons exposure in former poison gas factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hattori, Noboru; Horimasu, Yasushi; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Kondo, Keiichi; Hamada, Hironobu; Awai, Kazuo; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and lewisite are vesicant chemical warfare agents that can cause skin blistering and chronic lung complications. During 1929-1945, a Japanese factory produced poisonous gases, which included SM, lewisite and other chemical weapons. The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings among long-term survivors who worked at this factory. During 2009-2012, we evaluated chest CT findings from 346 long-term survivors who worked at the poison gas factory. Skin lesions were used as an indicator of significant exposure to vesicant agents. Among the 346 individuals, 53 (15%) individuals experienced skin lesions while working at the factory, and chest CT revealed abnormal findings in 179 individuals (52%). Emphysema was the most common CT finding and was observed in 75 individuals (22%), while honeycombing was observed in 8 individuals (2%). Emphysema and honeycombing were more prevalent among individuals with skin lesions, compared to individuals without skin lesions. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between the presence of emphysema and skin lesions (p = 0.008). Among individuals who never smoked, individuals with skin lesions (n = 26) exhibited a significantly higher rate of emphysema, compared to individuals without skin lesions (n = 200) (35% versus 7%, respectively; p chemical warfare agents.

  3. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation filling of a 6$m^3$ vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A; Gendotti, A; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Coleman, J; Lewis, M; Mavrokoridis, K; McCormick, K; Touramanis, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 $m^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to $all$ sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  4. [The morphofunctional changes in the rat lung tissue during simulation of acute fatal poisoning with household gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E Iu; Iagmurov, O D

    2014-01-01

    The methods of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy were employed to study the morphofunctional changes in epithelium of bronchial and respiratory segments of the rat lungs used as models of acute fatal poisoning with household gas. It was shown that this toxic effect induces the pathological process involving all the elements of the epithelial layer in the bronchial and respiratory segments of the lungs of experimental animals. At the ultrastructural level, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum structures are affected, with the death of epithelial cells leading to the damage of the aerohematic barrier. The toxic effect of the gaseous mixture on the membranes causes the destruction of various elements of the epithelial layer. The results of this study help to understand the mechanisms of death in the case of acute fatal poisoning with household gas.

  5. Effects of gas phase impurities on the topochemical-kinetic behaviour of uranium hydride development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, J.; Brami, D.; Kremner, A.; Mintz, M.H.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba

    1988-01-01

    The hydriding kinetics of bulk uranium and U-0.1 wt.% Cr, in the presence of oxidizing gaseous impurities (oxygen and CO), were studied by combined rate measurements and metallographic examinations of partially reacted samples. The effect of the gaseous impurity (type and concentration) was examined metallographically, and the kinetic data were discussed in relation to these examinations. Below about 100 0 C the reaction of uranium with pure hydrogen consists of the following sequence of steps: (i) Surface nucleation; (ii) homogeneous growth (pitting); (iii) relatively fast lateral growth leading to the formation of a reaction front which penetrates into the sample at a constant rate. The effects of oxygen and CO on the hydriding kinetics were related to their abilities to block hydrogen penetration into the uranium. Thus, it was found that oxygen affects only the penetration through the oxide layer, whereas CO affects the penetration through both the oxide and hydride layers. (orig.)

  6. Analysis technique of impurity in high purity deuterium by cryogenic gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junbo; Gao Liping

    2007-01-01

    A veracious and applicable quantitative analysis method of O 2 , N 2 and H 2 , HD in high purity deuterium by the chromatogram columniation filled with 5A molecular sieve and alumina was researched and constituted at natural temperature and 77 K, respectively. Minimum detecting limit of the present method is (150-200) x 10 -6 for H 2 and HD, and it can meet the need of quantitative analysis of the impurity during high purity deuterium preparation. (authors)

  7. Study of the oxidation mechanisms between impurities and surfaces applied to the future gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, A.

    2010-01-01

    Inconel 617, main candidate for the heat exchangers of the gas-cooled next generation of nuclear reactors has been investigated. Two different problems occurring in the cooling system splits the study into two parts. Oxidizing impurities contained in the coolant can cause severe corrosion at 850 C. Radioactive impurities, coming from the fission reaction of the core can, in another hand contaminate the cooling loop and cause radioprotection problem for the maintenance and dismantling operations. Firstly, oxidizing gas partial pressure influence on oxidation of IN 617 at 850 C was investigated varying oxygen and water vapour partial pressure between 1.10 -5 mbar and 200 mbar. Oxide layers were characterized using XPS, SEM, EDX, GD-OES, XRD. Influence of partial pressure on layers structure and composition was determined. Effect of water vapour and partial pressure on growth mechanisms were also investigated. The second part of this study is focused on diffusion of Ag, stable isotope of Ag-110m in IN617 alloy and in the oxide layer forming at its surface at 850 C. Concentration profiles were obtained by GD-OES calibrated analysis. Diffusion coefficient could be obtained from these diffusion profiles: volume diffusion and grain boundary diffusion coefficients for the diffusion in the alloy, and an apparent diffusion coefficient for the diffusion in the oxide, due to the porosity of the structure. (author) [fr

  8. Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

    2010-01-15

    In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were

  9. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerholtz, Kimberly A; Burcham, Grant N; Miller, Margaret A; Wilson, Christina R; Hooser, Stephen B; Lee, Stephen T

    2011-07-01

    An 8-year-old, crossbred beef cow was referred to the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University for a complete necropsy in October 2009. The cow was the sixth to die in a 7-day period. Affected cows were reportedly stumbling and became weak, excitable, and recumbent. Histologically, myonecrosis was severe in the skeletal muscles and mild in the heart and tongue. According to the submitter, exposure to a poisonous plant was suspected, and a plant specimen received from this case was identified as white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima). Using the white snakeroot specimen, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method for the detection of tremetone and dehydrotremetone (2 components of white snakeroot) was developed. Both tremetone and dehydrotremetone were detected in the plant specimen. Dehydrotremetone was recovered from the liver, while neither component was recovered in the rumen content. In the past, because of the lack of standard reference material, the diagnosis of white snakeroot poisoning was based mainly on history of exposure and the presence of the plant in the rumen. The analytical method described herein can be used to document exposure to tremetone or dehydrotremetone in cases of suspected white snakeroot poisoning when coupled with the appropriate clinical signs and lesions.

  10. Burnable poison calculations for Mk.III gas-cooled reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbins, M E

    1971-02-15

    A method of calculating the reactivity and burn-up hisotry of a Mk.III GCR system containing burnable poisons has been described. The method allows for poison-fuel interaction. Using the method it has been shown that burn-up of the poison under a constant incident flux can give errors of the order of 1-2 niles. A calculation using the method described will take about 50% longer than a straightforward fuel burn-up calculation in the same number of groups. The multi-cell approach has a potential for handling greater geometrical complexity. It is intended to compare the method against experiment as soon as suitable experimental results become available.

  11. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O 2 /H 2 O environment. Ar + with an average kinetic energy of ∼5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by ∼70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H 2 formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient

  12. The effect of ethanol gas impurity on the discharge mode and discharge products of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Han; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhijie; Rong, Mingzhe; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-05-01

    Argon is a widely used working gas of plasmas, which is much cheaper than helium but on the other hand much more difficult to generate diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure. In order to meet the application requirements, plenty of researches have been reported to facilitate the diffuse discharge happening for argon plasmas, and in this paper an approach of using ethanol gas (EtOH) impurity is investigated. The discharge characteristics of Ar + EtOH plasma jet are studied as a function of the applied voltage and the concentration of EtOH, from which the concentration of EtOH between ∼200 and ∼3300 parts per million (ppm) is determined necessary for the generation of diffuse discharge. Compared with the helium plasma jet in literature, it is deduced that the diffuse discharge is probably caused by the Penning ionization happening between the metastable argon and EtOH. The discharge products of Ar + EtOH (672 ppm) plasma jet are measured and the corresponding chemistry pathways are analyzed. About 20% of EtOH is decomposed via complex chemical reactions to form more than a dozen of neutral species, such as CH3CHO, CH3COOH, CO, H2O, and C n H2n+2 (n ≥ 3), and various kinds of ionic species, including C+, CH+, ArH+, {{{{O}}}2}-, CH3CH2O‑, etc.

  13. Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program. Reducing helium impurity depletion in HTGR materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Moisture depletion in HTGR materials testing rigs has been empirically studied in the GE High Temperature Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (HTRMTL). Tests have shown that increased helium flow rates and reduction in reactive (oxidizable) surface area are effective means of reducing depletion. Further, a portion of the depletion has been shown to be due to the presence of free C released by the dissociation of CH 4 . This depletion component can be reduced by reducing the helium residence time (increasing the helium flow rate) or by reducing the CH 4 concentration in the test gas. Equipment modifications to reduce depletion have been developed, tested, and in most cases implemented in the HTRMTL to date. These include increasing the Helium Loop No. 1 pumping capacity, conversion of metallic retorts and radiation shields to alumina, isolation of thermocouple probes from the test gas by alumina thermowells, and substitution of non-reactive Mo-TZM for reactive metallic structural components

  14. Particle filter for the adsorption of radioactive impurities of a gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The filter casing having several filter beds with e.g. activated carbon adsorbs iodine and methyl iodide from the off-gas of a safety room. The lid of the casing has numerous right-angled charging holes for the activated carbon filter beds which are closed during operation. The filter beds consist of perforated side walls opposite one another which form chambers for the activated carbon as well as limit the alternating gas inflow and outlet channels. Collector troughs for the used activated carbon are at the lower end of the filter beds; the former can be removed from the collector troughs by a suction blower without endangering the personal operating. (DG) [de

  15. Stability of MOF-5 in a hydrogen gas environment containing fueling station impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Yang; Purewal, Justin; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    , HCl, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, and He) to pure hydrogen gas. Subsequently, MOF-5 was exposed to these mixtures over hundreds of adsorption/desorption pressure-swing cycles and for extended periods of static exposure. The impact of exposure was assessed by periodically measuring the hydrogen storage...... of these contaminants on MOFs is mostly unknown. In the present study MOF-5 is adopted as a prototypical moisture-sensitive hydrogen storage material. Five “impure” gas mixtures were prepared by introducing low-to-moderate levels (i.e., up to ∼200 times greater than the J2719 limit) of selected contaminants (NH3, H2S...

  16. Determination of tolerances of mirror displacement and radiator gas impurity for the CBM RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The CBM experiment at the future FAIR facility will explore nuclear matter at high net-baryon densities. One of the key observables is di-leptons as they penetrate the created matter without further strong interactions. A gaseous RICH detector in a standard projective geometry using spherical mirrors is one of two detector elements for the required electron identification. The mirror system consists of about 72 trapezoidal mirror tiles. Any misalignment between the tiles relative to the nominal common spherical surface leads to reduction of the reconstruction efficiency of Cherenkov rings and deterioration of their resolution. To determine tolerances in mirror misalignment extensive simulation and measurement studies were carried out. Pure CO{sub 2} will be used as radiator gas. Gas contamination, mainly moisture and Oxygen, reduces the number of detected photons per ring and worsens the quality of reconstructed Cherenkov rings. Therefore a study was carried out to determine tolerances in radiator gas contamination. - Highlights: • Mirror misalignment leads to ring deformation in a RICH detector. • Radiator contamination leads to resolution deterioration of fitted rings. • To determine tolerances measurements and simulations were carried out. • Mirror displacements of up to 0.32 mm at any mirror side can be tolerated. • Oxygen (moisture) contamination of up to 1% (0.0011%) can be safely tolerated.

  17. Managing the reactivity excess of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor by burnable poison and control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor coupled to the deep burn in-core fuel management strategy offers the extraordinary capability to incinerate over 50% of the initial inventory of fissile material. This extraordinary feature, coming from an advanced and well tested fuel element design, which takes advantage of the TRISO particles technology, is maintained while the reactor is loaded with the most different types of fuels. In the present work, we assumed the reactor operating at the equilibrium of the fuel composition, obtained by a 6 years irradiation of light water reactor waste, and we investigated the effects of the introduction of the burnable poison and the control rods; we equipped the core with all the three types of control rods: operational, startup and shutdown ones. We employed as burnable poison natural erbium, due to the 167 Er increasing neutron capture microscopic cross-section in the energy range where the neutron spectrum exhibits the thermal peak; in addition, we utilized boron carbide, with 90% enrichment in 1 B, as the absorption material of the control rods. Concerning the burnable poison studies, we focused on the k eff value, the 167 Er mass during burnup, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the fuel and moderator coefficients of temperature. Concerning the control rods studies, we investigated the reactivity worth, the changes in the neutron flux profile due to a partial insertion, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the β eff , at the beginning of the operation

  18. Managing the reactivity excess of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor by burnable poison and control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se

    2006-01-15

    The gas turbine-modular helium reactor coupled to the deep burn in-core fuel management strategy offers the extraordinary capability to incinerate over 50% of the initial inventory of fissile material. This extraordinary feature, coming from an advanced and well tested fuel element design, which takes advantage of the TRISO particles technology, is maintained while the reactor is loaded with the most different types of fuels. In the present work, we assumed the reactor operating at the equilibrium of the fuel composition, obtained by a 6 years irradiation of light water reactor waste, and we investigated the effects of the introduction of the burnable poison and the control rods; we equipped the core with all the three types of control rods: operational, startup and shutdown ones. We employed as burnable poison natural erbium, due to the {sup 167}Er increasing neutron capture microscopic cross-section in the energy range where the neutron spectrum exhibits the thermal peak; in addition, we utilized boron carbide, with 90% enrichment in {sup 1}B, as the absorption material of the control rods. Concerning the burnable poison studies, we focused on the k {sub eff} value, the {sup 167}Er mass during burnup, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the fuel and moderator coefficients of temperature. Concerning the control rods studies, we investigated the reactivity worth, the changes in the neutron flux profile due to a partial insertion, the influence of modifying the radius of the BISO particles kernel and the {beta} {sub eff}, at the beginning of the operation.

  19. Performance Improvement of V-Fe-Cr-Ti Solid State Hydrogen Storage Materials in Impure Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ulrich; Oertel, Daria; Diemant, Thomas; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Dittmeyer, Roland; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2018-01-17

    Two approaches of engineering surface structures of V-Ti-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys are presented, which enable improved tolerance toward gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) impurities in hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. Surface modification is achieved through engineering lanthanum (La)- or nickel (Ni)-rich surface layers with enhanced cyclic stability in an H 2 /O 2 mixture. The formation of a Ni-rich surface layer does not improve the cycling stability in H 2 /O 2 mixtures. Mischmetal (Mm, a mixture of La and Ce) agglomerates are observed within the bulk and surface of the alloy when small amounts of this material are added during arc melting synthesis. These agglomerates provide hydrogen-transparent diffusion pathways into the bulk of the V-Ti-Cr-Fe hydrogen storage alloy when the remaining oxidized surface is already nontransparent for hydrogen. Thus, the cycling stability of the alloy is improved in an O 2 -containing hydrogen environment as compared to the same alloy without addition of Mm. The obtained surface-engineered storage material still absorbs hydrogen after 20 cycles in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, while the original material is already deactivated after 4 cycles.

  20. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  1. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... Time of the sting Location of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  8. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Thermodynamic data for selected gas impurities in the primary coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, R.C.

    1976-12-01

    The literature of thermodynamic data for selected fission-product species is reviewed and supplemented in support of complex chemical equilibrium calculations applied to fission-product distributions in the primary coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Thermodynamic functions and heats and free energies of formation are calculated and tabulated to 3000 0 K for CsI (s,l,g), Cs 2 I 2 (g), CH 3 I(g), COI 2 (g), and CsH(g). 79 references

  14. Role of metal ion impurities in generation of oxygen gas within anodic alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K. [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Chemical Lab.; Habazaki, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Wood, G.C. [University of Manchester Inst. of Science and Technology (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre

    2002-07-01

    The generation of oxygen gas within an amorphous anodic alumina film is reported. The film was formed by anodizing aluminum, which was first electropolished and then chemically polished in CrO{sub 3}-H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution, in sodium tungstate electrolyte. The procedure results in incorporation of mobile Cr{sup 3+} species, from the chemical polishing film, and mobile W{sup 6+} species, from the electrolyte, into the amorphous structure. The tungsten species are present in the outer 27% of the film thickness, while Cr{sup 6+} species occupy a thin layer within the tungsten-containing region. Above the Cr{sup 3+} containing layer, a band develops that contains oxygen bubbles of a few nanometres size. The oxygen is generated by oxidation of O{sup 2-} ions of the alumina. A mechanism of oxygen generation within the alumina is proposed based on the electronic band structure of the oxide, modified by the Cr{sup 3+} and W{sup 6+} species, and on the ionic transport processes during oxide growth. (author)

  15. A micro-gas phase chromatography with a re-compression system used to measure impurities in low pressure tritiated gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A.; Colas, S.; Hubinois, J.C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    The measurement of the amount of impurities in tritiated gases can be achieved by means of mass spectrometry or gas phase chromatography. A growing number of disadvantages associated to the 'life expectancy' of the mass spectrometer and its tricky maintenance (when enclosed in a gloves box) have led us to acquire a micro gas phase chromatograph. This device is based on a modular concept with the injector, the column and the detector packed in a compact unit which is easy to replace. Thanks to constant improvement in the field of capillary column, new micro chromatographs are now able to perform measurement in absence of pre-column and presence of argon instead of nitrogen as a carrier gas. Of importance, this new apparatus allow better performances (running time: 1 m 30 sec, limit of detection: {<=}10 ppm). However, in normal use, this apparatus requires 800 milli-bar in the inlet, a pressure that doesn't match with the feature of our process gas. To overcome this inconvenience, we have developed an automatic functioning system with a bellows that samples and compresses the gas to pressures compatible with the micro gas chromatograph. The apparatus and the experimental procedures will be presented as well as experimental performances (reproducibility, detection limits..) for some impurities such as nitrogen, oxygen and helium. (authors)

  16. The French experience concerning the contamination by inactive and radioactive impurities and the purification of the cover gas of LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaille, P [CEA/IRDI/DEDR/DRNR/STRA, C.E.N. Cadarache (France); Clerc, R [CEA/IRDI/DERPE/SCPx, C.E.N. Marcoule (France); comps.

    1987-07-01

    With regard to the problems related to the cover gas of LMFBRs, the French position based on the experience of RAPSODIE and PHENIX can be summarized as follows: 1. No particular difficulty has been encountered with impurities such as air. The consequences of lubricants leaks were limited to the maintenance of big components. 2. Concerning the contamination by radioactive species, the main source in the reactor tank is {sup 23}Ne, but fortunately its half decay period is very short (38 s). Two managements of fuel failures were experienced. On RAPSODIE, the failures were numerous for experimental purpose and - in the absence of an efficient localization device - often simultaneous. On PHENIX, the fuel failure rate appears to be very low. Furthermore, the gas analysis unit of the fuel failure localization device (LRG/gas) has been improved steadily, which permits to localize and follow the evolution of each individual failed sub-assembly from the very beginning of the clad failure. For both of the reactors, leaks through the roof were observed, for which solutions were found. 3. The analysis equipment of RAPSODIE and PHENIX evolved to account for: the needs of the operator; experimental programs. The experience gained permitted to select for SUPER PHENIX a simple instrumentation. 4. Limited efforts have been paid to the purification techniques towards the fission products: On RAPSODIE, the use of helium as cover gas allowed to use trapping with charcoal cooled with liquid nitrogen with a high efficiency not only towards xenons, but also kryptons. On PHENIX, it is not necessary to trap krypton: the release rates of {sup 85}Kr (T1/2=10,4 a) are very low, of the same order as {sup 37}Ar (T1/2=35 d) produced by activation, and the fuel failure localization is not performed by gas tagging. Therefore, cooled charcoal adsorption is sufficient. For experimental purpose, a cryogenic distillation column has been installed at PHENIX, but has not yet been put into operation

  17. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP, but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF and Clinical Findings (CF groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  18. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Merthiolate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merthiolate poisoning is difficult to treat. How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis ( ...

  20. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  2. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  3. [Studies on the industrial styrene poisoning (Part X). Determination of styrene in biological materials by gas chromatography (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, K; Horiguchi, S

    1980-09-01

    For monitoring solvents exposure, it is useful to determine not only metabolites of the solvents in urine but also the solvents themselves in blood and tissues. In a series of studies on the industrial styrene poisoning, we have been determining styrene in blood and other tissues as occasion calls. Our examination of the method is presented in this report. The outline on the method is as follows: Aliquots of 0.5g of tissues being added 5 ml of n-hexane are homogenized by a high-speed homogenizer (Polytoron) for 10 to 30 seconds and the filtrates containing extracts are analyzed for styrene by gas chromatography. The linearity was ascertained from the calibration curve obtained by adding the known quantities of styrene (4, 10, 20, 40, 100 ppm) to the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats. Rates of recoveries of styrene from the above tissues were 92 to 101 per cent. Reproducibility of this method was examined by repeating determinations of styrene in the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats exposed to 500 ppm styrene for 4 hours, the coefficients of variation being 2.8 to 14.0 per cent. There was an approximately linear relationship between the styrene concentration (0 to 1,000 ppm) of the exposed air and those in the blood of exposed rats. We conclude that our simple and rapid method is applicable to determination of solvents other than styrene in organs and tissues by combining suitable solvents for extraction and packings of gas chromatography.

  4. Occupational phosphine gas poisoning at veterinary hospitals from dogs that ingested zinc phosphide--Michigan, Iowa, and Washington, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a readily available rodenticide that, on contact with stomach acid and water, produces phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. Household pets that ingest Zn3P2 often will regurgitate, releasing PH3 into the air. Veterinary hospital staff members treating such animals can be poisoned from PH3 exposure. During 2006-2011, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received reports of PH3 poisonings at four different veterinary hospitals: two in Michigan, one in Iowa, and one in Washington. Each of the four veterinary hospitals had treated a dog that ingested Zn3P2. Among hospital workers, eight poisoning victims were identified, all of whom experienced transient symptoms related to PH3 inhalation. All four dogs recovered fully. Exposure of veterinary staff members to PH3 can be minimized by following phosphine product precautions developed by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Exposure of pets, pet owners, and veterinary staff members to PH3 can be minimized by proper storage, handling, and use of Zn3P2 and by using alternative methods for gopher and mole control, such as snap traps.

  5. Measurement of reactivity worths of burnable poison rods in enriched uranium graphite-moderated core simulated to high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Fujiyoshi; Takeuchi, Motoyoshi; Kitadate, Kenji; Yoshifuji, Hisashi; Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1980-11-01

    As the core design for the Experimental Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor progresses, evaluation of design precision has become increasingly important. For a high precision design, it is required to have adequate group constants based on accurate nuclear data, as well as calculation methods properly describing the physical behavior of neutrons. We, therefore, assembled a simulation core for VHTR, SHE-14, using a graphite-moderated 20%-enriched uranium Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Critical Facility (SHE), and obtained useful experimental data in evaluating the design precision. The VHTR is designed to accommodate burnable poison and control rods for reactivity compensation. Accordingly, the experimental burnable poison rods which are similar to those to be used in the experimental reactor were prepared, and their reactivity values were measured in the SHE-14 core. One to three rods of the above experimental burnable poison rods were inserted into the central column of the SHE-14 core, and the reactivity values were measured by the period and fuel rod substitution method. The results of the measurements have clearly shown that due to the self-shielding effect of B 4 C particles the reactivity value decreases with increasing particle diameter. For the particle diameter, the reactivity value is found to increase linearly with the logarithm of boron content. The measured values and those calculated are found to agree with each other within 5%. These results indicate that the reactivity of the burnable poison rod can be estimated fairly accurately by taking into account the self-shielding effect of B 4 C particles and the heterogeneity of the lattice cell. (author)

  6. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  7. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  8. Application of copper sulfate pentahydrate as an ammonia removal reagent for the determination of trace impurities in ammonia by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aomura, Yoko; Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Miyazawa, Yuzuru; Shimizu, Hideharu

    2010-03-12

    Rapid analysis of trace permanent gas impurities in high purity ammonia gas for the microelectronics industry is described, using a gas chromatograph equipped with a phtoionization detector. Our system incorporates a reactive precolumn in combination with the analytical column to remove the ammonia matrix peak that otherwise would complicate the measurements due to baseline fluctuations and loss of analytes. The performance of 21 precolumn candidate materials was evaluated. Copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4).5H(2)O) was shown to selectively react with ammonia at room temperature and atmospheric column pressures, without affecting the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane or carbon monoxide peak areas. To prevent loss of trace carbon dioxide, an additional boron trioxide reactant layer was inserted above the copper sulfate pentahydrate bed in the reactive precolumn. Using the combined materials, calibration curves for carbon dioxide proved to be equivalent in both ammonia and helium matrix gases. These curves were equivalent in both matrix gases. The quantitative performance of the system was also evaluated. Peak repeatabilities, based on eight injections, were in the range of 4.1-8.2% relative standard deviation; and detection limits were 6.9 ppb for H(2), 1.8 ppb for O(2), 1.6 ppb for N(2), 6.4 ppb for CH(4), 13 ppb for CO, and 5.4 ppb for CO(2). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of trace levels of impurities and hydrogen isotopes in helium purge gas using gas chromatography for tritium extraction system of an Indian lead lithium ceramic breeder test blanket module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Gayathri; Sircar, Amit; Yadav, Deepak; Parmar, Jayraj

    2018-01-12

    In the fusion fuel cycle, the accurate analysis and understanding of the chemical composition of any gas mixture is of great importance for the efficient design of a tritium extraction and purification system or any tritium handling system. Methods like laser Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector have been considered for hydrogen isotopes analyses in fuel cycles. Gas chromatography with a cryogenic separation column has been used for the analysis of hydrogen isotopes gas mixtures in general due to its high reliability and ease of operation. Hydrogen isotopes gas mixture analysis with cryogenic columns has been reported earlier using different column materials for percentage level composition. In the present work, trace levels of hydrogen isotopes (∼100 ppm of H 2 and D 2 ) have been analyzed with a Zeolite 5A and a modified γ-Al 2 O 3 column. Impurities in He gas (∼10 ppm of H 2 , O 2 , and N 2 ) have been analyzed using a Zeolite 13-X column. Gas chromatography with discharge ionization detection has been utilized for this purpose. The results of these experiments suggest that the columns developed were able to separate ppm levels of the desired components with a small response time (<6 min) and good resolution in both cases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  11. Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/stabilized-zirconia Anodes – Effect on Long-Term Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Hagen, Anke; Hjelm, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur impurities in carbon containing fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), e.g. natural gas and biogas, can lead to significant losses in performance due to the sulfur sensitivity of Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes. Full cells having Ni/YSZ and Ni/ScYSZ anodes have been characterized during long-term gal...... to focus on the long-term effect over a few hundred of hours. This work describes and correlates the observed evolution of anode performance, over hundreds of hours, with sulfur poisoning with the different operating conditions.......Sulfur impurities in carbon containing fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), e.g. natural gas and biogas, can lead to significant losses in performance due to the sulfur sensitivity of Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes. Full cells having Ni/YSZ and Ni/ScYSZ anodes have been characterized during long...

  12. Adsorption of gas molecules on Cu impurities embedded monolayer MoS{sub 2}: A first- principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B.; Li, C.Y. [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, L.L. [Key Lab for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Eduaction, Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhou, B.; Zhang, Q.K. [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Z.Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Tang, Z., E-mail: ztang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education of China, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Embedded Cu atom is strongly constrained on the sulfur vacancy of monolayer MoS{sub 2}. • Transition-metal Cu atom can break the chemical inactivation of MoS{sub 2} surface. • MoS{sub 2}-Cu system is a promising for future application in gas molecules sensing. - Abstract: Adsorption of small gas molecules (O{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}) on transition-metal Cu atom embedded monolayer MoS{sub 2} was investigated by first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory (DFT). The embedded Cu atom is strongly constrained on the sulfur vacancy of monolayer MoS{sub 2} with a high diffusion barrier. The stable adsorption geometry, charge transfer and electronic structures of these gas molecules on monolayer MoS{sub 2} embedded with transition-metal Cu atom are discussed in detail. It is found that the monolayer MoS{sub 2} with embedded Cu atom can effectively capture these gas molecules with high adsorption energy. The NH{sub 3} molecule acts as electron donor after adsorption, which is different from the other gas molecules (O{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2}). The results suggest that MoS{sub 2}-Cu system may be promising for future applications in gas molecules sensing and catalysis, which is similar to those of the transition-metal embedded graphene.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  14. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison

    2014-08-05

    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA. Copyright

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  16. The Driving Forces of Guest Substitution in Gas Hydrates—A Laser Raman Study on CH4-CO2 Exchange in the Presence of Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Beeskow-Strauch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of CH4 gas from natural hydrate formations by injection of industrially emitted CO2 is considered to be a promising solution to simultaneously access an unconventional fossil fuel reserve and counteract atmospheric CO2 increase. CO2 obtained from industrial processes may contain traces of impurities such as SO2 or NOx and natural gas hydrates may contain higher hydrocarbons such as C2H6 and C3H8. These additions have an influence on the properties of the resulting hydrate phase and the conversion process of CH4-rich hydrates to CO2-rich hydrates. Here we show results of a microscopic and laser Raman in situ study investigating the effects of SO2-polluted CO2 and mixed CH4-C2H6 hydrate on the exchange process. Our study shows that the key driving force of the exchange processes is the establishment of the chemical equilibrium between hydrate phase and the surrounding phases. The exchange rate is also influenced by the guest-to-cavity ratio as well as the thermodynamic stability in terms of p-T conditions of the original and resulting hydrate phase. The most effective molecule exchange is related to structural changes (sI-sII which indicates that hydrate decomposition and reformation processes are the occurring processes.

  17. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  18. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely , for more information . If you use an e-cigarette, keep the liquid nicotine refills locked up out ... to a child. See Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children . Never place poisonous products in ...

  19. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  20. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  1. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  2. Temperature Dependence of the Spin-Hall Conductivity of a Two-Dimensional Impure Rashba Electron Gas in the Presence of Electron-Phonon and Electron-Electron Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Bayervand, A.

    2015-03-01

    Based on Kubo's linear response formalism, temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional impure (magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities) Rashba electron gas in the presence of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions is analyzed theoretically. We will show that the temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity is determined by the relaxation rates due to these interactions. At low temperature, the elastic lifetimes ( and are determined by magnetic and nonmagnetic impurity concentrations which are independent of the temperature, while the inelastic lifetimes ( and related to the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, decrease when the temperature increases. We will also show that since the spin-Hall conductivity is sensitive to temperature, we can distinguish the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions.

  3. Identification of di(ethylhexyl) phthalate as impurity in the analysis by using chromatography gas tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Hendarsyah, Hendris; Salahuddin, Ariani, Novita

    2017-01-01

    Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer commonly used in plastics. Physically DEHP has a low vapor pressure. DEHP can seep into the liquid in direct contact with the plastic wrapping materials, and typically can occur rapidly if extractable into food or non-polar solvents, such as oil, once the food is packaged in PVC packaging materials. DEHP has been analyzed by using gas chromatography which has a high sensitivity level. If the equipment used for the analysis is made from plastic containing DEHP, then it may be possible that DEHP can be extracted and appear on the outcome of the injection. It can interfere with the process of analysis, especially for the analysis of food samples. This study has identified the present of DEHP in the blank injection performed by Gas Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring mode (SIM). Researchers are required to verify whether the gas chromatographic system used is ready for the analysis process. In addition, the comparison and calculation of the intensity of the ion fragmentation spectra generated by mass spectrometry detector can be used for the qualitative determination to ensure the presence of the target compound. In this study is also discussed the differences between the high-intensity fragmentation of DEHP and dioctyl phthalate (DOP).

  4. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  5. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  6. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  7. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  8. Study on the poisoning resistance of Pd-coated ZrCo alloy prepared by electroless plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiumei, E-mail: xiumei418@163.com; Wang, Shumao; Li, Zhinian; Yuan, Baolong; Ye, Jianhua; Qiu, Haochen; Wu, Yuanfang; Liu, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Lijun

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The Pd membrane was prepared by electroless plating method. • The Pd membrane was compact and uniform. • The effectiveness of Pd membranes was affected by impurity contents and temperatures. - Abstract: To improve the poisoning resistance of ZrCo alloy, Pd membranes have been prepared over the surface of the alloy substrates by using electroless plating method. The characteristics of Pd membranes have been examined by XRD, SEM, EDS and EPMA technologies. From SEM images, the uniform and compact thin Pd film was revealed. The effect of this Pd film was evaluated by comparing the hydrogen absorption properties of bare and Pd-coated ZrCo specimens in contaminated hydrogen gas. The degradation of hydrogen absorption of Pd-coated ZrCo induced by poisoning was less than that of bare ZrCo sample obviously, meaning that the Pd membranes over the surface of substrates appeared to be effective in improving the poisoning resistance of ZrCo alloy. Furthermore, the effect became more significant with the increasing of impurity contents in the experimental gas and the operation temperatures.

  9. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  10. The removal of gaseous impurities from the primary circuit in high temperature reactors with cerium-mischmetal-getters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, R.

    1986-11-01

    The use of getters to remove tritium and other gaseous impurities (especially H 2 , N 2 and CO) from helium circuits in nuclear reactors has been investigated. The loading capcity of beds, containing small cerium-mischmetal chips has been tested for several typical conditions. The results show that it is possible to use getters to purify inert gas streams for given boundary conditions. High CO-levels, however, lead to a poisoning (passivation) of the getter material. The effect of poisoning is cumulative. A mathematical model describes the behavior of CO in this kind of getter. Safety tests under possible accident conditions were made with the highly reactive cerium-mischmetal chips. The results show that there isn't a critical problem in using this material in the form of a chemical reactive getter bed near a nuclear reactor in the investigated range of accident conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. Reply to 'Comment on 'Motion of an impurity particle in an ultracold quasi-one-dimensional gas of hard-core bosons''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardeau, M. D.; Minguzzi, A.

    2010-01-01

    In their Comment Giraud and Combescot (GC) [Phys. Rev. A 82, 037603 (2010)] point out that the contribution to the impurity-boson distribution function ρ bi (x-y) of a term we dropped is not negligible, rather than being negligible in the thermodynamic limit as we had conjectured. We now agree with them, but our results for ρ bi are highly accurate for large impurity-boson mass ratio m i /m, for all values of x-y and boson-impurity coupling constant.

  12. The impact of impurities on long-term PEMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopes, Thiago [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sansinena, Jose - Maria [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kienitz, Brian [LLNL

    2009-06-23

    Electrochemical experimentation and modeling indicates that impurities degrade fuel cell performance by a variety of mechanisms. Electrokinetics may be inhibited by catalytic site poisoning from sulfur compounds and CO and by decreased local proton activity and mobility caused by the presence of foreign salt cations or ammonia. Cation impurity profiles vary with current density, valence and may change local conductivity and water concentrations in the ionomer. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia species may be electrochemically active under fuel cell operating conditions. The primary impurity removal mechanisms are electrooxidation and water fluxes through the fuel cell.

  13. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy rash Overview Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  14. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  16. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  17. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  19. Effects of helium impurities on superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    A review of the literature on the effects of helium impurities on superalloys at elevated temperatures was undertaken. The actual effects of these impurities vary depending on the alloy, composition of the gas atmosphere, and temperature. In general, exposure in helium produces significant but not catastrophic changes in the structure and properties of the alloys. The effects of these treatments on the structure, creep, fatigue, and mechanical properties of the various alloys are reviewed and discussed. Suggestions for future work are presented

  20. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  1. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas) Gas released when opening a partially filled industrial container of chlorine tablets that have been sitting ... change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the ...

  2. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  4. Integrable quantum impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckle, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    By modifying some of the local L operators of the algebraic form of the Bethe Ansatz inhomogeneous one dimensional quantum lattice models can be constructed. This fact has recently attracted new attention, the inhomogeneities being interpreted as local impurities. The Hamiltonians of the so constructed one-dimensional quantum models have a nearest neighbour structure except in the vicinity of the local impurities which involve three-site interactions. The pertinent feature of these models is the absence of backscattering at the impurities: the impurities are transparent. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  5. Ash partitioning during the oxy-fuel combustion of lignite and its dependence on the recirculation of flue gas impurities (H{sub 2}O, HCl and SO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facun Jiao; Juan Chen; Lian Zhang; Yajuan Wei; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Sankar Bhattacharya; Hong Yao [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion of a brown coal (i.e. lignite) has been carried out at 1000{sup o}C to experimentally examine the vaporisation of organically bound metals and the agglomeration of ash particles as a function of the concentration of gaseous impurities including H{sub 2}O, HCl and SO{sub 2} in about 27% O{sub 2} balanced with CO{sub 2}. The properties of bulk ash and individual metals were investigated intensively. Particularly, attention was paid to Na which is notorious for fouling and to organically bound Al which has been less studied. The results indicate that, the organically bound metals, although possessing a very low content in the raw coal, are vital for the agglomeration of ash particles, which are also highly sensitive to the loading of gas impurities in flue gas. HCl recirculation is the most crucial factor promoting the vaporisation of metals via chlorination. Apart from alkali metals, the organically bound Al and Ti were also vaporised noticeably. Recirculation of SO{sub 2} promoted the sulfation of Na to condense into liquid droplet which increased fine ash yield. Co-existence of bulk HCl and SO{sub 2} played a synergetic role in the sulfation of Na via an initial chlorination of the char-bound Na. In contrast, co-existence of steam with HCl and SO{sub 2} favored the formation of Na alumino-silicates, which are favorable for ash agglomeration. 34 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Impurities in air and their effect on plant life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanyam, P

    1957-01-01

    Air is said to be polluted when it contains an unusual amount of contaminants. The fact that several of these impurities influence plant life has been fairly well established. Damage caused to agriculture and forestry has been a subject of economic interest in the highly industrialized countries of Europe and America for more than a century now. Germany was the pioneer in this aspect of study and as early as in 1842. Researchers described the poisoning of elm trees. England's history records that the smoke and fume has been one of concern to its citizens ever since the days of the Industrial Revolution. As early as in 1848, the Government initiated a study of the harmful gases to vegetation. The subject attracted the attention of United States of America by about 1900. The writings of one researcher from 1906 to 1916 give evidence of the frequent instances of injuries to trees in New England, attributed to the escape of illuminating gas. Extensive research has followed the periodic concern regarding localized or general pollution. Similar attention has also been paid in Italy and Austria to the effect of impurities of air on vegetation. However, in India the problem attracted the attention of administrators, plant pathologists and chemists only very recently. The vicinity of industrial plants in many places has been responsible for litigation, setting up of commissions and regulation of acts in several countries. The purpose of the present contribution is to bring out the salient features of research work done so far on this subject. 30 references.

  7. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  8. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  9. Impact of the Injection Protocol on an Impurity's Stationary State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayun, Oleksandr; Lychkovskiy, Oleg; Burovski, Evgeni; Malcomson, Matthew; Cheianov, Vadim V.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.

    2018-06-01

    We examine stationary-state properties of an impurity particle injected into a one-dimensional quantum gas. We show that the value of the impurity's end velocity lies between zero and the speed of sound in the gas and is determined by the injection protocol. This way, the impurity's constant motion is a dynamically emergent phenomenon whose description goes beyond accounting for the kinematic constraints of the Landau approach to superfluidity. We provide exact analytic results in the thermodynamic limit and perform finite-size numerical simulations to demonstrate that the predicted phenomena are within the reach of the ultracold gas experiments.

  10. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  11. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  12. Practical and highly sensitive elemental analysis for aqueous samples containing metal impurities employing electrodeposition on indium-tin oxide film samples and laser-induced shock wave plasma in low-pressure helium gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Pardede, Marincan; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Idris, Nasrullah; Jobiliong, Eric; Suyanto, Hery; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Tjia, May On; Lie, Tjung Jie; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2015-09-01

    We have conducted an experimental study exploring the possible application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for practical and highly sensitive detection of metal impurities in water. The spectrochemical measurements were carried out by means of a 355 nm Nd-YAG laser within N2 and He gas at atmospheric pressures as high as 2 kPa. The aqueous samples were prepared as thin films deposited on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass by an electrolysis process. The resulting emission spectra suggest that concentrations at parts per billion levels may be achieved for a variety of metal impurities, and it is hence potentially feasible for rapid inspection of water quality in the semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries, as well as for cooling water inspection for possible leakage of radioactivity in nuclear power plants. In view of its relative simplicity, this LIBS equipment offers a practical and less costly alternative to the standard use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for water samples, and its further potential for in situ and mobile applications.

  13. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  14. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  15. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  16. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  17. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    functional tissue damage in ... cury or alcohol) .... †The degree of poisoning, together with drug or poison levels, usually determines the .... monoxide, caffeine and the sym- .... the brain. It usually occurs when two or more drugs, which increase.

  18. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  19. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the effect of water elimination and the effect of burn-up residue boron, thereby reduce the effect of burnable poison rods as the neutron poisons at the final stage of reactor core lifetime. Constitution: In a burnable poison rod according to the present invention, a hollow burnable poison material is filled in an external fuel can, an inner fuel can mounted with a carbon rod is inserted to the hollow portion of the burnable poison material and helium gases are charged in the outer fuel can. In such a burnable poison rod, the reactivity worths after the burning are reduced to one-half as compared with the conventional case. Accordingly, since the effect of the burnable poison as the neutron poisons is reduced at the final stage of the reactor core of lifetime, the excess reactivity of the reactor core is increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  3. Poisoning by carbon monoxide in the hydrogen exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water preadsorbed on a platinum--alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, I.; Tamaru, K.

    1979-01-01

    Poisoning by carbon monoxide in the exchange reaction between deuterium and the water preadsorbed on a platinum--alumina catalyst was studied, by measuring not only the rate of reaction but also its kinetic behavior and the adsorption of reactants on the catalyst surface. The shape of the poisoning curve is closely associated with the kinetic behavior and exhibited an abrupt change on freezing the adsorbed water below 273 0 K. When the rate is proportional to deuterium pressure and independent of the amount of water adsorbed, the exchange rate dropped sharply by carbon monoxide adsorbed of a few percent coverage without any marked changes in the amount and the rate of hydrogen adsorption on the platinum surface. However, at temperatures lower than 273 0 K and at higher deuterium pressures, the rate depends not on the deuterium pressure but on the amount of water adsorbed. The migration of hydrogen in or through the adsorbed water is seemingly sufficiently suppressed by freezing to control the overall reaction rate. In this case, a small amount of adsorption of carbon monoxide did not show any toxicity, but then a steep poisoning started accompanying a change in the kinetic behavior. It was accordingly demonstrated that the mechanism of the reaction may be better understood by studying poisoning and measuring adsorption, overall rate, and kinetic behavior

  4. Variational method for magnetic impurities in metals: impurity pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oles, A M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Chao, K A [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology

    1980-01-01

    Applying a variational method to the generalized Wolff model, we have investigated the effect of impurity-impurity interaction on the formation of local moments in the ground state. The direct coupling between the impurities is found to be more important than the interaction between the impurities and the host conduction electrons, as far as the formation of local moments is concerned. Under certain conditions we also observe different valences on different impurities.

  5. Poisoning of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells by Impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune; Graves, Christopher R.; Hauch, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Electrolysis of H2O, CO2, and co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 was studied in Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrode supported solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) consisting of a Ni/YSZ support, a Ni/YSZ electrode layer, a YSZ electrolyte, and an lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ ox...

  6. Determination of overall decontamination factors for common impurity elements in PHWR spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, D.K.; Bhalerao, B.A.; Gupta, K.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Gurba, P.B.; Janardan, P.; Changrani, R.D.; Dey, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine overall decontamination factors for elemental impurities normally encountered in the U 3 O 8 product obtained by reprocessing of PHWR spent fuel. The solution obtained by dissolution of spent fuel and corresponding U 3 O 8 product were analyzed for 24 elemental impurities by ICP-AES for this purpose. Decontamination factors achieved for major neutron poisons are in the range of 200-400. (author)

  7. Investigation of the impurity transport in the ASDEX tokamak by spectroscopical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    Plasma impurities: a central problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion; magnetic plasma confinement in a Tokamak; methods to the determination of plasma impurity transport coefficients - by temporally modulated gas admission; the transport equation for impurities; neoclassical and anomalous transport; harmonic analysis of time-dependent signals; solutions of the transport equation; experimental equipment and measurements; measuring results - consistency of simple transport models with radial phase measurements; linearity of the transport processes; plasma disturbance by impurity injection; determination of the diffusion coefficient by simplified transport models; comparison of transport models for impurities and background plasma; measurements of the impurity transport at the plasma edge by high modulation frequencies. (AH)

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrotreatment using a Molecular Reconstruction Approach Modélisation cinétique de l’hydrotraitement de distillats sous vide utilisant une approche de reconstruction moléculaire

    OpenAIRE

    Charon-Revellin N.; Dulot H.; López-García C.; Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum Gas Oils (VGO) are heavy petroleum cuts (boiling points ranging from 350 to 550 ˚C) that can be transformed into valuable fuels (gasolines, diesels) by fluid catalytic cracking or hydrocracking. Prior to these conversion processes, hydrotreating is required in order to eliminate the impurities in VGOs. The hydrotreatment process enables to meet the environmental specifications (total sulfur contents) and to prevent nitrogen poisoning of conversion catalysts. In order to develop a kinet...

  9. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C. for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal.

  10. Research on application of burnable poison in pebble bed HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chunlin; Zhang Jian; Shan Wenzhi; Jing Xingqing

    2013-01-01

    Burnable poison in fuel ball was used in pebble bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) to optimize the shape and the peak factor of power distribution in certain conditions. Two options are available and evaluated, that is the homogeneous burnable poison in graphite matrix and burnable poison particles (BPPs) in fuel balls. Due to the absorption cross section of "1"0B, the depletion speed for homogeneous burnable poison is very fast, and difficult to control, on the other side, the depletion speed of BPPs can be optimized respecting to its size, and better shape and peak value of power distribution can be achieved. (authors)

  11. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  12. Impurity control in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The control of impurities in TFTR will be a particularly difficult problem due to the large energy and particle fluxes expected in the device. As part of the TFTR Flexibility Modification (TEM) project, a program has been implemented to address this problem. Transport code simulations are used to infer an impurity limit criterion as a function of the impurity atomic number. The configurational designs of the limiters and associated protective plates are discussed along with the consideration of thermal and mechanical loads due to normal plasma operation, neutral beams, and plasma disruptions. A summary is given of the materials-related research, which has been a collaborative effort involving groups at Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia Laboratories, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Conceptual designs are shown for getterng systems capable of regenerating absorbed tritium. Research on this topic by groups at the previously mentioned laboratories and SAES Research Laboratory is reviewed

  13. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  14. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H 2 and O 2 were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  15. Phenomenological studies and modelling of the gaseous impurities oxidation and adsorption mechanisms in helium: application for the purification system optimization in gas cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, F.

    2008-01-01

    In GEN IV studies on future fission nuclear reactors, two concepts using helium as a coolant have been selected: GFR and VHTR. Among radioactive impurities and dusts, helium can contain H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , H 2 O, O 2 , as well as nitrogenous species. To optimize the reactor functioning and lifespan, it is necessary to control the coolant chemical composition using a dedicated purification system. A pilot designed at the CEA allows studying this purification system. Its design includes three unit operations: H 2 and CO oxidation on CuO, then two adsorption steps. This study aims at providing a detailed analysis of the first and second purification steps, which have both been widely studied experimentally at laboratory scale. A first modelling based on a macroscopic approach was developed to represent the behaviour of the reactor and has shown that the CuO fixed bed conversion is dependent on the chemistry (mass transfer is not an issue) and is complete. The results of the structural analysis of the solids allow considering the CuO as particles made of 200 nm diameter grains. Hence, a new model at grain scale is proposed. It is highlighted that the kinetic constants from these two models are related with a scale factor which depends on geometry. A competition between carbon monoxide and hydrogen oxidation has been shown. Activation energies are around 30 kJ.mol-1. Simulation of the simultaneous oxidations leads to consider CO preferential adsorption. A similar methodology has been applied for CO 2 and H 2 O adsorption. The experimental isotherms showed a Langmuir type adsorption. Using this model, experimental and theoretical results agree. (author) [fr

  16. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  17. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  18. Dynamical impurity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class

  19. Dynamical impurity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  20. Investigations of impurity control in JET using fuelling, and interpretation of experiments using the LIM impurity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of contamination of the plasma core in JET by edge impurities during high power heating of deuterium plasmas in limiter configuration using fuelling is demonstrated. By injecting deuterium gas during heating, in the presence of a much larger recycling deuterium flux, a reduction of more than a factor of 2 was effected in n z (0)/Φ z , the ratio of central impurity density to impurity influx at the plasma edge. The reduction in n z (0) was obtained without much effect on peak electron temperature and density. Reduction of plasma contamination by gas fuelling was observed also when hot spots formed on the limiter, a condition that without simultaneous gas fuelling culminated in runaway plasma contamination. Detailed analysis of the experiments is undertaken with the purpose of identifying the processes by which plasma contamination was inhibited, employing standard limiter plasma contamination modelling. Processes which might produce the observed impurity inhibiting effects of gas injection include: (a) reduction in impurity production at the limiter; (b) increase in impurity screening in the scrape-off layer; (c) increase in radial impurity transport at the plasma edge; (d) increase in average deuteron flow velocity to the limiter along the scrape-off layer. These are examined in detail using the Monte Carlo limiter impurity transport code LIM. Bearing in mind that uncertainties exist both in the choice of appropriate modelling assumptions to be used and in the measurement of required edge plasma parameters, changes in n z (0)/Φ z by a factor of 2 are at the limit of the present modelling capability. However, comparison between LIM code simulations and measurements of plasma impurity content indicate that the standard limiter plasma contamination model may not be adequate and that other processes need to be added in order to be able to describe the experiments in JET. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  2. Comparison of two types of acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogusz, M.; Cholewa, L.; Pach, J.; Mlodkowska, K.

    1975-01-01

    In 47 patients treated at the Toxicological Clinic in Krakow for coal-stove-gas poisoning, the aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, LDH/sub 1/ isoenzyme activities, and the lactate level were studied. Findings were compared with those of earlier investigations carried out on a group of patients poisoned by lighting gas; qualitatively changes in both groups were similar. The biochemical parameters studied aided in quantitative evaluation of the patients' condition: a threefold increase in lactate level on admission to the hospital and a likewise threefold increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity after 24 hrs of treatment are indications of severe poisoning.

  3. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  4. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  5. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  6. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  7. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important.

  8. Irradiation test of borosilicate glass burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingquan; Liao Zumin; Yang Mingjin; Lu Changlong; Huang Deyang; Zeng Wangchun; Zhao Xihou

    1991-08-01

    The irradiation test and post-irradiation examinations for borosilicate glass burnable poison are introduced. Examinations include visual examination, measurement of dimensions and density, and determination of He gas releasing and 10 B burnup. The corrosion and phenomenon of irradiation densification are also discussed. Two type glass samples have been irradiated with different levels of neutron flux. It proved that the GG-17 borosilicate glass can be used as burnable poison to replace the 10 B stainless steel in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, and it is safe, economical and reasonable

  9. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  10. Application of the complex equilibrium code QUIL to cesium-impurity equilibria in the primary coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, R.D.; Lunsford, J.L.; Stark, W.A. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    An equilibrium analysis has been made of the fission-product cesium in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The species distributions that result at equilibrium have been calculated for various conditions of reactor operation. The cesium species considered were the monomer, dimer, oxides, hydroxides, and the hydride. The effect of cesium sorption isotherms on graphite also was included in the analysis. During normal reactor operations, the abundant species of cesium were calculated to be elemental cesium, Cs, and the monomeric hydroxide, CsOH. Under most conditions of steam ingress, the abundant species was calculated to be CsOH. Cesium adsorbed onto graphite was stable under all steam-ingress conditions considered. Thermal transients above 1500 0 K were required for equilibrium transport of cesium from the core to the coolant. The analysis was carried out using the complex equilibrium code QUIL, designed and written with special emphasis on features that make it applicable to the fission-product problem

  11. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  12. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ... urushiol". These are called Rhus plants after the old scientific name (it was changed to toxidendron). A ...

  13. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in fumes produced any time you burn fuel in cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, ... prevent CO poisoning in my home? Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in ...

  15. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  16. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  17. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  18. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  19. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  20. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  1. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week. Be Smart about Storage Store all medicines and household products ... call medicine "candy." Identify poisonous plants in your house and yard and place them out of reach ...

  2. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  3. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  5. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  7. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the reactor core lifetime by decreasing the effect of neutron absorption of burnable poison rods by using material with less neutron absorbing effect. Constitution: Stainless steels used so far as the coating material for burnable poison rods have relatively great absorption in the thermal neutral region and are not preferred in view of the neutron economy. Burnable poison rods having fuel can made of zirconium alloy shows absorption the thermal neutron region lower by one digit than that of stainless steels but they shows absorption in the resonance region and the cost is higher. In view of the above, the fuel can of the burnable poison material is made of aluminum or aluminu alloy. This can reduce the neutron absorbing effect by stainless steel fuel can and effectively utilize neutrons that have been wastefully absorbed and consumed in stainless steels. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. Impurities in uranium process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Several uranium purification circuits are presented in tabular form together with the average major impurity levels associated with each. The more common unit operations in these circuits, namely strong- and weak-base ion-exchange, solvent extraction and the precipitation of impurities are then discussed individually. Particular attention is paid to the effect and removal of impurities in each of these four unit operations. (author)

  9. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  10. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  11. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  12. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospieszczyk, A; Bay, H L; Bogen, P; Hartwig, H; Hintz, E; Koenen, L; Ross, G G; Rusbueldt, D; Samm, U; Schweer, B

    1987-02-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n/sub e/, of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers.

  13. Impurity sources in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Bay, H.L.; Bogen, P.; Hartwig, H.; Hintz, E.; Koenen, L.; Ross, G.G.; Rusbueldt, D.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.

    1987-01-01

    The deuterium, oxygen and carbon fluxes from the main limiter and the deuterium fluxes from the wall are measured in TEXTOR for an 'all carbon' surrounding as a function of central density n e , of applied ICRH-power and of different wall conditions (carbonization). For this purpose, emission spectroscopy both with filter systems and spectrometers has been used. It is found that a major release mechanism for light impurities is via the formation of molecules. Oxygen seems to enter the discharge from the liner via O-D containing molecules, whereas the limiter acts as the main carbon source by the release of hydro-carbons as indicated by the observed CD-band spectra. Both oxygen and carbon fluxes are reduced by about a factor of two after a fresh carbonization. Above a certain critical density the plasma detaches from the limiter and forms a stable discharge with a radiation cooled boundary layer and with a major fraction of particles now reaching the wall instead of the limiter. The critical density rises with decreasing impurity fluxes or with increasing heating powers. (orig.)

  14. Recent trends in the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Pilaniya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various regulatory authorities such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH, the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA, and the Canadian Drug and Health Agency (CDHA are emphasizing on the purity requirements and the identification of impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs. The various sources of impurity in pharmaceutical products are - reagents, heavy metals, ligands, catalysts, other materials like filter aids, charcoal, and the like, degraded end products obtained during \\ after manufacturing of bulk drugs from hydrolysis, photolytic cleavage, oxidative degradation, decarboxylation, enantiomeric impurity, and so on. The different pharmacopoeias such as the British Pharmacopoeia, United State Pharmacopoeia, and Indian Pharmacopoeia are slowly incorporating limits to allowable levels of impurities present in APIs or formulations. Various methods are used to isolate and characterize impurities in pharmaceuticals, such as, capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance, gas-liquid chromatography, gravimetric analysis, high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction methods, liquid-liquid extraction method, Ultraviolet Spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction column chromatography, mass spectrometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and RAMAN spectroscopy. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC-Mass Spectroscopy (MS, LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS, and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research.

  15. Application of secondary ion emission to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which high Z impurities enter the plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion device depends on the kinetic energy, angle of emission, and very importantly, the charge state of the ejected material. We have been studying both the fundamental process of secondary ion emission and possible techniques for producing surfaces which give rise to high ion fractions during sputtering, with a view to assessing the potential of this approach to impurity control in tokamaks. By carefully choosing materials exposed to fusion plasmas and by properly modifying the surface it may be possible to insure that nearly all the impurities are ejected as ions. As long as certain gas blanket configurations are avoided and especially if a divertor is used, it should then be possible to remove the impurities before they reach the plasma. The relative merits of a variety of materials are considered with regard to this application

  16. Intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan: a pilot study using the Emergency Departments surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Shamim, Nudrat; Khan, Uzma; Naseer, Naureen; Feroze, Asher; Razzak, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits around the world. In Pakistan, the epidemiological data on poisoning is limited due to an under developed poison information surveillance system. We aim to describe the characteristics associated with intentional and unintentional poisoning in Pakistan presenting to emergency departments. The data was extracted from the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) which was an active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. All patients, regardless of age, who presented with poisoning to any of Pakistan's seven major tertiary care centers' emergency departments, were included. Information about patient demographics, type of poisoning agent, reason for poisoning and outcomes were collected using a standard questionnaire. Acute poisoning contributed to 1.2% (n = 233) of patients with intentional and unintentional injuries presenting to EDs of participating centers. Of these, 68% were male, 54% were aged 19 to 44 and 19% were children and adolescents (<18 years). Types of poisoning included chemical/gas (43.8%), drug/medicine (27%), alcohol (16.7%) and food/plant (6%). In half of all patients the poisoning was intentional. A total of 11.6% of the patients were admitted and 6.6% died. Poisoning causes more morbidity and mortality in young adults in Pakistan compared to other age groups, half of which is intentional. Improving mental health, regulatory control for hazardous chemicals and better access to care through poison information centers and emergency departments will potentially help control the problem.

  17. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  18. Impurity study experiment proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    ISX is a modest tokamak which emphasizes the production of a predictable test plasma, experimental flexibility, ease of assembly and disassembly, and good diagnostic access. Its plasma models the outer cooler layers in EPR like plasmas. In addition, provisions will be made for long discharge times which may be necessary to observe some impurity effects. These machine characteristics will enable one to study the collisional transport of impurities in the plasma, perform systematic studies of wall and limiter materials and geometries, study methods of cleaning the walls, and develop and test new diagnostic techniques. ISX will employ water-cooled copper coils to produce a maximum toroidal magnetic field of 20 kG at the plasma axis, which is 77 cm from the major axis. The plasma minor radius will be about 15 cm, and the maximum plasma current will be 100 kA which will be induced by an iron core transformer with a capability of up to 0.9 volt-sec for long discharges. An aspect ratio of five and the modest magnetic field permit a design with ample space for thick wall structures such as honeycomb walls. The ''picture frame'' toroidal field coil provides additional space, while removable coil top sections allow easy replacement of the vacuum chamber. The 72-turn toroidal field coil is grouped into 24 sections for increased access. Absence of a conducting shell and placement of the vertical field and transformer primary coils away from the plasma allow easy viewing of the plasma and good diagnostic access. (U.S.)

  19. Blood gas profile of copper-poisoned in sheep treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdatePerfil de gases sanguíneos de ovinos intoxicados por cobre e tratados com tetratiomolibidato de amônio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Araripe Sucupira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood gas profile of experimentally copper-poisoned sheep (in the pre-hemolytic, hemolytic and post-hemolytic phases that have been treated or not treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Ten lambs of the Santa Ines breed were divided into two groups: control and ATTM (treated (ammonium tetrathiomolibydate. The animals were submitted to increasing doses of copper sulfate until macroscopic hemoglobinuria was detected.All of the control animals from died within four days of hemolytic crisis, and one sheep from ATTM died during the treatment. There was no difference in blood gas parameters between experimental groups. Higher values of pCO2 were observed during the hemolytic crisis (HC in both groups. The control group had higher mean values of hCO3 in the times HC and 2 days after hemolytic crisis (dA when compared with the time 15 before hemolytic crises (dB. The sheep that were treated with ATTM presented lower values of hCO3 at 7dB and higher levels at the HC. The control and ATTM groups exhibited higher values of BE during the HC. Poisoning resulted in disorder in the acid-base equilibrium, characterized by metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis. Treatment with ATTM was able to reverse the changes in acid-base balance in copper poisoning sheep. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o perfil de gases sanguineos em ovinos experimentalmente intoxicados com cobre (fases: pré-hemoltica, hemolitica e pós-hemolitica tratados ou não com tetratiomolibidato de amônio (ATTM. Dez cordeiros da raça Santa Inês foram divididos em dois grupos:controle (tratados com solução fisiologica a 0,9% e ATTM (tratados com 3,4 mg/kg de tetratiomolibidato de amonio. Os animais foram submetidos a doses crescentes de sulfato de cobre até a observação de hemoglobinúria macroscópica. Todos os animais do grupo controle morreram dentro de quatro dias após observação da hemoglobinúria, e um cordeiro do grupo ATTM

  20. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  1. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  2. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  3. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  4. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  5. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  6. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. People who are sleeping or who ...

  9. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  10. Plasma shut-down with fast impurity puff on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Fuchs, C.J.; Gruber, O.; Maggi, C.F.; Maraschek, M.; Puetterich, T.; Rohde, V.; Wittmann, C.; Wolfrum, E.; Cierpka, P.; Beck, M.

    2007-01-01

    The massive injection of impurity gas into a plasma has been proved to reduce forces and localized thermal loads caused by disruptions in tokamaks. This mitigation system is routinely used on ASDEX Upgrade to shut down plasmas with a locked mode. The plasma response to impurity injection and the mechanism of reduction of the mechanical forces is discussed in the paper

  11. Effects of quenched impurities on surface diffusion, spreading, and ordering of O/W(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikunen, P.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2002-01-01

    We study how quenched impurities affect the surface diffusion and ordering of strongly interacting adsorbate atoms on surfaces. To this end, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations for a lattice-gas model of O/W(110), including small concentrations of immobile impurities which block their adsorption...

  12. Capture of impurity atoms by defects and the distribution of the complexes under ion bormbardment of growing films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzhabov, T.D.; Iskanderova, Z.A.; Arutyunova, E.O.; Samigulin, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical study of capture of impurity gas atoms with defects during ion introduction of the impurity in the process of film growth with simultaneous diffusion has been carried out. Concentration profiles of forned impurity-defect complexes have been calculated analytically and numerically by means of a computer in film depth and in a substrate; basic peculiarities of impurity component formation captured with defects in a wide range of changing basic experimental parameters have been revealed. Effect of impurity capture with defects on amount and distribution of total concentration of impurity atoms and intensity of complete absorption of bombarding ions in films have been analyzed. Shown is a possibility for producing films with a high concentration level and almost uniform distribution of the impurity-defect complexes for real, achievable an experiment, values of process parameters as well as a possibility for increasing complete absorption of gaseous impurity wiht concentration growth of capture defects-traps

  13. Mobile impurities in ferromagnetic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, Adrian; Schollwoeck, Ulrich; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    Recent work has shown that mobile impurities in one dimensional interacting systems may exhibit behaviour that differs strongly from that predicted by standard Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, with the appearance of power-law divergences in the spectral function signifying sublinear diffusion of the impurity. Using time-dependent matrix product states, we investigate a range of cases of mobile impurities in systems beyond the analytically accessible examples to assess the existence of a new universality class of low-energy physics in one-dimensional systems. Correspondence: Adrian.Kantian@unige.ch This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of carbon impurities in PISCES-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W.; Pospieszczyk, A.

    1989-08-01

    The graphite used for the limiter of the tokamak reactor produces carbon-containing molecular impurities as a result of the interactions with the edge plasma. The behavior of these molecular impurities has been studied using emission spectroscopy. The present study includes: finding molecular bands and atomic lines in the visible spectral range which can be used for the study of the molecular impurities, studying the breakup processes of the molecular impurities on their way from the source into the plasma, developing a spectroscopic diagnostic method for the absolute measurement of the molecular impurity flux resulting from graphite erosion. For these studies, carbon-containing molecules such as CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and CO 2 were injected into the tokamak-boundary,like plasma generated by PISCES-A. The spectrograms of these gases were taken. Many useful bands and lines were determined from the spectrograms. The breakup processes of these gases were studied by observing the spatial profiles of the emission of the molecules and their radicals for different plasma conditions. For the absolute measurement of the eroded molecular impurity flux, the photon efficiency of the lines and bands were found by measuring the absolute number of the emitted photons and injected gas molecules. The chemical sputtering yield of graphite by hydrogen plasma was spectroscopically measured using the previously obtained photon efficiencies. It showed good agreement with results obtained by weight loss measurements. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  16. Effect of impurities in description of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Surface nanobubbles emerging at solid-liquid interfaces of submerged hydrophobic surfaces show extreme stability and very small (gas-side) contact angles. In a recent paper Ducker [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)]. conjectured that these effects may arise from the presence of impurities at the

  17. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  18. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  20. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  1. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done more than 1 hour after touching the plant's sap. Flush the eyes out with water. Take care to clean under the fingernails well to remove ... room. If you are concerned, call your health care provider or poison control. At the ... Take a sample of the plant with you to the doctor or hospital, if ...

  2. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  3. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  4. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  5. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  6. Search for impurities of counting gases in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, T.

    1992-03-01

    In order to reach for the gas detectors applied at the ALADIN spectrometer of the GSI an as good as possible and timely remaining gas purity, a study on the kind and effects of impurities in different counting gases was performed. The gas purity was observed via the signal height of an α source after a drift path of the electrons of 50 cm. A steady decrease of the α-signals was measures, the steepness of which decreases slowly as function of the time. The half-life lies in the range of weeks, which lets conclude on a slow outgassing from the materials of the arrangement. By a gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy these impurities could be determined. Beside impurities by polar molecules as water and oxygen from the atmosphere, which are deposed in microscopical capillaries of the chamber materials and then outgassed in the samples after several days so-called softeners could be observed. Because these impurities in the arrangement at the ALADIN spectrometer cannot be avoided, a purification system in the flow-through operation was constructed and its effect tested. The gas quality can by this over several days be kept in the mean constant. In this dynamical process the fluctuations of the signal heights lie at ±0.7%. A ionization chamber as monitor for the gas purity was constructed and tested with different gas mixtures concerning observables like signal height and drift time. By this calibrated monitor in the experiment at the ALADIN spectrometer the gas quality can be independently determined. (orig.) [de

  7. Impurity transport studies on the FTU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Romanelli, F.; Gregory, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the radial profile of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity V in the plasma core (0 2 /s and V ∼ 100 m/s. A model for the anomalous transport induced by electrostatic turbulence is developed. With a typical fluctuation spectrum (ω = 10 5 -2x10 5 Hz), calculations can reproduce very well the experimental results. To investigate the impurity behavior in a non-stationary phase, Kr gas was injected into the plasma. It is found that the total flux of Kr gas flowing into the core is also driven by diffusion but the magnitude is much lower than the single ion fluxes derived for Mo ions. The effect of the turbulence on the single ion is very strong but it is reduced when averaged over many charge states. (author)

  8. Impurity enrichment and radiative enhancement using induced SOL flow in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the efficacy of using induced scrap-off-layer (SOL) flow to preferentially enrich impurities in the divertor plasma. This SOL floe is produced through simultaneous deuterium gas injection at the midplane and divertor exhaust. Using this SOL flow, an improvement in enrichment (defined as the ratio of impurity fraction in the divertor to that in the plasma core) has been observed for all impurities in trace-level experiments (i.e., impurity level is non-perturbative), with the degree of improvement increasing with impurity atomic number. In the case of argon, exhaust gas enrichment using modest SOL flow is as high as 17. Using this induced SOL flow technique and argon injection, radiative plasmas have been produced that combine high radiation losses (P rad /P input > 70%), low core fuel dilution (Z eff E > 1.0 τ E,ITER93H )

  9. Effect of density control and impurity transport on internal transport barrier formation in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Arimoto, Hideki; Yamazaki, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    In future fusion reactors, density control, such as fueling by pellet injection, is an effective method to control the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed magnetic shear plasma, which can improve plasma performance. On the other hand, an operation with ITB can cause accumulation of impurities inside the core ITB region. We studied the relation between pellet injection and ITB formation and the effect of impurity transport on the core of ITB for tokamak plasmas by using the toroidal transport analysis linkage. For ITB formation, we showed that the pellet has to be injected beyond the position where the safety factor q takes the minimum value. We confirmed that the accumulation of impurities causes the attenuation of ITB owing to radiation loss inside the ITB region. Moreover, in terms of the divertor heat flux reduction by impurity gas, the line radiation loss is high for high-Z noble gas impurities, such as Kr, whereas factor Q decreases slightly. (author)

  10. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  11. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  12. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  13. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  14. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  15. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  16. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  17. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  18. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  19. Impurity bubbles in a BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  20. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges

  1. Impurity studies and discharge cleaning in Doublet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.

    1979-10-01

    The goal of present and next generation tokamak experiments is to produce high-density, high-purity plasmas during high-power, extended-duration discharges. Plasma discharges with Z/sub eff/ values near unity and low concentrations of medium and high-Z metallic impurities have been obtained in Doublet III using a combination of low-power hydrogen discharge cleaning, gas puffing, precise plasma shape and position control, and high-Z limiters. Analysis of the first wall surface and residual gas impurities confirmed that clean conditions have been achieved. The high-Z limiters showed very limited amounts of melting or arcing. The progress of the wall cleaning process was monitored by three diagnostic techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy of metallic samples at the vessel wall, residual gas analysis, and the resistivity of full power discharges.

  2. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  3. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  4. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  5. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  6. Divertor experiment for impurity control in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagami, Masayuki

    1979-04-01

    Divertor actions of controlling the impurities and the transport of impurity ions in the plasma have been investigated in the DIVA device. Following are the results: (1) The radial transport of impurity ions is not described only by neoclassical theory, but it is strongly influenced by anomalous process. Radial diffusion of impurity ions across the whole minor radius is well described by a neoclassical diffusion superposed by the anomalous diffusion for protons. Due to this anomalous process, which spreads the radial density profile of impurity ions, 80 to 90% of the impurity flux in the plasma outer edge is shielded even in a nondiverted discharge. (2) The divertor reduces the impurity flux entering the main plasma by a factor of 2 to 4. The impurity ions shielded by the scrape-off plasma are rapidly guided into the burial chamber with a poloidal excursion time roughly equal to that of the scrape-off plasma. (3) The divertor reduces the impurity ion flux onto the main vacuum chamber by guiding the impurity ions diffusing from the main plasma into the burial chamber, thereby reducing the plasma-wall interaction caused by diffusing impurity ions at the main vacuum chamber. The impurity ions produced in the burial chamber may flow back to the main plasma through the scrape-off layer. However, roughly only 0.3% of the impurity flux into the scrape-off plasma in the burial chamber penetrates into the main plasma due to the impurity backflow. (4) A slight cooling of the scrape-off plasma with light-impurity injection effectively reduces the metal impurity production at the first wall by reducing the potential difference between the plasma and the wall, thereby reducing the accumulation of the metal impurity in the discharge. Radiation cooling by low-Z impurities in the plasma outer edge, which may become an important feature in future large tokamaks both with and without divertor, is numerically evaluated for carbon, oxygen and neon. (author)

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IN LJUBLJANA FROM 1990 TO 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbon monoxide (CO is the most common lethal poisoning. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Slovenia is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of sublethal acute CO poisoning in Ljubljana region (Slovenia.Methods. A retrospective study involved CO poisoned patients admited to Poison Control Centre and Centre of Intensive Care Medicine of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1999.Results. There were annualy approximately 2.4 cases of sublethal CO poisonings per 100.000 population in Ljubljana region. Of these, 25% were suicide attempts and 75% were unintentional poisonings (28% happened in domestic environment as a result of heating, cooking or bathing, 22% were associated with fire, 11% happened in the working site, 10% happened in the workroom at home and only 3% occurred in the moving vehicle. Among the patients there were 72% male and 28% female. The domestic source of CO was a gas water heater or residential heating device in the 63% of the cases, a coal stove in the 32% and an oil heater in the 6%. In the 18% of the suicide attempts we found also acute drug or alcohol intoxication, and 18% of patients poisoned in the fire were intoxicated with alcohol. Collective poisoning happened in the 25% of cases affecting from 2 to 6 persons.Conclusions. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Ljubljana region appers to be seven times lower than in other countries. The main reason is misdiagnosing of CO poisoning. In the future we should consider CO poisoning more often, particularly in all patients with flu-like symptoms, unexplained headache and worsening of pre-existing diseases. We should always exclude the collective poisoning and the presence of alcohol or other drugs.

  8. Particle fueling and impurity control in PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

    1984-12-01

    Fueling requirements and impurity levels in neutral-beam-heated discharges in the PDX tokamak have been compared for plasmas formed with conventional graphite rail limiters, a particle scoop limiter, and an open or closed poloidal divertor. Gas flows necessary to obtain a given density are highest for diverted discharges and lowest for the scoop limiter. Hydrogen pellet injection provides an efficient alternate fueling technique, and a multiple pellet injector has produced high density discharges for an absorbed neutral beam power of up to 600 kW, above which higher speeds or more massive pellets are required for penetration to the plasma core. Power balance studies indicate that 30 to 40% of the total input power is radiated while approx. 15% is absorbed by the limiting surface, except in the open divertor case, where 60% flows to the neutralizer plate. In all operating configurations, Z/sub eff/ usually rises at the onset of neutral beam injection. Both open divertor plasmas and those formed on a well conditioned water-cooled limiter have Z/sub eff/ less than or equal to 2 at the end of neutral injection. A definitive comparison of divertors and limiters for impurity control purposes requires longer beam pulses or higher power levels than available on present machines

  9. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  11. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  12. Tokamak impurity-control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of the impurity-control functions in tokamaks, their relative merits and disadvantages and some prominent edge-interaction-control techniques, and there is a discussion of a new proposal, the particle scraper, and its potential advantages. (author)

  13. Nonmagnetic impurities in magnetic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetization and magnetic field arising around the nonmagnetic impurity in magnetic superconductor with triplet pairing are found. The relationship of these results with the data of recent (gm)sR experiments in heavy fermionic superconductor U 1 - x Th x Be 13 is presented

  14. Complexity of Quantum Impurity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David

    2017-12-01

    We give a quasi-polynomial time classical algorithm for estimating the ground state energy and for computing low energy states of quantum impurity models. Such models describe a bath of free fermions coupled to a small interacting subsystem called an impurity. The full system consists of n fermionic modes and has a Hamiltonian {H=H_0+H_{imp}}, where H 0 is quadratic in creation-annihilation operators and H imp is an arbitrary Hamiltonian acting on a subset of O(1) modes. We show that the ground energy of H can be approximated with an additive error {2^{-b}} in time {n^3 \\exp{[O(b^3)]}}. Our algorithm also finds a low energy state that achieves this approximation. The low energy state is represented as a superposition of {\\exp{[O(b^3)]}} fermionic Gaussian states. To arrive at this result we prove several theorems concerning exact ground states of impurity models. In particular, we show that eigenvalues of the ground state covariance matrix decay exponentially with the exponent depending very mildly on the spectral gap of H 0. A key ingredient of our proof is Zolotarev's rational approximation to the {√{x}} function. We anticipate that our algorithms may be used in hybrid quantum-classical simulations of strongly correlated materials based on dynamical mean field theory. We implemented a simplified practical version of our algorithm and benchmarked it using the single impurity Anderson model.

  15. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  16. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  17. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does not...

  18. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  20. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  1. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  3. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  4. Breatherlike impurity modes in discrete nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennig, D.; Rasmussen, Kim; Tsironis, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a disordered generalized discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing both diagonal and nondiagonal nonlinear terms. The equation models a Linear host lattice doped with nonlinear impurities. We find different types of impurity states that form itinerant...

  5. Light impurity production in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.; Erdweg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of the different erosion processes of carbon materials with special emphasis on conditions relevant to plasma surface interactions. New results on the chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation of boron-carbon layers are presented. The chemical hydrocarbon formation produced by the interaction of the TEXTOR scrape-off plasma with a carbon target has been investigated up to temperatures of 1500K using a Sniffer probe. The chemical interaction of the plasma with the carbon walls in TEXTOR is also analysed by measuring the hydrocarbon and CO and CO 2 partial pressures built up on the surrounding walls during the discharges. The recycling of oxygen impurities in an all carbon surrounding occurs predominantly in the form of CO and Co 2 molecules and the analysis of both neutral pressures during the discharges has been used as an additional diagnostic for the oxygen impurity situation in TEXTOR. These data are discussed in view of spectroscopic measurements on the influx of carbon and oxygen atoms from the walls and impurity line radiation. CD-band spectroscopy in addition is employed to identify the hydrocarbon chemical carbon erosion. Our present understanding of the oxygen impurity recycling and the oxygen sources are described. Particle induced release of CO molecules from the entire first wall is believed to be the dominant influx process of oxygen in the SOL of plasmas with carbon facing materials. The influence of coating the TEXTOR first wall with a boron-carbon film (B/C ≅1) on the light impurity behaviour is shown. (author)

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  7. Impurity energy level in the Haldane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yu

    1995-11-01

    An impurity bond J' in a periodic 1D antiferromagnetic spin 1 chain with exchange J is considered. Using the numerical density matrix renormalization group method, we find an impurity energy level in the Haldane gap, corresponding to a bound state near the impurity bond. When J' J. The impurity level appears only when the deviation dev = (J'- J)/J' is greater than B c , which is close to 0.3 in our calculation. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  8. Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M

    2015-10-16

    We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments.

  9. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  10. Endosulfan poisoning: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Qadir, Tooba Fatima; Moin, Ariba; Fatima, Huda; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Al Rubaish, Fatima A; Senthilkumaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture. Several cases of endosulfan poisoning have been reported from different regions of the world. Whether accidental or intentional, endosulfan ingestion proves to be fatal unless immediate, aggressive treatment is initiated. Management is mainly supportive as no antidote exists for endosulfan poisoning as yet. The use of endosulfan needs to be strictly regulated and eventually banned worldwide altogether to lower the current morbidity and mortality resulting from this pesticide. Additionally, monitoring biological samples, using non-invasive techniques such as breast milk sampling, can provide an effective method of observing the elimination of this environmentally persistent organic pollutant from the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  12. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Interaction of different poisons with MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 4} based Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh, E-mail: n.bahri@ippi.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The interactions between different classes of poison molecules and TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} type Ziegler-Natta catalyst is considered. • Poisons strongly stabilize MgCl{sub 2} crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. • Poison molecules decrease catalyst activity by increasing E{sub TS} in olefin polymerization. • Poison molecules do not have significant effect in stereospecifity of ZN catalysts in propylene polymerization. - Abstract: Adsorption of different poison molecules on activated MgCl{sub 2} is investigated within DFT using a cluster model of the MgCl{sub 2} surface with (MgCl{sub 2}){sub 16} formula containing four 4-coordinated and eight 5-coordinated Mg atoms as (110) and (104) surfaces, respectively. Studied poison molecules are chosen as possible impurities in hydrocarbon solvents and monomer feeds and contain water, hydrogensulfide, carbondioxide, molecular oxygen and methanol. First, adsorption of 1–4 molecules of different poisons to the (104) and (110) lateral cuts of MgCl{sub 2}, as well as their adsorption on [MgCl{sub 2}]/TiCl{sub 2}Et active center and AlEt{sub 3} cocatalyst is considered. Results reveal that poisons strongly stabilize both crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. Second, energy barrier (E{sub TS}) for ethylene insertion in the presence of different poisons located on the first and second Mg atom relative to the active Ti is calculated. While poison molecule located on the second Mg does not change E{sub TS}, coordination of it into the first Mg atom increases E{sub TS} by 0.9–1.2 kcal mol{sup −1}. In the last part of this manuscript, the stereoselective behavior of active Ti species, with and without poison molecules and external electron donor, is fully explored.

  14. Change in detector properties caused by electronegative impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, M.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Mindur, B.

    2006-01-01

    Detector properties (energy resolution, gas gain, drift-time measurements) depend quite critically on the concentration of impurities. The most frequent impurities in the working gas are water vapour and oxygen. Systematic measurements of the detector properties as a function of both H 2 O vapour and O 2 concentration have been made. Ar/CO 2 (80/20) and Ar/CO 2 /CF 4 (70/10/20) have been selected as the working gases. The first mixture is commonly used, the second one is very promising due to its fastness. The concentration of H 2 O vapour and O 2 was varied from 0% to 1.9% and 3%, respectively

  15. Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.S.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Couture, P.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Morris, W.

    1987-01-01

    Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Z eff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n met /n e ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm 3 , consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft X-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6x10 10 and 10x10 10 particles/cm 2 s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3x10 12 and 1x10 12 particles/cm 2 s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained. (orig.)

  16. Determination of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pasques, R.H.; Iglicki, F.A; Cittadini, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed in order to evaluate the activity of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32. The procedure is based on the precipitation on benzidine sulphate in acid solution and further purification by dissolving and reprecipitating under appropriate conditions. 35 S beta radiation is measured with and end-window gas counter. A correction for any remaining 32 P is determined by differential absorption through aluminum. (author) [es

  17. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  19. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  20. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  1. Studies of the impurity pellet ablation in the high-temperature plasma of magnetic confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, V. Yu.; Bakhareva, O. A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Tendler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ablation of impurity pellets in tokamak and stellarator plasmas is investigated. Different mechanisms for shielding the heat fluxes from the surrounding plasma to the pellet surface are discussed. A model for impurity pellet ablation is developed that can account for both neutral and electrostatic shielding. It is shown that the experimental values of the impurity pellet ablation rate are well described by the neutral gas shielding model over a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. Taking into account the electrostatic shielding leads to worse agreement between the predictions of the model and the experimental data; this result still remains unclear. Scaling laws are obtained that allow one to estimate the local ablation rate of impurity pellets made of various materials over a wide range of plasma parameters in the neutral gas shielding model

  2. Impurity characterization of magnesium diuranate using simultaneous TG–DTA–FTIR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, Naina, E-mail: nraje@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ghonge, Darshana K. [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India); Hemantha Rao, G.V.S. [NFC, ECIL Post, Hyderabad (India); Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, B.A.R.C., Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Current studies describe the application of simultaneous thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis – evolved gas analysis techniques for the compositional characterization of magnesium diuranate (MDU) with respect to the impurities present in the matrix. The stoichiometric composition of MDU was identified as MgU{sub 2}O{sub 7}⋅3H{sub 2}O. Presence of carbonate and sulphate as impurities in the matrix was confirmed through the evolved gas analysis using Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrometry detection. Carbon and magnesium hydroxide content present as impurities in magnesium diuranate have been determined quantitatively using TG and FTIR techniques and the results are in good agreement. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis of magnesium diuranate suggests the presence of magnesium hydroxide as impurity in the matrix. Also these studies confirm the formation of magnesium uranate, uranium sesquioxide and uranium dioxide above 1000 °C, due to the decomposition of magnesium diuranate.

  3. Phonon scattering by isotopic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacol, D.K.

    1974-06-01

    The effects upon vibrations of a perfect crystal lattice due to the replacement of some of its atoms by isotopes of these atoms are studied. The approach consists in considering the isotopic impurities as scattering centres for the quanta of the elastic waves the objective is to obtain the scattering amplitudes. These amplitudes are obtained through a canonical transformation method which was introduced by Chevalier and Rideau in the study of the Wentzel's model in quantum field theory

  4. Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe 3 O 4 . Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO 2 , together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO 2 whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures

  5. Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Suckewer, S.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1978-10-01

    Low Z impurity transport in tokamaks was simulated with a one-dimensional impurity transport model including both neoclassical and anomalous transport. The neoclassical fluxes are due to collisions between the background plasma and impurity ions as well as collisions between the various ionization states. The evaluation of the neoclassical fluxes takes into account the different collisionality regimes of the background plasma and the impurity ions. A limiter scrapeoff model is used to define the boundary conditions for the impurity ions in the plasma periphery. In order to account for the spectroscopic measurements of power radiated by the lower ionization states, fluxes due to anomalous transport are included. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainties in rate coefficients and plasma parameters in the periphery are investigated. The implications of the transport model for spectroscopic evaluation of impurity concentrations, impurity fluxes, and radiated power from line emission measurements are discussed

  6. BWR water chemistry impurity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Korhonen, S.; Renstroem, K.; Hofling, C.G.; Rebensdorff, B.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory studies were made on the effect of water impurities on environmental cracking in simulated BWR water of stainless steel, low alloy steel and nickel-base alloys. Constant elongation rate tensile (CERT) tests were run in simulated normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or start-up environment. Sulfate, chloride and copper with chloride added to the water at levels of a fraction of a ppM were found to be extremely deleterious to all kinds of materials except Type 316 NG. Other detrimental impurities were fluoride, silica and some organic acids, although acetic acid was beneficial. Nitrate and carbon dioxide were fairly inoccuous. Corrosion fatigue and constant load tests on compact tension specimens were run in simulated normal BWR water chemistry (NWC) or hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), without impurities or with added sulfate or carbon dioxide. For sensitized Type 304 SS in NWC, 0.1 ppM sulfate increased crack propagation rates in constant load tests by up to a factor of 100, and in fatigue tests up to a factor of 10. Also, cracking in Type 316 nuclear grade SS and Alloy 600 was enhanced, but to a smaller degree. Carbon dioxide was less detrimental than sulfate. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  8. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  9. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  11. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  12. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Participants' residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Lars; Michaelis, Dirk; Kemmerer, Michael; Jüttner, Björn; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Waterpipe smoking may increasingly account for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, a serious health hazard with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed at identifying waterpipe smoking as a cause for carbon monoxide poisoning in a large critical care database of a specialty care referral center. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a history of exposure to waterpipe smoking and carbon monoxide blood gas levels >10% or presence of clinical symptoms compatible with CO poisoning admitted between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients' initial symptoms and carbon monoxide blood levels were retrieved from records and neurologic status was assessed before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Sixty-one subjects with carbon monoxide poisoning were included [41 males, 20 females; mean age 23 (SD ± 6) years; range 13-45] with an initial mean carboxyhemoglobin of 26.93% (SD ± 9.72). Most common symptoms included syncope, dizziness, headache, and nausea; 75% had temporary syncope. Symptoms were not closely associated with blood COHb levels. CO poisoning after waterpipe smoking may present in young adults with a wide variability of symptoms from none to unconsciousness. Therefore diagnosis should be suspected even in the absence of symptoms.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Cases Autopsied in South Marmara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Eren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonmonoxide (CO related deaths, which are generally preventable accidents that include accidents due to the coal stoves and water heaters in bath at home, the mining accidents, and other accidents. CO accept as the most common cause of poisoning cases in many countries and its prominent feature is being a colorless, odorless and nonirritant gas. In the period from 2007 until the end of 2011, the autopsy records of the ........ of Turkey were reviewed. Over a period of 5 years a total of 5782 autopsies were done of which 218 involved CO poisoning, constituting 3,8 % of total cases. Information regarding age, sex, month, year, and as well as various aspects were examined. Study data were encoded with computer and Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for windows program. Of the cases 76 were (34,9% female, 142 were (65,1% male and male/female ratio was 1,9. Of the cases average age was 46.8, range between 1 and 90 years. 57,8% of deaths were in winter markedly. The highest carboxyhemoglobin saturation was 92% in the blood. Poisoning due to CO leaks from coal heaters is an important problem in our country and surrounding regions. The mining accidents should be reduced by increasing safety in the workplace. We must more expend efforts to educate the public and prevent CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide, poisoning, autopsy.

  15. Device for separating, purifying and recovering nuclear fuel material, impurities and materials from impurity-containing nuclear fuel materials or nuclear fuel containing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kamei, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To separate, purify and recover nuclear fuel materials, impurities and materials with no formation of liquid wastes. Constitution: Oxidizing atmosphere gases are introduced from both ends of a heating furnace. Vessels containing impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing material are continuously disposed movably from one end to the other of the heating furnace. Then, impurity oxides or material oxides selectively evaporated from the impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing materials are entrained in the oxidizing atmosphere gas and the gases are led out externally from a discharge port opened at the intermediate portion of the heating furnace, filters are disposed to the exit to solidify and capture the nuclear fuel substances and traps are disposed behind the filters to solidify and capture the oxides by spontaneous air cooling or water cooling. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Gas Detection Instrument Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANSONG FENG

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network is used to simulate poisonous gas generating system in the Fire-Fighting Simulated Training System. In the paper, we use the wireless signal to simulate the poisonous gas source and use received signal strength indicator (RSSI to simulate the distance between the fireman and the gas source. The gas detection instrument samples the temperature and sphygmus of the trainee and uses the wireless signal as poisonous gas signal. When the trainee enters into the poisonous gas area, the gas detection instrument warns with sound and light and sends the type, density value, the location of the poisonous gas and vital signs of the trainee to host. The paper discusses the software and hardware design of the gas detection instrument. The system has been used to the several of Fire-Fighting training systems.

  17. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  18. Efimov States of Heavy Impurities in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of two heavy impurity particles embedded in a gas of weakly-interacting light mass bosonic particles in the condensed state. Using the Bogoliubov approach to describe the bosonic gas and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the three-body dynamics, we calculate the modif......We consider the problem of two heavy impurity particles embedded in a gas of weakly-interacting light mass bosonic particles in the condensed state. Using the Bogoliubov approach to describe the bosonic gas and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the three-body dynamics, we calculate...... the modification to the heavy-heavy two-body potential due to the presence of the condensate. For the case of resonant interaction between the light bosons and the impurities, we present (semi)-analytical results for the potential in the limit of a large condensate coherence length. In particular, we find...

  19. Formation of the gaseous phase of impurity elements from coal combustion at a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizil'shtein, L.Ya.; Levchenko, S.V.; Peretyakt'ko, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Data are reported on the distribution of impurity elements in their principal carriers: organic matter, iron sulfides, and clays. Tests with high-temperature combustion of coals and argillites indicate that elements associated with clay minerals largely remain in ash and slag. They do not pass to the gas phase - a factor to be considered in assessment of environmental impact from thermal power plants and specification of toxic concentration levels of impurity elements in coal

  20. Impurity transport during neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.; Murray, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    In ohmically heated ISX-B discharges, both the intrinsic iron impurity ions and small amounts of argon introduced as a test gas accumulate at the center of the plasma. But during certain beam-heated discharges, it appears that this accumulation does not take place. These results may reflect the conclusion of Stacey and Sigmar that momentum transferred from the beams to the plasma can inhibit inward impurity transport

  1. Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Coal Syngas Application: Experimental Study on Diverse Impurity Effects and Fundamental Modeling of Electrode Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingyang

    With demand over green energy economy, fuel cells have been developed as a promising energy conversion technology with higher efficiency and less emission. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can utilize various fuels in addition to hydrogen including coal derived sygas, and thus are favored for future power generation due to dependence on coal in electrical industry. However impurities such as sulfur and phosphorous present in coal syngas in parts per million (p.p.m.) levels can severely poison SOFC anode typically made of Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and limit SOFC applicability in economically derivable fuels. The focus of the research is to develop strategy for application of high performance SOFC in coal syngas with tolerance against trace impurities such as H2S and PH3. To realize the research goal, the experimental study on sulfur tolerant anode materials and examination of various fuel impurity effects on SOFC anode are combined with electrochemical modeling of SOFC cathode kinetics in order to benefit design of direct-coal-syngas SOFC. Tolerant strategy for SOFC anode against sulfur is studied by using alternative materials which can both mitigate sulfur poisoning and function as active anode components. The Ni-YSZ anode was modified by incorporation of lanthanum doped ceria (LDC) nano-coatings via impregnation. Cell test in coal syngas containing 20 ppm H2S indicated the impregnated LDC coatings inhibited on-set of sulfur poisoning by over 10hrs. Cell analysis via X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemistry revealed LDC coatings reacted with H2S via chemisorptions, resulting in less sulfur blocking triple--phase-boundary and minimized performance loss. Meanwhile the effects of PH3 impurity on SOFC anode is examined by using Ni-YSZ anode supported SOFC. Degradation of cell is found to be irreversible due to adsorption of PH3 on TPB and further reaction with Ni to form secondary phases with low melting point. The

  2. Characterization of impurities in biogas before and after upgrading to vehicle fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Johansson, Ulrika [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Biogases produced by digesting organic wastes, residual sludge from waste water treatment, energy crops,byproducts from industry or in landfills contain impurities which can be harmful for components that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. In this project, the impurities present in biogases have been mapped out depending upon which feedstock is digested. P-cymene och D-limonene, two terpenes, have been found to be characteristics for biogases produced from the digestion of waste including household wastes while an 'oil' fraction containing alkanes with 9 to 13 carbon atoms is characteristic for biogases produced at waste water treatment plants. Ketones and sulfur compounds are found in biogases produced from the digestion of food industry wastes or energy crops. It was not possible to characterize impurities in biogases produced in farm plants digesting manure because not enough samples were analyzed from these plants. In order to understand the relation between the feedstock and the impurities present in the biogas, an extensive study on feedstock characterization must be conducted. One question to be answered is if these impurities only originate from the volatilization from the feedstock and in this case, why only these specific compounds are found at significant concentrations. In this study we have also studied how effective purification/upgrading techniques are to remove impurities that have been identified in biogases. En general comment is that the upgraded gas still contains a part of the characteristic impurities which have been identified for each feedstock at different levels of concentration depending on which technique has been used. The results show that activated carbon filters are more or less effective. Some of them can remove more than 90 % of the impurities while others remove less that 10 %. Results show also that the amine scrubber have very moderate effects on the impurities composition. In that case, the

  3. Characterization of molecular and elemental impurities in tungsten hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streusand, B.J.; Yost, V.E.; Govorchin, S.W.; Fry, R.C.; Padula, F.J.; Hughes, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of WF 6 is a very difficult process because of the reactivity of the compound, the low detection limits required by its use in semiconductor processing, and by the presence of large amounts of tungsten in the analyte. It is not possible to perform elemental analysis with low detection limits directly on WF 6 or on hydrolyzed WF 6 . However, it is possible to remove the interfering tungsten by physical and chemical separation techniques. This paper discusses how the analysis of molecular impurities in WF 6 may be accomplished directly in the gas phase by infrared spectroscopy and by gas chromatography

  4. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...... is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available...

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  7. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  8. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation

  9. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  10. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  11. Impurity radiation from a beam-plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity radiation, in a worst case evaluation for a beam-plasma neutron source (BPNS), does not limit performance. Impurities originate from four sources: (a) sputtering from walls by charge exchange or alpha particle bombardment, (b) sputtering from limiters, (c) plasma desorption of gas from walls and (d) injection with neutral beams. Sources (c) and (d) are negligible; adsorbed gas on the walls of the confinement chamber and the neutral beam sources is removed by the steady state discharge. Source (b) is negligible for impinging ion energies below the sputtering threshold (T i ≤ 0.025 keV on tungsten) and for power densities to the limiter within the capabilities of water cooling (30-40 MW/m 2 ); both conditions can be satisfied in the BPNS. Source (a) radiates 0.025 MW/m 2 to the neutron irradiation samples, compared with 5 to 10 MW/m 2 of neutrons; and radiates a total of 0.08 MW from the plasma column, compared with 60 MW of injected power. The particle bombardment that yields source (a) deposits an average of 2.7 MW/m 2 on the samples, within the capabilities of helium gas cooling (10 MW/m 2 ). An additional worst case for source (d) is evaluated for present day 2 to 5 s pulsed neutral beams with 0.1% impurity density and is benchmarked against 2XIIB. The total radiation would increase a factor of 1.5 to ≤ 0.12 MW, supporting the conclusion that impurities will not have a significant impact on a BPN. (author). 61 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Determination of trace impurities in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research work done at the National Physical Laboratory to develop new methods which are more specific and/or more sensitive has been reviewed. These methods are based on the use of existing facilities viz. atomic absorption spectrophotometry, uv-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and conventional chemical methods. It is possible to determine impurities like boron at 5ppb level, phosphorus at 100 ppb and oxygen non-stoichiometry in 1:2:3 compounds with higher accuracy. Boron is determined spectrophotometrically by forming a complex with curcumin and phosphorus is determined indirectly by atomic absorption spectrophotometry by forming phosphomolybdate complex with antimony or bismuth which have 1:1 ratio with phosphorus in the complex. Gas chromatographic technique has been used to evaluate the oxygen non-stoichiometry in high temperature superconductors (1:2:3 compound) where the HTc sample is dissolved in dilute nitric acid in helium environment and the oxygen released is determined using thermal conductivity detector. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  14. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  15. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  16. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p < 0.001). The incriminated fish was later identified as a scombroid fish of Euthynnus with a histamine content of 271.9 mg/100 g flesh in 1 leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish

  17. Profile of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the west province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Ahmadi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)

  18. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to irritating gases in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Li, Tao; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian; Ji, Li-Ying

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to irritating gases reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 92 severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to asphyxiating gases during 15 years, which showed that there were 14.5 accidents occurred each year. Forty types of chemicals were reported to cause poisoning accidents directly. On average, there were 14.5 persons poisoned and 0.8 persons died of poisoning in each event. The number of death of poisoning reached 7 in most of the severe accidents. Chlorine was the main irritating gas resulting in poisoning accidents according to the number of accidents, cases and death. (1) The severe acute occupational poisoning related to irritating gases are more dangerous than others because of it is involved in more cases in each accident. (2) The accidents have concentricity in the certain types of chemicals, industries and jobs, and should be focused on control. (3) It is important to develop the program about early warning and forecast and the first aid.

  19. What is the definition of a poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uges, D R

    2001-03-01

    New insights in medicine and acceptable treatments necessitates an adjustment of the existing definition of clinical or forensic poisoning to: 'An individual's medical or social unacceptable condition as a consequence of being under influence of an exogenous substance in a dose too high for the person concerned'. For medical and legal purposes it is important to know how the victim became poisoned. In general, there are three ways of causing medical poisoning: accidental poisoning, including iatrogenic poisoning, experimental and intentional poisoning. Nowadays iatrogenic intoxication, poisoning caused by the Münchhausen's syndrome (by proxy) and experimental poisoning (designer drugs) have a major place in contemporary toxicology. Although some toxicologists use the word 'intoxication' only overdoses with central effects, in this article 'intoxication' and 'poisoning' are considered to be synonymous.

  20. Impurity control in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This summary report on the Technical Committee Meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Naka-Gun, Japan, 13-15 February 1989, provides an overview of the results presented. Of the twenty-three papers presented, sixteen were devoted to tokamak experiments. These presented data of plasma behavior in the scrape-off layer and divertor regions, as well as effects of impurities on the core plasma; these are summarized here. Other papers summarized deal with plasma-wall interactions, including wall material behavior. Still others deal with theoretical work on physics modelling in the edge region. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Experimental study of impurity production in the Tokapole II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickhouse, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    The release mechanism for low-Z impurities in Tokapole II has been characterized through impurity doping and isotopic exchange experiments. The desorption mechanism responsible for the low-Z impurity concentrations during the rise phase of the plasma current depends on the mass of the plasma ions. Doping with small amounts of any gas studied (H 2 , D 2 , He, N 2 , O 2 , Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) increases the early-time radiation of O, C, and N. For exotic gas doping this increase is linear with the dopant concentration, and proportional to the mass of the dopant, as expected for a momentum transfer process. Isotopic exchange experiments confirm the mass-dependence of oxygen production. A time-dependent coronal model is compared with the vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic signals of the ionizing oxygen. The quantity sigma/tau (desorption cross section divided by particle confinement time) is determined to be 4 x 10 13 cm 2 /msec. The oxygen influx has a large peak early in the start-up

  2. Investigation of impurity-helium solid phase decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltnev, R.E.; Gordon, E.B.; Krushinskaya, I.N.; Martynenko, M.V.; Pel'menev, A.A.; Popov, E.A.; Khmelenko, V.V.; Shestakov, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The element composition of the impurity-helium solid phase (IHSP), grown by injecting helium gas jet, involving Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms and N 2 molecules, into superfluid helium, has been studied. The measured stoichiometric ratios, S = N H e / N I m, are well over the values expected from the model of frozen together monolayer helium clusters. The theoretical possibility for the freezing of two layers helium clusters is justified in the context of the model of IHSP helium subsystem, filled the space between rigid impurity centers. The process of decomposition of impurity-helium (IH)-samples taken out of liquid helium in the temperature range 1,5 - 12 K and the pressure range 10-500 Torr has been studied. It is found that there are two stages of samples decomposition: a slow stage characterized by sample self cooling and a fast one accompanied by heat release. These results suggest, that the IHSP consists of two types of helium - weakly bound and strongly bound helium - that can be assigned to the second and the first coordination helium spheres, respectively, formed around heavy impurity particles. A tendency for enhancement of IHSP thermo stability with increasing the impurity mass is observed. Increase of helium vapor pressure above the sample causes the improvement of IH sample stability. Upon destruction of IH samples, containing nitrogen atoms, a thermoluminescence induced by atom recombination has been detected in the temperature region 3-4,5 K. This suggests that numerous chemical reactions may be realized in solidified helium

  3. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  4. Impurity-induced moments in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliullin, G.; Kilian, R.; Krivenko, S.; Fulde, P.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a two-dimensional spin liquid in the spin-gap phase, employing a drone-fermion representation of spin-1/2 operators. The properties of the local moment induced in the vicinity of the impurity are investigated and an expression for the nuclear-magnetic-resonance Knight shift is derived, which we compare with experimental results. Introducing a second impurity into the spin liquid an antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments is found when the two impurities are located on different sublattices. The presence of many impurities leads to a screening of this interaction as is shown by means of a coherent-potential approximation. Further, the Kondo screening of an impurity-induced local spin by charge carriers is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Graphene plasmons: Impurities and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; Wenger, Tobias; Kinaret, Jari; Fogelström, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    This work analyzes how impurities and vacancies on the surface of a graphene sample affect its optical conductivity and plasmon excitations. The disorder is analyzed in the self-consistent Green's function formulation and nonlocal effects are fully taken into account. It is shown that impurities modify the linear spectrum and give rise to an impurity band whose position and width depend on the two parameters of our model, the density and the strength of impurities. The presence of the impurity band strongly influences the electromagnetic response and the plasmon losses. Furthermore, we discuss how the impurity-band position can be obtained experimentally from the plasmon dispersion relation and discuss this in the context of sensing.

  6. Moessbauer Studies of Implanted Impurities in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were performed on implanted radioactive impurities in semiconductors and metals. Radioactive isotopes (from the ISOLDE facility) decaying to a Moessbauer isotope were utilized to investigate electronic and vibrational properties of impurities and impurity-defect structures. This information is inferred from the measured impurity hyperfine interactions and Debye-Waller factor. In semiconductors isoelectronic, shallow and deep level impurities have been implanted. Complex impurity defects have been produced by the implantation process (correlated damage) or by recoil effects from the nuclear decay in both semiconductors and metals. Annealing mechanisms of the defects have been studied. \\\\ \\\\ In silicon amorphised implanted layers have been recrystallized epitaxially by rapid-thermal-annealing techniques yielding highly supersaturated, electrically-active donor concentrations. Their dissolution and migration mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The electronic configuration of Sb donors...

  7. Investigation of impurities present in recycling and reusing of scrap lead for accumulator industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Irfan, N.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Nawab, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and reusing are the basic strategies of reducing solid waste generated from industries. Millions of batteries containing toxic metals and poisonous wastes are discarded every year in Pakistan. Battery waste deposited in landfills increases the concentration of toxic metals in leachates obtained from landfill base. For this reason, recycling of locally available scrap lead has been focused. During reduction and refining stages, samples were obtained at various stages from a five ton lead smelting pot of an accumulator industry. Various impurities present were determined and removed in order to reuse in accumulators. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques were used to analyze the samples obtained at various stages of recycling. This work has been carried out to reduce these impurities and the refining process has thus been optimized. The lead thus obtained is 99.98 % pure. (author)

  8. Effects of impurities on hydrogen permeability through palladium alloy membrane at comparatively high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Katsuta, Hiroji; Naruse, Yuji

    1982-02-01

    Palladium alloy membrane method is considered to be a useful technique for fusion reactor fuel purification process. To study the feasibility of this method, the effects of impurities on permeation characteristics of palladium alloy membrane were examined. Experiments were carried out at practical conditions: pressure; 120 - 1200 kPa, temperature; about 700 K. No poisoning effect on hydrogen permeability of commercial Pd-Ag (Au.Ru) alloy was observed for impurities such as NH 3 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 , which were mixed with hyper-pure H 2 at low concentration level (10 - 10000 ppm). Deterioration occurred by contamination with oil vapor. However, regeneration of the membrane was easily performed by air baking followed by hydrogen reduction. Chemical reactions in the permeation cell were also examined. (author)

  9. Review of the status of reactor physics predictive methods for burnable poisons in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, D.J.; McEllin, M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential component of the design of Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor fuel necessary to achieve higher discharge irradiations is the incorporation of burnable poisons. The poisons enable the more highly enriched fuel required to reach higher irradiation to be loaded without increasing the peak channel power. The optimum choice of fuel enrichment and poison loading will be made using reactor physics predictive methods developed by Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. These methods and the evidence available to support them from theoretical comparisons, zero energy experiments, WAGR irradiations, and measurements on operating CAGRs are described. (author)

  10. Review of the status of reactor physics predictive methods for burnable poisons in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, D.J.; McEllin, M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential component of the design of Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor fuel necessary to achieve higher discharge irradiations is the incorporation of burnable poisons. The poisons enable the more highly enriched fuel required to reach higher irradiation to be loaded without increasing the peak channel power. The optimum choice of fuel enrichment and poison loading will be made using reactor physics predictive methods developed by Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. The paper describes these methods and the evidence available to support them from theoretical comparisons, zero energy experiments, WAGR irradiations, and measurements on operating CAGR's. (author)

  11. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  12. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  13. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  14. Impurity study of TMX using ultraviolet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Strand, O.T.; Moos, H.W.; Fortner, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) study of the emissions from intrinsic and injected impurities in TMX is presented. Two survey spectrographs were used to determine that the major impurities present were oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and titanium. Three absolutely-calibrated monochromators were used to measure the time histories and radial profiles of these impurity emissions in the central cell and each plug. Two of these instruments were capable of obtaining radial profiles as a function of time in a single shot

  15. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Brakel, R.; Elsner, A.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Burhenn, R.; Fiedler, S.; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Herre, G.; Herrmann, A.; Hofmann, J.V.; Kuehner, G.; Naujoks, D.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wolf, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE's were transiently observed. (orig.)

  16. Plasma response on impurity injection in W7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, D [Euratom Assoc., Berlin (Germany). Max-Planck-Inst. of Plasma Phys.; Brakel, R; Elsner, A; Grigull, P; Hacker, H; Burhenn, R; Fiedler, S; Giannone, L.; Goerner, C; Hartfuss, H J; Herre, G; Herrmann, A; Hofmann, J V; Kuehner, G; Naujoks, D; Sardei, F; Weller, A; Wolf, R

    1997-02-01

    In order to study impurity transport and radiation behavior nitrogen has been injected into the scrape-off plasma of limiter-dominated discharges by gas puffing or into natural magnetic islands at the plasma edge of separatrix-dominated discharges by a reciprocating erosion probe. Strong radiative plasma edge cooling with a reduction of the power flux to the limiter could be obtained. The accompanied degradation of the energy confinement and the observed decrease of the central electron temperature can partly be explained by the reduction of the effective heating power. At high plasma densities and sufficiently strong impurity injection phenomena well known from tokamaks, like plasma shrinking, plasma detachment from the limiters and MARFE`s were transiently observed. (orig.).

  17. AN OBSERVATIONAL CLINICAL STUDY OF ASSESSING THE UTILITY OF PSS (POISON SEVERITY SCORE AND GCS (GLASGOW COMA SCALE SCORING SYSTEMS IN PREDICTING SEVERITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN OP POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrasekhar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely institution of ventilator support. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations, serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity and clinical outcomes in OP poisoning is graded by PSS (poison severity score and GCS (Glasgow coma scale scoring systems. RESULTS This study was conducted in 100 patients with male preponderance. Majority of poisoning occurred in 21-30 age group (n=5. Most common compound consumed in our study was methyl parathion and least common was phosphoran. Slightly more than half of the patients consumed less than 50 mL of poison. 21 patients consumed between 50 to 100 mL. Distribution of poison severity score of patients studied showed 45 cases of grade 1 poisoning. 26 cases of grade 2 poisoning, 23 cases of grade 3 poisoning and 6 cases of grade 4 poisoning (death within first 24 hours. Distribution of GCS score of patients studied GCS scores were <10 in 25 patients at admission and 24 patients after 24 hours. GCS scores were ≥10 in 75 patients at admission and 76 patients after 24 hours. Poison severity score is not prognostic, but merely defines severity of OP poisoning at a given time. CONCLUSION Both Glasgow coma scale and poison severity scoring systems

  18. Effect of light impurities on the early stage of swelling in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igata, N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the early stage of swelling and clarify the role of light impurities (nitrogen) in swelling of austenitic stainless steel. Recent results show that light impurities affect the swelling of 316 stainless steel under HVEM irradiation up to 10 dpa. At low concentration of light impurities the radiation swelling increases then decreases through the maximum as the concentration of light impurities increases. In the present paper the theoretical model is presented for the explanation of this effect. The model is based on the two factors: the influence of absorbed impurities on the voids caused by the production of an additional gas pressure in voids for their stabilization and the effect of impurities segregated around the surface of voids by the lowering of surface tension. These two affects are taken into account in the calculations of the critical size and the growth rate of cavities. The theoretical predictions on the radiation swelling rate dependent on the impurity concentration and temperature coincided with the experimental results on 316 stainless steel irradiated by HVEM. (orig.)

  19. Advanced biotherapy for the treatment of sulfur mustard poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxue; Yang, Yuyan; Meng, Wenqi; Xu, Qingqiang; Lin, Fengwu; Chen, Yongchun; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Kai

    2018-04-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress. By highlighting these and other research studies, we hereby summarize the progress in this field in an effort to provide useful information on the clinical treatment of SM poisoning. This review summarizes the major advances of SM poisoning therapy by means of biological products (peptide and protein drugs, polysaccharides drugs, nucleic acid drugs, etc.), and cell transplantation (e.g., bone marrow, limbal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells), as well as other relevant biotherapeutic approaches. We searched the database PubMed for published domestic and international articles using web based resources for information on histological, immunochemical, ultrastructural, and treatment features of SM-induced manifestations in both animal models and human tissues. To this end, we applied keywords containing mustard gas, chemical warfare, SM, eye, lung and skin. Our review provides a comprehensive understanding of the advances of available biotherapies in SM poisoning, and its potential for the treatment of SM-induced injuries. Potentially, our review will provide new insights for future research studies in this field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The impurity transport in HT-6B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Xie Jikang; Li Linzhong; He Yexi; Wang Shuya; Deng Chuanbao; Li Guoxiang; Qiu Lijian

    1992-06-01

    The quasi-stationary profiles of the impurity ionization stages in HT-6B tokamak were determined by monitoring the VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and visible line emissions from impurities. An impurity transport code was set up. The impurity transport coefficients and other parameters of impurities in that device were simulated and determined. From the measurement of impurity emission profiles and simulation analysis, it is concluded that the impurity confinement is improved and the impurity recycling is reduced by the slow magnetic compression. Some characteristics of impurity transport in that device are also discussed

  1. A Yearlong Epidemiologic Study on Unintentional Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Fars Province, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirahmadizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Generally, the incidence and fatality rate of CO poisoning in the current study were comparable to those of the world statistics, but higher than in developed counties. Attention and emphasis on the safety of gas heaters, stoves, and other gas-powered appliances in residential places should be enforced.

  2. Determination of radiochemical purity using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concepts of chromatography, gas chromatography, activity, radiochemical impurity are defined; the procedure of the application of gas chromatography for detecting radiochemical purity of substances is standardized. (E.F.)

  3. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  4. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  5. [Ciguatera poisoning in Spanish travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Joaquim; Macià, Maria; Oliveira, Inés; Corachán, Manuel

    2003-05-31

    Ciguatera poisoning appears after ingestion of contaminated fish from tropical coral reefs. Due to the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of a specific test in humans, the diagnosis is often difficult. A retrospective study of 10 patients consulting for a clinical and epidemiological picture compatible with ciguatera poisoning after a trip to tropical countries between 1993 and 2000. Most infections but one were acquired in the Caribbean area and there were 8 females. Clinical manifestations started within the first 24 hours after fish ingestion. Chief symptoms were diarrhea and nausea, followed by neurological symptoms, mainly limbs paresthesias that persisted for several weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms was variable and not related to age or initial symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning has to be considered in the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis affecting travellers to tropical areas.

  6. The influence of impurities on the coefficients of transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmi, Aloine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Masters project was to build a water filtration plant using a Micromegas detector. (You need to explain at least how Micromegas can be used in filtration plants, and to filtrate what.) This new generation of devices have good resolution, low background, fast response with the highest efficiency and good sensitivity in the range of natural radioactivity. The central part of this work was to describe the development of a detection plane. A small Micomegas prototype, was built in CNSTN (Tunisia), and is devoted to study electron transport properties in a gas. This manuscript describes the development of a filtration plant using a Micromegas gas detector. This detector must be filled with Xenon 98 pour cent and C F 4 2 pour cent at pressure varying between 1 and 4 bar. I realized the need to have a rigorously high purity gas; I studied in depth the influence of impurities on the parameters characterizing the detector: drift velocity of electron in the gas, their longitudinal and transverse diffusion and the gas gain, the electron attachment while varying the proportions of impurities and the gas pressure. These studies have been done using a simulation program called M agboltz . Another simulation program G EANT4 w as used to better understand the interactions and radiation field. I also used two other programs, G arfield a nd M axwell , to simulate the electric field in the detector. I reached the stage of near completion of this treatment plant but the necessary equipment could not be purchased, simply because its cost was too high. To complete my masters, I started the design of a gamma camera filled by Xenon gas at high pressure and based on Micromegas - micro pattern.

  7. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  8. Impurity effects in the electrothermal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimura, A.; Azevedo, M.T. de

    1982-01-01

    A 'impure' plasma model is proposed based on the homogeneous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the electrothermal instable mode growth with the wave vector perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The impurities are introduced implicitly in the transport coefficients of the two-fluid model through a effective charge number Z sub(eff). (Author) [pt

  9. Depolarization of diffusing spins by paramagnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Hutson, R.L.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    We study the depolarization of diffusing spins (muons) interacting with dilute paramagnetic impurities in a solid using a simple computational model which properly treats the muon motion and preserves correct muon-impurity distances. Long-range (dipolar) and nearest-neighbor (contact) interactions are treated together. Diffusion parameters are deduced and model comparisons made for AuGd (300 ppm). (orig.)

  10. Elimination device for metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reuse of adsorbing materials by eliminating Fe 3 O 4 films reduced with adsorbing performance by way of electrolytic polishing and then forming fresh membranes using high temperature steams. Constitution: An elimination device is provided to a coolant clean-up system of a reactor for eliminating impurities such as cobalt. The elimination device comprises adsorbing materials made of stainless steel tips or the likes having Fe 3 O 4 films. The adsorbing materials are regenerated by applying an electric current between grid-like cathode plates and anode plates to leach out the Fe 3 O 4 films, washing out the electrolytic solution by cleaning water and then applying steams at high temperature onto the adsorbing materials to thereby form fresh Fe 3 O 4 films again thereon. The regeneration of the adsorbing materials enables to eliminate Co 60 and the like in the primary coolant efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... add poison control as a contact in your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of the conversation by following #PreventPoison and #NPPW2017 on social media, and check out AAPCC's NPPW webpage and press ...

  12. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  13. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  14. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  15. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...... was used to achieve consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymized votes and opinions were compiled and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-five articles were identified, including 63 deaths...... appears to be amenable to extracorporeal treatments. Despite clinical evidence comprised mostly of case reports and suboptimal toxicokinetic data, the workgroup recommended extracorporeal removal in the case of severe metformin poisoning....

  16. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  17. Lipid resuscitation in acute poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Gosselin, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to provide intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as a treatment modality for the reversal of various drug toxicity was discovered in the last decade. Numerous publications, in both humans and animals attest to its clinical use, but current supporting evidence...... is inconsistent. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent systematic review reported evidence for benefit of ILE in bupivacaine toxicity. Human randomized trials, large observational studies as well as animal models of orogastric poisoning failed to report a clear benefit of ILE for nonlocal anesthetics poisoning. SUMMARY: ILE...

  18. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high-field (80kG), high-density (6x10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator Tokamak, using a 0.4-m normal-incidence monochromator (300-1300A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. Total light-impurity concentrations of a few tenths of a percent have been estimated by using both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schlueter impurity diffusion. The resulting values of Zsub(eff), including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation from the lower ionization states accounted for approximately 10% of the total Ohmic input power at high densities. (author)

  19. Device for removing impurities from liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Kesahiro; Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo; Ishida, Tomio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain highly reliable and efficient impurity removal by forming temperature distribution the impurity removing device thereby providing the function of corrosion product trap, nuclear fission product trap and cold trap under the conditions suitable to the impurity removing materials. Constitution: The impurity removing device comprises a container containing impurity removing fillers. The fillers comprise material for removing corrosion products, material for removing nuclear fission products and material for removing depositions from liquid sodium. The positions for the respective materials are determined such that the materials are placed under the temperature conditions easy to attain their function depending on the temperature distribution formed in the removing device, whereby appropriate temperature condition is set to each of the materials. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Reduction of hydrocarbon impurities in 200 L/H helium liquefier-refrigerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Arata

    1993-11-01

    A cryogenic system with the capacity of 200 1/h or 500 W at 4.4 K has been operated to develop the superconducting conductors and coils for the LHD. The system has contributed in various superconducting technologies along with the dc 75kA power supply and 10 MN mechanical testing machine, and completed the basic R and D works of the LHD. On the way of operating the cryogenic system, impurity densities of hydrocarbon gases in circulating helium gas became much larger than the expected values for this cryogenic system, so that the densities of some impurity gases were carefully monitored in reference to the operational conditions of circulating compressor by using a gas chromatography. Impurity gas densities of oxygen, nitrogen and ethane increased obviously, when the output capacity of the compressor was reduced. In a two-stage oil injected compression system with a variable stroke mechanism for a first stage, a reduction in the capacity of the first stage leads to a larger compression ratio for the second stage, and the temperature of the injected oil becomes higher. The production of the impurities in the helium might be caused by cracking a part of injected oil in the compressor. The compressor, therefore, was reconstructed such that the injection oil is supplied sufficiently and the compression ratio division becomes even for each stage. It was confirmed that the impurities are not produced now after modification. (author)

  1. Uranium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in uranium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 , particularly adapted for a low content. The method is quantitative for metallic impurities and qualitative for non metallic impurities [fr

  2. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  3. Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Petrov, G. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Petkov, E. E.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of physical phenomena occurring when an intense laser pulse with subpicosecond duration and an intensity of 1018-1019W /cm2 heats an underdense plasma in a supersonic clustered gas jet are studied to determine the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal processes to soft- and hard-x-ray emission from debris-free plasmas. Experiments were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Leopard laser operated with a 15-J, 350-fs pulse and different pulse contrasts (107 or 105). The supersonic linear (elongated) nozzle generated Xe cluster-monomer gas jets as well as jets with Kr-Ar or Xe-Kr-Ar mixtures with densities of 1018-1019cm-3 . Prior to laser heating experiments, all jets were probed with optical interferometry and Rayleigh scattering to measure jet density and cluster distribution parameters. The supersonic linear jet provides the capability to study the anisotropy of x-ray yield from laser plasma and also laser beam self-focusing in plasma, which leads to efficient x-ray generation. Plasma diagnostics included x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras, and spectrometers. Jet signatures of x-ray emission from pure Xe gas, as well as from a mixture with Ar and Kr, was found to be very different. The most intense x-ray emission in the 1-9 KeV spectral region was observed from gas mixtures rather than pure Xe. Also, this x-ray emission was strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of laser beam polarization. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (Non-LTE) models have been implemented to analyze the x-ray spectra to determine the plasma temperature and election density. Evidence of electron beam generation in the supersonic jet plasma was found. The influence of the subpicosecond laser pulse contrast (a ratio between the laser peak intensity and pedestal pulse intensity) on the jets' x-ray emission characteristics is discussed. Surprisingly, it was found that the x-ray yield was not sensitive to the prepulse contrast ratio.

  4. Effect of biogenic fermentation impurities on lactic acid hydrogenation to propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Jackson, James E; Miller, Dennis J

    2008-09-01

    The effect of residual impurities from glucose fermentation to lactic acid (LA) on subsequent ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of LA to propylene glycol (PG) is examined. Whereas refined LA feed exhibits stable conversion to PG over carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst in a trickle bed reactor, partially refined LA from fermentation shows a steep decline in PG production over short (<40 h) reaction times followed by a further slow decay in performance. Addition of model impurities to refined LA has varying effects: organic acids, sugars, or inorganic salts have little effect on conversion; alanine, a model amino acid, results in a strong but reversible decline in conversion via competitive adsorption between alanine and LA on the Ru surface. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine irreversibly poison the catalyst for LA conversion. Addition of 0.1 wt% albumin as a model protein leads to slow decline in rate, consistent with pore plugging or combined pore plugging and poisoning of the Ru surface. This study points to the need for integrated design and operation of biological processes and chemical processes in the biorefinery in order to make efficient conversion schemes viable.

  5. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  6. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  7. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal

    2002-01-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  8. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  10. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  11. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  12. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  13. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  14. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M. [Materials and Devices Group, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Cryssmat-Lab, DETEMA, Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Cno. Saravia s/n, CP 91000 Pando (Uruguay); Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química y Física de Materiales, Espacio Interdisciplinario, Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism.

  15. Impurity Induced Phase Competition and Supersolidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Ganesh, R.

    2017-12-01

    Several material families show competition between superconductivity and other orders. When such competition is driven by doping, it invariably involves spatial inhomogeneities which can seed competing orders. We study impurity-induced charge order in the attractive Hubbard model, a prototypical model for competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order. We show that a single impurity induces a charge-ordered texture over a length scale set by the energy cost of the competing phase. Our results are consistent with a strong-coupling field theory proposed earlier in which superconducting and charge order parameters form components of an SO(3) vector field. To discuss the effects of multiple impurities, we focus on two cases: correlated and random distributions. In the correlated case, the CDW puddles around each impurity overlap coherently leading to a "supersolid" phase with coexisting pairing and charge order. In contrast, a random distribution of impurities does not lead to coherent CDW formation. We argue that the energy lowering from coherent ordering can have a feedback effect, driving correlations between impurities. This can be understood as arising from an RKKY-like interaction, mediated by impurity textures. We discuss implications for charge order in the cuprates and doped CDW materials such as NbSe2.

  16. Influence of iron impurities on defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction among a multivacancy graphene system and iron impurities is studied. • The studied iron impurities were single atom and tetrahedral and octahedral clusters. • DFT calculations using the VASP code were performed. • The embedding of Fe affects the structure and electronic behavior in the graphene. • Half metal or semimetal behavior can be obtained, depending on the Fe impurities. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the interaction of selected iron cluster impurities and a multivacancy graphene system, in terms of the structural distortion that the impurities cause as well as their magnetic response. While originally, the interaction has been limited to vacancies and isolated metallic atoms, in this case, we consider small iron clusters. This study was undertaken using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of the iron impurities in the electronic structure of the vacant graphene system is discussed. The main conclusion of this work is that the presence of iron impurities acts lowering the magnetic signal due to the occurrence of spin pairing between carbon and iron, instead of enhancing the possible intrinsic carbon magnetism

  17. Effects of the burnable poison heterogeneity on the long term control of excess of reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    According to the different geometry shape, the theory of black burnable particles predicts that the evolution of the poison macroscopic absorption cross section is exponentially, quadratic or linear when the burnable poison is displaced in homogeneous distribution, microspheres or needlecylinders heterogeneous distributions, respectively. In the present studies, we took advantage of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB to verify the black burnable particles theory on the Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor fuelled by military plutonium at the year the fuel reaches the equilibrium composition; we investigated 8 different burnable poisons, B, Cd, Er, Eu, Gd, Dy, Hf and Sm, in three different geometry configurations and we have found that the numerical results qualitatively match the theory predictions when burnable poisons are disposed in small particles

  18. Effects of the burnable poison heterogeneity on the long term control of excess of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology - KTH, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: alby@neutron.kth.se

    2006-06-15

    According to the different geometry shape, the theory of black burnable particles predicts that the evolution of the poison macroscopic absorption cross section is exponentially, quadratic or linear when the burnable poison is displaced in homogeneous distribution, microspheres or needlecylinders heterogeneous distributions, respectively. In the present studies, we took advantage of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code MCB to verify the black burnable particles theory on the Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor fuelled by military plutonium at the year the fuel reaches the equilibrium composition; we investigated 8 different burnable poisons, B, Cd, Er, Eu, Gd, Dy, Hf and Sm, in three different geometry configurations and we have found that the numerical results qualitatively match the theory predictions when burnable poisons are disposed in small particles.

  19. Influence of impurities on the fuel retention in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the influence of plasma impurities on the hydrogen retention in metals, in the scope of plasma-wall-interaction research for fusion reactors. This is addressed experimentally and by modelling. The mechanisms of the hydrogen retention are influenced by various parameters like the wall temperature, ion energy, flux and fluence as well as the plasma composition. The plasma composition is a relevant factor for hydrogen retention in fusion reactors, as their plasma will also contain impurities like helium or seeded impurities like argon. The experiments treated in this thesis were performed in the linear plasma generator PSI-2 at Forschungszentrum Juelich, and are divided in 3 parts: The first experiments cover the plasma diagnostics, most importantly the measurement of the impurity ion concentration in the plasma by optical emission spectroscopy. This is a requirement for the later experiments with mixed plasmas. Diagnostics like Langmuir probe measurements are not applicable for this task because they do not distinguish different ionic species. The results also show that the impurity ion concentrations cannot be simply concluded from the neutral gas input to the plasma source, because the relation between the neutral gas concentration and impurity ion concentration is not linear. The second and main part of the experiments covers the exposure of tungsten samples to deuterium plasmas. In the experiments, the impurity ion type and concentration is variated, to verify the general influence of helium and argon on the deuterium retention in tungsten samples exposed at low temperatures. It shows that helium impurities reduce the amount of retained deuterium by a factor of 3, while argon impurities slightly increase the total retention, compared to exposures to a pure deuterium plasma. Cross-sections of the exposed tungsten surfaces via TEM-imaging reveal a 12-15 nm deep helium nanobubble layer at the surface of the sample, while for the cases of

  20. Influence of impurities on the fuel retention in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the influence of plasma impurities on the hydrogen retention in metals, in the scope of plasma-wall-interaction research for fusion reactors. This is addressed experimentally and by modelling. The mechanisms of the hydrogen retention are influenced by various parameters like the wall temperature, ion energy, flux and fluence as well as the plasma composition. The plasma composition is a relevant factor for hydrogen retention in fusion reactors, as their plasma will also contain impurities like helium or seeded impurities like argon. The experiments treated in this thesis were performed in the linear plasma generator PSI-2 at Forschungszentrum Juelich, and are divided in 3 parts: The first experiments cover the plasma diagnostics, most importantly the measurement of the impurity ion concentration in the plasma by optical emission spectroscopy. This is a requirement for the later experiments with mixed plasmas. Diagnostics like Langmuir probe measurements are not applicable for this task because they do not distinguish different ionic species. The results also show that the impurity ion concentrations cannot be simply concluded from the neutral gas input to the plasma source, because the relation between the neutral gas concentration and impurity ion concentration is not linear. The second and main part of the experiments covers the exposure of tungsten samples to deuterium plasmas. In the experiments, the impurity ion type and concentration is variated, to verify the general influence of helium and argon on the deuterium retention in tungsten samples exposed at low temperatures. It shows that helium impurities reduce the amount of retained deuterium by a factor of 3, while argon impurities slightly increase the total retention, compared to exposures to a pure deuterium plasma. Cross-sections of the exposed tungsten surfaces via TEM-imaging reveal a 12-15 nm deep helium nanobubble layer at the surface of the sample, while for the cases of

  1. Low-Z impurities in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Bol, K.; Hawryluk, R.; Hosea, J.; Meservey, E.

    1977-11-01

    Low-Z impurities concentrations (oxygen and carbon) have been measured in different discharges in PLT. The contribution to Z/sub eff/, influx rates and radiation losses by oxygen and carbon were obtained. An inverse correlation was found between the low-Z impurity density (and also the edge ion temperature) and the high-Z impurity (tungsten) density. A one-dimensional computer transport model has been used to calculate the spatial profiles of different oxygen and carbon ionization states. This model predicts that fully stripped oxygen and carbon ions should exist near the plasma periphery

  2. Impurities in radioactive solutions for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute and relative methods for radioactive sources calibration, like 4 Πβ-γ and 4Πγ ionization chamber respectively, allows to reach 0,1% of exactiness in activity measurement, but cannot distinguish radioactive impurities that interfere in the activity. Then, one of the problems associated to a quality control of calibrated sources furnished to users is the identification and quantification of the impurities. In this work, a routine technical procedure, using the facilities of gamma spectrometry method that allows to identify and to determine the impurities relative contribution to the source main radionuclide activity, is described. (author) [pt

  3. Simulated impurity transport in LHD from MIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J.E. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    The impurity transport code MIST and atomic physics package LINES are used to calculate the time evolution of charge state density profiles, individual line emissivity profiles and total radiated power profiles for impurities in LHD plasmas. Three model LHD plasmas are considered; a high density, low temperature case, a low density, high temperature case and the initial LHD start-up plasma (500 kW ECH), using impurity transport coefficient profiles from Heliotron E. The elements oxygen, neon, scandium, iron, nickel and molybdenum are considered, both injected and in steady state. (author)

  4. Forensic toxicology analysis of self-poisoning suicidal deaths in Tehran, Iran; trends between 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordrostami, Roya; Akhgari, Maryam; Ameri, Maryam; Ghadipasha, Masoud; Aghakhani, Kamran

    2017-06-13

    Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners. Postmortem samples were analysed in forensic toxicology laboratory to confirm the presence of drugs in cadaver of suicidal cases. Drugs and poisons were analysed using thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detector. Demographic data were collected from autopsy reports of all cases with confirmed self-poisoning suicidal cause of death. Results showed that 674 cases of self-poisoning deaths were investigated during a five-year study period, of which 68.55% were male. The most often used suicide method was self-poisoning in young population. Phosphine gas liberated from aluminum phosphide tablets was the most toxic substance detected in postmortem samples (619 cases) followed by opioids, methamphetamine, organophosphates, cyanide and strychnine. In conclusion self-poisoning suicidal death was predominant in young male population in Tehran, Iran. It seems that free access to suicide means such as drugs and poisons should be restricted by national and health authorities. Not applicable.

  5. Impurities of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, V.M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic structure of oxygen complex defects in silicon, using molecular cluster model with saturation by watson sphere into the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method is studied. A systematic study of the simulation of perfect silicon crystal and an analysis of the increasing of atom number in the clusters are done to choose the suitable cluster for the calculations. The divacancy in three charge states (Si:V 2 + , Si:V 2 0 , Si:V 2 - ), of the oxygen pair (Si:O 2 ) and the oxygen-vacancy pair (Si:O.V) neighbours in the silicon lattice, is studied. Distortions for the symmetry were included in the Si:V 2 + and Si:O 2 systems. The behavior of defect levels related to the cluster size of Si:V 2 0 and Si:O 2 systems, the insulated oxygen impurity of silicon in interstitial position (Si:O i ), and the complexes involving four oxygen atoms are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  7. A CASE REPORT ON ZINC PHOSPHIDE POISONING AND ITS RARE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Raghunandan Thota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Zinc phosphide is widely in use as a rodenticide. After ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. The toxic effects of zinc phosphide poisoning is through the phosphine gas that produces various metabolic and non-metabolic intermediate compounds. Patients develop features of shock, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary oedema and congestive heart failure. In this case report, we present a common complication of the poison that manifested earlier than it is depicted in the current literature.

  8. Long-time impurity confinement as a precursor to disruptions in ohmically heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Rowan, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    It has been observed in several tokamaks that the confinement of test impurities increases dramatically when operating near density limits. The characteristics of the working gas transport coefficients also change character under these conditions. These changes appear to be caused by a suppression of the anomalous transport mechanisms. This series of vugraphs investigates the role of these changes in initiating disruptions

  9. Corrosion of pipe steel in CO2 containing impurities and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Borys, M.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 flue gases acquired from different sources contain a significant amount of impurities and water, which are corrosive to the pipeline steel. To design the pipelines for large scale of CO2 flue gas transport, the corrosion of pipeline steels has to be investigated in the realistic conditions. In

  10. Influence of neutral-beam injection on impurity transport in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Murray, L.E.; Kasai, S.; Arnurius, D.E.; Bates, S.C.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlap, J.L.; Edmonds, P.H.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M.; Pare, V.K.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Swain, D.W.; Thomas, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of radiation from iron and from argon used as a test gas indicate that co-injection inhibits impurity accumulation in the interior of ISX-B discharges, but counter-injection enhances accumulation. These results agree qualitatively with recent theoretical calculations

  11. Numerical studies of impurities in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    The coupled partial differential equations used to describe the behavior of impurity ions in magnetically confined controlled fusion plasmas require numerical solution for cases of practical interest. Computer codes developed for impurity modeling at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory are used as examples of the types of codes employed for this purpose. These codes solve for the impurity ionization state densities and associated radiation rates using atomic physics appropriate for these low-density, high-temperature plasmas. The simpler codes solve local equations in zero spatial dimensions while more complex cases require codes which explicitly include transport of the impurity ions simultaneously with the atomic processes of ionization and recombination. Typical applications are discussed and computational results are presented for selected cases of interest

  12. The origin of metal impurities in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohasa, Kazumi; Sengoku, Seio; Maeda, Hikosuke; Ohtsuka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shin

    1978-10-01

    The origin of metal impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a Tokamak) has been studied experimentally. Three processes of metal impurity release from the first wall were identified; i.e. ion sputtering, evaporation, and arcing. Among of these, ion sputtering is the predominant process in the quiet phase of the discharge, which is characterized by no spikes in the loop voltage and no localized heat flux concentrations on the first wall. ''Cones'' formation due to the sputtering is observed on the gold protection plate (guard limiter) exposed to about 10,000 discharges by scanning electron micrograph. In the SEM photographs, the spacial distribution of cones on the shell surface due to the ion sputtering coincides with the spacial distribution of intensity of Au-I line radiation. Gold is the dominant metal impurity in DIVA. The honeycomb structure can decrease release of the metal impurity. (author)

  13. Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.F.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically

  14. Models for impurity effects in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    Models for impurity effects in tokamaks are described with an emphasis on the relationship between attainment of high β and impurity problems. We briefly describe the status of attempts to employ neutral beam heating to achieve high β in tokamaks and propose a qualitative model for the mechanism by which heavy metal impurities may be produced in the startup phase of the discharge. We then describe paradoxes in impurity diffusion theory and discuss possible resolutions in terms of the effects of large-scale islands and sawtooth oscillations. Finally, we examine the prospects for the Zakharov-Shafranov catastrophe (long time scale disintegration of FCT equilibria) in the context of present and near-term experimental capability

  15. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  16. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nabyendu, E-mail: nabyendudas@gmail.com; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-28

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.

  17. Impurity induced resistivity upturns in underdoped cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-01-01

    Impurity induced low temperature upturns in both the ab-plane and the c-axis dc-resistivities of cuprates in the pseudogap state have been observed in experiments. We provide an explanation of this phenomenon by incorporating impurity scattering of the charge carriers within a phenomenological model proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. The scattering between charge carriers and the impurity atom is considered within the lowest order Born approximation. Resistivity is calculated within Kubo formula using the impurity renormalized spectral functions. Using physical parameters for cuprates, we describe qualitative features of the upturn phenomena and its doping evolution that coincides with the experimental findings. We stress that this effect is largely due to the strong electronic correlations.

  18. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  19. Guidelines for safety system in the plant for photovoltaic solar cells applications feeded poisonous H{sub 2}Se; Linee guida per la realizzazione di un sistema di sicurezza per un impianto di selenizzazione impiegante gas tossico H{sub 2}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, M; Agati, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Portici. Naples (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-12-01

    The report aims at the description of safety system which has been realized and provided at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment)`s Research Center, located in Portici, to the plant for the formation of the dyselenide and/or dysulphide of copper and indium CuIn (Se,S){sub 2} for photovoltaic solar cells applications. The plant is a diffusion furnace that has to be feeded with gases such as poisonous H{sub 2}S or the very toxic H{sub 2}Se, whose Threshold Level Values are respectively of 10-p.p.m. (parts per millions) and 50 p.p.b. (parts per billions), as well as the flammable and explodible H{sub 2}; the TLV is the maximum concentration value of a gas to which a worker can be exposed during its working shift, i.e., eight hours a day for five days a week for thirty five years, without any any adverse effects on his health. The description of the scientific results obtained on the field of the research with the use of that facility is beyond the scope of the report, as well as it has been intended as an handbook for the safe toxic gas handling, some example of which may be found on the specialized literature, but only to provide some guidelines for the realization of such a system.

  20. Mass spectrometer introduction line: application to the analysis of impurities in uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, M.

    1967-01-01

    The continuous mass-spectrometric analysis of impurities in UF 6 is possible industrially if certain conditions imposed by the nature of the gas are respected. The gas introduction line arriving at the spectrometer's source makes it possible to fix the flow-rate, to control the inlet pressure and to selectively destroy the gas containing the impurities. The operational conditions for the line are defined and a description is given of the theoretical and experimental study of the various elements of which it is composed, i.e. the leak valve, the flow-meter, the chemical trap and the servo-mechanism making it possible to regulate and control the gas flow. The dynamic characteristics of the line's various components and the performance of the equipment in the case of the analyses considered are given. (author) [fr

  1. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-15

    In this thesis electron and impurity transport are studied in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. Understanding particle transport is primordial for future nuclear fusion power plants. Modeling of experiments in many specific plasma scenarios can help to understand the common elements of the physics at play and to interpret apparently contradictory experiments on the same machine and across different machines. The first part of this thesis deals with electron transport in TCV high confinement mode plasmas. It was observed that the electron density profile in these plasmas flatten when intense electron heating is applied, in contrast to observations on other machines where the increase of the profile peakedness was reported. It is shown with quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations that this effect, usually interpreted as collisionality dependence, stems from the combined effect of many plasma parameters. The influence of the collisionality, electron to ion temperature ratio, the ratio of temperature gradients, and the Ware-pinch are studied with detailed parameter scans. It is shown that the complex interdependence of the various plasma parameters is greatly simplified when the simulation results are interpreted as a function of the average frequency of the main modes contributing to radial transport. In this way the model is able to explain the experimental results. It was also shown that the same basic understanding is at play in L-modes, H-modes and electron internal transport barriers. The second part of the thesis is devoted to impurity transport. A multi-purpose gas injection system is developed, commissioned and calibrated. It is shown that the system is capable of massive gas injections to provoke disruptions and delivering small puffs of gaseous impurities for perturbative transport experiments. This flexible tool is exploited in a series of impurity transport measurements with argon and neon injections. The impurities

  2. Electron and impurity transport studies in the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis electron and impurity transport are studied in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. Understanding particle transport is primordial for future nuclear fusion power plants. Modeling of experiments in many specific plasma scenarios can help to understand the common elements of the physics at play and to interpret apparently contradictory experiments on the same machine and across different machines. The first part of this thesis deals with electron transport in TCV high confinement mode plasmas. It was observed that the electron density profile in these plasmas flatten when intense electron heating is applied, in contrast to observations on other machines where the increase of the profile peakedness was reported. It is shown with quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations that this effect, usually interpreted as collisionality dependence, stems from the combined effect of many plasma parameters. The influence of the collisionality, electron to ion temperature ratio, the ratio of temperature gradients, and the Ware-pinch are studied with detailed parameter scans. It is shown that the complex interdependence of the various plasma parameters is greatly simplified when the simulation results are interpreted as a function of the average frequency of the main modes contributing to radial transport. In this way the model is able to explain the experimental results. It was also shown that the same basic understanding is at play in L-modes, H-modes and electron internal transport barriers. The second part of the thesis is devoted to impurity transport. A multi-purpose gas injection system is developed, commissioned and calibrated. It is shown that the system is capable of massive gas injections to provoke disruptions and delivering small puffs of gaseous impurities for perturbative transport experiments. This flexible tool is exploited in a series of impurity transport measurements with argon and neon injections. The impurities

  3. Phonon-impurity relaxation and acoustic wave absorption in yttrium-aluminium garnet crystals with impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.N.; Kotelyanskij, I.M.; Medved', V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental results of investigations of the influence of substitution impurities in the yttrium-aluminium garnet lattice on absorption of high-frequency acoustic waves are presented. It is shown that the phonon-impurity relaxation processses affect at most the wave absorption and have resonance character when the acoustic wave interacts with the thermal phonon group in the vicinity of the perturbed part of the phonon spectrum caused by the impurity. The differences of time values between inelastic and elastic thermal phonons relaxations determined from the data on longitudinal and shear waves in pure and impurity garnet crystals are discussed

  4. Achieving improved ohmic confinement via impurity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Ohmic Confinement (IOC) was obtained in ASDEX after a modification of the divertors that allowed a larger (deuterium and impurity) backflow from the divertor chamber. The quality of IOC depended crucially on the wall conditions, i.e. IOC was best for uncovered stainless steels walls and vanished with boronization. Furthermore, IOC was found only in deuterium discharges. These circumstances led to the idea that IOC correlates with the content of light impurities in the plasma. To substantiate this working hypothesis, we present observations in deuterium discharges with boronized wall conditions into which various impurities have been injected with the aim to induce IOC conditions. Firstly, the plasma behaviour in typical IOC discharges is characterized. Secondly, injection experiments with the low-Z impurities nitrogen and neon as well as with the high-Z impurities argon and krypton are discussed. Then, we concentrate on optimized neon puffing that yields the best confinement results which are similar to IOC conditions. Finally, these results are compared with eperiments in other tokamaks and some conclusions are drawn about the effects of the impurity puffing on both, the central and the edge plasma behaviour. (orig.)

  5. Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 63 Ni, and 95 Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO 2 and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures

  6. On impurities transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhanskij, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Transport of impurity ions is analitically analized in the case when main plasma is in plateau or banana regimes but impurity ions - in the Pfirsch-Schlutter mode. It is shown that in the large region of parameters the impUrity transport represents a drift in a p oloidal electric field, averaged from magnetic surface with provision for disturbance of concentration on it. Therefore, transport velocity does not depend on Z value and impurity type, as well as collision frequency both in the plateau and banana regimes. A value of flows is determined by the value of poloidal rotation velocity. At the rotation velocity corresponding to the electric field directed from the centre to periphery impurities are thrown out of a discharge, in the reverse case the flow is directed inside. Refusal from the assumption that Zsub(eff) > approximately 2, does not considerably change the results of work. The approach developed in the process of work can be applied to the case when impurity ions are in the plateau or banana modes

  7. Impurity production and transport at limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the description and evaluation of experiments on the DITE tokamak. These are designed to characterise the processes involved in the production and transport of neutral and ionised impurities near carbon limiters. The need for good diagnostics in the scrape-off layer is highlighted. Langmuir probes are used to provide input data for models of impurity production at limiters. Observations of the radial profiles of carbon and oxygen impurities are compared with the code predictions. Changeover experiments involving hydrogen and helium plasmas are used as a means for investigating the role of the atomic physics and chemistry. The impurity control limiter (ICL) experiment is described which shows how geometry plays an important role in determining the spatial distributions of the neutral and ionised carbon. New diagnostics are required to study the flux and charge state distribution of impurities in the boundary. Preliminary results from an in-situ plasma ion mass-spectrometer are presented. The role of oxygen and the importance of evaluating the wall sources of impurity are emphasised. (orig.)

  8. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  9. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-07-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem.

  10. Determination of Impurities of Atrazine by HPLP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canping, Pan [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    The determination of the main impurities of the herbicide atrazine by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/MS is described. The most relevant technical impurities were synthesized and characterized by IR and UV spectroscopy as well. The impurity profiles of different technical grade formulated products were tested and the typical impurities identified. (author)

  11. Local chemistry of Al and P impurities in silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Stokbro, Kurt

    2000-01-01

    The local structure around Al and P impurities in silica is investigated using density-functional theory. Two distinct cases are considered: impurities substituting for a Si atom in alpha quartz, and impurities implanted in a stoichiometric alpha-quartz crystal. Both impurity elements are found t...

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  13. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  14. The impurity transport in HT-6M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Wan Baonian; Xie Jikang

    2003-01-01

    The space-time profile of impurities has been measured with a multichannel visible spectroscopic detect system and UV rotation-mirror system in the HT-6M tokamak. An ideal impurity transport code has been used to simulate impurities (carbon and oxygen) behaviour during the OHM discharge. The profiles of impurities diffusion and convection coefficient, impurities ion densities in different ionized state, loss power density and effective charge number have been derived. The impurity behaviour during low-hybrid current drive has also been analyzed, the results show that the confinement of particles, impurities and energy has been improved, and emission power and effective charge number have been reduced

  15. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death.

  16. Study of impurities in Aditya Tokamak during different conditions using quadrupole mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, S.B.; Jadeja, K.A.; Patel, K.M.; Patel, N.D.; Raval, M.K.; Ghosh, J.

    2015-01-01

    In fusion devices, e.g., Tokamak, the presence of the impurities, i.e. gas species other than the fuel gas, deteriorates plasma and makes confinement difficult. The gas molecules tend to get adsorbed on the surfaces of the solid state materials of the vessel wall during discharges. A Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) is the most commonly useful instrument to measure the presence and quantity of the various gases in a vacuum system. Quadrupole Mass Analyzer (QMA) is installed on Aditya Tokamak to measure the concentrations of various gas species present in Aditya vacuum system. It is also used to monitor impurities generated during various phases of discharges in Aditya Tokamak. The impurities are reduced by various types of discharge cleaning and in-situ coatings. Presence of residual gas concentration in vacuum system creates limitation for achievement of ultrahigh vacuum and also affects plasma performance. The presence of residual gases is due to different reasons like atmospheric concentration, contamination of the wall materials, outgassing from the exposed materials, permeation, real and virtual leaks

  17. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; KAHRAMANER, Zelal; BOSNAK, Mehmet; KOCAMAZ, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  18. Personality traits in persons with manganese poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, A A

    1976-10-01

    Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.

  19. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-01-01

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper

  20. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  1. Successful Treatment of Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Refractory Shock Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapuncharoen, Krittika; Sharma, Nirmal S; Barker, Andrew B; Wille, Keith M; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It is a tasteless and odorless poisonous gas produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as those produced by cars and heating systems. CO rapidly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, leading to tissue hypoxia, multiple-organ failure, and cardiovascular collapse. CO also binds to myocardial myoglobin, preventing oxidative phosphorylation in cardiac mitochondria and resulting in cardiac ischemia or stunning and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of CO poisoning is mainly supportive, and supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy, whereas hyperbaric oxygen therapy is considered for patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been utilized effectively in patients with respiratory failure and hemodynamic instability, but its use has rarely been reported in patients with CO poisoning. We report the successful use of venoarterial ECMO in a patient with severe CO poisoning and multiple-organ failure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  3. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  4. Reduction of hydrocarbon impurities in 200 l/h helium liquefier-refrigerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Arata; Takahata, Kazuya; Satoh, Sadao; Yamamoto, Junya; Yamamura, Hidemasa; Masuda, Kaoru; Kashihara, Shinichirou; Fukusada, Katsuaki

    1993-11-01

    A cryogenic system with the capacity of 200 l/h or 500 W at 4.4 K was developed in order to supply the superconducting conductors and coils of the LHD. As a by-product of operating the cryogenic system, the impurity densities of hydrocarbon gases in the circulating helium gas became much larger than the expected values for this cryogenic system. So much larger in fact, that it became necessary to carefully monitor the operational conditions of the circulating compressor by means of gas chromatography. Impurity gas densities of oxygen, nitrogen, and ethane increased significantly when the output capacity of the compressor was reduced. In a two-stage oil injected compression system, with a variable stroke mechanism for a first stage, a reduction in the capacity of the first stage leads to a larger compression ratio for the second stage, and the temperature of the injected oil becomes higher. The production of the impurities in the helium might be caused by decomposition of the injected oil in the compressor. The compressor, therefore, was reconstructed such that the injection oil is supplied sufficiently, and the compression ratio division becomes even for each stage. It was confirmed that the impurities were not produced after the modification.

  5. Impurity-generated non-Abelions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, G.; Kazakov, A.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Wojtowicz, T.; Lyanda-Geller, Y. B.

    2018-06-01

    Two classes of topological superconductors and Majorana modes in condensed matter systems are known to date: one in which disorder induced by impurities strongly suppresses topological superconducting gap and is detrimental to Majorana modes, and another where Majorana fermions are protected by a disorder-robust topological superconductor gap. Observation and control of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions often requires a symmetry of an underlying system leading to a gap in the single-particle or quasiparticle spectra. In semiconductor structures, impurities that provide charge carriers introduce states into the gap and enable conductance and proximity-induced superconductivity via the in-gap states. Thus a third class of topological superconductivity and Majorana modes emerges, in which topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions appear exclusively when impurities generate in-gap states. We show that impurity-enabled topological superconductivity is realized in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, when a helical domain wall is coupled to an s -wave superconductor. As an example of emergence of topological superconductivity in quantum Hall ferromagnets, we consider the integer quantum Hall effect in Mn-doped CdTe quantum wells. Recent experiments on transport through the quantum Hall ferromagnet domain wall in this system indicated a vital role of impurities in the conductance, but left unresolved the question whether impurities preclude generation of Majorana fermions and other non-Abelions in such systems in general. Here, solving a general quantum-mechanical problem of impurity bound states in a system of spin-orbit coupled Landau levels, we demonstrate that impurity-induced Majorana modes emerge at boundaries between topological and conventional superconducting states generated in a domain wall due to proximity to an s superconductor. We consider both short-range disorder and a smooth random potential. The phase diagram of the system is defined by

  6. EUV impurity study of the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Chen, K.I.; Moos, H.W.; Marmar, E.S.

    1977-06-01

    The intensity of resonance line radiation from oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and molybdenum impurities has been measured in the high field (80 kG), high density (6 x 10 14 cm -3 ) discharges of the Alcator tokamak, using a 0.4 m normal incidence monochromator (300 to 1300 A) with its line of sight fixed along a major radius. The total light impurity concentrations were 2 x 10 -3 , 7 x 10 -4 , and 3 x 10 -3 at central electron densities of 4.5 x 10 13 cm -3 (burnout), 4.0 x 10 13 (low density plateau) and 6.0 x 10 14 (high density plateau). Both a simple model and a computer code which included Pfirsch-Schluter impurity diffusion were used to estimate oxygen influxes of 1.6 x 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 and 1.5 x 10 14 cm -2 sec -1 at the plasma edge in the low and high density emission plateaus. The resulting values of Z/sub eff/, including the contributions due to both the light impurities and molybdenum, were close to one. The power lost through the impurity line radiation accounted for approximately equal to 7 percent of the total ohmic input power at high densities

  7. On neoclassical impurity transport in stellarator geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Regaña, J M; Kleiber, R; Beidler, C D; Turkin, Y; Maaßberg, H; Helander, P

    2013-01-01

    The impurity dynamics in stellarators has become an issue of moderate concern due to the inherent tendency of the impurities to accumulate in the core when the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field points radially inwards (ion root regime). This accumulation can lead to collapse of the plasma due to radiative losses, and thus limit high performance plasma discharges in non-axisymmetric devices. A quantitative description of the neoclassical impurity transport is complicated by the breakdown of the assumption of small E × B drift and trapping due to the electrostatic potential variation on a flux surface Φ-tilde compared with those due to the magnetic field gradient. This work examines the impact of this potential variation on neoclassical impurity transport in the Large Helical Device heliotron. It shows that the neoclassical impurity transport can be strongly affected by Φ-tilde . The central numerical tool used is the δf particle in cell Monte Carlo code EUTERPE. The Φ-tilde used in the calculations is provided by the neoclassical code GSRAKE. The possibility of obtaining a more general Φ-tilde self-consistently with EUTERPE is also addressed and a preliminary calculation is presented. (paper)

  8. Numerical renormalization group calculation of impurity internal energy and specific heat of quantum impurity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, L.; Costi, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a method to obtain the specific heat of quantum impurity models via a direct calculation of the impurity internal energy requiring only the evaluation of local quantities within a single numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation for the total system. For the Anderson impurity model we show that the impurity internal energy can be expressed as a sum of purely local static correlation functions and a term that involves also the impurity Green function. The temperature dependence of the latter can be neglected in many cases, thereby allowing the impurity specific heat Cimp to be calculated accurately from local static correlation functions; specifically via Cimp=(∂Eionic)/(∂T)+(1)/(2)(∂Ehyb)/(∂T), where Eionic and Ehyb are the energies of the (embedded) impurity and the hybridization energy, respectively. The term involving the Green function can also be evaluated in cases where its temperature dependence is non-negligible, adding an extra term to Cimp. For the nondegenerate Anderson impurity model, we show by comparison with exact Bethe ansatz calculations that the results recover accurately both the Kondo induced peak in the specific heat at low temperatures as well as the high-temperature peak due to the resonant level. The approach applies to multiorbital and multichannel Anderson impurity models with arbitrary local Coulomb interactions. An application to the Ohmic two-state system and the anisotropic Kondo model is also given, with comparisons to Bethe ansatz calculations. The approach could also be of interest within other impurity solvers, for example, within quantum Monte Carlo techniques.

  9. Poisoning of bubble propelled catalytic micromotors: the chemical environment matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G; Pumera, Martin

    2013-04-07

    Self-propelled catalytic microjets have attracted considerable attention in recent years and these devices have exhibited the ability to move in complex media. The mechanism of propulsion is via the Pt catalysed decomposition of H2O2 and it is understood that the Pt surface is highly susceptible to poisoning by sulphur-containing molecules. Here, we show that important extracellular thiols as well as basic organic molecules can significantly hamper the motion of catalytic microjet engines. This is due to two different mechanisms: (i) molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide can quench the hydroxyl radicals produced at Pt surfaces and reduce the amount of oxygen gas generated and (ii) molecules containing -SH, -SSR, and -SCH3 moieties can poison the catalytically active platinum surface, inhibiting the motion of the jet engines. It is essential that the presence of such molecules in the environment be taken into consideration for future design and operation of catalytic microjet engines. We show this effect on catalytic micromotors prepared by both rolled-up and electrodeposition approaches, demonstrating that such poisoning is universal for Pt catalyzed micromotors. We believe that our findings will contribute significantly to this field to develop alternative systems or catalysts for self-propulsion when practical applications in the real environment are considered.

  10. Characteristics of poisoning cases in Adiyaman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate poisoning cases in an intensive care unit (ICU in order to determine the profile of poisoning cases, update epidemiological data in Adiyaman, and contribute to data about poisoning in our country. Methods: Between 01-01-2012 and 31-12-2013 174 patients (116 males, 58 females with a mean age of 23.7 years were treated. Demographic characteristics, reasons and ways of poisoning, types of toxic substances, length of their ICU stay and prognosis were evaluated. Results: 2733 patients admitted to the intensive care unit were 174 poisoning cases. Poisoning ways were suicide by drug overdose (n=162, 93.1%, and accidental poisoning (n=12,6.9%.119 patients (66.5% had single drug intake, thirty-three patients (18.4% with multiple drug intake, and 16 (8.9% were poisoned by organic phosphates. The most common drug used for suicide was antidepressants (n=87.5%. 32 patients (18.4% took analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A total of 152 patients taking the drug, 22 patients were poisoned by other means. The median length of patient stay was 2 days (range 1-20 days. Ninety-nine patients (56.9% recovered and were discharged.72 patients (41.4% were admitted to inpatient after intensive care unit. Patients were followed up by asking poisoning suicidal psychiatric consultation.1 patient was followed up for 20 days in intensive care due to alcohol poisoning but was died.2 patients (1.1% were referred to a center forward. Conclusion: Majority of the patients were females, who took drugs with suicidal intention. Frequent use of antidepressants, which are not subject to control by authorities, to commit suicide was remarkable.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Nigeria - it is time to pay attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas and a cause of thousands of deaths across the world annually but its lethal consequences often go unrecognized, especially in developing countries. Aim: To discuss the subject of CO poisoning using local examples. Methods: Information was drawn from ...

  12. A STUDY OF PREDICTING THE NEED FOR VENTILATOR SUPPORT AND OUTCOME IN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinga Bommankatte Eranaik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphorus compound poisoning is the most common poisonings in India because of easy availability, often requiring ICU care and ventilator support. Clinical research has indicated that respiratory failure is the most important cause of death due to Organophosphorus poisoning. It results in respiratory muscle weakness, pulmonary oedema, respiratory depression, increased secretions and bronchospasm. These complications and death can be prevented with timely Institution of ventilator support. The aim of present study was to identify the factors and predicting the need for ventilator support and outcome. Aim of the Study- To predict the need for ventilator support and outcome in organophosphate poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consecutive patients admitted with a history of organophosphorus poisoning at KIMS, Hubli were taken for study after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, confirmation of poisoning, examination and other than routine investigations serum pseudocholinesterase and arterial blood gas analysis was done. The severity of organophosphorus poisoning was graded as mild, moderate and severe based on the factors which influence the need for ventilator support. RESULTS This study was conducted in 70 patients, out of which 48 (68.6% were male patients and 22 (31.4% were female patients. Among them 37 (53% patients required ventilation and 33 (47% expired. Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Monocrotophos were most commonly consumed poisons. 74% patients who consumed these compounds required ventilator support and 73% patients expired. 100% of patients presented with pin point pupil, fasciculation score > 4, respiratory rate > 20, GCS score < 7 and severe grade of poisoning required ventilator support and pseudocholinesterase < 900 U/L, 70% of metabolic acidosis and atropine requirement more than 180 mg within 48 hours required ventilator support and associated with high mortality. CONCLUSION

  13. Identification and characterization of potential impurities of donepezil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Reddy, K V S R; Moses Babu, J; Kumar, P Anil; Chandrashekar, E R R; Mathad, Vijayavitthal T; Eswaraiah, S; Reddy, M Satyanarayana; Vyas, K

    2004-09-03

    Five unknown impurities ranging from 0.05 to 0.2% in donepezil were detected by a simple isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated from crude sample of donepezil using isocratic reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the spectral data (IR, NMR and MS), the structures of these impurities were characterised as 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(4-pyridylmethyl)-1-indanone (impurity I), 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity II), 2-(1-benzyl-4-piperdylmethyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanol (impurity III) 1-benzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-2-indenylmethyl) piperidine (impurity IV) and 1,1-dibenzyl-4(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-2H-2-indenylmethyl)hexahydropyridinium bromide (impurity V). The synthesis of these impurities and their formation was discussed.

  14. Effect of impurity radiation on tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.; Green, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to the radiation from impurities is of great importance in the overall energy balance. Taking the temperature dependence of this loss for two impurities characteristic of those present in existing tokamak plasmas, the condition for radial power balance is derived. For the impurities considered (oxygen and iron) it is found that the radiation losses are concentrated in a thin outer layer of the plasma and the equilibrium condition places an upper limit on the plasma paraticle number density in this region. This limiting density scales with mean current density in the same manner as is experimentally observed for the peak number density of tokamak plasmas. The stability of such equilibria is also discussed. (author)

  15. Spectroscopic impurity survey in Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttenschoen, Birger; Burhenn, Rainer; Thomsen, Henning [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Assmann, Jochen; Hollfeld, Klaus-Peter [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: the Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    The High Efficiency eXtreme ultraviolet Overview Spectrometer (HEXOS) has been developed specifically for impurity identification and survey purposes on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. This spectrometer system, consisting of four individual spectrometers, covers the wavelength range between λ=2.5 nm and λ=160 nm, observing the intense resonance lines of relevant Mg-, Na-, Be- and Li-like impurity ions as well as the high-Z W/Ta quasi-continua. During the first operation phase of W7-X, commissioning of HEXOS was finished by providing an in-situ wavelength calibration. The permanently acquired spectra are evaluated to monitor the overall impurity content in the plasma, and serve as an indicator for unintended plasma-wall contact possibly leading to machine damage. HEXOS results from the first operation phase of W7-X are presented and discussed with respect to future scientific exploitation of the available data.

  16. Impurity production and acceleration in CTIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-9161, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: dabuche@sandia.gov; Clift, W.M. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-9161, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Klauser, R.; Horton, R.D. [CTIX Group, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Howard, S.J. [General Fusion Inc., Burnaby, BC V5A 3H4 (Canada); Brockington, S.J. [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Evans, R.W.; Hwang, D.Q. [CTIX Group, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) produces a high density, high velocity hydrogen plasma that maintains its configuration in free space on a MHD resistive time scale. In order to study the production and acceleration of impurities in the injector, several sets of silicon collector probes were exposed to spheromak-like CT's exiting the accelerator. Elemental analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy indicated the presence of O, Al, Fe, and Cu in films up to 200 A thickness (1000 CT interactions). Using a smaller number of CT interactions (10-20), implantation of Fe and Cu was measured by Auger depth profiling. The amount of impurities was found to increase with accelerating voltage and number of CT interactions while use of a solenoidal field reduced the amount. Comparison of the implanted Fe and Cu with TRIM simulations indicated that the impurities were traveling more slowly than the hydrogen CT.

  17. Impurity dependence of superconductivity in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laa, C.

    1984-04-01

    Jump temperatures, the critical fields Hsubc and Hsubc 2 and specific heats were measured on niobium samples where the impurity content was systematically varied by loading with nitrogen. Quantities could thus be extrapolated to lattice perfection and absolute purity. Comparisons with theories were made and some parameters extracted. Agreement was found with Gorkov theory for small impurities. A new value of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter Ko was determined to be just above 1/sqrt2 which proves that niobium is an elementary Type II semiconductor. By comparisons with the BCS and the CLAC theory the values of the mean Fermi velocity, the London penetration depth, the BCS coherence length and the impurity parameter were extracted. (G.Q.)

  18. Magnetic impurity coupled to interacting conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schork, T.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a magnetic impurity which interacts by hybridization with a system of weakly correlated electrons and determine the energy of the ground state by means of a 1/N f expansion. The correlations among the conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard Hamiltonian and are treated to the lowest order in the interaction strength. We find that their effect on the Kondo temperature, T K , in the Kondo limit is twofold: first, the position of the impurity level is shifted due to the reduction of charge fluctuations, which reduces T K . Secondly, the bare Kondo exchange coupling is enhanced as spin fluctuations are enlarged. In total, T K increases. Both corrections require intermediate states beyond the standard Varma-Yafet ansatz. This shows that the Hubbard interaction does not just provide quasiparticles, which hybridize with the impurity, but also renormalizes the Kondo coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  20. Impurity and particle control for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.

    1985-02-01

    The INTOR impurity control system studies have been focused on the development of an impurity control system which would be able to provide the necessary heat removal and He pumping while satisfying the requirements for (1) minimum plasma contamination by impurities, (2) reasonable component lifetime (approx. 1 year), and (3) minimum size and cost. The major systems examined were poloidal divertors and pumped limiters. The poloidal divertor was chosen as the reference option since it offered the possibility of low sputtering rates due to the formation of a cool, dense plasma near the collector plates. Estimates of the sputtering rates associated with pumped limiters indicated that they would be too high for a reasonable system. Development of an engineering design concept was done for both the poloidal divertor and the pumped limiter

  1. Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2018-04-01

    Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.

  2. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  3. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.Y.; Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H.; An, Y.H.; Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H_2/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H_2 GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10"−"5 Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  4. COREDIV modelling of JET ILW discharges with different impurity seeding: nitrogen, neon, argon and krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova-Stanik Irena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations with the COREDIV code of JET H-mode discharges with 25 MW of auxiliary heating in the ITER-like wall (ILW configuration with different impurity seedings – nitrogen (N, neon (Ne, argon (Ar and krypton (Kr – are presented. All simulations have been performed with the same transport model and input discharge parameters like auxiliary heating, volume average plasma density, confinement factor. Only the seeded impurity puff rate was changed in the calculations. It appears that for the considered heating power of 25 MW and relatively low volume electron average density = 6.2 × 1019 m−3, impurity seeding is necessary. It has been found that for every gas at the maximum level of the seeding rate, allowed by the code convergence, the power to the plate is reduced up to 2–4 MW, with electron temperature at the plate of about 2 eV, indicating semi-detached conditions in the divertor region. It should be noted, however, that in cases with low and medium Z impurity (N, Ne and Ar, tungsten radiation is a significant part of radiation losses and stays above 22–32% of the total energy losses, but for high Z impurity (Kr it is reduced up to 10% of the total losses. The maximum of the Kr radiation is between the pedestal region and separatrix, showing that radiative mantle can be created, which might have a strong influence on the plasma parameters in the pedestal region.

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    patients, including six fatalities, it was concluded that digoxin is slightly dialyzable (level of evidence = B), and that ECTR is unlikely to improve the outcome of digoxin-toxic patients whether or not digoxin immune Fab (Fab) is administered. Despite the lack of robust clinical evidence, the workgroup...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context......, and is not indicated for removal of digoxin-Fab complex....

  6. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  7. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  8. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  9. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and ... In a pre-structured proforma, data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, duration of hospitalization ... responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths ... cleansed with water at the time of admission.

  10. Cardiological aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Jakub; Gawlik, Iwona; Dębski, Grzegorz; Popiołek, Lech; Marchewka, Wojciech; Hydzik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiological manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Background/introduction: Carbon monoxide intoxication is one of the most important toxicological causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early clinical manifestation of CO poisoning is cardiotoxicity. We enrolled 75 patients (34 males and 41 females, mean age 37.6 ± 17.7 y/o) hospitalized due to CO poisoning. Laboratory tests including troponin I, blood pressure measurements, HR and electrocardiograms (ECG) were collected. Pach's scale scoring and grading system was used to establish severity of poisoning. Grade of poisoning is positively correlated with troponin I levels and systolic blood pressure. Moreover, troponin levels are significantly correlated with exposition time, lactates and are higher in tachycardiac, hypertensive and positive ECG subpopulations. COHb levels are indicative of exposure but do not correlate with grade of poisoning. The main cause of CO poisoning were bathroom heaters - 83%, only 11% of examined intoxicated population were equipped with CO detectors. Complex cardiological screening covering troponin levels, ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurements as well as complete blood count with particular attention to platelet parameters should be performed in each case where CO intoxication is suspected. More emphasis on education on CO poisoning is needed.

  11. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  12. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... delay or gap in poison center services. The State of New York has determined that the Research... Noncompetitive Replacement Awards to the Research Foundation of SUNY and the New York City Health & Hospitals... the Research Foundation of SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also...

  13. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  14. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  15. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  16. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  17. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  18. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  19. Plasma impurity-control studies in CTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, magnetized coaxial gun generated Compact Toroids (CTs) have exhibited magnetic field and density lifetimes of about 250 to 350 μs and electron temperatures of about 10 eV. In recent experiments, after hydrogen discharge cleaning the gun and flux conserver surfaces, the lifetimes have been extended to 550 μs. This improvement in lifetime, together with spectroscopic and bolometric measurements, are consistent with the interpretation that the CT plasma losses are impurity dominated and that discharge cleaning is reducing the impurities. Details of these measurements are described as well as successful experiments which led to a more open flux conserver

  20. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K D [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Interaction between impurities in Ag dilute alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Wodniecka, B.; Wodniecki, P.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow

    1977-01-01

    Time dependent perturbed angular correlation measurements of gamma radiation in 111 Cd after 111 In decay were performed in AgPd and AgPt alloys. The concentration of Pd or Pt atoms being the nearest neighbours to the probe atoms is much higher than that one deduced from random impurity distribution. This effect results from the attractive interaction between the In probe atoms and Pt or Pd impurity atoms in silver host lattice. The binding energy of InPd and InPt complexes was measured as 135 +- 9 meV and 171 +- 9 meV, respectively. (author)

  2. The electronic structure of impurities in semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Nylandsted larsen, A; Svane, A

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of isolated substitutional or interstitial impurities in group IV, IV-IV, and III-V compound semiconductors will be studied. Mössbauer spectroscopy will be used to investigate the incorporation of the implanted isotopes on the proper lattice sites. The data can be directly compared to theoretical calculations using the LMTO scheme. Deep level transient spectroscopy will be used to identify the band gap levels introduced by metallic impurities, mainly in Si~and~Si$ _{x}$Ge$_{1-x}$. \\\\ \\\\

  3. Plasma impurity-control studies in CTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Sherwood, A.R.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, magnetized coaxial gun generated Compact Toroids (CTs) have exhibited magnetic field and density lifetimes of about 250 to 350 ..mu..s and electron temperatures of about 10 eV. In recent experiments, after hydrogen discharge cleaning the gun and flux conserver surfaces, the lifetimes have been extended to 550 ..mu..s. This improvement in lifetime, together with spectroscopic and bolometric measurements, are consistent with the interpretation that the CT plasma losses are impurity dominated and that discharge cleaning is reducing the impurities. Details of these measurements are described as well as successful experiments which led to a more open flux conserver.

  4. Impurity studies in the advanced toroidal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Horton, L.D.; Crume, E.C.; Howe, H.C.; Voronov, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Impurities have played an important role in the initial stages of operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility. Cleanup practices have been adequate enough that plasmas heated by ECH only can be operated in a quasi-steady state; however, neutral beam injected plasmas always collapse to a low temperature. It is not clear whether impurity radiation is actually responsible for initiating the collapse, but at the time the stored energy reaches a maximum, there are indications of poloidal asymmetries in radiation from low ionization stages, such as observed in marfes, which could play a dominant role in the plasma evolution. 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Helium leak and chemical impurities control technology in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Daisuke; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Sakaba, Nariaki

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has designed and developed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) hydrogen cogeneration system named gas turbine high-temperature reactor (GTHTR300C) as a commercial HTGR. Helium gas is used as the primary coolant in HTGR. Helium gas is easy to leak, and the primary helium leakage should be controlled tightly from the viewpoint of preventing the release of radioactive materials to the environment. Moreover from the viewpoint of preventing the oxidization of graphite and metallic material, the helium coolant chemistry should be controlled tightly. The primary helium leakage and the helium coolant chemistry during the operation is the major factor in the HTGR for commercialization of HTGR system. This paper shows the design concept and the obtained operational experience on the primary helium leakage control and primary helium impurity control in the high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) of JAEA. Moreover, the future plan to obtain operational experience of these controls for commercialization of HTGR system is shown. (author)

  6. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  7. Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P

    2011-01-01

    Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...

  8. Impurity transport in internal transport barrier discharges on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dux, R.; Giroud, C.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2004-01-01

    Impurity behaviour in JET internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges with reversed shear has been investigated. Metallic impurities accumulate in cases with too strong peaking of the main ion density profile. The accumulation is due to inwardly directed drift velocities inside the ITB radius. The strength of the impurity peaking increases with the impurity charge and is low for the low-Z elements C and Ne. Transport calculations show that the observed behaviour is consistent with dominant neoclassical impurity transport inside the ITB. In some cases, MHD events in the core flatten the radial profile of the metallic impurity. (author)

  9. Observations of long impurity confinement times in the ISX tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H; Wong, S K; Muller, III, C H; Hacker, M P [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA); Ketterer, H E; Isler, R C; Lazarus, E A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1981-08-01

    The transport of small amounts of silicon and aluminium injected into plasmas in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) tokamak is studied. By monitoring the time behaviour of ultra-violet spectral lines emitted by various charge states of those impurities and comparing this behaviour to the predictions of a multi-species impurity transport code, it is found that both impurity penetration times and impurity containment times are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The observed impurity containment times, which are greater than three times the energy containment time, are consistent with the inward convection predicted by neoclassical theory.

  10. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  11. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  12. Poisoning of animals by industrial fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P

    1937-01-01

    Autopsy findings of game that died presumably due to poisoning by arsenic are presented. Corrosive gastroenteritis with edema and ecchymosis of the mucosa, and partly ulceration of the stomach, and fatty degeneration of the kidneys and liver were found in hares and stags. Arsenic was detected in the gastric content, liver, and other organs. These cases were diagnosed as acute to subacute poisoning by arsenic. Catarrhal gastrointestinal mucosa, pseudomembranes, in the esophagus, inflammatory edema of the nasal septum and laryngeai mucosa, and sometimes liver cirrhosis and edema of the spleen were found in red deer, roes, and hares. In these cases, poisoning by arsenic could not be identified as the primary cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to those observed in game around a smelter prior to the installation of an efficient arsenic trap.

  13. Burnable poison fuel element and its fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi; Inoue, Kotaro; Aizawa, Hiroko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to optionally vary the excess reactivity and fuel reactivity. Method: Burnable poisons with a large neutron absorption cross section are contained in fuel material, by which the excess reactivity at the initial stage in the reactor is suppressed by the burnable poisons and the excess reactivity is released due to the reduction in the atomic number density of the burnable poisons accompanying the burning. The burnable poison comprises spherical or rod-like body made of a single material or spherical or rod-like member made of a plurality kind of materials laminated in a layer. These spheres or rods are dispersed in the fuel material. By adequately selecting the shape, combination and the arrangement of the burnable poisons, the axial power distribution of the fuel rods are flattened. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  15. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  16. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  17. Microscopic models of impurities in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assali, L.V.C.

    1985-01-01

    The study of electronic structure of insulated and complex puntual impurities in silicon responsible by the appearing of deep energy levels in the forbiden band of semiconductor, is presented. The molecular cluster model with the treatment of surface orbitals by Watson sphere within the formalism of Xα multiple scattering method, was used. The electronic structures of three clusters representative of perfect silicon crystal, which were used for the impurity studies, are presented. The method was applied to analyse insulated impurities of substitutional and interstitial hydrogen (Si:H and Si:H i ), subtitutional and interstitial iron in neutral and positive charge states (Si:Fe 0 , + , Si:Fe 0 , + ) and substitutional gold in three charge states(Si,Au - , 0 , + ). The thetraedic interstitial defect of silicon (Si:Si i ) was also studied. The complex impurities: neighbour iron pair in the lattice (Si:Fe 2 ), substitutional gold-interstitial iron pair (Si:Au s Fe) and substitutional boron-interstitial hydrogen pair (Si:B s H i ), were analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Anomalous temperature behavior of Sn impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskel, D.; Shechter, H.; Stern, E.A.; Newville, M.; Yacoby, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Sn impurities in Pb and Ag hosts have been investigated by Moessbauer effect and in Pb by x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) studies. The Sn atoms are dissolved up to at least 2 at. % in Pb and up to at least 8 at. % in Ag for the temperature ranges investigated. The concentration limit for Sn-Sn interactions is 1 at. % for Pb and 2 at. % for Ag as determined experimentally by lowering the Sn concentration until no appreciable change occurs in the Moessbauer effect. XAFS measurements verify that the Sn impurities in Pb are dissolved and predominantly at substitutional sites. For both hosts the temperature dependence of the spectral intensities of isolated Sn impurities below a temperature T 0 is as expected for vibrating about a lattice site. Above T 0 the Moessbauer spectral intensity exhibits a greatly increased rate of drop-off with temperature without appreciable broadening. This drop-off is too steep to be explained by ordinary anharmonic effects and can be explained by a liquidlike rapid hopping of the Sn, localized about a lattice site. Higher-entropy-density regions of radii somewhat more than an atomic spacing surround such impurities, and can act as nucleation sites for three-dimensional melting

  19. Energy bands and gaps near an impurity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Schulman, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 41 (2016), s. 3430-3433 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * impurity * modeling * energy bands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016

  20. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In

  1. Synthesis and Identification of Selected Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang, Zhou [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Non-active substances undesired, but often unavoidable compounds accompanying target active ingredients in various pesticide formulations have been synthesized for supporting product registration and evaluation of the total toxicological and physicochemical properties of formulated products. The synthesis and structural characterization of various impurities of pesticide active ingredients are described and illustrated by IR, NMR, GC and GC/MS data. (author)

  2. Removal of iron from impure graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Heiser, J.

    1979-01-01

    Iron-impregnated and ash-rich graphites have been purified by leaching with gaseous I 2 at 900 0 C. With addition of H 2 , the rate of removal of impurity iron can be markedly increased and becomes comparable to that obtained with Cl 2 . I 2 has an advantage in that it can also volatilize Ca and perhaps Ba and Sr

  3. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen control systems and impurity purification in LBE: Learning from DEMETRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissonneau, L., E-mail: laurent.brissonneau@cea.fr [CEA/DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LIPC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beauchamp, F.; Morier, O. [CEA/DEN, Cadarache, DTN/STPA/LIPC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Schroer, C.; Konys, J. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Materialforschung III, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kobzova, A.; Di Gabriele, F. [NRI, UJV Husinec-Rez 130, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Courouau, J.-L. [CEA/DEN, Saclay, DPC/SCCME/LECNA, F-919191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-08-31

    Operating a system using Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) requires a control of the dissolved oxygen concentration to avoid corrosion of structural materials and oxide build-up in the coolant. Reliable devices are therefore needed to monitor and adjust the oxygen concentration and to remove impurities during operation. In this article, we describe the learning gained from experiments run in the framework of the DEMETRA project (IP-EUROTRANS 6th FP contract) on the oxygen supply in LBE and on impurity filtration and management in different European facilities. An oxygen control device should supply oxygen in LBE at sufficient rate to compensate loss by surface oxidation, otherwise local dissolution of oxide layers might lead to the loss of steel protection against dissolution. Oxygen can be supplied by gas phase H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}, or by solid phase, PbO dissolution. Each of these systems has substantial advantages and drawbacks. Considerations are given on devices for large scale facilities. The management of impurities (lead oxides and corrosion products) is also a crucial issue as their presence in the liquid phase or in the aerosols is likely to impair the facility, instrumentation and mechanical devices. To avoid impurity build-up on the long-term, purification of LBE is required to keep the impurity inventory low by trapping oxide and metallic impurities in specific filter units. On the basis of impurities characterisation and experimental results gained through filtration tests in different loops, this paper gives a description of the state-of-art knowledge of LBE purification with different filter media. It is now understood that the nature and behaviour of impurities formed in LBE will change according to the operating modes as well as the method to propose to remove impurities. This experience can be used to validate the basis filtration process, define the operating procedures and evaluate perspectives for the design of purification units for long

  5. Corrosion tests of high temperature alloys in impure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Jan; Kalivodova, Jana; Vilemova, Monika; Skoumalova, Zuzana; Brabec, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Czech research organizations take part several projects concerning technologies and materials for advanced gas cooled reactors, as an example international project ARCHER supported by EU within FP7, also several national projects supported by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic are solved in cooperation with industrial and research organization. Within these projects the material testing program is performed. The results presented in these paper concerning high temperature corrosion and degradation of alloys (800 H, SS 316 and P91) in helium containing minor impurities (H_2, CO, CH_4, HZO) at temperatures up to 760°C. After corrosion tests (up to 1500 hours) the specimens was investigated by several methods (gravimetry, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, hardness and micro-hardness testing etc. (author)

  6. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mix household chemicals. Doing so can cause dangerous gases. Always store household chemicals in the container they ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  7. Summary of IAEA technical committee meeting on impurity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1989-03-01

    Presentations given in the IAEA technical committee meeting on impurity control (held in JAERI from 13 to 15 February, 1989) are summarized, putting the emphasis on the physics modelling of the plasma related to the impurity production and confinement. (author)

  8. Zirconium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass specrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in zirconium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 but particularly adapted for low contents. The method is quantitative only if a reference sample is available (metallic impurities) [fr

  9. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  10. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...

  11. The influence of impurities on the discharge behaviour in SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, A.F.G. van der.

    1981-10-01

    Discharges in the screw pinch SPICA can be produced in a small range of filling pressures and bias field values. The experimentally observed lower limit of 6 mtorr for the filling pressure is explained by the onset of MHD instabilities and by imperfect implosion at low values of the filling pressure at high values of the bias field. In the accessible parameter regime, discharges can be produced with densities of the order of 5x10 21 m -3 and temperatures between 30 and 80 eV, which show gross stability for 200 μs, albeit not reproducible. In this density and temperature range discharges can easily become dominated by energy losses due to impurity radiation. An investigation of the temperature decay and the impurity concentration shows that, in spite of the quartz liner, this is not the case under normal operating conditions and that the energy containment time is of the order of 200 μs. The temperature decay rate, measured by means of Thomson scattering, is only 0.15 eV/μs, whereas from the intensity ratio of the 15.0 nm 2s 2 S - 3p 2 p 0 and the 103.2 nm 2s 2 S - 2p 2 P 0 OVI emission lines a decay rate of 0.3 eV/μs is derived. From absolute intensity measurements an oxygen concentration is derived. Besides oxygen, also silicon and nitrogen are present in the discharge. The nitrogen concentration that follows from absolute intensity measurements is in fair agreement with estimates based on an analysis of the background gas. The silicon concentration has not been measured directly, but it is estimated to be less than half the oxygen concentration since the wall material is quartz (SiO 2 ) and part of the oxygen originates from the background gas, mainly as a constituent of water vapour

  12. Reactor scram device using fluid poison tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio; Hasegawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the response function in the reactor scram with no wide space by injecting poisons in soluble poison guide tubes to such a liquid level as giving no effect on usual reactor operation. Constitution: Soluble poison guide tubes in a reactor are connected at their upper ends to a buffer tank and at their lower ends to a pressurizer by way of a header and an injection valve. The header is connected by way of a valve with a level meter, one end of which is connected to the buffer tank. During reactor operation, the injection valve is closed and the soluble poisons in the pressurizer vessel is maintained at a pressurized state and, while on the other hand, soluble poisons are injected by way of the header to the lower end of the soluble poison guide tubes by the opening of a valve, which is thereafter closed. Upon scram, a valve is closed to protect the level meter and pressurized poisons are rapidly filled in the guide tubes by the release of the injection valve. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation.

  14. Evaluation and control of poisoning of impregnated carbons used for organic iodide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.; Rankovic, L.

    1979-01-01

    By the evaluation of the chemical reactions which have taken place on impregnated activated carbon surfaces exposed to nuclear reactor atmospheric environments, the role of various impregnants has been studied. The evaluation shows several different paths for the aging and posioning to take place. The four major causes were found to be: organic solvent contamination; inorganic acid gas contamination; formation of organic acids on carbon surface; and, formation of SO 2 from carbon sulfur content. Prevention of poisoning by the first two paths can be accomplished only by procedural changes within the facility. However the last three poisoning paths can be controlled to some extent by the selection of carbon pretreatment techniques and the type of impregnant used. Results were generated by evaluating used carbons from 14 nuclear power plants and by artificial poisoning of laboratory impregnated carbons. Impregnants which have antioxidant properties, besides reaction with organic iodides, can increase the life of the impregnated activated carbons

  15. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Oghabian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3, a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-yearold male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  16. Fission product poisoning in KS-150 reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the KS-150 reactor was used to study reactivity changes induced by reactor poisoning with fission products Xe 135 and Sm 149 . A comparison of transients caused by the poisoning showed the following differences: (1) the duration of the transient Xe poisoning (2 days) is shorter by one order of magnitude than the duration of Sm poisoning (20 days); however, the level of Xe poisoning is greater approximately by one order than the level of the Sm poisoning; (2) the level of steady-state Xe poisoning depends on the output level of the reactor; steady-state Sm poisoning does not depend on this level; (3) following reactor shutdown Xe poisoning may increase to the maximum value of up to Δrhosub(Xe)=20% and will then gradually decrease; Sm poisoning may reach maximum values of up to Δrhosub(Sm)=2% and does not decrease. (J.B.)

  17. Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.; Fye, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a Monte Carlo algorithm to study properties of dilute magnetic alloys; the method can treat a small number of magnetic impurities interacting wiith the conduction electrons in a metal. Results for the susceptibility of a single Anderson impurity in the symmetric case show the expected universal behavior at low temperatures. Some results for two Anderson impurities are also discussed.

  18. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  19. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  20. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....