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Sample records for poison extraction procedure

  1. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20–300 ng/mL, incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.

  2. Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from the fruit paste of Ziziphus abyssinica and Tamarindus indica . ... Methodology and results: The methods used included cold and soxhlet extraction using methanol as the solvent and hot extraction using distilled water. To determine the efficiency in which ...

  3. Clinical study of Atopic Dermatitis patient treated with Poison Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chi-young

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is desinged in order to evaluate the Poison extraction method for the Atopic dermatitis. Methods : The authors observed the two cases of Atopic dermatitis patients who previously used steroid-based ointment. for treating the Poison Extraction Method. Conclusions : 1. In case 1, the patient with mild case of Atopic dermatitis in face is treated with the Poison extraction method. Rash symptoms intensed for first few days. As sweating appeared in the local area from the seventh day, all the symptoms was disappeared rapidly. No recurrence was found. 2. In case 2, the patient with severe case of Atopic dermatitis in whole body is treated with the Poison extraction method. The symptoms intensed after two months and all the symptoms of itchiness, rash, scaly letter dissapeared in the third and fourth months. No recurrence was found. 3. In both cases of mild and severe cases of Atopic dermatitis. all the symptoms were disappeared and no recurrence was found with the Poison Extraction Method.

  4. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extracts is of weight loss between 5.54 and 10.98% for P. placenta, and between 5.02 and 28.25% for T. versicolor. The lowest weight loss was found to be for beech wood (5.02%) impregnated with the extract of oleander at a concentration level of 0.25% against T. versicolor. While the highest weight loss was also on the ...

  5. A new extraction method of bioflavanoids from poisonous plant (Gratiola Officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Polukonova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The way of vegetable raw materials extraction which allows to receive nontoxical composition of biological active agents from poisonous plants such as Gratiola officinalis L. was described. The alkaloids exit changes with the increase of ethyl alcohol percentage (from 15% to 96%. The extract was obtained using 96% ethanol and did not give positive high quality reaction to the content of alkaloids. The chemical composition with new nontoxical biological active composition of Gratiola officinalis L. extract was investigated. The extract contains a previously unknown plant – bioflavonoid quercetin. The average value of quercetin in this extract using the calibration curve of the standard sample quercetin (98% Sigma is 0.66%. In the dry rest of extractive substances (Gratiola officinalis L. the quantity of quercetin was 350 mkg (obtained from 10 g of a dry grass as was established by the method of a liquid chromatography.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of food spoilage and food poisoning pathogens is usually achieved by use of chemical preservatives which have negative impacts including: human health hazards of the chemical applications, chemical residues in food & feed chains and acquisition of microbial resistance to the used chemicals. Because of such concerns, the necessity to find a potentially effective, healthy safer and natural alternative preservatives is increased. Within these texts, Plant extracts have been used to control food poisoning diseases and preserve foodstuff. Antimicrobial activity of five plant extracts were investigated against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi using agar disc diffusion technique. Ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum, Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinales and Thymus vulgaris were potentially effective with variable efficiency against the tested bacterial strains at concentration of 10 mg/ml while extract of Cuminum cyminum was only effective against S. aureus respectively. P. granatum and S. aromaticum ethanolic extracts were the most effective plant extracts and showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against the highly susceptible strains of food borne pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa with MIC's ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/ml and MBC of 5.0 and 10 mg/ml except P. aeruginosa which was less sensitive and its MBC reached to 12.5 mg/ml of S. aromaticum respectively. These plant extracts which proved to be potentially effective can be used as natural alternative preventives to control food poisoning diseases and preserve food stuff avoiding healthy hazards of chemically antimicrobial agent applications.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ashraf A; Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Almaary, Khalid S; Dawoud, Turki M; Sholkamy, Essam N; Bakri, Marwah M

    2018-02-01

    Prevention of food spoilage and food poisoning pathogens is usually achieved by use of chemical preservatives which have negative impacts including: human health hazards of the chemical applications, chemical residues in food & feed chains and acquisition of microbial resistance to the used chemicals. Because of such concerns, the necessity to find a potentially effective, healthy safer and natural alternative preservatives is increased. Within these texts, Plant extracts have been used to control food poisoning diseases and preserve foodstuff. Antimicrobial activity of five plant extracts were investigated against Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi using agar disc diffusion technique. Ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum, Syzygium aromaticum , Zingiber officinales and Thymus vulgaris were potentially effective with variable efficiency against the tested bacterial strains at concentration of 10 mg/ml while extract of Cuminum cyminum was only effective against S. aureus respectively. P. granatum and S. aromaticum ethanolic extracts were the most effective plant extracts and showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against the highly susceptible strains of food borne pathogenic bacteria ( S. aureus and P. aeruginosa ) with MIC's ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/ml and MBC of 5.0 and 10 mg/ml except P . aeruginosa which was less sensitive and its MBC reached to 12.5 mg/ml of S. aromaticum respectively. These plant extracts which proved to be potentially effective can be used as natural alternative preventives to control food poisoning diseases and preserve food stuff avoiding healthy hazards of chemically antimicrobial agent applications.

  8. Gastric lavage guided by ultrathin transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy in a life-threatening case of tobacco extract poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masato; Hayashida, Makiko; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine, which is found in tobacco, is one of the most toxic of all known poisons. A 31-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department 2 hours after ingesting a usually fatal dose of a tobacco extract. Although gastric lavage was once commonly used to treat poisoning cases of this type, lavage can lead to such complications as aspiration, hypoxia, oropharyngeal and gastric trauma, and electrolyte disturbances. Recent guidelines have suggested less-aggressive gastric-emptying procedures as initial treatments. Currently, there are no absolute indications for gastric lavage use. The present patient had a history of depressive episodes and had attempted suicide by ingesting an extract derived from 20 cigarettes mixed with alcohol. There was no evidence of vomiting or seizures occurring before arrival of the ambulance. Physical examination revealed no signs of sweating, although the patient appeared to be confused, which is often seen with nicotine intoxication. She admitted using 2 kinds of cigarette, each of which typically contain 11.2 mg of nicotine. The patient's nicotine level was suspected to be higher than 40 to 60 mg, which is normally fatal. To determine whether gastric lavage was indicated in this case, we performed ultrathin transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which neither requires sedation nor compromises the airways. Although 2 hours had passed since ingestion, the tobacco extract and food were directly visualized within the stomach. Subsequently, gastric lavage was performed with 2,000 mL of water administered through a nasogastric tube. Ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy made it possible to directly observe the gastric lavage and to ensure the stomach contents had been completely removed. No changes were noted in the vital signs, and no obstruction of the airways was observed. The patient recovered quickly and was discharged the following day. Ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy helped determine the diagnosis and ensure that gastric

  9. Relationship between magnesium extracted by 0.01 M calcium chloride extraction procedure and conventional procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Houba, V.J.G.; Reijneveld, J.A.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A multinutrient soil extraction procedure in routine soil testing is attractive. Therefore, it has been suggested to convert conventional soil testing programs into a 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) multinutrient soil testing program using the relationship between test values of the 0.01 M CaCl2

  10. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction procedure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then, an orthogonal array experimental design (L9(34)) was used to further optimize the extraction procedure. The results of F-test and P-value indicated that the effect order on extraction yield of capsaicinoids from high to low was ratio of solvent to mass, extraction time, and extraction temperature. The maximum extraction ...

  11. Acute caffeine poisoning resulting in atrial fibrillation after guarana extract overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Biedroń, Witold; Gomólka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is the climbing vine native to Amazon Basin, characterized by high caffeine content in its seeds. Guarana extract is a common ingredient of energy drinks used in order to boost energy and physical endurance and increase alertness. Severe caffeine intoxication is rare, but may be life-threatening mostly due to supraventricular and ventricular dysrhythmias. We present the case of intentional caffeine poisoning after ingestion of tablets containing guarana extract, complicated by atrial fibrillation. A44-year-old man with no significant medical history was admitted to hospital about 21 h after ingestion of guarana extract containing 1.6 g of caffeine. Typical symptoms of caffeine toxicity, i.e. nausea, vomiting, anxiety and palpitaions, occurred shortly after ingestion. On admission, he was conscious, with blood pressure of 136/86 mmHg, heart rate of 106-113 beats per minute, fever of 37.8 °C, and symmetrically increased deep tendon reflexes. QTc interval in electrocardiogram was prolonged to 0.542 s. Laboratory tests revealed hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, leukocytosis, as well as elevated creatinine and creatine phosphokinase levels. Approximately 45 h post ingestion, the patient developed atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular rhythm. Tachydysrythmia subsided after infusion of amiodarone and restoration of electrolyte balance. Echocardiogram revealed presence of asymmetrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle with the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and normal left ventricular outflow tract gradient suggesting non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Acute caffeine poisoning may result in atrial fibrillation, especially in predisposed patients with underlying hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CHELATING EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OFCORIANDRUM SATIVUMAND ITS FRACTIONS ON WISTAR RATS POISONED WITH LEAD ACETATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-López, Miguel Ángel; Mora-Tovar, Gabriela; Ceniceros-Méndez, Iromi Marlen; García-Lujan, Concepción; Puente-Valenzuela, Cristo Omar; Vega-Menchaca, María Del Carmen; Serrano-Gallardo, Luis Benjamín; Garza, Rubén García; Morán-Martínez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The rate of lead poisoning has decreased in recent years due to increased health control in industries that use this metal. However, it is still a public health problem worldwide. The use of various plants with chelating properties has been a topic of research today. In traditional medicine, it is said that Coriandrum sativum has chelating properties, but there is no scientific evidence to support this fact. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chelating effect of methanol extract of coriander and its fractions on Wistar rats intoxicated with lead. In this research, male Wistar rats were poisoned with 50 mg/kg of lead acetate and treated with 50 mg/kg of methanol extract and its fractions. The extract and its fractions were administered to four treatment groups. Positive and negative controls were established. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and lead concentrations were analyzed; liver was evaluated histologically in control and treatment groups. The methanol extract of coriander presented a LD 50 >1000 mg/dL. The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups administered with methanolic extract and its fractions compared to the positive control which presented structural alterations. Coriander extracts protect liver and lower lead concentration in rats intoxicated with lead in contrast to the positive control group.

  13. The development of simple field based procedures for extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to develop procedures for extracting volatiles from the vine of Adenia cissampeloides which could effect the highest yield at the lowest extraction costs and also could be produced at the cottage industry level. The participatory rural appraisal technique was used to ensure ...

  14. Solid-phase extraction procedures in systematic toxicological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1998-01-01

    In systematic toxicological analysis (STA) the substance(s) present is (are) not known at the start of the analysis. in such an undirected search the extraction procedure cannot be directed to a given substance but must be a general procedure where a compromise must be reached in that the substances

  15. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  16. Partial Extraction Therapies (PET) Part 2: Procedures and Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Salama, Maurice; Du Toit, Jonathan

    Part 1 of this series introduced the partial extraction therapies as a group of techniques for ridge preservation at immediate implant placement and beneath pontic sites. The concept proposes a paradigm shift away from extract and augment toward partly retaining the tooth root to preserve the ridge and prevent buccopalatal collapse. The revolutionary socket-shield technique was introduced in 2010; however, there has been no follow-up literature to guide the clinician in terms of procedural steps. While root submergence is well established, the socket-shield and pontic shield are still in their clinical infancy and require long-term clinical data before they can be proposed as routine in everyday implant dentistry. Yet without sound knowledge on how to carry out the partial extraction therapies, a global dental community cannot participate in their application or contribute to the growing knowledge base. In this, the second part of the series, the procedures for root submergence, socket-shield, and pontic shield are addressed, step by step, supplemented with applicable guidelines as the first such publication guiding the clinician to apply these root- and ridge-preservation techniques. Technical aspects and complication management are also addressed.

  17. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  3. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Mortality and morbidity of poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, E.; Irestedt, B.; Hurri, T.

    2008-01-01

    . Methods. Morbidity was for this study defined as acute poisonings treated in hospitals given the ICD-10 codes T36-T65 and F10-F19. The figures were extracted from the National Patient/Hospital Registers. Acute poisonings listed as main as well as side diagnoses were included. Deaths recorded as acute......Aim. To map and compare mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in 2002 and to establish a common understanding of methods and procedures among the National Poisons Information Centres (NPIC) in order to create a Nordic toxico-epidemiological platform...... poisoning (using the same ICD-10 codes) were collected from the National Death Cause Registers. Results. Annual mortality of acute poisonings per 100,000 inhabitants (rate) was 16.6 in Finland and between 8.6 and 11.1 in the other Nordic countries. Morbidity rates varied between 150 and 255 per 100...

  6. Mortality and morbidity of poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, E.; Irestedt, B.; Hurri, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To map and compare mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in 2002 and to establish a common understanding of methods and procedures among the National Poisons Information Centres (NPIC) in order to create a Nordic toxico-epidemiological platform....... Methods. Morbidity was for this study defined as acute poisonings treated in hospitals given the ICD-10 codes T36-T65 and F10-F19. The figures were extracted from the National Patient/Hospital Registers. Acute poisonings listed as main as well as side diagnoses were included. Deaths recorded as acute...... poisoning (using the same ICD-10 codes) were collected from the National Death Cause Registers. Results. Annual mortality of acute poisonings per 100,000 inhabitants (rate) was 16.6 in Finland and between 8.6 and 11.1 in the other Nordic countries. Morbidity rates varied between 150 and 255 per 100...

  7. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  8. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002696.htm Deodorant poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Deodorant poisoning occurs when someone swallows deodorant. This article ...

  9. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  10. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...

  11. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CHELATING EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUM AND ITS FRACTIONS ON WISTAR RATS POISONED WITH LEAD ACETATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-López, Miguel Ángel; Mora-Tovar, Gabriela; Ceniceros-Méndez, Iromi Marlen; García-Lujan, Concepción; Puente-Valenzuela, Cristo Omar; Vega-Menchaca, María del Carmen; Serrano-Gallardo, Luis Benjamín; Garza, Rubén García; Morán-Martínez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background: The rate of lead poisoning has decreased in recent years due to increased health control in industries that use this metal. However, it is still a public health problem worldwide. The use of various plants with chelating properties has been a topic of research today. In traditional medicine, it is said that Coriandrum sativum has chelating properties, but there is no scientific evidence to support this fact. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chelating effect of methanol extract of coriander and its fractions on Wistar rats intoxicated with lead. Materials and Methods: In this research, male Wistar rats were poisoned with 50 mg/kg of lead acetate and treated with 50 mg/kg of methanol extract and its fractions. The extract and its fractions were administered to four treatment groups. Positive and negative controls were established. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and lead concentrations were analyzed; liver was evaluated histologically in control and treatment groups. Results: The methanol extract of coriander presented a LD50 >1000 mg/dL. The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups administered with methanolic extract and its fractions compared to the positive control which presented structural alterations. Conclusion: Coriander extracts protect liver and lower lead concentration in rats intoxicated with lead in contrast to the positive control group. PMID:28573226

  13. Standard Operation Procedure of Gaharu Oil Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Norella Bahari; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Gaharu oil extraction system developed by Nuclear Malaysia is a hydro-distillation system innovated from the tradition method and improvised with science and technology to enhance the process efficiency and safety. The main component of gaharu oil extraction system included the extraction vessel, condenser and collection decanter. Apart from the extraction unit, the gaharu oil extraction process also incorporated two major supporting systems. These systems are the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) system and the water cooling system. The LPG system is solely used for heating the vessel, which contains a mixture of treated and grind gaharu bark and fluid, to produce steam. Meanwhile the water cooling system is used to supply the necessary cool water into the condenser unit and facilitate in the transformation of the mentioned steam into gaharu oil and distilled water. The dissipate water from this process will be channeled back into the water cooling ponds to let excess heat to be removed and allow the cool water to reuse again by the process. (author)

  14. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  15. A Fourier-based textural feature extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is presented to discriminate and characterize regions of uniform image texture. The procedure utilizes textural features consisting of pixel-by-pixel estimates of the relative emphases of annular regions of the Fourier transform. The utility and derivation of the features are described through presentation of a theoretical justification of the concept followed by a heuristic extension to a real environment. Two examples are provided that validate the technique on synthetic images and demonstrate its applicability to the discrimination of geologic texture in a radar image of a tropical vegetated area.

  16. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... whitish-green fruits hang in loose clusters. Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  17. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  18. Changes in corneal deformation parameters after lenticule creation and extraction during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of lenticule creation and subsequent corneal lenticule extraction on corneal deformation parameters during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 18 eyes of 10 patients (27.90 ± 7.11 years, -5.64 ± 2.45 diopters scheduled for SMILE procedure were enrolled. Changes in the corneal deformation parameters, including deformation amplitude (DA, applanation time(AT1 and AT2, applanation length(AL1 and AL2, corneal velocity(CV1 and CV2, peak distance(P.Dist., radius and intraocular pressure values were measured preoperatively, immediately after lenticule creation and subsequent to corneal lenticule extraction in all eyes with the Corvis Scheimpflug Technology (Corvis ST, OCULUS, Wetzlar, Germany. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons was performed to investigate changes following each step of the procedure. RESULTS: All surgical procedures were uneventful. A significant difference was detected among the three time points (pre-operation, post-lenticule creation and post lenticule extraction for AT1 (P0.05, but there was a significant change in these parameters following subsequent corneal lenticule extraction (post hoc P<0.01, when compared to values obtained pre-operatively. The scheimpflug camera of the Corvis ST demonstrated the intralamellar small gas bubbles formed from the vaporisation of tissue after lenticule creation and a gray zone was observed between the cap and the residual stromal bed after lenticule extraction. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant change in corneal deformation parameters following SMILE procedure. The changes may be caused predominantly by stromal lenticule extraction, while lenticule creation with femtosecond laser may not have an obvious effect on corneal deformation properties.

  19. STUDY ON THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PLANTAGO MAJOR EXTRACT ON EXPERIMENTAL POISONING BY DICLOFENAC IN NMRI ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Scarlat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are alternative medicine’s key weapons. Thanks to the medicinal effects some plants turned out to have, they have been chosen by people to heal or at least ameliorate various affections. Nature is continuously changing: some species become extinct, others are born and some cross time. Despite the trend to enhance plant-based medicines, research data in this field is still incomplete. The experimental research in this paper aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective capacity of the Plantago major (plantain species in albino mice –NMRI stain, after experimental poisoning by Diclofenac. Using physiological and biochemical methods and techniques, we researched potential structural and functional changes ocurred further to the experimental poisoning by Diclofenac.

  20. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  1. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Paradichlorobenzene is a white, solid chemical with a very strong odor. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this chemical. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with ...

  2. Standardization of solvent extraction procedure for determination of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukanta Maity; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent extraction procedure using ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate complexing agent in methyl isobutyl ketone organic phase and acid exchange back-extraction is described for the simultaneous quantitative pre-concentration of uranium in seawater followed by its determination by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Solvent extraction time is optimized for extraction of uranium from seawater. Solvent extraction efficiency for uranium in seawater at different pH was carried out. The method gives a recovery of 98 ± 2 % for 400 mL sample at pH 3.0 ± 0.02, facilitating the rapid and interference free analysis of seawater samples. (author)

  3. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes used. With this procedure, a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by vein to make the urine ... acetaminophen (antidote is N - acetylcysteine ), aspirin (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone ). Some poisonous bites ...

  4. Optimization of an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Lin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gan Nanqin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Song Lirong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: lrsong@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-09-15

    Microcystin analysis in sediments and soils is considered very difficult due to low recovery for extraction. This is the primary limiting factor for understanding the fate of toxins in the interface between water and sediment in both the aquatic ecosystem as well as in soils. In the present study, a wide range of extraction solvents were evaluated over a wide range of pH, extraction approaches and equilibration time to optimize an effective extraction procedure for the analysis of microcystins in soils and lake sediments. The number of extractions required and acids in extraction solutions were also studied. In this procedure, EDTA-sodium pyrophosphate solution was selected as an extraction solvent based on the adsorption mechanism study. The optimized procedure proved to be highly efficient and achieved over 90% recovery. Finally, the developed procedure was applied to field soil and sediment sample collected from Chinese lakes during bloom seasons and microcystins were determined in six of ten samples. - Efficiency of extraction of microcystins from soil and sediment was greatly increased.

  5. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient...

  6. Bryophytes: liverworts, mosses, and hornworts: extraction and isolation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    There are more than 20,000 species of bryophytes in the world. Among them, almost of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) possess beautiful blue, yellow colored or colorless cellular oil bodies from which over several hundred new terpenoids, acetogenins, and aromatic compounds including flavonoids with more than 40 new carbon skeletons have been isolated. Some of the isolated compounds from liverworts show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxicity, insect antifeedant and mortality, antioxidant, nitric oxide (NO) production and plant growth inhibitory, neurotrophic and piscicidal activity, tublin polymerization inhibitory, muscle relaxing, and liver X-receptor (LXR)α agonist and (LXR)β antagonist activities, among others. The bio- and chemical diversity, chemical analysis of bryophytes including extraction, distillation, purification, TLC, GC and GC-MS, and HPLC analysis of oil bodies of liverworts are surveyed.

  7. Porcine bone marrow: extraction procedure and characterization by bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, C M; Schnell, T D; Mandigo, R W

    1998-12-01

    Data on porcine and bovine bone marrow composition indicate high calcium content, which may be erroneously elevated owing to the marrow recovery process. A method of bone marrow recovery was developed that involved passing marrow extracted from bone through a filter-press mechanism to remove very fine bone particles and dust, allowing a more accurate analysis of marrow. Calcium values were reduced approximately 90% and ash values reduced more than 50% compared to other reported data. The new recovery method did not require sawing away the hard bone and it removed particulate that may have interfered with analyses. Bone marrow was characterized by bone type. Rib bone marrow had higher protein, iron, non-heme iron and total pigment than scapula, aitch/hip bone or vertebrae marrow. Fat ranged from 17·81 to 26·76% and calcium ranged from 27·25 to 44·33mg 100g(-1) among bone types. The pH of bone marrow ranged from 7·14 to 7·53. Bone marrow appears to contribute to some of the properties of meat obtained from advanced meat recovery systems.

  8. A salting out and resin procedure for extracting Schistosoma mansoni DNA from human urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Nilton B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a simple and cheap salting out and resin (InstaGene matrix® resin - BioRad DNA extraction method from urine for PCR assays is introduced. The DNA of the fluke Schistosoma mansoni was chosen as the target since schistosomiasis lacks a suitable diagnostic tool which is sensitive enough to detect low worm burden. It is well known that the PCR technique provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting parasite DNA. Therefore it is of paramount importance to take advantage of its excellent performance by providing a simple to handle and reliable DNA extraction procedure, which permits the diagnosis of the disease in easily obtainable urine samples. Findings The description of the extraction procedure is given. This extraction procedure was tested for reproducibility and efficiency in artificially contaminated human urine samples. The reproducibility reached 100%, showing positive results in 5 assay repetitions of 5 tested samples each containing 20 ng DNA/5 ml. The efficiency of the extraction procedure was also evaluated in a serial dilution of the original 20 ng DNA/5 ml sample. Detectable DNA was extracted when it was at a concentration of 1.28 pg DNA/mL, revealing the high efficiency of this procedure. Conclusions This methodology represents a promising tool for schistosomiasis diagnosis utilizing a bio-molecular technique in urine samples which is now ready to be tested under field conditions and may be applicable to the diagnosis of other parasitic diseases.

  9. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  10. Comparison of ten different DNA extraction procedures with respect to their suitability for environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Ramona; Böllmann, Jörg; Krahl, Kathrin; Bryant, Isaac Mbir; Martienssen, Marion

    2017-12-01

    DNA extraction for molecular biological applications usually requires target optimized extraction procedures depending on the origin of the samples. For environmental samples, a range of different procedures has been developed. We compared the applicability and efficiency of ten selected DNA extraction methods published in recent literature using four different environmental samples namely: activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant, river sediment, anaerobic digestion sludge and nitrifying enrichment culture. We assessed the suitability of the extraction procedures based on both DNA yield and quality. DNA quantification was performed by both ultra violet (UV) spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry after staining with PicoGreen. In our study, DNA yields based on UV measurement were overestimated in most cases while DNA yields from fluorescence measurements correlated well with the sample load on agarose gels of crude DNA. The quality of the DNA extracts was determined by gel electrophoresis of crude DNA and PCR products from 16S rDNA with the universal primer set 27f/1525r. It was observed that gel electrophoresis of crude DNA was not always suitable to evaluate DNA integrity and purity since interfering background substances (e.g. humic substances) were not visible. Therefore, we strongly recommend examining the DNA quality of both crude DNA and 16S rDNA PCR products by gel electrophoresis when a new extraction method is established. Summarizing, we found four out of ten extraction procedures being applicable to all tested samples without noticeable restrictions. The procedure G (according to the standard method 432_10401 of the Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety) had the broadest application range over procedure J (published by Wilson, 2001). These were followed by procedures F (Singka et al., 2012) and A (Bourrain et al., 1999). All four extraction procedures delivered reliable and reproducible crude

  11. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002510.htm Nicotine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nicotine is a bitter-tasting compound that naturally occurs ...

  12. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  13. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care Wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth. Rinse the person's eyes and skin well if they touched the plant. Give milk to drink. Call poison control for more guidance. ...

  14. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  15. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pyrethrins. These chemicals were originally isolated from chrysanthemum flowers and are generally not harmful. However, they can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  16. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  17. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...

  18. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Davison K, Frank BL. Ethnobotany: ...

  19. Antifreeze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If ... little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce or 30 milliliters) can kill a ...

  20. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can ... under the following brand names: Eyesine Geneye Murine Tears Plus Opti-Clear ...

  1. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled...

  2. Speciation of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge by using microwave assisted sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Muhammad K; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Muhammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Shah, Abdul Q; Baig, Jameel A

    2009-04-30

    A fast microwave assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for their eventual exploitation in the three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by modified BCR protocol (the community Bureau of Reference now the European Union "Measurement and Testing Programme"). The effects of the microwave treatment on the extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from untreated sewage sludge collected from Hyderabad city (Pakistan) were compared with those obtained from sequential BCR extraction procedure. In sequential BCR method, each extraction step takes 16 h, where as with the use of compromised microwave conditions, extraction steps could be completed in about 120 s, for each step, respectively. Extractable Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni obtained by both comparable methodologies were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), while for Cu and Zn flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used. The validations of both extraction techniques were compared by the analysis of certified reference material of soil amended with sewage sludge (BCR 483). The results of the partitioning study of untreated waste water sewage sludge, indicate that more easily mobilized forms (step 1) were predominant for Cd, Ni and Zn (28.3, 28.4 and 43.7%), in contrast, the largest amount of Cd and Pb (66.4 and 72.8%) was associated with the iron/manganese oxide while Cr and Ni (71.2 and 38.7%) in organic matter/sulphide fractions. The overall metal recoveries in steps 1-3 (excluding residual step) were 95.3-104% of those obtained with the sequential BCR protocol. The accuracy of the proposed microwave extraction method (expressed as %R.S.D.) was lower than 10% for all metals.

  3. A sensitive radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone in human serum using a specific extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of human parathyroid hormone (PTH) is described. PTH was extracted from serum by adsorption to and elution from microfine silica, causing a 3.2-fold greater hormone concentration in extract than in serum. The extraction procedure eliminated from the assay unspecific interference caused by serum factors. The detection limit was 10 pg bovine PTH. The concentration of PTH was measurable in serum from 95 % of normal subjects (mean, 68 pg/ml; S.D., 18), was undetectable in sera from hypoparathyroid patients, and elevated in 96 % of sera from patients with primary hyperthyroidism. The data presented suggest that the assay mainly measures PTH(1-84). (Auth.)

  4. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Reybier, Karine; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-06-25

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their active compounds through activity-guided fractionation.

  5. Cold water extraction (CWE). Procedure for the determination of the alkali content and pore solution composition

    OpenAIRE

    Plusquellec, Gilles; De Weerdt, Klaartje

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the cold water extraction (CWE) procedure which allows to determine the free alkali content of hydrated cement paste, mortar or concrete. The calculation of the pH using the thermodynamic modelling software PhreeqC is presented in the appendix

  6. Predicting the difficulty of a transvenous lead extraction procedure: Validation of the LED index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Luca; Vassanelli, Francesca; Cerini, Manuel; Inama, Lorenza; Salghetti, Francesca; Giacopelli, Daniele; Gargaro, Alessio; Raweh, Abdallah; Curnis, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    A lead extraction difficulty (LED) score was proposed to predict the difficult transvenous lead extraction (TLE) procedures, defined by means of the fluoroscopy time. The aim of this study was to validate the estimation model based on the LED index above 10 on an independent data set of TLE cases. Consecutive patients undergoing TLE between January 2014 and January 2016 were included in this analysis. The fluoroscopy time related to the leads removal was dichotomized as above or below its 90th percentile (PCTL). In total, 446 permanent leads were removed during 233 TLE procedures. Complete procedural success was achieved in 232 (99.1%) patients. The LED index resulted >10 in 83(35.6%) procedures. Among these cases, 20 had fluoroscopy time above the 90th PCTL (23.3 minutes) and were classified as true positive. Over the 150 procedures with LED score LED index in predicting complex cases resulted 86.9 (confidence interval [CI] 66.4-97.2)%, 70.0 (CI 63.3-76.1)%, and 98.0 (CI 94.3-99.6)%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed a 12% increased risk of high fluoroscopy for each additional point of the LED score (OR 1.12, CI 1.05-1.21, P = 0.001). The validation of the estimation model based on the LED index <10 confirmed its high efficacy in predicting simple TLE procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  8. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...

  9. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  10. Mushroom Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dibek Misirlioglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. Best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 281-284

  11. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, McGuigan ...

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...

  13. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  14. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  15. Selenium speciation in phosphate mine soils and evaluation of a sequential extraction procedure using XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorito, Jessica E.; Luxton, Todd P.; Eick, Matthew J.; Grossl, Paul R. (VP); (Utah SU); (EPA)

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is a trace element found in western US soils, where ingestion of Se-accumulating plants has resulted in livestock fatalities. Therefore, a reliable understanding of Se speciation and bioavailability is critical for effective mitigation. Sequential extraction procedures (SEP) are often employed to examine Se phases and speciation in contaminated soils but may be limited by experimental conditions. We examined the validity of a SEP using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for both whole and a sequence of extracted soils. The sequence included removal of soluble, PO4-extractable, carbonate, amorphous Fe-oxide, crystalline Fe-oxide, organic, and residual Se forms. For whole soils, XANES analyses indicated Se(0) and Se(-II) predominated, with lower amounts of Se(IV) present, related to carbonates and Fe-oxides. Oxidized Se species were more elevated and residual/elemental Se was lower than previous SEP results from ICP-AES suggested. For soils from the SEP sequence, XANES results indicated only partial recovery of carbonate, Fe-oxide and organic Se. This suggests Se was incompletely removed during designated extractions, possibly due to lack of mineral solubilization or reagent specificity. Selenium fractions associated with Fe-oxides were reduced in amount or removed after using hydroxylamine HCl for most soils examined. XANES results indicate partial dissolution of solid-phases may occur during extraction processes. This study demonstrates why precautions should be taken to improve the validity of SEPs. Mineralogical and chemical characterizations should be completed prior to SEP implementation to identify extractable phases or mineral components that may influence extraction effectiveness. Sequential extraction procedures can be appropriately tailored for reliable quantification of speciation in contaminated soils.

  16. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  17. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  18. Effect of different extraction procedures on antimicrobial activity of marine bivalves: A comparison

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Chatterji, A.; Das, P.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 77 - 83 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Effect of Different Extraction Procedures on Antimicrobial Activity of Marine... Bivalves: A Comparison Sumita Sharma 1* , Anil Chatterji 2 and Partha Das 1 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 001, India 2 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu...

  19. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination.

  20. The influence of extraction procedure on ion concentrations in sediment pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Jackson, B.P.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment pore water has the potential to yield important information on sediment quality, but the influence of isolation procedures on the chemistry and toxicity are not completely known and consensus on methods used for the isolation from sediment has not been reached. To provide additional insight into the influence of collection procedures on pore water chemistry, anion (filtered only) and cation concentrations were measured in filtered and unfiltered pore water isolated from four sediments using three different procedures: dialysis, centrifugation and vacuum. Peepers were constructed using 24-cell culture plates and cellulose membranes, and vacuum extractors consisted of fused-glass air stones attached with airline tubing to 60cc syringes. Centrifugation was accomplished at two speeds (2,500 and 10,000 x g) for 30 min in a refrigerated centrifuge maintained at 4?C. Only minor differences in chemical characteristics and cation and anion concentrations were found among the different collecting methods with differences being sediment specific. Filtering of the pore water did not appreciably reduce major cation concentrations, but trace metals (Cu and Pb) were markedly reduced. Although the extraction methods evaluated produced pore waters of similar chemistries, the vacuum extractor provided the following advantages over the other methods: (1) ease of extraction, (2) volumes of pore water isolated, (3) minimal preparation time and (4) least time required for extraction of pore water from multiple samples at one time.

  1. Soil DNA extraction procedure influences protist 18S rRNA gene community profiling outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana S.; Nunes, Ines Marques; Nielsen, Tue K.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies allow deeper studies of the soil protist diversity and function. However, little attention has been given to the impact of the chosen soil DNA extraction procedure to the overall results. We examined the effect of three acknowledged DNA recovery methods, two...... manual methods (ISOm-11063, GnS-GII) and one commercial kit (MoBio), on soil protist community structures obtained from different sites with different land uses. Results from 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggest that DNA extraction method significantly affect the replicate homogeneity, the total...... number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered and the overall taxonomic structure and diversity of soil protist communities. However, DNA extraction effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among samples, as the community data still strongly grouped by geographical location...

  2. Development of a simple extraction procedure for chlorpyrifos determination in food samples by immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, J A; Maquieira, A; Puchades, R

    2007-02-28

    The suitability of immunoassay methodology for rapid and accurate determination of chlorpyrifos in vegetables was tested. The optimised ELISA detection limit was 0.32ng/ml, with a working range from 0.69 to 6.21ng/ml and an immunoassay test-mid point (IC(50)) of 2.08ng/ml. A rapid sample preparation procedure considering different parameters such as the amount of sample, volume of extractant, extraction time and dilution factor was optimised. The developed direct extraction (DE) and multiresidue (ME) standard procedures were performed in different fortified fresh and processed vegetable samples (tomato, bonnet pepper, bean, pea, asparagus, broccoli, watermelon, melon, lettuce, cucumber, celery and red pepper). Recoveries were in all cases in the whole range 85.2-108.9% for both DE and ME extracts. Also, the comparison of the results obtained by both immunochemical and chromatographic methods for spiked fruits and vegetables were good with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97.

  3. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks.

  4. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of four extraction procedures to assess arsenate and arsenite species in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giral, Melanie [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.c [Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Deschenes, Louise [The Interuniversity Research Centre for the Life Cycle of Products, Processes and Services (CIRAIG), Department of Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Blouin, Jean-Pierre [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Ministere de l' Environnement, du Developpement Durable et des Parcs, 850, boulevard Vanier, Laval, Quebec H7C 2M7 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Inorganic arsenic in soils poses an important environmental concern. Several studies reported an oxidation of arsenite to arsenate during its extraction from soils. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify, among published procedures, an extraction method which preserves the oxidation state of arsenic and (2) to assess the influence of soil physicochemical properties on the performance of these methods. Four extraction strategies were compared: 1) 10 M HCl, 2) 15% (v/v) H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 3) 10 mM phosphate + 0.5% (w/v) NaDDC, and, 4) 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M ascorbic acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}). Separation and analysis of As species was performed by HPLC-ICP/MS. Oxidation of As(III) into As(V) during extraction was more important in soils with high content of Mn oxides. Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves was the best strategy to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V). - Extraction of arsenic from soils with 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.5 M C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} under microwaves is a suitable method to extract the majority of As while minimizing conversion of As(III) into As(V).

  6. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient can be found in: Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy , poison oak, ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  7. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  8. Cuticle remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Blue nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney transplantation may be needed. Prevent absorption of poison Stomach emptying (inducing vomiting or stomach pumping), once ... iron, or many household chemicals. Increase elimination of poison If a poison remains life threatening despite the ...

  14. Shaving cream poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Hair bleach poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Black nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. A novel procedure to measure the antioxidant capacity of Yerba maté extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté extracts have in vitro antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. Thus, in order to assess the antioxidant capacity of yerba maté extracts, the following procedure is proposed: 100 µL of an aqueous dilution of the extracts is mixed in duplicate with 3.0 mL of a DPPH 'work solution in absolute methanol (100 µM.L-1, with an incubation time of 120 minutes in darkness at 37 ± 1 °C, and then absorbance is read at 517 nm against absolute methanol. The results should be expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents or Trolox equivalents in mass percentage (g% dm, dry matter in order to facilitate comparisons. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between 12.8 and 23.1 g TE % dm and from 9.1 to 16.4 g AAE % dm. The AOC determined by the DPPH assay proposed in the present study can be related to the total polyphenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  1. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  2. Comparison of mild extraction procedures for determination of plant-available arsenic compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakova, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Pavlikova, Daniela; Balik, Jiri [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague (Czech Republic); Goessler, Walter; Schlagenhaufen, Claudia [Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Institute of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    In this work three mild extraction agents for determination of plant-available fractions of elements in soil were evaluated for arsenic speciation in soil samples. Pepper (Capsicum annum, L.) var. California Wonder was cultivated in pots, and aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, at a concentration of 15 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, were added at the beginning of the experiment. Control pots (untreated) were also included. Deionized water, 0.01 mol L{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}, and 0.05 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used to extract the plant-available fraction of the arsenic compounds in soil samples collected during the vegetation period of the plants. Whereas in control samples the extractable arsenic fraction did not exceed 1% of total arsenic content, soil amendment by arsenic compounds resulted in extraction of larger amounts, which varied between 1.4 and 8.1% of total arsenic content, depending on soil treatment and on the extracting agent applied. Among arsenic compounds determined by HPLC-ICPMS arsenate was predominant, followed by small amounts of arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, depending on the individual soil treatment. In all the experiments in which methylarsonic acid was added to the soil methylarsonous acid was detected in the extracts, suggesting that the soil bacteria are capable of reducing methylarsonic acid before a further methylation occurs. No significant differences were observed between analytical data obtained by using different extraction procedures. (orig.)

  3. Doping control in Japan. An automated extraction procedure for the doping test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Matsumoto, T.

    1976-01-01

    Horse racing in Japan consists of two systems, the National (10 racecourses) and the Regional public racing (32 racecourses) having about 2,500 racing meetings in total per year. Urine or saliva samples for dope testing are collected by the officials from thw winner, second and third, and transported to the laboratory in a frozen state. In 1975, 76, 117 samples were analyzed by this laboratory. The laboratory provides the following four methods of analysis, which are variously combined by request. (1) Method for detection of drugs extracted by chloroform from alkalinized sample. (2) Methods for detection of camphor and its derivatives. (3) Method for detection of barbiturates. (4) Method for detection of ethanol. These methods consist of screening, mainly by thin layer chromatography and confirmatory tests using ultra violet spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography. In the screening test of doping drugs, alkalinized samples are extracted with chloroform. In order to automate the extraction procedure, the authors contrived a new automatic extractor. They also devised a means of pH adjustment of horse urine by using buffer solution and an efficient mechanism of evaporation of organic solvent. Analytical data obtained by the automatic extractor are presented in this paper. In 1972, we started research work to automate the extraction procedure in method (1) above, and the Automatic Extractor has been in use in routine work since last July. One hundred and twnety samples per hour are extracted automatically by three automatic extractors. The analytical data using this apparatus is presented below. PMID:1000163

  4. Evaluation and optimization of DNA extraction and purification procedures for soil and sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Bryant, J E; Madsen, E L; Ghiorse, W C

    1999-11-01

    We compared and statistically evaluated the effectiveness of nine DNA extraction procedures by using frozen and dried samples of two silt loam soils and a silt loam wetland sediment with different organic matter contents. The effects of different chemical extractants (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], chloroform, phenol, Chelex 100, and guanadinium isothiocyanate), different physical disruption methods (bead mill homogenization and freeze-thaw lysis), and lysozyme digestion were evaluated based on the yield and molecular size of the recovered DNA. Pairwise comparisons of the nine extraction procedures revealed that bead mill homogenization with SDS combined with either chloroform or phenol optimized both the amount of DNA extracted and the molecular size of the DNA (maximum size, 16 to 20 kb). Neither lysozyme digestion before SDS treatment nor guanidine isothiocyanate treatment nor addition of Chelex 100 resin improved the DNA yields. Bead mill homogenization in a lysis mixture containing chloroform, SDS, NaCl, and phosphate-Tris buffer (pH 8) was found to be the best physical lysis technique when DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency were used as criteria. The bead mill homogenization conditions were also optimized for speed and duration with two different homogenizers. Recovery of high-molecular-weight DNA was greatest when we used lower speeds and shorter times (30 to 120 s). We evaluated four different DNA purification methods (silica-based DNA binding, agarose gel electrophoresis, ammonium acetate precipitation, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration) for DNA recovery and removal of PCR inhibitors from crude extracts. Sephadex G-200 spin column purification was found to be the best method for removing PCR-inhibiting substances while minimizing DNA loss during purification. Our results indicate that for these types of samples, optimum DNA recovery requires brief, low-speed bead mill homogenization in the presence of a phosphate-buffered SDS-chloroform mixture, followed

  5. Ancient DNA in historical parchments - identifying a procedure for extraction and amplification of genetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T

    2016-05-06

    Historical parchments in the form of documents, manuscripts, books, or letters, make up a large portion of cultural heritage collections. Their priceless historical value is associated with not only their content, but also the information hidden in the DNA deposited on them. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) retrieved from parchments can be used in various investigations, including, but not limited to, studying their authentication, tracing the development of the culture, diplomacy, and technology, as well as obtaining information on the usage and domestication of animals. This article proposes and verifies a procedure for aDNA recovery from historical parchments and its appropriate preparation for further analyses. This study involved experimental selection of an aDNA extraction method with the highest efficiency and quality of extracted genetic material, from among the multi-stage phenol-chloroform extraction methods, and the modern, column-based techniques that use selective DNA-binding membranes. Moreover, current techniques to amplify entire genetic material were questioned, and the possibility of using mitochondrial DNA for species identification was analyzed. The usefulness of the proposed procedure was successfully confirmed in identification tests of historical parchments dating back to the 13-16th century AD.

  6. Perceived poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  7. A new procedure for extraction of collagen from modern and archaeological bones for 14C dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, F; Sala, S; Fedi, M E; Martini, M; Papagni, A

    2011-10-01

    Bones are potentially the best age indicators in a stratigraphic study, because they are closely related to the layer in which they are found. Collagen is the most suitable fraction and is the material normally used in radiocarbon dating. Bone contaminants can strongly alter the carbon isotopic fraction values of the samples, so chemical pretreatment for (14)C dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is essential. The most widespread method for collagen extraction is based on the Longin procedure, which consists in HCl demineralization to dissolve the inorganic phase of the samples, followed by dissolution of collagen in a weak acid solution. In this work the possible side effects of this procedure on a modern bone are presented; the extracted collagen was analyzed by ATR-IR spectroscopy. An alternative procedure, based on use of HF instead of HCl, to minimize unwanted degradation of the organic fraction, is also given. A study by ATR-IR spectroscopic analysis of collagen collected after different demineralization times and with different acid volumes, and a study of an archaeological sample, are also presented.

  8. Selectivity assessment of an arsenic sequential extraction procedure for evaluating mobility in mine wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahota, Petr; Grösslová, Zuzana; Kindlová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extraction efficiency and selectivity of phosphate and oxalate were tested. • Pure As-bearing mineral phases and mine wastes were used. • The reagents were found to be specific and selective for most major forms of As. • An optimized sequential extraction scheme for mine wastes has been developed. • It has been tested over a model mineral mixtures and natural mine waste materials. - Abstract: An optimized sequential extraction (SE) scheme for mine waste materials has been developed and tested for As partitioning over a range of pure As-bearing mineral phases, their model mixtures, and natural mine waste materials. This optimized SE procedure employs five extraction steps: (1) nitrogen-purged deionized water, 10 h; (2) 0.01 M NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , 16 h; (3) 0.2 M NH 4 -oxalate in the dark, pH3, 2 h; (4) 0.2 M NH 4 -oxalate, pH3/80 °C, 4 h; (5) KClO 3 /HCl/HNO 3 digestion. Selectivity and specificity tests on natural mine wastes and major pure As-bearing mineral phases showed that these As fractions appear to be primarily associated with: (1) readily soluble; (2) adsorbed; (3) amorphous and poorly-crystalline arsenates, oxides and hydroxosulfates of Fe; (4) well-crystalline arsenates, oxides, and hydroxosulfates of Fe; as well as (5) sulfides and arsenides. The specificity and selectivity of extractants, and the reproducibility of the optimized SE procedure were further verified by artificial model mineral mixtures and different natural mine waste materials. Partitioning data for extraction steps 3, 4, and 5 showed good agreement with those calculated in the model mineral mixtures (<15% difference), as well as that expected in different natural mine waste materials. The sum of the As recovered in the different extractant pools was not significantly different (89–112%) than the results for acid digestion. This suggests that the optimized SE scheme can reliably be employed for As partitioning in mine waste materials

  9. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  10. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  11. eCTG: an automatic procedure to extract digital cardiotocographic signals from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Marcantoni, Ilaria; Morettini, Micaela; Burattini, Luca; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity. In order to help overcoming this problem, this study proposes an electronic procedure, termed eCTG, to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images, possibly obtainable by scanning paper CTG reports. eCTG was specifically designed to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images. It includes four main steps: pre-processing, Otsu's global thresholding, signal extraction and signal calibration. Its validation was performed by means of the "CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database" by Physionet, that contains digital signals of 552 CTG recordings. Using MATLAB, each signal was plotted and saved as a digital image that was then submitted to eCTG. Digital CTG signals extracted by eCTG were eventually compared to corresponding signals directly available in the database. Comparison occurred in terms of signal similarity (evaluated by the correlation coefficient ρ, and the mean signal error MSE) and clinical features (including FHR baseline and variability; number, amplitude and duration of tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and deceleration episodes; number of early, variable, late and prolonged decelerations; and UC number, amplitude, duration and period). The value of ρ between eCTG and reference signals was 0.85 (P < 10 -560 ) for FHR and 0.97 (P < 10 -560 ) for UC. On average, MSE value was 0.00 for both FHR and UC. No CTG feature

  12. Use of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Tooth Extractions, Dental Implants, and Periodontal Surgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Katie J; Henschel, Heather; Patel, Ursula; Fitzpatrick, Margaret A; Evans, Charlesnika T

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines for antibiotics prior to dental procedures for patients with specific cardiac conditions and prosthetic joints have changed, reducing indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. In addition to guidelines focused on patient comorbidities, systematic reviews specific to dental extractions and implants support preprocedure antibiotics for all patients. However, data on dentist adherence to these recommendations are scarce. This was a cross-sectional study of veterans undergoing tooth extractions, dental implants, and periodontal procedures. Patients receiving antibiotics for oral or nonoral infections were excluded. Data were collected through manual review of the health record. Of 183 veterans (mean age, 62 years; 94.5% male) undergoing the included procedures, 82.5% received antibiotic prophylaxis (mean duration, 7.1 ± 1.6 days). Amoxicillin (71.3% of antibiotics) and clindamycin (23.8%) were prescribed most frequently; 44.7% of patients prescribed clindamycin were not labeled as penicillin allergic. Of those who received prophylaxis, 92.1% received postprocedure antibiotics only, 2.6% received preprocedural antibiotics only, and 5.3% received pre- and postprocedure antibiotics. When prophylaxis was indicated, 87.3% of patients received an antibiotic. However, 84.9% received postprocedure antibiotics when preprocedure administration was indicated. While the majority of antibiotics were indicated, only 8.2% of patients received antibiotics appropriately. The primary reason was secondary to prolonged duration. Three months postprocedure, there were no occurrences of Clostridium difficile infection, infective endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, or postprocedure oral infections. The majority of patients undergoing a dental procedure received antibiotic prophylaxis as indicated. Although patients for whom antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated should have received a single preprocedure dose, most antibiotics were prescribed postprocedure. Dental stewardship

  13. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  14. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  16. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  17. A selective procedure for DNA extraction from apoptotic cells applicable for gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J; Traganos, F; Darzynkiewicz, Z

    1994-05-01

    In cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death), a fraction of nuclear DNA is fragmented to the size equivalent of DNA in mono- or oligonucleosomes. When such DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis it generates the characteristic "ladder" pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments. Such a pattern of DNA degradation generally serves as a marker of the apoptotic mode of cell death. We developed a simple, rapid, and selective procedure for extraction of the degraded, low-molecular-weight DNA from apoptotic cells. The cells are prefixed in 70% ethanol, DNA is extracted with 0.2 M phosphate-citrate buffer at pH 7.8, and the extract is sequentially treated with RNase A and proteinase K and then subjected to electrophoresis. The ladder pattern was detected from DNA extracted from 1-2 x 10(6) HL-60 cells, of which as few as 8% were apoptotic, by flow cytometric criteria, as well as from blood and bone marrow samples from leukemic patients undergoing chemotherapy. The method is rapid and uses nontoxic reagents (no phenol, chloroform, etc.). This approach permits the analysis of DNA extracted from the very same cell population that is subjected to measurements by flow cytometry to estimate DNA ploidy, the cell cycle distribution of nonapoptotic cells, the percentage of apoptotic cells, or other parameters. Furthermore, the cells may be stored in 70% ethanol for at least several weeks before analysis without any significant DNA degradation. Treatment with ethanol also inactivates several pathogens, thereby increasing the safety of sample handling. The method is applicable to clinical samples, which can be fixed in ethanol and then stored and/or safety transported prior to analysis.

  18. Comparison of extraction induced by emulsion breaking, ultrasonic extraction and wet digestion procedures for determination of metals in edible oil samples in Turkey using ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakircioglu, Dilek; Kurtulus, Yasemin Bakircioglu; Yurtsever, Selcuk

    2013-06-01

    The content of elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in edible oils (sunflower, hazelnut, canola, corn and olive oils) from Turkey was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after ultrasonic extraction, wet digestion, and extraction induced by emulsion breaking procedures (EIEB). In order to evaluate the best sample preparation procedure, EIEB procedure was compared by ultrasonic extraction and wet digestion procedures. The results in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were : 0.022-0.058, Cr 0.126-7.106, Cu 0.570-4.504, Fe 8.004-12.588, Mn 0.035-0.054, Ni 0.908-2.182, Pb 0.099-0.134 and Zn 2.206-8.982. The EIEB procedure was found to be fast, reliable, simple, and excellent in comparison with the other studied procedures. The recovery test was performed by spiking the samples with known amounts of the metals in the form of organometallic standards and applying the EIEB procedure. The recoveries were in the range of 96-109%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  20. Evaluation of the ISO Standard 11063 DNA Extraction Procedure for Assessing Soil Microbial Abundance and Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert; Dequiedt, Samuel; Lelievre, Mélanie; Regnier, Tiffanie; Nowak, Virginie; Bailey, Mark; Lemanceau, Philippe; Bispo, Antonio; Chabbi, Abad; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Soil DNA extraction has become a critical step in describing microbial biodiversity. Historically, ascertaining overarching microbial ecological theories has been hindered as independent studies have used numerous custom and commercial DNA extraction procedures. For that reason, a standardized soil DNA extraction method (ISO-11063) was previously published. However, although this ISO method is suited for molecular tools such as quantitative PCR and community fingerprinting techniques, it has only been optimized for examining soil bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an appropriate soil DNA extraction procedure for examining bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity in soils of contrasting land-use and physico-chemical properties. Three different procedures were tested: the ISO-11063 standard; a custom procedure (GnS-GII); and a modified ISO procedure (ISOm) which includes a different mechanical lysis step (a FastPrep ®-24 lysis step instead of the recommended bead-beating). The efficacy of each method was first assessed by estimating microbial biomass through total DNA quantification. Then, the abundances and community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi were determined using real-time PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approaches. Results showed that DNA yield was improved with the GnS-GII and ISOm procedures, and fungal community patterns were found to be strongly dependent on the extraction method. The main methodological factor responsible for differences between extraction procedure efficiencies was found to be the soil homogenization step. For integrative studies which aim to examine bacteria, archaea and fungi simultaneously, the ISOm procedure results in higher DNA recovery and better represents microbial communities. PMID:22984486

  1. Evaluation of the ISO standard 11063 DNA extraction procedure for assessing soil microbial abundance and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plassart

    Full Text Available Soil DNA extraction has become a critical step in describing microbial biodiversity. Historically, ascertaining overarching microbial ecological theories has been hindered as independent studies have used numerous custom and commercial DNA extraction procedures. For that reason, a standardized soil DNA extraction method (ISO-11063 was previously published. However, although this ISO method is suited for molecular tools such as quantitative PCR and community fingerprinting techniques, it has only been optimized for examining soil bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an appropriate soil DNA extraction procedure for examining bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity in soils of contrasting land-use and physico-chemical properties. Three different procedures were tested: the ISO-11063 standard; a custom procedure (GnS-GII; and a modified ISO procedure (ISOm which includes a different mechanical lysis step (a FastPrep ®-24 lysis step instead of the recommended bead-beating. The efficacy of each method was first assessed by estimating microbial biomass through total DNA quantification. Then, the abundances and community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi were determined using real-time PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approaches. Results showed that DNA yield was improved with the GnS-GII and ISOm procedures, and fungal community patterns were found to be strongly dependent on the extraction method. The main methodological factor responsible for differences between extraction procedure efficiencies was found to be the soil homogenization step. For integrative studies which aim to examine bacteria, archaea and fungi simultaneously, the ISOm procedure results in higher DNA recovery and better represents microbial communities.

  2. ICD lead extraction: Not a benign procedure. External chest compression: Not a benign manoeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sertic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of a 45-year-old man who was electively admitted to our hospital for revision and extraction of his faulty implantable cardioverter–defibrillator lead and box. The procedure was complicated by cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentisis (unsuccessful and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The patient was then rushed to theatre for emergency sternotomy and institution of cardiopulmonary bypass. A tear in the superior vena cava was identified and repaired. Unfortunately, the patient suffered of a liver laceration, due to chest compression, which required emergency laparotomy. The aim of this report is to highlight the combination and management of two rare life-threatening complications that occurred in a single case.

  3. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  4. Can Any Surface Species On Meteoritic Nanodiamonds Survive The Extraction Procedure: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheev, A. P.; Serzhantov, A. E.; Merchel, S.; Ott, U.; Guillois, O.; Reynaud, C.

    Information on the surface chemistry of interstellar diamond nanograins found in me- teorites is important for at least two reasons: 1) Diamond surface species may be responsible for some of the IR features observed in emission spectra of some circum- stellar objects; 2) Some surface chemical features acquired during the long journey of the diamonds from the stellar source region to the laboratory may have survived and carry a signature of chemical processes in the interstellar medium. It is well known that the severe acidic treatment used to extract nanodiamonds from meteorites modi- fies some of their surface IR active chemical features. However, some relation between the surface chemistry of nanodiamonds before and after treatment (memory effect) could not be excluded. The existence of such a relation hardly can be established using meteoritic diamond grains because of their uncertain initial properties. To overcome this problem we used ultradispersed detonation diamonds (UDD) with different initial surface chemistry as analogs of meteoritic ones. Five different samples of UDD were treated by the same chemical procedure used to separate meteoritic diamonds. The surface species both before and after treatment were studied by complementary meth- ods of IR spectroscopy and thermodesorption mass spectrometry. Our results strongly indicate that, even though the chemical extraction procedure affects the surface chem- istry of UDD, some surface features can either survive partially (CHx-groups) or vary in a manner controlled by the initial state (CO-groups). If this is also true in the case of meteoritic nanodiamonds, our observations may open a way to reproduce to some extent the real surface chemistry of presolar diamonds from data on chemically sepa- rated meteoritic diamonds. The work was supported in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant #01-05-65416), DFG and the Department of Foreign Affairs of France.

  5. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Soil by Liquid-Solid Extraction Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of four pesticides (diazinon,acetochlor, aldrine and carbofuran belonging to different pesticide groups, extractedfrom soil samples, is described. The method presented is based on liquid-solid extraction(LSE and determination of pesticides, i.e. the pesticides were extracted by methanol-acetone mixture, purified on florisil column and eluted by ethyl acetate-acetone mixture.Optimization of the main parameters affecting the LSE procedure, such as the choiceof purification sorbent, as well as the elution solvent and its volume, were investigated indetails and optimized. Also, validation of the proposed method was done.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantificationof the pesticides studied. Relative standard deviation (RSD and recovery values formultiple analysis of soil samples fortified with 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 8%and higher than 89%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studiedwere less than 4 μg/kg.

  6. A single extraction and HPLC procedure for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-12-15

    A saponification/extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein (a carotenoid) in soybeans. Separation was achieved on a phenyl column with a ternary, isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile, methanol and water (48:22.5:29.5, v/v/v). Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was used to quantify β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and α-, δ- and γ-tocopherols, while lutein was quantified with visible light absorption at 450 nm. Peak identification was verified by retention times and spikes with external standards. Standard curves were constructed (R(2)>0.99) to allow for sample quantification. Recovery of the saponification and extraction was demonstrated via analysis of spiked samples. Also, the accuracy of results of four soybeans using the described saponification and HPLC analytical method was validated against existing methods. This method offers a more efficient alternative to individual methods for quantifying lutein, tocopherols and sterols in soybeans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA extraction from human saliva deposited on skin and its use in forensic identification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai-Kanto, Evelyn; Hirata, Mário Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira

    2005-01-01

    Saliva is usually deposited in bite marks found in many homicides, assault and other criminal cases. In the present study, saliva obtained from volunteers was deposited on skin and recovered for DNA extraction and typing in order to evaluate its usefulness for practical case investigation and discuss the contribution of forensic dentistry to saliva DNA typing. Twenty saliva samples were collected from different donors and used as suspects' samples. Five of these samples were randomly selected and deposited (250 microl) on arm skin. Saliva was collected from skin using the double swab technique. DNA from saliva and skin-deposited saliva samples was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. DNA samples were amplified by PCR for DNA typing using a set of 15 STRs. The recovery of DNA from saliva deposited in the skin was 14 to 10 times lower than DNA quantity from saliva samples. DNA typing was demonstrated in 4 of 5 deposited saliva samples, the likelihood ratios estimated for these samples based on data of the Brazilian population were 1:11, 1:500, 1:159.140 and 1:153.700.123. Our results indicate that standardized procedures used for DNA collection and extraction from skin-deposited saliva can be used as a method to recover salivary DNA in criminal cases. However, it is important to observe that DNA recovery in forensic samples can be difficult. This study suggests that the analysis of saliva deposited on skin be incorporated into a criminal investigation since it may have great discriminatory power.

  8. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-01-01

    Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...

  9. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  10. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  11. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  14. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  15. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  16. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  17. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Human poisoning with chemicals, including drugs, is emotive because of the real possibility that it often culminates in death. In acute poisoning, clinical symptoms such as vomiting, delirium, diarrhoea, convulsions, et cetera, are very dramatic, yet the onlookers with no medical background can only watch helplessly as the ...

  18. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  19. A simple procedure for the purification of active fractions in aqueous extracts of plants with allelopathic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Borghetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies conducted to test the allelopathic activity of plant parts have made use of water as solvent. However, the presence of polar, water-soluble substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates, tends to hamper the purification of active compounds. In this study, we present a simple purification procedure that separates the active fraction of the extract from the undesirable substances, thus facilitating the search for active molecules through standard chromatographic methods. Aqueous leaf extracts of three Cerrado species (Caryocar brasiliense, Qualea parviflora and Eugenia dysenterica were prepared at 5% concentration (w/v and stored at 4ºC (crude extracts. After 24 h, these solutions were filtered and freeze-dried. The powder obtained was dissolved in methanol, filtered again, evaporated and dissolved in water for bioassays (purified extracts. For the bioassays, seedlings of Sesamum indicum were grown for five days in aqueous solutions prepared from crude and purified extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% (w/v. Seedling growth in distilled water was set as a control. In comparison with the control, we found that test solutions prepared from both crude and purified extracts significantly inhibited sesame seedling growth. However, solutions prepared from purified extracts were two to ten times more inhibitory to seedling growth than were those prepared from crude extracts. The inhibition of root growth ranged from 35% to 77%, depending on the plant species, at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Roots were more affected than were shoots. The effects of purified extracts on seedling morphology were similar to those observed when crude extracts were employed, indicating that the procedure of purification of crude extracts did not interfere with the mode of action of the active substances

  20. Application of Hplc-Pda Method Using Two Different Extraction Procedures for the Determination of Alkylresorcinols in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gailāne Natālija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, especially barley, are an important source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and various phytochemicals, such as alkylresorcinols (ARs. Cereal ARs are a group of phenolic lipids located in the outer parts of grain, particularly in rye and wheat, but not found in refined flour or in refined products from cereals. This study focuses on the comparison of different extraction procedures applied for the determination of the content of ARs (C15:0 - C23:0 in grain of Latvian barley genotypes. The content of ARs in 1 rye and 16 barley samples grown with different amounts of fertilier was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method with Photodiode Array detection (HPLC-PDA developed by us. Two different extraction methods were compared: accelerated Soxhlet extraction and 24-hour extraction. Aside from validation of the extraction procedures, validation parameters for the HPLC-PDA based quantitation method were provided. The coefficients of variation for repeatability and intermediate precision were < 9% and < 3%, respectively. The content of ARs determined with the HPLC-PDA method in conjunction with accelerated Soxhlet extraction was up to 1.5 times higher than using 24-hour extraction. AR content varied from 2.11 ± 0.04 to 3.80 ± 0.10 mg·100 g-1 for 24-hour extraction and from 2.66 ± 0.06 to 5.70 ± 0.20 mg·100 g-1 for accelerated Soxhlet extraction, indicating the increased efficiency of this procedure in analysis of ARs.

  1. Determination of available phosphorus in soils by using a new extraction procedure and a flow injection amperometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakmunee, Jaroon; Junsomboon, Jaroon

    2009-09-15

    A new extraction procedure based on an off-line extraction column was proposed for extracting of available phosphorus from soils. The column was fabricated from a plastic syringe fitted at the bottom with a cotton wool and a piece of filter paper to support a soil sample. An aliquot (50 mL) of extracting solution (0.05 M HCl+0.0125 M H(2)SO(4)) was used to extract the sample under gravity flow and the eluate was collected in a polyethylene bottle. The extract was then analyzed for phosphorus contents by a simple flow injection amperometric system, employing a set of three-way solenoid valves as an injection valve. The method is based on the electrochemical reduction of 12-molybdophosphate which is produced on-line by the reaction of orthophosphate with acidic molybdate and the electrical current produced was directly proportional to the concentration of phosphate in range of 0.1-10.0 mg L(-1) PO(4)-P, with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L(-1). Relative standard for 11 replicate injections of 5 mg L(-1) PO(4)-P was 0.5%. A sample through put of 35 h(-1) was achieved, with consumption of 14 mg KCl, 10mg ammonium molybdate and 0.05 mL H(2)SO(4) per analysis. The detection system does not suffer from the interferences that are encountered in the photometric method such as colored substances, colloids, metal ions, silicate and refractive index effect (Schlieren effect). The results obtained by the column extraction procedure were well correlated with those obtained by the steady-state extraction procedure, but showed slightly higher extraction efficiency.

  2. Comparison of two extraction procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P; Morales, L; Vázquez, C; Lago, M; Bermejo, A M

    2008-11-01

    High performance liquid chromatography in combination with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used to determine morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, methadone and 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3,-diphenylpyrrolidine in human saliva. For comparison, samples were prepared by either liquid-liquid extraction in Toxitubes A or microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), by mixing 1 ml of saliva with 10 ml of chloroform and operating at 100 degrees C for 10 min. Acetonitrile and 0.02 m phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 were used as mobile phase in HPLC in gradient mode. The detector response was linear over the drug concentration range of 0.05-2.0 microg ml(-1) in human saliva. The analytical method was validated by determining its precision and accuracy (n = 5), which were lower than 5% as relative standard deviation and 6% as relative error. Limits of detection ranged from 10 to 35 ng ml(-1); mean recoveries of drugs were from 53 to 95% with Toxitubes A and from 83 to 100% with MAE at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 microg ml(-1)). The proposed method was applied to 24 saliva samples from individuals poisoned with opiates and/or cocaine.

  3. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND......The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  5. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  6. Speciation analysis of antimony in marine biota by HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS: Extraction procedures and stability of antimony species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Quiroz, Waldo; Pinochet, Hugo; Pannier, Florence; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2007-09-30

    Speciation analysis of antimony in marine biota is not well documented, and no specific extraction procedure of antimony species from algae and mollusk samples can be found in the literature. This work presents a suitable methodology for the speciation of antimony in marine biota (algae and mollusk samples). The extraction efficiency of total antimony and the stability of Sb(III), Sb(V) and trimethylantimony(V) in different extraction media (water at 25 and 90 degrees C, methanol, EDTA and citric acid) were evaluated by analyzing the algae Macrosystis integrifolia (0.55+/-0.04mugSbg(-1)) and the mollusk Mytilus edulis (0.23+/-0.01mugSbg(-1)). The speciation analysis was performed by anion exchange liquid chromatography (post-column photo-oxidation) and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry as detection system (HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS). Results demonstrated that, based on the extraction yield and the stability, EDTA proved to be the best extracting solution for the speciation analysis of antimony in these matrices. The selected procedure was applied to antimony speciation in different algae samples collected from the Chilean coast. Only the inorganic Sb(V) and Sb(III) species were detected in the extracts. In all analyzed algae the sum of total antimony extracted (determined in the extracts after digestion) and the antimony present in the residue was in good agreement with the total antimony concentration determined by HG-AFS. However, in some extracts the sum of antimony species detected was lower than the total extracted, revealing the presence of unknown antimony species, possibly retained on the column or not detected by HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS. Further work must be carried out to elucidate the identity of these unknown species of antimony.

  7. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  8. Development of an automated sequential injection on-line solvent extraction-back extraction procedure as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithioc......An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium...

  9. Procedure of evaluation on adsorbent for extraction of uranium from sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Noboru

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures on the evaluation of adsorbent for the extraction of uranium from seawater and an analytical method of the data were studied on a granulated hydrous titanium oxide as a representative example. Adsorption system for the evaluation adopted a multi-layer and fluidized adsorption bed. The experiment for the evaluation was carried out by using a small column, 2 cm of diameter, for 10 days. The standard condition was 0.6 mm of granule size, 25 0 C of temperature and 10 cm of statistic bed thickness. One of the flow rates was set up at S sub(V) = 2.5 min -1 and another one was set up at two times or a half of the flow rate. The measurements were carried out on the bed thickness of statistic and fluidizing state, granule size, flow rate, temperature, adsorption quantities after 5 and 10 days. An empirical formula on adsorption quantity was derived as follows from these data: C = K 1 t sup(m 1 )K 2 S sub(V)sup(m 2 ). The difference of density between granule and sea-water was decided from grule size, flow rate and expansion ratio by Max Leva's equation. The adsorption ability was expressed by adsorption quantity per unit volume for 10 days at 50% of recovery (standard uranium uptake) or recovery ratio at S sub(V) = 2.5 min -1 (standard recovery). The former could be better because it was applicable to various adsorbents. These results decided the specification of adsorption process, namely the adsorbent inventory and parameters of the design, by application of analytical method to the previous paper. The economical evaluation indicator was mainly composed of the adsorbent inventory, the construction of adsorption bed and the adsorbent supply. An example of the evaluation was shown on a granulated hydrous titanium oxide. (J.P.N.)

  10. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Comparison of extraction procedures for proteome analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and a basic reference map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Vesela; Gharbia, Saheer E; Wait, Robin; Begum, Shajna; Shah, Haroun N

    2006-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen causing life-threatening invasive diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis and bacteraemia. Despite major advances in our understanding of pneumococcal mechanisms of pathogenicity obtained through genomic studies very little has been achieved on the characterisation of the proteome of this pathogen. The highly complex structure of its cell envelope particularly amongst the various capsular forms enables the cell to resist lysis by conventional mechanical methods. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a cellular lysis and protein solubilisation procedure that minimises protein losses and allows for maximum possible coverage of the proteome of S. pneumoniae. Here we have utilised various combinations of mechanical or enzymatic cell lysis with two protein solubilisation mixtures urea/CHAPS-based mixture or SDS/DTT-based mixture in order to achieve best quality protein profiles using two proteomic technologies surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation (SELDI) TOF MS and 2-DE. While urea/CHAPS-based mixture combined with freeze/thawing provided enough material for good-quality SELDI TOF MS fingerprints, a combination of mechanical, enzymatic and chemical lysis was needed to be used to successfully extract the desired protein content for 2-DE analysis. The methods chosen were also assessed for reproducibility and tested on various capsular types of S. pneumoniae. As a result, good-quality and reproducible profiles were created using various ProteinChip arrays and more than 800 protein spots were separated on a single 2-D gel of S. pneumoniae. Twenty-five of the most abundant protein spots were identified using LC/MS/MS to create a reference map of S. pneumoniae. The proteins identified included glycolytic enzymes such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, enolase etc. Several fermentation enzymes were also present including two of the components of the arginine deiminase system

  12. Development of a Nucleic Acid Extraction Procedure for Simultaneous Recovery of DNA and RNA from Diverse Microbes in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Hill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking and environmental water samples contain a diverse array of constituents that can interfere with molecular testing techniques, especially when large volumes of water are concentrated to the small volumes needed for effective molecular analysis. In this study, a suite of enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites were seeded into concentrated source water and finished drinking water samples, in order to investigate the relative performance of nucleic acid extraction techniques for molecular testing. Real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR crossing threshold (CT values were used as the metrics for evaluating relative performance. Experimental results were used to develop a guanidinium isothiocyanate-based lysis buffer (UNEX buffer that enabled effective simultaneous extraction and recovery of DNA and RNA from the suite of study microbes. Procedures for bead beating, nucleic acid purification, and PCR facilitation were also developed and integrated in the protocol. The final lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure was found to be effective for a panel of drinking water and source water concentrates when compared to commercial nucleic acid extraction kits. The UNEX buffer-based extraction protocol enabled PCR detection of six study microbes, in 100 L finished water samples from four drinking water treatment facilities, within three CT values (i.e., within 90% difference of the reagent-grade water control. The results from this study indicate that this newly formulated lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure can be useful for standardized molecular testing of drinking and environmental waters.

  13. Flap versus flapless procedure for ridge preservation in alveolar extraction sockets: a histological evaluation in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Antonio; Borgia, Valentina; Covani, Ugo; Ricci, Massimiliano; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the histological and histomorphometric features of two different procedures carried out in extraction socket grafting; namely, the flapped and flapless technique. Patients considered eligible for the study were randomized to receive tooth extraction and ridge preservation with the porcine bone and collagen membrane, with a full thickness mucoperiosteal flap and primary soft tissue closure (control group), or, with a flapless procedure and a secondary soft tissue closure (test group). After 3 months of healing, the surgical re-entry procedure was performed and implants were inserted in the test as well as in the control sites. Bone core samples were harvested from both groups and processed to be observed under light microscopy. Outcome variables were percentages of newly formed bone, residual graft particles and marrow spaces. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study. All of the scheduled implants were placed. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses did not report significant differences between the two groups (with P-values ranging from 0.690 to 0.917). The mean percentages of newly formed bone, soft tissues and residual grafted particles were 22.5 and 22.5%, 59.3 and 59.4%, and 18.6 and 18.2% respectively for flap and flapless approach. No histological and histomorphometrical differences were observed when comparing the flap and the flapless technique for tooth extraction and socket grafting procedures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  15. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of extraction procedures on structural, thermal and antioxidant properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca collected in Monastir coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaich, Hela; Amira, Amal Ben; Abbes, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Besbes, Souhail; Richel, Aurore; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Garna, Haikel

    2017-12-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the effect of an acid extraction as well as a combined enzymatic-chemical extraction on structural, thermal and antioxidant properties of the sulphated polysaccharide 'ulvan' from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. Structural characterization by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies showed the typical peaks of ulvan, namely, uronic acids, rhamnose and sulphate. FTIR analysis revealed that the extraction procedures were able to maintain ulvan structure. Despite differences in the extraction procedures, 13 C NMR spectra were globally similar, proving a comparable chemical structure of ulvans. A major difference has been observed in signal intensity which reflected the resonance of glucose or xylose. Thermal characterization proved that ulvans were thermally stable until approximately 180°C. Antioxidant properties of ulvans were evaluated in vitro through different antioxidant assays. Ulvan, which is extracted at pH 1.5 and 90°C, exhibited the greatest scavenging activity (IC 50 =13.56μg/ml) towards DPPH radical. Result indicated that Mw has influenced inhibitory effect on DPPH radical of ulvan. The current study revealed also a high correlation between sulphate contents of ulvans and their reducing power (R 2 =-0.89) and their metal scavenging activity (R 2 =0.97). Overall, ulvans have peculiar structural, thermal and antioxidant properties which promote their use in food or pharmaceutical products as natural ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  18. A sequential extraction procedure to determine Ra and U isotopes by alpha-particle spectrometry in selective leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, J.L.; Bolivar, J.P.; San-Miguel, E.G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    A radiochemical sequential extraction procedure has been developed in our laboratory to determine 226 Ra and 234,238 U by alpha spectrometry in environmental samples. This method has been validated for both radionuclides by comparing in selected samples the values obtained through its application with the results obtained by applying alternative procedures. Recoveries obtained, counting periods applied and background levels found in the alpha spectra give suitable detection limits to allow the Ra and U determination in operational forms defined in riverbed contaminated sediments. Results obtained in these speciation studies show that 226 Ra and 234,238 U contamination tend to be associated to precipitated forms of the sediments. (author)

  19. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g -1 dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g -1 dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  20. Flavonoids extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S., E-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (NPPN). Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2010-07-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). Relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using 70% ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phytochemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  1. Regenerative Needs Following Alveolar Ridge Preservation Procedures in Compromised and Noncompromised Extraction Sockets: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Lipton, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity for additional regenerative procedures following healing of compromised and noncompromised extraction sockets with alveolar ridge preservation procedures through the use of virtual implant imaging software. The cohort was comprised of 87 consecutive patients subjected to a single maxillary tooth extraction with an alveolar ridge preservation procedure for subsequent implant placement. Patients were divided into two main groups based on the integrity of the buccal bone plate following teeth extraction. Patients in the compromised socket (CS) group (n = 52) had partial or complete buccal bone plate loss, and patients in the noncompromised socket (NCS) group (n = 35) exhibited no bone loss of their socket walls following tooth extraction. Following 4 to 6 months of healing, all patients had a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study. Root-formed implants were placed virtually in an ideal prosthetic position. The number of implants per group and location (anterior, premolar, molar) exhibiting exposed buccal implant surface was calculated. In the CS group, 5 out of 19 anterior implants (26.3%), 4 out of 14 premolar implants (28.5%), and 7 out of 19 molar implants (36.8%) had exposed buccal surfaces. In the NCS group, 4 out of 9 anterior implants (44.4%), 2 out of 9 premolar implants (22.2%), and 4 out of 17 molar implants (23.5%) had exposed buccal surfaces. There were no statistically significant differences for intragroup and intergroup comparisons (χ² test, P > .05). This study failed to find statistically significant differences in the frequency of implants with exposed buccal surfaces placed virtually, following treatment of compromised and noncompromised sockets. A high proportion (22% to 44%) of sites had implants that potentially needed additional regenerative procedures.

  2. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  3. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  6. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...

  7. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  8. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  9. Procedure optimization for extracting short-chain fatty acids from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska Iwanek, Justyna; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Woźniakiewicz, Aneta; Zwolińska Wcisło, Małgorzata; Winnicka, Diana; Paśko, Paweł

    2016-05-30

    Short-chain fatty acids play an important role in the physiology and metabolism of the colon. Disturbed balance of such compounds in human gut can significantly contribute to etiological factors of various gastrointestinal disorders and it may also increase the risk of developing cancer or cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to select the optimal parameters for acetic, propionic and butyric acids extraction from stool samples. The experimental conditions were optimized with respect to the solvent sample shacking time, sample ultrasounds (Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, UAE) exposure time and the number of extractions from the particulate stool samples. The screening of experimental parameters was conducted with fractional factorial design of experiments, namely 3(3-1). The optimal conditions for UAE were found, namely ultrasound digestion time of 40 min (at 35°C), shaking time of 4 min, and the three subsequent extractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soluble or insoluble prussian blue for radiocesium and thallium poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin D

    2004-09-01

    To review the available English-language literature concerning the efficacy of soluble and insoluble Prussian blue used as a therapeutic agent in radiocesium and thallium poisoning. A thorough search of MEDLINE, Toxline, and EMBASE databases (1960s-August 2003) was performed. Search terms included Prussian blue, thallium, and radiocesium poisoning. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. study selection AND DATA EXTRACTION: Reports and studies of human trials and cases, along with animal and relevant in vitro data, were sought. Data were categorized as insoluble and soluble Prussian blue and by thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The majority of evidence describing the efficacy of Prussian blue for radiocesium poisoning is based on the use of the insoluble form. In contrast, the majority of data supporting the efficacy of Prussian blue in thallium poisoning involves the use of the soluble form. Insoluble Prussian blue has recently been approved in the US for treatment of both thallium and radiocesium poisoning. While there is sufficient evidence that the insoluble form of Prussian blue is effective in radiocesium poisoning, there is a paucity of analogous data supporting its use in thallium poisoning. Whether the physicochemical differences between soluble and insoluble Prussian blue have any effect on outcomes in human poisoning is not known.

  11. An efficient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huifang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to evaluate protein expression mainly in frozen preparations or FFPE-based studies of limited scope. Reproducibility and reliability of the technique in FFPE samples has not yet been demonstrated extensively. We developed and optimized an efficient and reproducible procedure for extraction of proteins from FFPE cells and xenografts, and then applied the method to FFPE patient tissues and evaluated its performance on RPPA. Results Fresh frozen and FFPE preparations from cell lines, xenografts and breast cancer and renal tissues were included in the study. Serial FFPE cell or xenograft sections were deparaffinized and extracted by six different protein extraction protocols. The yield and level of protein degradation were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western Blots. The most efficient protocol was used to prepare protein lysates from breast cancer and renal tissues, which were subsequently subjected to RPPA. Reproducibility was evaluated and Spearman correlation was calculated between matching fresh frozen and FFPE samples. The most effective approach from six protein extraction protocols tested enabled efficient extraction of immunoreactive protein from cell line, breast cancer and renal tissue sample sets. 85% of the total of 169 markers tested on RPPA demonstrated significant correlation between FFPE and frozen preparations (p Conclusions With optimized protein extraction methods, FFPE tissues can be a valuable source in generating reproducible and biologically relevant proteomic profiles using RPPA, with specific marker performance varying according to tissue type.

  12. An efficient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for reverse phase protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huifang; Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Tamboli, Pheroze; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Lu, Yiling; Hennessy, Bryan T; Tsavachidou, Dimitra

    2012-09-24

    Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to evaluate protein expression mainly in frozen preparations or FFPE-based studies of limited scope. Reproducibility and reliability of the technique in FFPE samples has not yet been demonstrated extensively. We developed and optimized an efficient and reproducible procedure for extraction of proteins from FFPE cells and xenografts, and then applied the method to FFPE patient tissues and evaluated its performance on RPPA. Fresh frozen and FFPE preparations from cell lines, xenografts and breast cancer and renal tissues were included in the study. Serial FFPE cell or xenograft sections were deparaffinized and extracted by six different protein extraction protocols. The yield and level of protein degradation were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western Blots. The most efficient protocol was used to prepare protein lysates from breast cancer and renal tissues, which were subsequently subjected to RPPA. Reproducibility was evaluated and Spearman correlation was calculated between matching fresh frozen and FFPE samples.The most effective approach from six protein extraction protocols tested enabled efficient extraction of immunoreactive protein from cell line, breast cancer and renal tissue sample sets. 85% of the total of 169 markers tested on RPPA demonstrated significant correlation between FFPE and frozen preparations (p extraction methods, FFPE tissues can be a valuable source in generating reproducible and biologically relevant proteomic profiles using RPPA, with specific marker performance varying according to tissue type.

  13. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A CTAB Procedure Of Total Genomic DNA Extraction For Medicinal Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Muhammad Hussaini Mohd Mustafa; Muhammad Hanif Azhari Noor; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hasan Hamdani Hasan Mutaat; Meswan Meskom; Mat Rasol Awang

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom is defined as mushrooms used in medicine or medical research. Isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. The most important and prerequisite towards reliable molecular biology work is the total genomic DNA of a sample must be in good quality. Five freshly samples of medicinal mushroom were used in this work known as Auriculariapolytricha, Lentinus edode, Pleurotus sayorcaju, Sczhizopyllum commune and Ganodermalucidum. 5 mg of each sample were used to extraction the DNA, prepared in 3 replications and repeated twice. PCR based technique by using ISSR markers were used in checking the amplification ability of the total genomic extraction. A standard Doyle and Doyle protocol for genomic DNA extraction was modified in optimizing the total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom.The modification parameters were percentage of CTAB, incubation period and temperature. The results reveal that each sample required a certain combinations of time and period of incubation. Besides, percentage of CTAB in the buffer was found significant in giving a high yielding of extracted total genomic DNA. The extracted total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom yielded from 39.7 ng/ μl to 919.1 ng/ μl. The different yield among the samples found to be corresponded to polysaccharide content in the medicinal mushrooms. The objective of this works is to optimize total genomic DNA extraction of medicinal mushrooms towards a high quality intact genomic DNA for molecular activities. (author)

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...... search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement....... The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D...

  16. Optimization of a wet microalgal lipid extraction procedure for improved lipid recovery for biofuel and bioproduct production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Ashik; Marlar, Tyler; Sims, Ronald C

    2015-10-01

    Methods to convert microalgal biomass to bio based fuels and chemicals are limited by several processing and economic hurdles. Research conducted in this study modified/optimized a previously published procedure capable of extracting transesterifiable lipids from wet algal biomass. This optimization resulted in the extraction of 77% of the total transesterifiable lipids, while reducing the amount of materials and temperature required in the procedure. In addition, characterization of side streams generated demonstrated that: (1) the C/N ratio of the residual biomass or lipid extracted (LE) biomass increased to 54.6 versus 10.1 for the original biomass, (2) the aqueous phase generated contains nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon, and (3) the solid precipitate phase was composed of up to 11.2 wt% nitrogen (70% protein). The ability to isolate algal lipids and the possibility of utilizing generated side streams as products and/or feedstock material for downstream processes helps promote the algal biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a procedure for the sequential extraction of substances binding trace elements in plant biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vašíčková, Soňa; Száková, J.; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 381, - (2005), s. 863-872 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : organic compounds binding trace elements * spinach plant * sequential extraction Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  18. Assessment of the BCR sequential extraction procedure for thallium fractionation using synthetic mineral mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, A.; Grygar, Tomáš; Chrastný, V.; Tejnecký, V.; Drahota, Petr; Komárek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, 1-3 (2010), s. 913-918 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Metal * Sequential extraction * Goethite * Ferrihydrite * Birnessite * Illite Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  19. Growth rate of bacteria is affected by soil texture and extraction procedure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Eva; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2003), s. 217-224 ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil texture * extraction of bacteria * biosynthetic activity of bacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.915, year: 2003

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL DRUG SCREENING BY GC-MS VERSUS HPLC-DAD USING A COMMON EFFICIENT EXTRACTION PROCEDURE SCREENING TOXICOLOGIQUE DES MEDICAMENTS PAR HPLC-DAD ET GC-MS: PROTOCOLE D’EXTRACTION UNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELOUA ELMRABEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a common extraction method for toxicological drug screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed using plasma of 104 samples at the Laboratory of Moroccan Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Center during a period of 12 months. The results obtained by HPLC-DAD are compared with those determined with GC-MS. 76 cases (73.08 % were found positive for at least by one of these two techniques. HPLC-DAD identified 59.87 % of all positive results, and 10 molecules were identified only by HPLC-DAD. GC/MS identified 40.13 % of all positives, and 4 molecules were identified only by GC/MS. In order to evaluate the performance of this extraction method, an extraction yield was calculated for three classes of drugs. All the analyzed molecules were obtained in satisfactory yields (higher than 50 % except for carbamazepine, amitriptyline and nortriptyline. Overall, the results indicate that the extraction method is well adapted for toxicological drug screening. The use of common extraction simultaneously for the two techniques can reduce workload and costs of screening, while increasing the validity and reliability of the results.

  1. Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonised sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Christine M.; Urquhart, Graham J.; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Biasioli, Mattia; Costa Duarte, Armando da; Diaz-Barrientos, Encarnacion; Grcman, Helena; Hossack, Iain; Hursthouse, Andrew S.; Madrid, Luis; Rodrigues, Sonia; Zupan, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The revised (four-step) BCR sequential extraction procedure has been applied to fractionate the chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc contents in urban soil samples from public-access areas in five European cities. A preliminary inter-laboratory comparison was conducted and showed that data obtained by different laboratories participating in the study were sufficiently harmonious for comparisons to be made between cities and land types (e.g. parks, roadside, riverbanks, etc.). Analyte recoveries by sequential extraction, with respect to direct aqua regia digestion, were generally acceptable (100 ± 15%). Iron, nickel and, at most sites, chromium were found mainly in association with the residual phase of the soil matrix. Copper was present in the reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions, whilst zinc was found in all four sequential extracts. Manganese was strongly associated with reducible material as, in some cities, was lead. This is of concern because high lead concentrations were present in some soils (>500 mg kg -1 ) and the potential exists for remobilisation under reducing conditions. As would be expected, extractable metal contents were generally highest in older, more heavily industrialised cities. Copper, lead and zinc showed marked (and often correlated) variations in concentrations between sites within the same city whereas manganese and, especially, iron, did not. No overall relationships were, however, found between analyte concentrations and land use, nor between analyte partitioning and land use

  2. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  3. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  4. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  5. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will be followed soon after by strange sensations that may include numbness or tingling in your mouth, headache, dizziness, and hot and cold temperature reversal. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: This is a ...

  6. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  7. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. The Poisons Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  9. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  10. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  11. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  12. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from the shoreline or hunting Cable ... wash any other contaminated items — such as outdoor gear, garden tools, jewelry, shoes and even shoelaces — as ...

  13. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  14. Accurate optical parameter extraction procedure for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy of brain matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ebraheem; Najafizadeh, Laleh; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Daryoush, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling behavior of broadband (30 to 1000 MHz) frequency modulated near-infrared (NIR) photons through a phantom is the basis for accurate extraction of optical absorption and scattering parameters of biological turbid media. Photon dynamics in a phantom are predicted using both analytical and numerical simulation and are related to the measured insertion loss (IL) and insertion phase (IP) for a given geometry based on phantom optical parameters. Accuracy of the extracted optical parameters using finite element method (FEM) simulation is compared to baseline analytical calculations from the diffusion equation (DE) for homogenous brain phantoms. NIR spectroscopy is performed using custom-designed, broadband, free-space optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules that are developed for photon migration at wavelengths of 680, 780, and 820 nm. Differential detection between two optical Rx locations separated by 0.3 cm is employed to eliminate systemic artifacts associated with interfaces of the optical Tx and Rx with the phantoms. Optical parameter extraction is achieved for four solid phantom samples using the least-square-error method in MATLAB (for DE) and COMSOL (for FEM) simulation by fitting data to measured results over broadband and narrowband frequency modulation. Confidence in numerical modeling of the photonic behavior using FEM has been established here by comparing the transmission mode's experimental results with the predictions made by DE and FEM for known commercial solid brain phantoms.

  15. Evaluation of dissipation gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rice rhizosphere utilizing a sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bin; Wang Jiaojiao; Xu Minmin; He Yan; Wang Haizhen; Wu Laosheng; Xu Jianming

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial dissipation gradient of PAHs, including phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with various bioavailability represented with sequential extraction. Dissipation rates of PAHs in the rhizosphere were greater than those in the bulk soil. The n-butanol extracted fraction showed a general trend of dissipation during phytoremediation. Moreover, the formation of bound PAH residues was inhibited in the rhizosphere. While concerning the PAH toxicity, the reduction rates of PAH toxicity were significantly greater than total soil PAH concentrations. Microbial biomass was the highest at four mm away from the root surface. However, the PAH dissipation rates were the highest at one mm and two mm away from the root surface in high and low PAH treatments, respectively. These results suggest that rhizoremediation with rice is a useful approach to reduce the toxicity of PAHs in soil. - Highlights: ► Dissipation gradients were different in soils spiked with different PAHs concentrations. ► Butanol extracted fraction indicated the remediation in rhizosphere. ► Toxicity of PAHs was more efficiently reduced than total concentration. ► Promotion of PAHs degraders was not synchronized with microbial biomass. - Stimulation of PAH degradation in rice rhizosphere was not simultaneous with microbial biomass.

  16. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  17. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  18. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  19. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  20. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parra, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...

  1. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  2. Burnable poison irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The topical report describes the irradiation program developed to investigate different burnable poison rod material and designs. The purpose of the report is to present (1) technical support for the irradiation of several test burnable poison rod designs that have not been previously reviewed, and (2) describe the parameters that will be employed in the surveillance program for Combustion Engineering's (CE) standard burnable poison rod for 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. The test burnable poison rods will be placed in a CE reactor using 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, the first such reactor is Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2. The irradiation program has four phases. Phase I involves the irradiation of 48 standard burnable poison rods which (1) will be extensively precharacterized prior to irradiation and (2) will undergo interim performance evaluation and detailed post-irradiation examination. Phase II, III, and IV involve irradiation and performance evaluation of a small number of burnable poison rods of different proprietary designs. The report discusses the materials to be used in each phase, the methods of fabricating the rods, and the rods expected behavior in a reactor

  3. DNA Extraction Procedures Meaningfully Influence qPCR-Based mtDNA Copy Number Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wen; Jiang, Lan; Bhasin, Shalender; Khan, Shaharyar M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to determine cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. This technique involves obtaining the ratio of an unknown variable (number of copies of an mtDNA gene) to a known parameter (number of copies of a nuclear DNA gene) within a genomic DNA sample. We considered the possibility that mtDNA: nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio determinations could vary depending on the method of genomic DNA extraction used, and that these differences could substantively...

  4. Application of solid phase extraction procedures for rare earth elements determination in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzynska, Krystyna; Kubiak, Anna; Wysocka, Irena

    2016-07-01

    Determination of rare earth elements in environmental samples requires often pre-concentration and separation step due to a low metal content and high concentration of the interfering matrix components. A solid phase extraction technique with different kind of solid sorbents offers a high enrichment factor, rapid phase separation and the possibility of its combination with various detection techniques used either in on-line or off-line mode. The recent developments in this area published over the last five years are presented and discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of natural language processing to extract breast cancer pathology procedures and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika E Wieneke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology reports typically require manual review to abstract research data. We developed a natural language processing (NLP system to automatically interpret free-text breast pathology reports with limited assistance from manual abstraction. Methods: We used an iterative approach of machine learning algorithms and constructed groups of related findings to identify breast-related procedures and results from free-text pathology reports. We evaluated the NLP system using an all-or-nothing approach to determine which reports could be processed entirely using NLP and which reports needed manual review beyond NLP. We divided 3234 reports for development (2910, 90%, and evaluation (324, 10% purposes using manually reviewed pathology data as our gold standard. Results: NLP correctly coded 12.7% of the evaluation set, flagged 49.1% of reports for manual review, incorrectly coded 30.8%, and correctly omitted 7.4% from the evaluation set due to irrelevancy (i.e. not breast-related. Common procedures and results were identified correctly (e.g. invasive ductal with 95.5% precision and 94.0% sensitivity, but entire reports were flagged for manual review because of rare findings and substantial variation in pathology report text. Conclusions: The NLP system we developed did not perform sufficiently for abstracting entire breast pathology reports. The all-or-nothing approach resulted in too broad of a scope of work and limited our flexibility to identify breast pathology procedures and results. Our NLP system was also limited by the lack of the gold standard data on rare findings and wide variation in pathology text. Focusing on individual, common elements and improving pathology text report standardization may improve performance.

  6. Scales used to rate adult patients' psycho-emotional status in tooth extraction procedures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astramskaitė, I; Juodžbalys, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review scales used to assess anxiety, stress, and pain in dental patients undergoing a tooth extraction procedure and to propose a novel psycho-emotional rating scale based on the relevant literature and our own experience. An electronic literature search was conducted of the National Library of Medicine database MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE databases between January 2005 and April 2016. Sequential screening at the title/abstract and full-text levels was performed. The review included all human prospective or retrospective follow-up studies and clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series that demonstrated at least one scale used to measure tooth extraction anxiety, stress, or pain. The search resulted in 32 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. None of the studies were found to be suitable in evaluating patient's stress, pain, and fear at once. Also, no scales were found that included both the doctor's and the patient's rating. In a few studies, vital signs as psycho-emotional status indicators were rated. Guidelines for a suitable questionnaire that could be used for rating the psycho-emotional status of patients undergoing tooth extraction are listed in the present research. Further studies are required for verification and validation of offered scale. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A nationwide evidence-based study of factors associated with hospitalisations due to unintentional poisoning and poisoning mortality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional poisoning cases and the factors associated with inpatient mortality. Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance database from 2005 to 2007. Patients with diagnosis classifications of ICD-9-CM E850-E869 (unintentional poisoning) were selected. SPSS 18.0 software was used for the analysis. In Taiwan between 2005 and 2007, a total of 11,523 patients were hospitalised due to unintentional poisoning, with a hospitalisation rate of 16.83 per 100,000, of which 60.1% and 39.9% were attributable to drug poisoning and solid, liquid and gas substance poisoning, respectively. The hospitalisation rate in men was higher than that of women. The age group of 45-64 had the highest hospitalisation rate of 52.85 per 100,000. The inpatient mortality rate increased with the presence of the following factors: age of 65 or older, surgery or procedure, a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), short length of hospital stays, acute respiratory failure, alcohol poisoning, pesticide poisoning and a higher-level hospital visited. Methanol, herbicides and organophosphorus pesticide intoxications are associated with higher mortality rates. Therefore, when caring for patients poisoned by the above agents, healthcare professionals should look out for their clinical development to ensure quality of care and to reduce mortality.

  8. A comparison of the compositional differences between humic fractions isolated by the IHSS and exhaustive extraction procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. R.; Mylotte, R.; Hayes, M. H. B.; Mclnerney, R.; Tzou, Y. M.

    2014-03-01

    highly ordered hydrocarbon structures that would be expected to have closer associations with the mineral colloids. Although the SEE procedure isolated all of the HAs and FAs from the Yangmingshan soil, extractability of the Hu from the volcanic soil in the DMSO/acid solvent was low (21 %), and contrasted with the much higher yields from temperate and tropical regions. The decreased Hu extraction may arise from its associations with the extensive iron and aluminium hydroxide mineral colloids in the soil. The Hu from this sub-tropical soil was different from the Hus isolated from other soil types, indicating the need to isolate and characterise these recalcitrant organic material in order to understand the organic carbon components in soils in greater detail. Such results would indicate that more attention should be given to mineral colloids in soils, and to the organo/mineral associations that will have an important role in the stabilities of OM in the soil environment.

  9. Application of a selective phase extraction procedure to samples from the Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.; Lumpkin, G.R.; McGlinn, P.J.; Hart, K.P.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrothermal veins, rich in Ti, Zr, rare earth elements (REEs), and actinides, occur in the pure dolomitic marbles of the Adamello contact metamorphic aureole. A selective phase extraction using 9M HCl was applied to samples from within and near these veins to chemically separate acid-soluble phases from residual phases, and to study the associations of U, Th, and REEs with these phases. The samples were from the phlogopite, titanian clinohumite, and forsterite vein zones, and from the country rock. The effects of the extraction were studied by SEM/EDS and by chemical analysis. Isotopes of U and Th were analyzed by alpha-spectrometry. The chemical data and SEM/EDS results indicated that dolomite, calcite, apatite, and much of the pyrrhotite were dissolved by the 9M HCl, whereas spinel, phlogopite, titanite, chalcopyrite, and zirconolite were among the acid-resistant phases. In all vein samples, the REE-patterns of acid-soluble phases were consistent with the dissolution of REE-rich apatite. In samples from the phlogopite zone, the majority of U, Th, and REEs were in residual phases, and the REE pattern of the residue was similar to that of REE-rich titanite. In the titanian clinohumite zone, a substantial proportion of these elements were in acid-soluble phases, and the REE pattern of the residual phases resembled that of zirconolite. Clinohumite was partially dissolved by the HCl treatment. The sample from the forsterite zone contained substantial amounts of REEs in acid-soluble phases, whereas Th and U were mostly in residual phases. The dolomite (country rock) samples contained small amounts of an acid-resistant, uranium-rich phase which, while only comprising about 0.2% of the mass, accounted for 40--60% of the uranium present

  10. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of flufenoxuron in blood using automatic solid phase extraction and its application to a fatal case of flufenoxuron poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jongsook; Cho, Byungsuk; Lee, Juseon; Moon, Sungmin; Yum, Hyesun

    2015-12-01

    A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method with solid phase extraction for the detection and the quantitation of flufenoxuron in an aliquot of blood was developed and validated. Flufenoxuron belongs to a benzoylurea insecticide and is the active ingredient of Cascade™. The analyte in postmortem specimens was extracted by solid-phase extraction with Bond Elut Certify cartridge. After the elution layer was evaporated, the residue was reconstituted with 70% methanol for LC/MS/MS analysis. Separations were carried out on a Synergi(®) 2.5u Fusion-RP 100 A column with column temperature kept at 40 °C at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mobile phase was composed of 5mM ammonium formate in 10% methanol and 5 mM ammonium formate in 90% methanol using gradient elution. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in a positive ion mode with selective reaction monitoring mode. Atrazine-d5 was used as internal standard. The assay was linear over 0.02-1.0 mg/L (r(2)=0.999). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) in blood were 0.009 mg/L (S/N=3) and 0.02 mg/L (S/N=10), respectively. The accuracy and the precision were toxicology laboratory guidelines. Relative recoveries with 0.02, 0.1 and 1.0mg/L (in blood) were 112.3%, 101.2% and 111.0% (n=5), respectively. The developed method was applied in forensic toxicology to determine flufenoxuron in postmortem specimens in a fatal case of flufenoxuron intoxication in a 48-year-old-man who was found dead on bed in a small room after vomiting on the floor. The postmortem heart blood, peripheral blood and gastric contents were analyzed for flufenoxuron with the result of 6.3 mg/L in heart blood, 3.2 mg/L in peripheral blood and 30.6 mg/kg in gastric contents, respectively. The concentration ratio of the heart/peripheral blood of flufenoxuron was 2.0, and the ratio of gastric contents/peripheral blood was 9.4, suggesting possible postmortem redistribution and

  11. Methadone Related Poisoning on the Rise in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Soltaninejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iran, methadone has been used for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT as well as analgesic treatment in pain clinics. Recently, there are some reports regarding accidental and intentional methadone poisonings and deaths. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of methadone poisonings and deaths during a 10-year period in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study over 2000 to 2010. Patients with a documented methadone poisoning who were admitted in Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center in Tehran, Iran were identified and included in the study. The data including patients’ age, gender, ingested dose, co-ingestants, intention of ingestion and outcome were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: During the study period, 1426 cases of methadone poisoning were recorded, of which, 1041 cases (73% were men. Thirty-six cases (2.5% died. Mean age of the patients was 29.9 ± 17 years. In 476 cases, the intention of poisoning could not be determined, and in the remaining, the intention was misuse (n = 273, 28.7%, suicide (n = 254, 26.7%, accidental (n = 245, 25.8% and abuse (n = 178, 18.8%. Mean of the ingested dose of methadone was 120.6 ± 306.8 mg. The incidence of acute methadone poisoning per one million population of Tehran was 0.43 in 2000 that rose to 37.62 in 2010. Conclusion: The results indicate that methadone poisoning and deaths have increased in Tehran. MMT clinics should be strictly run according to the national guideline to prevent methadone poisoning. With regard to high frequency of poly-drug use in methadone poisoning, it seems important to warn health care providers against prescription of other drugs with methadone. 

  12. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in a home and poison the people and animals inside. Every year, at least 430 people die ... build up in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces. People and animals in these spaces can be poisoned and can ...

  14. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  15. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  17. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, J C; Essaïd el Feydi, A; Kadiri, A

    Different diseases as viral or bacterian gastro-enteritis, Tiphoid, viral hepatitis can come from shellfishes. Less known is the shellfish poisoning although recent outbreaks took place in Spain, France, England, Morocco. Toxic poisoning is caused by a poison produced by dinoflagelates of plankton which get developped in shells and make them dangerous, even cooked, to be eaten. A respiratory failure can result from this neurotropic poison.

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...

  19. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  20. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  1. The extraction of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues from a clay soil using sonication and a Soxhlet procedure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, T F

    1999-02-01

    A sonication method was compared with Soxhlet extraction for recovering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a clay soil that had been contaminated with tar materials for several decades. Using sonication over an 8 h extraction period, maximum extraction of the 16 US EPA priority PAH was obtained with dichloromethane (DCM)-acetone (1 + 1). The same procedure using hexane-acetone (1 + 1) recovered 86% of that obtained using DCM-acetone (1 + 1). PAH recovery was dependent on time of extraction up to a period of 8 h. The sonication procedure showed that individual PAH are extracted at differing rates depending on the number of fused rings in the molecule. Soxhlet extraction [with DCM-acetone (1 + 1)] over an 8 h period recovered 95% of the PAH removed by the sonication procedure using DCM-acetone (1 + 1), indicating that rigorous sonication can achieve PAH recoveries similar to those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The lower recovery with the Soxhlet extraction was explained by the observed losses of the volatile PAH components after 1-4 h of extraction. The type of solvent used, the length of time of extraction and extraction method influenced the quantification of PAH in the soil. Therefore, the study has implications for PAH analyses in soils and sediments, and particularly for contaminated site assessments where the data from commercial laboratories are being used. The study emphasizes the importance of establishing (and being consistent in the application of) a vigorous extraction, particularly for commercial laboratories that handle samples of soil in batches (at different times) from a single site investigation or remediation process. The strong binding of PAH to soil, forming aged residues, has significant implications for extraction efficiency. This paper illustrates the problem of the underestimation of PAH using the US EPA method 3550, specifically where a surrogate spike is routinely employed and the efficiency of the extraction procedure for aged

  2. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Procedures and the Application of Plastid DNA Enrichment Methods in Selected Non-photosynthetic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Shyu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA was isolated using three DNA extraction commercial kits and three CTAB-based methods for two non-photosynthetic plants, Balanophora japonica and Mitrastemon kanehirai. The quality of the isolated DNA was evaluated and subjected to following restriction enzyme digestions. All six procedures yielded DNA of sufficient quality for PCR, and the method described by Barnwell et al. (1998 performed well in isolating DNA from both species for restriction enzyme digestion. In addition, we succeeded to enrich plastid DNA content by using the methods depending on a high salt buffer to deplete nuclear material. The ‘high salt’ methods based on protocol presented by Milligan (1989 were able to increase plastid DNA effectively and significantly reduce nuclear DNA from M. kanehirai. The plastid DNA enrichment protocols are inexpensive and not time-consuming, and may be applicable to other non-photosynthetic plants.

  3. Thallium poisoning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  4. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  5. A solid phase extraction-ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowska, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-15

    A new analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of individual cationic surfactants (alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides) in surface water samples has been developed. We describe this methodology for the first time: it involves the application of solid phase extraction (SPE-for sample preparation) coupled with ion chromatography-conductivity detection (IC-CD-for the final determination). Mean recoveries of analytes between 79% and 93%, and overall method quantification limits in the range from 0.0018 to 0.038 μg/mL for surface water and CRM samples were achieved. The methodology was applied to the determination of individual alkyl benzyl quaternary ammonium compounds in environmental samples (reservoir water) and enables their presence in such types of waters to be confirmed. In addition, it is a simpler, less time-consuming, labour-intensive, avoiding use of toxic chloroform and significantly less expensive methodology than previously described approaches (liquid-liquid extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Haemarthrosis after superwarfarin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsaftis, Panagiotis; Girtovitis, Fotios; Boutou, Afroditi; Ntaios, George; Makris, Pantelis E

    2007-09-01

    Superwarfarins are widely used as rodenticides. They are similar to warfarin, but they are more potent and act longer. In case of poisoning, they cause severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. A 67-yr-old man was admitted with melaena, epistaxis and haemarthrosis in his left knee. PT, INR and aPTT were markedly increased. Initially, the patient was treated with blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions. However at the second day, PT, INR and aPTT were even worse. The combination of persistent coagulopathy, normal mixing studies, normal liver function tests and absence of hepatic failure or malabsorption syndromes lead to the suspicion of vitK dependent clotting factors deficiency due to superwarfarin poisoning. Indeed, the patient admitted a suicide attempt with rodenticide, although he had previously denied it. Psychiatric evaluation revealed a disturbed personality. Melaena stopped after 7 d. Then, the patient was administered 30 mg of vitK daily for a total period of 4 months. Superwarfarin poisoning leads to severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. Prolonged treatment with high doses of vitK is necessary. Haemarthrosis, as a complication of superwarfarin poisoning, is presented here for the first time in literature.

  7. Ink remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  8. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  9. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  10. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...

  11. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  12. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outcome will depend on the extent of this damage. Opening a large bucket of chlorine tablets can expose you to a powerful chlorine gas that can be very poisonous. Always open the container outdoors. Keep your face as far away from ...

  13. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  14. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  15. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  16. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  17. Optimization and application of an extraction procedure to determine drugs of abuse in solid environmental matrices of Turia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Maria Jesus; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    After their consumption, drug of abuse are excreted through urine or faeces, as parent compound or as secondary metabolites that arrive to wastewater treatment plants. Accordingly, the incomplete removal of these compounds in the treatment plants could release them into environmental compartments [1]. This scenario needs attention from an ecotoxicological perspective because their possible negative effects [2]. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply a solvent extraction and solid phase clean-up methodology to obtain a valid procedure for the extraction of these compounds in different solid matrices. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, ecstasy, ethylone, bk-MMBDB and MBDB belong to phenylethylamine group; codeine and ketamine belong to opioid and phencyclidine group, respectively, and benzoylecgonine is the major excreted metabolite of the alkaloid cocaine. To optimize the method to determinate drugs of abuse in environmental solid matrices, two replicates and one blank were prepared for each sample of sediment. They were prepared by adding 1 g of sediment sample, 5 mL of buffer (methanol-Mc Ilvaine 50:50) and internal standard to obtain a final concentration in the extract of 25 ng/g. Also standards of drugs of abuse were added to the replicates to obtain a final concentration of 100 ng/g. Then all samples were shaken, sonicated and centrifuged and the supernatant was separated and placed in a 250 mL volumetric flask, which was filled the rest with distilled water. SPE was carried out with Strata-X cartridges and 250 mL of sample were passed through them. The extracts were eluted with 6 mL of methanol, evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 1 mL of methanol-water 1:9. One of the replicates was filtrated through 0.22 μm pore size and the others were not. The samples were determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using an electrospray ionization source (ESI) in positive ionization mode. The results

  18. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  19. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  20. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  1. Management of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, P W

    2000-09-01

    A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.

  2. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  3. Lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  4. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  5. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  6. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  7. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  8. Metaldehyde poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.

  9. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  10. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  11. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  12. Speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from Sakarya I. Organized industrial district using the BCR sequential extraction procedure by ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ozcan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in 20 dust samples collected from the streets of the Organized Industrial District in Sakarya, Turkey using sequential extraction procedure were determined by ICP-OES. The three-step BCR sequential extraction procedure was used in order to evaluate mobility, availability and persistence of heavy elements in street dust samples. Three operationally defined fractions isolated using the BCR procedure was: acid extractable, reducible, and oxidizable. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages: Cd (82.3% > Mn (80.0% > Zn (78.8% > Cu (70.2% > Ni (65.9% > Pb (63.8% > Cr (47.3% > Co (32.6%. Validation of the analytical results was checked by analysis of the BCR-701 certified reference material. The concentrations of metals in the street dust samples have been shown a decrease after the each extraction stage.

  13. Determination of heavy metals and their speciation in street dusts by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry after a Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Huseyin; Imamoglu, Mustafa; Doganci, Secil; Baysal, Erkan; Albayrak, Sinem; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Sequential selective extraction techniques are commonly used to fractionate the solid-phase forms of metals in soils. This procedure provides measurements of extractable metals from media, such as acetic acid (0.11 M), hydroxyl ammonium chloride (0.1 M), hydrogen peroxide (8.8 M) plus ammonium acetate (1 M), and aqua regia stages of the sequential extraction procedure. In this work, the extractable Pb, Cu, Mn, Sr, Ni, V, Fe, Zn, and Cr were evaluated in street dust samples from Sakarya, Turkey, between May and October 2009 using the three-step sequential extraction procedure described by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR, now the Standards, Measurements, and Testing Programme) of the European Union. The sampling sites were divided into 10 categories; a total of 50 street dusts were analyzed. The determination of multielements in the samples was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Validation of the proposed method was performed using BCR 701 certified reference material. The results showed good agreement between the obtained and the certified values for the metals analyzed.

  14. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Factors that trigger emergency physicians to contact a poison centre: findings from a Swiss study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Jahns, Maximilian; Haberkern, Monika; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Eriksson, Urs; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    Poison centres offer rapid and comprehensive support for emergency physicians managing poisoned patients. This study investigates institutional, case-specific and poisoning-specific factors which influence the decision of emergency physicians to contact a poison centre. Retrospective, consecutive review of all poisoning-related admissions to the emergency departments (EDs) of a primary care hospital and a university hospital-based tertiary referral centre during 2007. Corresponding poison centre consultations were extracted from the poison centre database. Data were matched and analysed by logistic regression and generalised linear mixed models. 545 poisonings were treated in the participating EDs (350 (64.2%) in the tertiary care centre, 195 (35.8%) in the primary care hospital). The poison centre was consulted in 62 (11.4%) cases (38 (61.3%) by the tertiary care centre and 24 (38.7%) by the primary care hospital). Factors significantly associated with poison centre consultation included gender (female vs male) (OR 2.99; 95% CI 1.69 to 5.29; p1 vs 1) (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.9; ppoison centre consultation. Poison centre consultation was significantly higher during the week, and significantly less during night shifts. The poison centre was consulted significantly more when patients were admitted to intensive care units (OR 5.81; 95% CI 3.25 to 10.37; ppoison centre consultation by emergency physicians. It appears that intensive care unit admission and other factors reflecting either complexity or uncertainty of the clinical situation are the strongest predictors for poison centre consultation. Hospital size did not influence referral behaviour.

  16. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): a new sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Strontium is a minor element in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (ANDRA Underground Research laboratory, France) and may be interesting as a natural analogue of cationic radionuclides. The objective of our study was to better understand the chemical behaviour of this element since the sediment deposition. Previous mineralogical work showed that main strontium-bearing minerals in the clay-stones, in addition to clay minerals, are celestite, carbonates and accessory micas and K-feldspars. In order to establish the strontium distribution and determine its origins across the clayey formation and establish a strontium diffusion profile, a four step sequential extraction procedure combined with strontium isotopes was developed and adapted to the mineralogy of the Bure clay-stones. The four-steps sequential extraction developed and applied to sixteen samples of Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stones showed that the exchangeable fraction (27 to 48% of the total strontium) and the carbonate fraction (38-47% of the total strontium) are the two main fractions carrying the strontium, the detrital fraction being secondary (< 15%). Celestite is the major strontium-carrier mineral that can perturb the results of the sequential extraction but not significantly modify the distribution of strontium at the scale of the formation. The celestite was studied on micronic to centi-metric crystals, separated by hand-picking on core samples. The development of this sequential extraction procedure for the Callovian-Oxfordian formation shows the importance of the first cobalt hexamine trichloride step to extract the exchangeable strontium adsorbed on clay minerals and block the exchangeable sites with cobalt for the following steps, allowing a good separation of exchangeable fraction and carbonates. However the reagent/solid ratio of 20 seems to be less adapted to carbonate-rich samples. The good separation between exchangeable

  17. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  19. An improved protocol and a new grinding device for extraction of genomic DNA from microorganisms by a two-step extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S S; Chen, D; Lu, Q

    2012-05-21

    Current protocols to extract genomic DNA from microorganisms are still laborious, tedious and costly, especially for the species with thick cell walls. In order to improve the effectiveness of extracting DNA from microbial samples, a novel protocol, defined as two-step extraction method, along with an improved tissue-grinding device, was developed. The protocol included two steps, disruption of microbial cells or spores by grinding the sample together with silica sand in a new device and extraction of DNA with an effective buffer containing cell lysis chemicals. The device was prepared by using a commercial electric mini-grinder, adapted with a grinding stone, and a sample cup processed by lathing from a polytetrafluoroethylene rod. We tested the method with vegetative cells of four microbial species and two microbial spores that have thick cell walls and are therefore hard to process; these included Escherichia coli JM109, Bacillus subtilis WB600, Sacchromyces cerevisiae INVSc1, Trichoderma viride AS3.3711, and the spores of S. cerevisiae and T. viride, respectively, representing Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi. We found that this new method and device extracted usable quantities of genomic DNA from the samples. The DNA fragments that were extracted exceeded 23 kb. The target sequences up to about 5 kb were successfully and exclusively amplified by PCR using extracted DNA as the template. In addition, the DNA extraction was finalized within 1.5 h. Thus, we conclude that this two-step extraction method is an effective and improved protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from microbial samples.

  20. Syndromic diagnosis and management of confirmed mushroom poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2005-02-01

    To assess the evolving global epidemiology of mushroom poisoning and to identify new and emerging mushroom poisonings and their treatments, a descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on mushroom poisoning was conducted. Data sources from observation studies conducted over the period 1959-2002, and describing 28,018 mushroom poisonings since 1951, were collected from case reports, case series, regional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, and laboratory studies of mushroom poisonings and the toxicokinetics of mycotoxins. Studies included in the review were selected by a MEDLINE search, 1966-2004, an Ovid OLDMEDLINE search, 1951-1965, and a medical library search for sources published before 1951. To better guide clinicians in establishing diagnoses and implementing therapies, despite confusing ingestion histories, data were extracted to permit an expanded syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning based on presentation timing and target organ systemic toxicity. The final 14 major syndromes of mushroom poisoning were stratified first by presentation timing and then by target organ systemic toxicity and included early (syndromes (> or =1 day). There were eight early syndromes (four neurotoxic, two gastrointestinal, two allergic); three late syndromes (hepatotoxic, accelerated nephrotoxic, erythromelalgia); and three delayed syndromes (delayed nephrotoxic, delayed neurotoxic, rhabdomyolysis). Four new mushroom poisoning syndromes were classified including accelerated nephrotoxicity (Amanita proxima, Amanita smithiana), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre, Russula subnigricans), erythromelalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens, Clitocybe acromelalgia), and delayed neurotoxicity (Hapalopilus rutilans). In addition, data sources were stratified by three chronological time periods with >1,000 confirmed mushroom ingestions reported and tested for any statistically significant secular trends in case fatalities from mushroom ingestions over the

  1. Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauret, G; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A; Barahona, E; Lachica, M; Ure, A M; Davidson, C M; Gomez, A; Lück, D; Bacon, J; Yli-Halla, M; Muntau, H; Quevauviller, P

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides additional data on a sewage sludge amended soil certified reference material, CRM 483, which was certified in 1997 for its EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of some trace metals, following standardised extraction procedures. The additional work aimed to test the long-term stability of the material and the applicability of an improved version of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure on the sewage sludge amended soil (CRM 483). The paper demonstrates the CRM 483 long-term stability for EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and gives the results (obtained in the framework of an interlaboratory study) for the extractable contents of the same elements in the CRM 483, following the BCR three-step sequential extraction scheme. The aqua regia extractable contents following the ISO 11466 Standard are also given. The data are given as indicative (not certified) values.

  2. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  3. Cyanide Self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  5. The prognosis following amphetamine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc

    2017-01-01

    the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...

  6. Trends in types of calls managed by U.S. poison centers 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce D; Seung, Hyunuk; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-12-05

    The number of cases reported to poison centers has decreased since 2008 but there is evidence that the complexity of calls is increasing. The objectives are to evaluate national poison center data for trends in reason and how these changes effect management site, medical outcomes, and poison center workload. Data regarding reason, age, management site, and medical outcome were extracted from annual reports of the National Poison Data System from 2000 to 2015. The proportion of cases by year were determined for unintentional and intentional exposures. Analysis of data from a single poison center from 2005 to 2015 compared the number of interactions between poison center staff and callers for unintentional versus intentional reasons. Trend analyses found that from 2000 to 2015 the percent of unintentional cases decreased (from 85.9 to 78.4%, p Poison centers are managing more intentional exposures and fewer unintentional exposures. Intentional exposures require more poison center staff expertise and time. Looking only at poison center total call volume may not be an adequate method to gauge productivity.

  7. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  8. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Influence of the extraction procedure on the antioxidative activity of lentil seed extracts in a β-carotene-linoleate model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavan, U.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from lentil seeds using three solvent systems: 80% (v/v acetone, 80% (v/v methanol, and 80% (v/v ethanol. Each extract was subsequently separated into two fractions by chromatoghraphy on a column with Toyo Pearl HW-40 using water (fraction I and methanol (fraction II for elution. Antioxidative activity of extracts and their respective fractions were examined in a β-carotene-linoleate model system. All three extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activity. Considering the level of phenolic compounds in extracts it seems that phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were less active than those from either the methanolic and ethanolic ones. Because the content of phenolics was about 16-fold lower in fraction I of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts compared to fraction II, the phenolics in fraction I of the methanol and ethanol extracts from lentil seeds are much more active than these in fraction II. A stronger antioxidant activity of fraction I from the acetone extract compared to the crude acetone extract was observed during the latter incubation stage. The reason was a relatively high level of phenolic compounds in this fraction. UV spectra confirmed that the phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were different compared to methanolic and ethanolic extracts.Los compuestos fenólicos fueron extraídos de semillas de lenteja usando tres sistemas de disolventes: acetona del 80% (v/v, metanol del 80% (v/v, y etanol del 80% (v/v. Cada extracto fue separado posteriormente en dos fracciones por cromatografía en columna con Toyo Pearl HW-40 usando agua (fracción I y metanol (fracción II para la elución. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos y de sus fracciones respectivas fueron examinadas en un sistema modelo β-caroteno-linoleato. Los tres extractos exhibieron actividad antioxidante similar. Atendiendo al nivel de compuestos fenólicos en los extractos parece que los compuestos del extracto

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  11. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  12. Development of a solid phase extraction procedure for HPLC-DAD determination of several angiotensin II receptor antagonists in human urine using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirós, N; Iriarte, G; Alonso, R M; Jiménez, R M

    2007-10-15

    The optimisation of a solid phase extraction procedure involves several variables whose influence has been widely studied. However, in most cases, only process variables are taken into account. In this work, the influence of those process variables together with the fact of using mixtures of solvents during the elution step of the solid phase extraction of four angiotensin II receptor antagonist drugs has been studied. Since the influence on the extraction efficiency of several process variables were simultaneously tested, a D-optimal design was constructed. The composition of the elution solvent (a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, ethanol and acetone at different proportions from 0 to 100% each solvent), the percentage and pH of the buffer solution added to the urine samples at the beginning of the extraction procedure; the percentage of the organic component and the volume of the washing solution, the drying time and the volume of the elution solvent were the studied variables. The chromatographic separation was carried out by gradient elution mode with 0.026% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the organic phase and 0.031% TFA in the aqueous phase using an Atlantis dC18, 100mmx3.9mm I.D. chromatographic column at a flow rate of 1mL/min and a column temperature of 35+/-0.2 degrees C. For detection a diode array detector set at 232nm was used. The extraction procedure for spiked human urine samples was developed using C8 cartridges, phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as conditioning agent, a drying step of 10min, a washing step with methanol-phosphate buffer (20:80, v/v) and methanol as eluent. Recovery percentages obtained: 84% for eprosartan, 74% for telmisartan, 74% for irbesartan and 89% for valsartan allow the determination of these drugs concentration levels in urine.

  13. Use of the modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure for the study of trace element dynamics in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, M.; Mateu, J.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Lopez-Sanchez, J.F.; Rauret, G.

    2008-01-01

    The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to examine the temporal dynamics of trace elements in soils contaminated by an accidental spill from an opencast mine in south-west Spain. Soils were mainly contaminated with pyritic sludge and acidic wastewater, whereas some soils were affected only by acidic wastewater. The distributions obtained for both some major (Ca, Fe and Mn) and trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the sludge and soil samples taken at different times after the accident, 1-3 months and 21 months, were compared. Sequential extractions were useful in identifying different sources of contamination, and in obtaining additional information on the solubility of secondary minerals formed by pyrite oxidation. Thus, the effectiveness of the BCR procedure has proved to be a useful tool for predicting short- and long-term mobility of trace elements, even in complex environmental scenarios. - The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure has proved a useful prediction tool for short- and long-term mobility of trace elements in contaminated soils

  14. Use of the modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure for the study of trace element dynamics in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, M.; Mateu, J.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Sanchez, J.F. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: fermin.lopez@ub.edu; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to examine the temporal dynamics of trace elements in soils contaminated by an accidental spill from an opencast mine in south-west Spain. Soils were mainly contaminated with pyritic sludge and acidic wastewater, whereas some soils were affected only by acidic wastewater. The distributions obtained for both some major (Ca, Fe and Mn) and trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the sludge and soil samples taken at different times after the accident, 1-3 months and 21 months, were compared. Sequential extractions were useful in identifying different sources of contamination, and in obtaining additional information on the solubility of secondary minerals formed by pyrite oxidation. Thus, the effectiveness of the BCR procedure has proved to be a useful tool for predicting short- and long-term mobility of trace elements, even in complex environmental scenarios. - The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure has proved a useful prediction tool for short- and long-term mobility of trace elements in contaminated soils.

  15. [Poisonous animals at bathing beaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, T; Bodio, M

    2000-05-18

    Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.

  16. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  17. Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

  18. Poison Control and the Drug Information Center: the Palestinian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ansam F

    2008-11-01

    The Palestinian Poison Control and Drug Information Center was established in 2006 to provide up-to-date information on medications and to help in the early diagnosis and management of poisoning cases. To summarize the activities carried out by the PCDIC in the past 2 years. Documented inquires received at the PCDIC were analyzed and the Center's activities were extracted from the files. During the first 2 years of the Center's existence, 323 enquiries were received, mainly (67.2%)from physicians; 70% of the calls were from the city of Nablus. Unintentional poisoning was the leading type of call (62.8%) followed by suicidal poisoning (20.7%). Medications were the major category of toxicants encountered (48.9%), followed by pesticides (23.5%). In 67.9% of the cases, the calls were initiated before any treatment was provided. The advice provided by the PCDIC was based on the nature of the call. During these 2 years the PCDIC has conducted both academic and non-academic activities. The Center introduced the concept of poison prevention weeks in Palestine and has conducted two so far. The PCDIC has published several articles in the fields of toxicology, rational drug use, complementary and herbal therapy, pharmacoepidemiology, and self-medication. Documentation of all enquiries is mandatory for analysis, evaluation, comparative purposes and quality assurance. More information campaigns are needed to encourage people to use the services provided by the PCDIC.

  19. Usefulness of D-optimal designs and multicriteria optimization in laborious analytical procedures. Application to the extraction of quinolones from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Inmaculada; Sarabia, Luis; Cruz Ortiz, M; Aldama, J Manuel

    2005-09-02

    An analytical method has been developed to extract ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin from eggs. The aim of this work is to determine the experimental conditions of extraction providing high recoveries with small standard deviations. An experimental design based on the D-optimality criterion and replicated three times was built to evaluate the effect of five factors related to the extraction which is the most inaccurate stage of the procedure. This non-classical design is needed because there are several practical constraints: (i) the extraction procedure is time-consuming, quinolones are not stable and the design must be performed in a single working session. (ii) The tube capacity of the centrifuge is 6, so the number of experiments will be 6 or a multiple of 6. In the optimal experimental conditions, the extraction is performed once with 5 ml of methanol. Then, fatty acids are removed with a mixture of hexane/ether. Analytes are finally separated and detected by HPLC-fluorescence without the additional step of purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Under these conditions, the mean recovery is 64% and 70% and the standard deviation 5% and 4% for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. The capability of decision, CCalpha, is 3.1 and 2.8 microg kg(-1) of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. The capability of detection, CCbeta, is 7.8 and 7.0 microg kg(-1) of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. In both cases the probabilities of false positive, alpha, and of false negative, beta, were fixed at 0.05.

  20. Neutronic analysis of Gd2O3 as burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecot, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    For the reactors core design, the use of burnable poisons is one of the options for the control of in excess reactivity and the power form factor. As alternative procedures, the absorbing material may be included in pellets of an inert material or in fuel pellets. Besides, a cladding material and the locations of the fuel elements must be chosen for the first case. The CAREM reactor core design foresees the use of gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) as burnable poison. In this work, a comparative study was made, from the neutronic point of view, among the following alternatives for the poisons location: a) Gd 2 O 3 bars supports in alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), sheathed in steel; b) Gd 2 O 3 bars supports in alumina sheathed in Zry-4; c) Gd 2 O 3 in uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets. (Author) [es

  1. A nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by spectrofluorimetry to determine carbaryl in different water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizi, Ahad Bavili, E-mail: a.bavili@tbzmed.ac.ir, E-mail: abavilitabrizia@gmail.com [Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostadi, Hadi [Department of Chemistry, Payam-e-noor University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a new method based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of carbaryl from environmental water samples. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs were synthesized and modified by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), then successfully applied for the extraction of carbaryl and its determination by spectrofluorimetry. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of carbaryl such as the amount of SDS, pH value, standing time, desorption solvent and maximal extraction volume were optimized. Under the selected conditions, carbaryl could be quantitatively extracted. Acceptable recoveries (84.5-91.9%) and relative standard deviations (6.2%) were achieved in analyzing spiked water samples. A concentration factor of 20 was achieved by the extraction of 100 mL of environmental water samples. The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 2.1 and 6.9 μg L{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of carbaryl in environmental water samples. (author)

  2. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  3. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Sonya M S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hirshon, John Mark; Hayes, Bryan D; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0-18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. During the 5-year study period, 38 470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19 987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4196 (11%) were 6-12 years; and 14 287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29 174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents whereas poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agents leading to morbidity and mortality.

  4. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  5. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  7. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  8. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  9. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  10. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  11. Sequential extraction procedures to ascertain the role of organic matter in the fate of iodine in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavalda, D.; Colle, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the assessment of the radiological impact on man of radioactive substances the fate of the long-lived 129 I in soils is of special interest. In order to predict the behaviour of iodine in the environment the knowledge of soil parameters which are responsible for its sorption is necessary. Sequential extraction techniques were performed to investigate the degree of binding of iodine with soil components and more specifically with the different constituents of soil organic matter (humic acid, fulvic acid, humin) which are liable to change with time. A speciation scheme was especially developed to study the role of organic matter in iodine retention and complexation. In the first steps, several mineral fractions of iodine were extracted: water soluble (H 2 O), exchangeable (1M MgCl 2 ), carbonate bound (0.01N HCl), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (0.5 M NH 4 OH,HCl adjusted to pH=2 with HNO 3 ). After these preliminary steps, the extraction of organic matter was carried out with neutral pyrophosphate (Na 2 H 2 P 2 O 7 / K 4 P 2 O 7 1/1 0.1M pH=7) to determine iodine bound to organo-mineral complexes and sodium hydroxide (0.5 M NaOH) to quantify iodine bound to humic substances. For these extracts, the distribution of iodine between humic and fulvic acids was studied. Iodine bound to residual and insoluble organic matter (humin) was extracted with H 2 O 2 30% adjusted to pH=2 with HNO 3 . In the last step, iodine bound to the residual soil was extracted by wet digestion (H 2 SO 4 ). In this scheme, all the traditional organic reagents (acetate, acetic acid,..) were removed and replaced by mineral reagents to allow the monitoring of organic carbon in the soil extracts. (author)

  12. The composition of potentially bioactive triterpenoid glycosides in red raspberry is influenced by tissue, extraction procedure and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J; Allwood, J William; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Brown, Emma M; Latimer, Cheryl; Dobson, Gary; Stewart, Derek; Ternan, Nigel G; Lawther, Roger; O'Connor, Gloria; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2017-10-18

    The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies. Sequential extractions of raspberry puree, isolated seeds and unseeded puree showed that certain TTPN components (e.g. peak T1 m/z 679, and T2 m/z 1358) had different extractabilities in water/solvent mixes and were differentially associated with the seeds. Purified seed TTPNs (mainly T1 and T2) were shown to be anti-genotoxic in HT29 and CCD841 cell based in vitro colonocyte models. Further work confirmed that the seeds contained a wider range of TTPN-like components which were also differentially extractable in water/solvent mixes. This differential extractability could influence the TTPN composition and potential bioactivity of the extracts. There was considerable variation in total content of TTPNs (∼3-fold) and TTPN composition across 13 Rubus genotypes. Thus, TTPNs are likely to be present in raspberry juices and common extracts used for bioactivity studies and substantial variation exists in both content and composition due to genetics, tissue source or extraction conditions, which may all affect observed bioactivity.

  13. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  14. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive

  15. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  16. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  17. A novel preconcentration procedure using cloud point extraction for determination of lead, cobalt and copper in water and food samples using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    In this work, a new cloud point extraction (CPE) procedure was developed for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) in various water and food samples. Complexes of metal ions with 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) were extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) from samples. After phase separation, the enriched analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Factors affecting cloud point extraction, such as pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature, and incubation time were evaluated and optimized. The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. After optimization of the CPE conditions, the preconcentration factor of 25 and the limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for lead(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) based on three sigma (n=20) were 3.42, 1.00, and 0.67 microg L(-1), respectively. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.7% and 4.8% (n=7). The presented preconcentration procedure was applied to the determination of metal ions in reference standard materials (SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07605 Tea) and some real samples including tap water, spring water, sea water, canned fish, black tea, green tea, tomato sauce and honey. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL DNA KITS AND TRADITIONAL DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURE IN PCR DETECTION OF PORK IN DRY/FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  19. Sequential extraction procedures to ascertain the role of organic matter in the fate of iodine in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavalda, D.; Colle, C. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    In the assessment of the radiological impact on man of radioactive substances the fate of the long-lived {sup 129}I in soils is of special interest. In order to predict the behaviour of iodine in the environment the knowledge of soil parameters which are responsible for its sorption is necessary. Sequential extraction techniques were performed to investigate the degree of binding of iodine with soil components and more specifically with the different constituents of soil organic matter (humic acid, fulvic acid, humin) which are liable to change with time. A speciation scheme was especially developed to study the role of organic matter in iodine retention and complexation. In the first steps, several mineral fractions of iodine were extracted: water soluble (H{sub 2}O), exchangeable (1M MgCl{sub 2} ), carbonate bound (0.01N HCl), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (0.5 M NH{sub 4}OH,HCl adjusted to pH=2 with HNO{sub 3}). After these preliminary steps, the extraction of organic matter was carried out with neutral pyrophosphate (Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} 1/1 0.1M pH=7) to determine iodine bound to organo-mineral complexes and sodium hydroxide (0.5 M NaOH) to quantify iodine bound to humic substances. For these extracts, the distribution of iodine between humic and fulvic acids was studied. Iodine bound to residual and insoluble organic matter (humin) was extracted with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 30% adjusted to pH=2 with HNO{sub 3}. In the last step, iodine bound to the residual soil was extracted by wet digestion (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). In this scheme, all the traditional organic reagents (acetate, acetic acid,..) were removed and replaced by mineral reagents to allow the monitoring of organic carbon in the soil extracts. (author)

  20. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  1. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  2. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  3. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated and convenient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for LC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xianyin; Schneider, Bryan P

    2014-11-01

    Because fresh-frozen tissue samples associated with long-term clinical data and of rare diseases are often unobtainable at the present time, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are considered a highly valuable resource for researchers. However, protein extraction from FFPE tissues faces challenges of deparaffinization and cross-link reversion. Current procedures for protein extraction from FFPE tissue require separate steps and toxic solvents, resulting in inconvenience in protein extraction. To overcome these limitations, an integrated method was developed using nontoxic solvents in four types of FFPE tissues. The average amount of proteins from three replicates of bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissues were 442.6, 728.9, 736.4, and 694.7 μg with CVs of 7.5, 5.8, 2.4, and 4.5%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that 348, 417, 607, and 304 unique proteins were identified and quantified without specification of isoform by a least two peptides from bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissue samples, respectively. The analysis of individual protein CV demonstrated that 97-99% of the proteins were quantified with a CV ≤ 30%, verifying the reproducibility of the integrated protein extraction method. In summary, the developed method is high-yield, reproducible, convenient, simple, low cost, nonvolatile, nonflammable, and nontoxic. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dispersed particle extraction--a new procedure for trace element enrichment from natural aqueous samples with subsequent ICP-OES analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gerald; Neouze, Marie-Alexandra; Limbeck, Andreas

    2013-01-15

    A novel sample pre-treatment method for multi trace element enrichment from environmental waters prior to optical emission spectrometry analysis with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) is proposed, based on dispersed particle extraction (DPE). This method is based on the use of silica nanoparticles functionalized with strong cation exchange ligands. After separation from the investigated sample solution, the nanoparticles used for the extraction are directly introduced in the ICP for measurement of the adsorbed target analytes. A prerequisite for the successful application of the developed slurry approach is the use of sorbent particles with a mean size of 500 nm instead of commercially available μm sized beads. The proposed method offers the known advantages of common bead-injection (BI) techniques, and further circumvents the elution step required in conventional solid phase extraction procedures. With the use of 14.4 mL sample and addition of ammonium acetate buffer and particle slurry limits of detection (LODs) from 0.03 μg L(-1) for Be to 0.48 μg L(-1) for Fe, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.7% for Fe and 5.5% for Cr and an average enrichment factor of 10.4 could be achieved. By implementing this method the possibility to access sorbent materials with irreversible bonding mechanisms for sample pre-treatment is established, thus improvements in the selectivity of sample pre-treatment procedures can be achieved. The presented procedure was tested for accuracy with NIST standard reference material 1643e (fresh water) and was applied to drinking water samples from the vicinity of Vienna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, Senol; Aydin, Zeki; Tokalioglu, Serife

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in street sediment samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using the modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. According to the BCR protocol for extracting the metals from the relevant target phases, 1.0 g of specimen of the sample was treated with 0.11 M acetic acid (exchangeable and bound to carbonates), 0.5 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (bound to iron- and manganese-oxides), and 8.8 M hydrogen peroxide plus 1 M ammonium acetate (bound to sulphides and organics), sequentially. The residue was treated with aqua regia solution for recovery studies, although this step is not part of the BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Cd ∼ Zn (∼90%) > Pb (∼84%) > Cu (∼75%) > Mn (∼70%) > Co (∼57%) > Ni (∼43%) > Cr (∼40%) > Fe (∼17%). Enrichment factors as the criteria for examining the impact of the anthropogenic emission sources of heavy metals were calculated, and it was observed that the highest enriched elements were Cd, Pb, and Zn in the dust samples, average 190, 111, and 20, respectively. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the data matrix to evaluate the analytical results and to identify the possible pollution sources of metals. PCA revealed that the sampling area was mainly influenced from three pollution sources, namely; traffic, industrial, and natural sources. The results show that chemical sequential extraction is a precious operational tool. Validation of the analytical results was checked by both recovery studies and analysis of the standard reference material (NIST SRM 2711 Montana Soil)

  7. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  8. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-02-10

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  10. A simple procedure for the extraction of DNA from long-term formalin-preserved brain tissues for the detection of EBV by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Asma; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2015-12-01

    Long-term formalin fixed brain tissues are potentially an important source of material for molecular studies. Ironically, very few protocols have been published describing DNA extraction from such material for use in PCR analysis. In our attempt to investigate the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), extracting PCR quality DNA from brain samples fixed in formalin for 2-22 years, proved to be very difficult and challenging. As expected, DNA extracted from these samples was not only of poor quality and quantity, but more importantly, it was frequently found to be non-amplifiable due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Here, we describe a simple and reproducible procedure for extracting DNA using a modified proteinase K and phenol-chloroform methodology. Central to this protocol is the thorough pre-digestion washing of the tissues in PBS, extensive digestion with proteinase K in low SDS containing buffer, and using low NaCl concentration during DNA precipitation. The optimized protocol was used in extracting DNA from meninges of 26 MS and 6 non-MS cases. Although the quality of DNA from these samples was generally poor, small size amplicons (100-200 nucleotides) of the house-keeping gene, β-globin could be reliably amplified from all the cases. PCR for EBV revealed positivity in 35% (9/26) MS cases, but 0/6 non-MS cases. These findings indicate that the method described here is suitable for PCR detection of viral sequences in long-term formalin persevered brain tissues. Our findings also support a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair’s surface

    OpenAIRE

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted version of the following article: Drug Test. Analysis, 7, 385–392. doi: 10.1002/dta.1695, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1695 . This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Wiley Self-Archiving Policy: http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-828039.html Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile c...

  12. Assessment of bioavailable metals in the sediments of Yamuna flood plain using two different single extraction procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Though flood plains are considered as most fertile areas across the world but they have come under severe stress due to the flow of untreated domestic and industrial effluents and therefore, needed attention for its characterisation and subsequent treatment plans. The sediment samples, collected at 0–15, 15–35 and 30–60 cm depth levels during pre and post monsoon season from east and west sides of the river Yamuna around the national capital region of Delhi, were assessed for bioavailability of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni using Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA and acetic acid. The average concentrations of Zn (25 ± 6 mg kg−1 and Pb (33 ± 6 mg kg−1 leached in EDTA were higher than that of in acetic acid (Zn: 22 ± 6 mg kg−1; Pb: 24 ± 5 mg kg−1 whereas Ni (24 ± 6 mg kg−1 leached more in acetic acid compared to EDTA (Ni: 21 ± 4 mg kg−1. The bioavailable concentrations of metals were comparable among 0–15 and 15–35 cm depth samples but decreased in 35–60 cm depth samples. The post monsoon samples contained lower amounts of total metals in comparison to pre-monsoon samples, an indication of washout/dilution effects of flood/high water flow during monsoon season. The percentages of metals, with reference to their respective total concentrations, in the flood plain sediments as extracted by EDTA were in the range of 14–47% for Pb, 17–54% for Zn, and 15–39% for Ni. The Zn, Ni and Pb were soluble in acetic acid in the range of 12–39%, 16.7–36.5% and 14–36%, respectively. The chemical nature of extracting agent affected the metal leaching. Acetic acid, a weak acid, extracted the metals that were present in exchangeable fraction and easily movable whereas EDTA, hexa-dentate complexing agent, extracted metals from carbonate and organically bound fractions of the sediment samples. This could result in metal accumulation in the floodplains, biomagnification, adverse

  13. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  14. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance predictions and manufacturing concerns of burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.A.; Buescher, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Burnable poison rods for reactors designed by B and W consist of low density pellets, composed of boron carbide dispersed in an alumina matrix (Al 2 O 3 --B 4 C), which are contained in Zircaloy-4 tubes. To predict reliable operation of these rods, the irradiation behavior of the components must be known. Performance models were developed based on experimental irradiation data. During rod fabrication, care must be taken to limit the amount of hydrogen in the rod because of the propensity of Zircaloy to hydride in the presence of high levels of hydrogen. Furthermore, the hygroscopic nature of alumina dictates that care must be taken to avoid moisture (a primary source of hydrogen) in the rods. Manufacturing and quality testing procedures have been developed to provide conformance to the design criteria. Examinations have been performed on irradiated burnable poison rods which verify the adequacy of both performance models and manufacturing procedures

  16. Gas chromatographic determination of electron capture sensitive volatile industrial chemical residues in foods, using AOAC pesticide multiresidue extraction and cleanup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurawecz, M P; Puma, B J

    1986-01-01

    Electron capture (EC) gas chromatographic (GC) parameters have been developed for determining some of the more volatile industrial chemicals that can be determined by the AOAC multiresidue method for organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides with modified GC operating conditions. Retention times relative to pentachlorobenzene are reported for 143 industrial chemicals, pesticides, and related compounds on OV-101 GC columns at 130 degrees C. Also reported for most of the compounds are recoveries from fortified samples carried through the AOAC extraction and cleanup procedures for fatty and/or nonfatty foods, Florisil elution characteristics, and GC relative retention times on mixed OV-101 + OV-210 columns at 130 degrees C. Our laboratory has used the modified EC/GC parameters with the AOAC multiresidue extraction/cleanup procedures to determine many volatile halogenated industrial chemical contaminants in foods, chiefly in samples of fresh-water fish. Other modifications of the AOAC method are described to improve the tentative identification and quantitative measurement of these volatile residues.

  17. Multivariate optimization of an ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn determination in ration to chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOELIA M. BARROS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multivariate optimization techniques were used to develop a method based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction for copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination from rations for chicken nutrition using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of extracting components (2.0 mol.L–1 nitric, hydrochloric and acetic acid solutions were optimized using centroid-simplex mixture design. The optimum proportions of this mixture taken as percentage of each component were respectively 20%, 37% and 43%. Variables of method (sample mass, sonication time and final acid concentration were optimized using Doehlert design. The optimum values found for these variables were respectively 0.24 g, 18s and 3.6 mol.L–1. The developed method allows copper, manganese, nickel and zinc determination with quantification limits of 2.82; 4.52; 10.7; e 9.69 µg.g–1, and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD, 25 µg.g–1, N = 5 of 5.30; 2.13; 0.88; and 0.83%, respectively. This method was applied in the analytes determination from chicken rations collected from specialized commerce in Jequié city (Bahia State/Brazil. Application of paired t-test at the obtained results, in a confidence level of 95%, does not show significant difference between the proposed method and the microwave-assisted digestion.

  18. From soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Siepak, Jerzy

    2013-09-30

    The paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. The study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector I), and in the area around the site: in Wielkopolski National Park, Rogalin Landscape Park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "Dębina" groundwater well-field for the city of Poznań (Poland) (sector II). The results of aluminum fractionation in samples of soil, leaves and plants showed heavy pollution with aluminum, especially in the water soluble aluminum fraction - Alsw (maximum concentration of aluminum in soil extract was 234.8 ± 4.8 mg kg(-1), in the leaves of Betula pendula it was 107.4 ± 1.8 mg kg(-1) and in the plants of Artemisia vulgaris (root) and Medicago sativa (leaves) it amounted to 464.7 ± 10.7 mg kg(-1)and 146.8 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) respectively). In addition, the paper presents the problem of organic aluminum fractionation in biological samples and it shows the relationship between aluminum concentration in soil and the analysed woody and herbaceous species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  20. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  1. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... public education about poison prevention and clinical toxicology training for many different healthcare... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and education... currently provide poison center services to the citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

  2. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  3. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (ALP is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  4. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  5. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  6. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  7. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  8. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...

  9. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  10. Potential for erroneous interpretation of poisoning outcomes due to changes in National Poison Data System reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce; Ke, Xuehua; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2010-08-01

    In 2006, the annual report of poison centers in the United States changed the method of reporting profiles for generic substance categories from all exposures to single-substance exposures only. The objective of this study is to describe the potential impact of this reporting change on longitudinal analysis of outcomes. Generic substance categories with data available for all years of the study were manually extracted from Table 22 of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) annual reports for 2002-2007. For each generic substance category, the following data were extracted for each of the 6 years: total number of substance mentions (2002-2005) or single-substance exposures (2006-2007), reason (unintentional or intentional), pediatric exposures (children age average annual number of reported deaths by substance category decreased by 80.8%, from 2,229 in year 2002-2005 to 428 after the 2006 reporting change (p average annual number of reported major outcomes by substance category dropped by 76.0% (p average number of deaths and major effects by substance category decreased by about 50% from 394 and 4,639 per year during 2002-2005 to 198 deaths (p average rates of reported deaths (61.7 and 35.9%) and major effects (36.3 and 11.2%) for drug categories and nondrug categories, respectively (p change in 2006 will yield inaccurate results if the change in reporting methodology is not taken into account.

  11. Storage method, drying processes and extraction procedures strongly affect the phenolic fraction of rosemary leaves: an HPLC/DAD/MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, N; Innocenti, M; Bellumori, M; Giaccherini, C; Martini, V; Michelozzi, M

    2011-07-15

    The Rosmarinus officinalis L. is widely known for its numerous applications in the food field but also for the increasing interest in its pharmaceutical properties. Two groups of compounds are mainly responsible for the biological activities of the plant: the volatile fraction and the phenolic constituents. The latter group is mainly constituted by rosmarinic acid, by a flavonoidic fraction and by some diterpenoid compounds structurally derived from the carnosic acid. The aim of our work was to optimize the extractive and analytical procedure for the determination of all the phenolic constituents. Moreover the chemical stability of the main phenols, depending on the storage condition, the different drying procedures and the extraction solvent, have been evaluated. This method allowed to detect up to 29 different constituents at the same time in a relatively short time. The described procedure has the advantage to being able to detect and quantify several classes of compounds, among them numerous minor flavonoids, thus contributing to improving knowledge of the plant. The findings from this study have demonstrated that storing the raw fresh material in the freezer is not appropriate for rosemary, mainly due to the rapid disappearing of the rosmarinic acid during the freezing/thawing process. Regarding the flavonoidic fraction, consistent decrements, were highlighted in the dried samples at room temperature if compared with the fresh leaf. Rosmarinic acid, appeared very sensitive also to mild drying processes. The total diterpenoidic content undergoes to little changes when the leaves are freeze dried or frozen and limited losses are observed working on dried leaves at room temperature. Nevertheless it can be taken in account that this fraction is very sensitive to the water presence during the extraction that favors the conversion of carnosic acid toward it oxidized form carnosol. From our findings, it appear evident that when evaluating the phenolic content in

  12. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  13. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S; Roberts, Darren M; Mactier, Robert; Mowry, James B; Dargan, Paul I; Maclaren, Robert; Hoegberg, Lotte C; Laliberté, Martin; Calello, Diane; Kielstein, Jan T; Anseeuw, Kurt; Winchester, James F; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Bunchman, Timothy E; Li, Yi; Juurlink, David N; Lavergne, Valery; Megarbane, Bruno; Gosselin, Sophie; Liu, Kathleen D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl). After an extensive search, the co-chairs reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Blinded votes were compiled, returned, and discussed during a conference call. A second vote determined the final recommendations. Forty-five articles met inclusion criteria. Only case reports and case series were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 74 patients, including 11 who died, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that Tl is slightly dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe Tl poisoning (1D). ECTR is indicated if Tl exposure is highly suspected on the basis of history or clinical features (2D) or if the serum Tl concentration is >1.0 mg/L (2D). ECTR should be initiated as soon as possible, ideally within 24-48 hours of Tl exposure (1D), and be continued until the serum Tl concentration is poisoning.

  16. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  17. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2014-11-15

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts, sorbents and instrumental conditions. Analyte extraction with NaCl and MgSO4 in acidified acetonitrile followed by cleanup with primary secondary amine (PSA) presented the optimum conditions for extraction. Quantification was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Validation of the procedure showed average recoveries ranging from 72.0 to 104.8% for all analytes at all fortification levels with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 15.0. Limits of quantitation were cocoa farms revealed imidacloprid as the predominant neonicotinoid with concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 251.4 μg kg(-1) in >50% of samples analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinship and Y-chromosome analysis of 7th century human remains: novel DNA extraction and typing procedure for ancient material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Daniel; Saskova, Lenka; Koch, Hubert

    2009-06-01

    To develop novel DNA extraction and typing procedure for DNA identification of the 7th century human remains, determine the familiar relationship between the individuals, estimate the Y-chromosome haplogroup, and compare the Y-chromosome haplotype with the contemporary populations. DNA from preserved femur samples was extracted using the modified silica-based extraction technique. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using human identification kits MiniFiler, Identifiler, and Y-filer and also laboratory-developed and validated Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) pentaplexes with short amplicons. For 244A, 244B, 244C samples, full autosomal DNA profiles (15 STR markers and Amelogenin) and for 244D, 244E, 244F samples, MiniFiler profiles were produced. Y-chromosome haplotypes consisting of up to 24 STR markers were determined and used to predict the Y-chromosome haplogroups and compare the resulting haplotypes with the current population. Samples 244A, 244B, 244C, and 244D belong to Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b and the samples 244E and 244F to haplogroup G2a. Comparison of ancient haplotypes with the current population yielded numerous close matches with genetic distance below 2. Application of forensic genetics in archaeology enables retrieving new types of information and helps in data interpretation. The number of successfully typed autosomal and Y-STR loci from ancient specimens in this study is one of the largest published so far for aged samples.

  19. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  20. Development of a relatively cheap and simple automated separation system for a routine separation procedure based on extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro Zoriy; Reinhold Flucht; Mechthild Burow; Peter Ostapczuk; Reinhard Lennartz; Myroslav Zoriy

    2010-01-01

    A robust analytical method has been developed in our laboratory for the separation of radionuclides by means of extraction chromatography using an automated separation system. The proposed method is both cheap and simple and provides the advantageous, rapid and accurate separation of the element of interest. The automated separation system enables a shorter separation time by maintaining a constant flow rate of solution and by avoiding clogging or bubbling in the chromatographic column. The present separation method was tested with two types of samples (water and urine) using UTEVA-, TRU- and Sr-specific resins for the separation of U, Th, Am, Pu and Sr. The total separation time for one radionuclide ranged from 60 to 100 min with the separation yield ranging from 68 to 98% depending on the elements separated. We used ICP-QMS, multi-low-level counter and alpha spectroscopy to measure the corresponding elements. (author)

  1. Procedure and device for extracting the end of a tube inserted into a hole in a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    When constructing heat exchangers and steam generators, particularly in the construction of steam generators for nuclear power stations, many small diameter tubes have to be secured into a very thick tube plate for instance 600 mm thick. This crimping or expanding of the tube is generally performed by rolling the internal surface of the tube inside a hole drilled right through the tube plate and slightly greater in diameter than the external diameter of the tube before the tube is rolled. To check the tubes for defects, it is necessary to extract certain tubes from the tube plate in order to move the tube to a testing and inspection point and examine the part of it that was secured in the plate hole. The invention concerns the uncrimping of these tubes [fr

  2. Alkaloids in the mite Scheloribates laevigatus: further alkaloids common to oribatid mites and poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Garraffo, Hugo Martin; Spande, Thomas F

    2011-02-01

    Poison frogs are chemically defended from predators by diverse alkaloids, almost all of which are sequestered unchanged from alkaloid-containing arthropods in the frog diet. Oribatid mites recently have been proposed as a major dietary source of poison frog alkaloids. Here, we report on alkaloids common to an oribatid mite and poison frogs. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of methanol extracts of adult Scheloribates laevigatus (Oribatida: Scheloribatidae) revealed nine alkaloids. Five of these have been detected previously in the skin glands of poison frogs: two isomers of the pumiliotoxin 291G, two isomers of the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 209C, and the 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidine 195G. The other four alkaloids, a pumiliotoxin, a tricyclic (coccinelline-like), and two isomers of an izidine, were not previously known, but are similar in structure to alkaloids found in poison frogs. Alkaloids were not detected in immature S. laevigatus, suggesting that they are adult-specific and possibly the result of mite biosynthesis. Although most of the alkaloids detected in S. laevigatus are common to poison frogs, the geographic distributions of these organisms are not sympatric. The findings of this study indicate that oribatid mites, and in particular, members of the genus Scheloribates, represent a relatively unexplored arthropod repository for alkaloids and a significant dietary source of alkaloids in poison frogs.

  3. A novel solid phase extraction procedure on Amberlite XAD-1180 for speciation of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and total chromium in environmental and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narin, Ibrahim; Kars, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of chromium, species depend on their chemical properties and bioavailabilities, speciation of chromium is very important in environmental samples. A speciation procedure for chromium(III), chromium(VI) and total chromium in environmental samples is presented in this work, prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of chromium. The procedure is based on the adsorption of Cr(III)-diphenylcarbazone complex on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin. After oxidation of Cr(III), the developed solid phase extraction system was applied to determinate the total chromium. Cr(III) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr content and the Cr(VI) content. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of Cr(VI) on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was found to be 75. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for Cr(VI) and total chromium were 7.7 and 8.6 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory results for the analysis of total chromium in the stream sediment (GBW7310) certified reference material for the validation of the presented method was obtained. The procedure was applied to food, water and pharmaceutical samples successfully

  4. Clinical and analytical problems of sodium azide poisonings as exemplified by a case of fatal suicidal poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rojek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To present clinical and analytical aspects associated with sodium azide poisoning. The problems were verified on the basis of a case of sodium azide poisoning which was unique due to its circumstances and the development of an analytical method applied for medico-legal practice. Material and methods : The object of the study was a toxicological analysis of biological specimens collected from a woman who ingested two doses of sodium azide purchased over the Internet, in a suicide attempt. After the ingestion of the first dose, the clinical management in the form of symptomatic treatment indicated a possibility of recovery. However, the ingestion of a second dose of the xenobiotic, already in the hospital, caused death. Toxicological findings were obtained with the dedicated technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS-MS after extraction combined with derivatization using pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr. Results : Post-mortem toxicological studies demonstrated sodium azide in the blood (0.18 mg/l and urine (6.50 mg/l samples collected from the woman. Conclusions : Cases of sodium azide poisoning are rare and difficult to treat, but a review of the literature over a longer interval of time shows that they continue to occur. Therefore, case studies of sodium azide poisoning, together with descriptions of research methodology, can be useful both in clinical terms and in the preparation of toxicological expert opinions for medico-legal purposes.

  5. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  6. Simultaneous analysis of delta9-THC and its major metabolites in urine, plasma, and meconium by GC-MS using an immunoaffinity extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S; ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S; Salem, M Y

    2000-09-01

    A simple extraction procedure for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and its metabolites from various biological specimens was developed based on immunoaffinity chromatography. Using the affinity resin prepared by immobilization of THC antibody onto cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, delta9-THC and its major metabolites including 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (delta9-THCCOOH), 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC (11-OH-delta9-THC), and 8beta,11-dihydroxy-delta9-THC (8beta,11-diOH-delta9-THC) were extracted simultaneously from plasma or urine after enzyme hydrolysis. The samples were derivatized as TMS derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in EI mode with SIM monitoring. Greater than 87% extraction recovery of the four analytes was obtained from both plasma and urine at 5 and 50 ng/mL concentration levels. The method was also used for meconium analysis with some modification. The extraction recovery from meconium, however, was lower than that of plasma and urine, ranging from 52 to 72% at the 10-ng/g level. All compounds showed good linearity within the tested ranges up to 100 ng/mL (g). The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 ng/mL in plasma and urine, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng/g in meconium. Analysis of 24 meconium specimens showed that 11-OH-delta9-THC is indeed an important metabolite in meconium.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  8. Fuel elements containing burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)

  9. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  10. Poisoning Safety Fact Sheet (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Control Website. Unintentional poisoning fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ injury/ wisqars/ . Accessed February 23, ... In-Depth Look at Keeping Young Children Safe Around Medicine. Washington, DC: Safe Kids Worldwide, ...

  11. Intensive therapy for chloroquine poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lavage, intravenous diazepam, mechanical ventilation when necessary, and occasionally inotropic infusions. Four patients suffered cardiac arrest during gastric lavage. There were 6 deaths (mortality 20.7%). Conclusions. This study indicates the common clinical features of acute chloroquine poisoning. A survival rate of.

  12. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  13. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  14. In situ assessment of phyto and zooavailability of trace elements: A complementary approach to chemical extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauget, Benjamin; Faure, Olivier; Conord, Cyrille; Crini, Nadia; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2015-07-15

    For an accurate risk assessment of sites contaminated by trace elements (TE), measurements of bioavailability must be performed. This is routinely achieved using the standardized 0.01M CaCl2 method. However, the suitability of chemical extractions as proxies of bioavailability is questionable. We analyzed the correlations between chemically estimated TE bioavailability and TE actually accumulated by coupling plant and snails bioindicators. Results showed a better correlation between plant TE contents and CaCl2 fraction while total soil concentration better explained snail TE contents. However in both cases chemical measures were not suitable to predict TE accumulation and bioavailability. Considering the soil properties only improve the estimation of Cr, Ni and Pb accumulation by plants while for snails, TE contents in viscera were dependent both on soil and plant contents and soil properties. It highlights the complementarities of biomonitoring methods to assess bioavailability. This dual approach allows a "physiologically defined" evaluation of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Look what I found! Poison hunting on eBay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2005-01-01

    Many substances deemed too dangerous for commercial use are still available to the general public. The purchase of these substances may potentially place members of the general public at risk for serious poisonings. This study was designed to document the large variety of dangerous poisons readily available on a popular online auction Web site. Methods. Over a 10-month period, the online auction Web site eBays was searched daily using the terms "poison" and "contents." Product name, active ingredients, what form the product is in, amount in container, and relative toxicity rating (Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Gosselin, et al.) were recorded. If available, pictures of the products were saved. One hundred twenty-one individual products were identified. Fifty-five were in solid/tablet form, 37 were powders, and 29 were liquids. Product containers were full for 56 items and partially full for 65. Twenty-four products contained ingredients rated as "supertoxic" and included strychnine (10), arsenic trioxide (8), cyanide (2) and nicotine, pilocarpine, phosphorus, powdered conium maculatum (1 each). Sixty-three products contained "extremely toxic" ingredients including thallium, picrotoxin, soluble barium, antimony, mercury, arsenates, podophyllin, fluoride, zinc phosphide, atropine, scopolamine, and plant extracts of gelsemium, aconite, larkspur, and croton. Twenty-one products contained "very toxic" ingredients including lead, copper, camphor, caffeine, theobromine, creosote, pyrogallic acid, sparteine, quinine, lindane, warfarin, phenol, and digitalis. The remaining 13 were "moderately-slightly toxic." While the viability of the labeled ingredients could not be verified, the transportation, handling, and potential utilization of these dangerous poisons by the general public could result in serious poisonings.

  16. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Achana

    Full Text Available There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i Medicines only, ii Other household products only, iii Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines, iv Poisonous plants; and v Possession of poison control centre (PCC telephone number in households with children.Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model.28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00 while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13, safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50 and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10. No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants.The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the

  17. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R; Hubbard, Stephanie J; Cooper, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a "usual care or no intervention" which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to increase prevalence of safe storage of i) Medicines only, ii) Other household products only, iii) Poisons (both medicines and non-medicines), iv) Poisonous plants; and v) Possession of poison control centre (PCC) telephone number in households with children. Data on the effectiveness of poison prevention interventions was extracted from primary studies identified in 2 newly-undertaken systematic reviews. Effect estimates were pooled across studies using a random effects network meta-analysis model. 28 of the 47 primary studies identified were included in the analysis. Compared to usual care intervention, the intervention with education and low cost/free equipment elements was most effective in promoting safe storage of medicines (odds ratio 2.51, 95% credible interval 1.01 to 6.00) while interventions with education, low cost/free equipment, home safety inspection and fitting components were most effective in promoting safe storage of other household products (2.52, 1.12 to 7.13), safe storage of poisons (11.10, 1.60 to 141.50) and possession of PCC number (38.82, 2.19 to 687.10). No one intervention package was more effective than the others in promoting safe storage of poisonous plants. The most effective interventions varied by poison prevention practice, but education alone was not the most effective intervention for any poison prevention practice. Commissioners and providers of poison prevention interventions should tailor the interventions they commission or provide to the poison

  18. Chemometrics Optimized Extraction Procedures, Phytosynergistic Blending and in vitro Screening of Natural Enzyme Inhibitors Amongst Leaves of Tulsi, Banyan and Jamun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Baishakhi; Bhandari, Koushik; Singla, Rajeev K; Katakam, Prakash; Samanta, Tanmoy; Kushwaha, Dilip Kumar; Gundamaraju, Rohit; Mitra, Analava

    2015-10-01

    Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun are popular Indian medicinal plants with notable hypoglycemic potentials. Now the work reports chemo-profiling of the three species with in-vitro screening approach for natural enzyme inhibitors (NEIs) against enzymes pathogenic for type 2 diabetes. Further along with the chemometrics optimized extraction process technology, phyto-synergistic studies of the composite polyherbal blends have also been reported. Chemometrically optimized extraction procedures, ratios of polyherbal composites to achieve phyto-synergistic actions, and in-vitro screening of NEIs amongst leaves of Tulsi, Banyan, and Jamun. The extraction process parameters of the leaves of three plant species (Ficus benghalensis, Syzigium cumini and Ocimum sanctum) were optimized by rotatable central composite design of chemometrics so as to get maximal yield of bio-actives. Phyto-blends of three species were prepared so as to achieve synergistic antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials and the ratios were optimized by chemometrics. Next, for in vitro screening of natural enzyme inhibitors the individual leaf extracts as well as composite blends were subjected to assay procedures to see their inhibitory potentials against the enzymes pathogenic in type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant potentials were also estimated by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS, FRAP and Dot Blot assay. Considering response surface methodology studies and from the solutions obtained using desirability function, it was found that hydro-ethanolic or methanolic solvent ratio of 52.46 ± 1.6 and at a temperature of 20.17 ± 0.6 gave an optimum yield of polyphenols with minimal chlorophyll leaching. The species also showed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, and saponins. Composites in the ratios of 1:1:1 and 1:1:2 gave synergistic effects in terms of polyphenol yield and anti-oxidant potentials. All composites (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2) showed synergistic anti-oxidant actions. Inhibitory activities against the

  19. Definitive evidence for the acute sarin poisoning diagnosis in the Tokyo subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Matsuda, Y; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Iwadate, K

    1997-05-01

    A new method was developed to detect sarin hydrolysis products from erythrocytes of four victims of sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate) poisoning resulting from the terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from erythrocyte membranes of sarin victims, digested with trypsin, the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, and the digested sarin hydrolysis products were subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isopropylmethylphosphonic acid, which is a sarin hydrolysis product, was detected in all sarin poisoning, victims we examined and methylphosphonic acid, which is a sarin and soman hydrolysis product, was determined in all victims. Postmortem examinations revealed no macroscopic and microscopic findings specific to sarin poisoning and sarin and its hydrolysis products were almost undetectable in their blood. We think that the procedure described below will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of acute sarin poisoning.

  20. 16 CFR 1700.20 - Testing procedure for special packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1700.20 Section 1700.20 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.20 Testing procedure for special... and color(s) (e.g., white polypropylene). 8. Closure liner material. 9. TAC seal material. 10. Opening...

  1. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases...... and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate...... of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  2. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-01-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio Σ[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as level 2

  3. Evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-03-15

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was frequently classified as hazardous materials as the metals' concentration of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) exceeded regulations. Many studies have focused on reducing the concentration of TCLP using thermal treatment and increasing the application of thermally treated slag. However, the metal patterns in MSWI fly ash with or without thermal treatment have seldom been addressed. The main objective of this study was evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure. The experimental parameters included the form of pretreatment, the proportion of bottom ash (bottom ash/fly ash, B/F=0, 0.1 and 1) and the retention time. The results indicated that (1) In comparison to raw fly ash, the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd become stable in thermally treated slag. (2) Washing pretreatment caused the Pb pattern to become stable, while the influence on Cu and Cd were not significant. (3) The distribution patterns of Pb, Cu, and Cd became more stable as the retention time increased. (4) Adding bottom ash could make the distribution patterns of Pb and Cd more stable.

  4. Biologic poisons for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Lori

    2004-12-01

    Pain therapies from natural sources date back thousands of years to the use of plant and animal extracts for a variety of painful conditions and injuries. We certainly are all familiar with modern uses of plant-derived analgesic compounds such as opium derivatives from papaverum somniferum and salicylates from willow bark (Salix species). Local anesthetics were isolated from coca leaves in the late 1800s. Sarapin, derived from carnivorous pitcher plants, has been injected for regional analgesia in human and veterinary medicine, but efficacy is controversial. Biologic organisms can play important roles in developing an understanding of pain mechanisms, either from isolation of compounds that are analgesic or of compounds that produce pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia.

  5. The cyanide poisoning necropsy: an appraisal of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, A. R.; Galloway, J. H.; Slater, D. N.

    1992-01-01

    Blood cyanide concentrations were measured in samples obtained from a pathologist before and after carrying out a necropsy on the body of a victim of cyanide poisoning. There was no significant increase in his blood cyanide concentration after carrying out the procedure. It is suggested that an important factor in determining the risk to those carrying out necropsies of the bodies of victims of cyanide poisoning is the amount of cyanide remaining in the stomach. There are several ways in which the theoretical risk inherent in carrying out such necropsies could be reduced, such as the use of a full face respirator, or the removal, intact, of the upper gastrointestinal tract to a fume cupboard for examination. PMID:1624609

  6. [Star anise poisoning in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L

    2003-07-01

    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  7. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  8. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime.

  9. Childhood poisoning: a community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, S H; Wall, J B

    1977-06-01

    We reviewed medical records of 53 children who ingested poison and were treated as inpatients and 107 who were treated as outpatients in a Southeastern community hospital. Findings included a much higher incidence of petroleum distillate poisoning than is found nationally, and a low frequency of aspirin ingestions. Data on packaging of the poisons indicate that one third was stored in food containers. Of the products encountered, 33% currently require safety packaging but were found in obsolete containers.

  10. Role and functions of Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Peshin, S S

    1997-01-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and hazard management. Most of the developed and many developing countries have well established poison control centres with poisons information service, patient management facility and analytical laboratory. In India, the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) was established in February, 1995 in the Department of Pharmacology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The centre provides toxicological information and advice on the management of poisoned patients adopted to the level of the enquirer. The basis of this service are the databases on poisoning, drug reactions and also the continuous and systematic collection of data from the library. This information service is available round the clock. The PIC has the training responsibility extending to medical and other health professionals and community. The NPIC organized two successive training courses for medical professionals and para professionals at all health levels. Further, NPIC is a participant of INTOX project of IPCS/WHO, receiving regular yearly training on the use of INTOX database. Laboratory service is an essential component of a poisons control programme, providing analytical services on emergency basis to help in diagnosis and management. The NPIC is developing facilities for quick diagnosis of poisoning cases. Toxicovigilance and prevention of poisoning is another major function of PIC. The Centre has prepared manuals and leaflets on prevention and management cards on treatment of various poisonings. Thus the Centre provides a service with considerable health benefits, reducing morbidity and mortality from poisoning and gives significant financial savings to the community.

  11. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood c...

  12. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...

  13. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathilde Maagaard; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... scale for vacuum extraction is a reliable test for differentiating between competence levels in a simulated setting....

  14. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  15. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  16. Online social networking and US poison control centers: Facebook as a means of information distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Kathy; Smollin, Craig

    2015-06-01

    Online social networking services such as Facebook provide a novel medium for the dissemination of public health information by poison control centers in the United States. We performed a cross-sectional study of poison control center Facebook pages to describe and assess the use of this medium. Facebook pages associated with poison control centers were identified during a continuous two-week period from December 24, 2012 to January 7, 2013. Data were extracted from each page, including affiliated poison control center; page duration, measured in years since registration; number of subscribers; number of postings by general toxicological category; and measures of user-generated activity including "likes", "shares", and comments per posting. Among the 56 US poison control centers, 39 Facebook pages were identified, of which 29 were currently active. The total number of active pages has increased by 140% from 2009 to 2013 (average of 25% per year). The total number of all subscribers to active pages was 11,211, ranging from 40 to 2,456 (mean 387, SD 523), equal to 0.006% of all Facebook users in the United States. The number of subscribers per page was associated with page duration, number of postings, and type of postings. The types of toxicological postings were public education (45%), self-promotion (28%), childhood safety (12%), drugs of abuse (8%), environmental poisonings (6%), and general overdoses (1%). Slightly over half of all poison control centers in the United States are supplementing their outreach and education efforts through Facebook. In general, the more active the poison control center on Facebook, the more page followers and follower engagement gained.

  17. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  18. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P), the hazard index (HI) and the cancer risk index (RI) were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As) > cadmium (Cd) > lead (Pb) > copper (Cu) > chromium (Cr), in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3) and 1.05 × 10(-3), respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ) of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1) and 2.80 × 10(-1), respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  19. A solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to 1H NMR, with chemometric analysis, to seek reliable markers of the botanical origin of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Caneva, Enrico; Regazzoni, Luca; Bakhtyari, Nazanin Golbamaki; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2008-07-14

    The aim of this work was to establish an analytical method for identifying the botanical origin of honey, as an alternative to conventional melissopalynological, organoleptic and instrumental methods (gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC). The procedure is based on the (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profile coupled, when necessary, with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and two-dimensional NMR analyses of solid-phase extraction (SPE)-purified honey samples, followed by chemometric analyses. Extracts of 44 commercial Italian honeys from 20 different botanical sources were analyzed. Honeydew, chestnut and linden honeys showed constant, specific, well-resolved resonances, suitable for use as markers of origin. Honeydew honey contained the typical resonances of an aliphatic component, very likely deriving from the plant phloem sap or excreted into it by sap-sucking aphids. Chestnut honey contained the typical signals of kynurenic acid and some structurally related metabolite. In linden honey the (1)H NMR profile gave strong signals attributable to the mono-terpene derivative cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (CDCA) and to its 1-O-beta-gentiobiosyl ester (CDCA-GBE). These markers were not detectable in the other honeys, except for the less common nectar honey from rosa mosqueta. We compared and analyzed the data by multivariate techniques. Principal component analysis found different clusters of honeys based on the presence of these specific markers. The results, although obviously only preliminary, suggest that the (1)H NMR profile (with HPLC-MS analysis when necessary) can be used as a reference framework for identifying the botanical origin of honey.

  20. A solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to {sup 1}H NMR, with chemometric analysis, to seek reliable markers of the botanical origin of honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Giangiacomo [Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica ' Pietro Pratesi' , Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: giangiacomo.beretta@unimi.it; Caneva, Enrico [Ciga - Centro Interdipartimentale Grandi Apparecchiature, University of Milan, via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Regazzoni, Luca; Bakhtyari, Nazanin Golbamaki; Maffei Facino, Roberto [Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica ' Pietro Pratesi' , Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2008-07-14

    The aim of this work was to establish an analytical method for identifying the botanical origin of honey, as an alternative to conventional melissopalynological, organoleptic and instrumental methods (gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC). The procedure is based on the {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profile coupled, when necessary, with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and two-dimensional NMR analyses of solid-phase extraction (SPE)-purified honey samples, followed by chemometric analyses. Extracts of 44 commercial Italian honeys from 20 different botanical sources were analyzed. Honeydew, chestnut and linden honeys showed constant, specific, well-resolved resonances, suitable for use as markers of origin. Honeydew honey contained the typical resonances of an aliphatic component, very likely deriving from the plant phloem sap or excreted into it by sap-sucking aphids. Chestnut honey contained the typical signals of kynurenic acid and some structurally related metabolite. In linden honey the {sup 1}H NMR profile gave strong signals attributable to the mono-terpene derivative cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (CDCA) and to its 1-O-{beta}-gentiobiosyl ester (CDCA-GBE). These markers were not detectable in the other honeys, except for the less common nectar honey from rosa mosqueta. We compared and analyzed the data by multivariate techniques. Principal component analysis found different clusters of honeys based on the presence of these specific markers. The results, although obviously only preliminary, suggest that the {sup 1}H NMR profile (with HPLC-MS analysis when necessary) can be used as a reference framework for identifying the botanical origin of honey.

  1. A solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to 1H NMR, with chemometric analysis, to seek reliable markers of the botanical origin of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Caneva, Enrico; Regazzoni, Luca; Bakhtyari, Nazanin Golbamaki; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish an analytical method for identifying the botanical origin of honey, as an alternative to conventional melissopalynological, organoleptic and instrumental methods (gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC). The procedure is based on the 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profile coupled, when necessary, with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and two-dimensional NMR analyses of solid-phase extraction (SPE)-purified honey samples, followed by chemometric analyses. Extracts of 44 commercial Italian honeys from 20 different botanical sources were analyzed. Honeydew, chestnut and linden honeys showed constant, specific, well-resolved resonances, suitable for use as markers of origin. Honeydew honey contained the typical resonances of an aliphatic component, very likely deriving from the plant phloem sap or excreted into it by sap-sucking aphids. Chestnut honey contained the typical signals of kynurenic acid and some structurally related metabolite. In linden honey the 1 H NMR profile gave strong signals attributable to the mono-terpene derivative cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (CDCA) and to its 1-O-β-gentiobiosyl ester (CDCA-GBE). These markers were not detectable in the other honeys, except for the less common nectar honey from rosa mosqueta. We compared and analyzed the data by multivariate techniques. Principal component analysis found different clusters of honeys based on the presence of these specific markers. The results, although obviously only preliminary, suggest that the 1 H NMR profile (with HPLC-MS analysis when necessary) can be used as a reference framework for identifying the botanical origin of honey

  2. A simple automated solid-phase extraction procedure for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Susan; Harris, John; Calton, Lisa; Wallace, A Michael

    2009-05-01

    Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25OHD(3)) and D(2) (25OHD(2)) is challenging. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods have been described but they are often complex and difficult to automate. We have developed a simplified procedure involving an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE). Internal standard (hexadeuterated 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) was added to serum or plasma followed by protein precipitation with methanol. Following centrifugation, a robotic instrument (CTC PAL [Presearch] for ITSP SPE [MicroLiter Analytical Supplies, Inc]) performed a six-step SPE procedure and the purified samples were injected into the LC-MS/MS. Quantification of 25OHD(3) and 25OHD(2) was by electrospray ionization MS/MS in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The lower limit of quantitation was 4.0 nmol/L for 25OHD(3) and 7.5 nmol/L for 25OHD(2). Within- and between-assay precision was below 10% over the concentration range of 22.5-120 nmol/L for D(3) and 17.5-70 nmol/L for D(2) (n = 10). The calibration was linear up to 2500 nmol/L (r = 0.99). Recoveries ranged between 89% and 104% for both metabolites and no ion suppression was observed. The results obtained compared well (r = 0.96) with the IDS-OCTEIA 25-hydroxyvitamin D enzyme immunoassay for samples containing less than 125 nmol/L, at higher concentrations the immunodiagnostic system (IDS) method showed positive bias. Our simplified sample preparation and automated SPE method is suitable for the measurement of 25OHD(3) and D(2) in a routine laboratory environment. The system can process up to 300 samples per day with no cumbersome solvent evaporation step and minimal operator intervention.

  3. [Acute poisonings and organ donation--case reports and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszyk, Dorota; Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Poland is one of the European countries where serious problem of shortage of organ donors is observed. Organ donation from victims following fatal acute intoxications is extremely rare, and there's only several such case reports published in Poland. There's a need to establish guidelines of instrumental confirmatory tests of brain death determination according to acute poisonings. Authors present two cases of poisoned donors following acute poisonings with drugs. Current opinions concerning poisoned patients as a potential organ donors are also described. Case 1: A 36-years old male poisoned intentionally with insulin was admitted to Toxicology Department in Poznań. Patient was unconscious (GCS:3), hypoglycemic (glycaemia: 0). In 3rd day of treatment brain death was determined using clinical tests and instrumental confirmatory test (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography). Both kidneys were procured for transplantation. Case 2: A 23-years old male after prehospital sudden cardiac arrest in the course of suicidal carbamazepine intoxication was admitted to Toxicology Department. During whole hospitalization patient was unconscious, unresponsive to the pain (GCS:3), with circulatory and respiratory insufficiency. Despite intense treatment and decrease of carbamazepine level to therapeutic values there were no signs of patient recovery on the 9th day of treatment. After brain death determination patient was qualified as a kidneys and liver donor. Each patient diagnosed of brain death in the course of acute intoxication should be considered as a potential organ donor. Brain death determination in poisoned patients requires consultation by clinical toxicologist to exclude influence of neurotoxic xenobiotics on the central nervous system. Standards of instrumental confirmatory tests in victims following fatal poisonings should be established. Introduction of guidelines concerning donors intensive care procedures that allows successful organ procurement. All organ donations

  4. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Carbonate Species Using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five Ordinary Chondrite (OC) meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were identified and requested from NASA based upon their size, alteration history, and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They are also assumed to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This research addresses two questions involving Mars carbonates: 1) characterize terrestrial, secondary carbonate isotope values to apply to Martian meteorites for isolating in-situ carbonates, and 2) increase understanding of carbonates formed in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each approximately 0.5 grams, were crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) R times 0 for 1 hour at 30 degrees Centigrade (fine calcite extraction), b) R times 1 for 18 hours at 30 degrees Centigrade (course calcite extraction), and c) R times 2 for 3 hours at 150 degrees Centigrade (siderite and/or magnesite extraction). CO (sub 2) was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6 foot 2 millimeter stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof-tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected error bands. Two distinct species of carbonates are found: 1) calcite, and 2) non-calcite carbonate (future testing will attempt to differentiate siderite from magnesite). Preliminary results indicate the terrestrial carbonates are formed at approximately sigma (sup 13) C equal to plus 5 per mille, which is consistent with atmospheric CO (sub 2) sigma (sup 13) C equal to minus 7 per mille and fractionation of plus

  5. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lin, Youjian; Lu, Jian; Wilson, Chris

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 °C for 2h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 °C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most <6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 °C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg⁻¹), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg⁻¹), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg⁻¹). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg⁻¹ to 3.72 μg kg⁻¹. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33±41.71 μg kg⁻¹, lowest concentration 5.68±0.38 μg kg⁻¹, and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73±0.53 to 7.53±0.01 μg kg⁻¹. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MALDI-MS Imaging of Urushiols in Poison Ivy Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Aziz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urushiols are the allergenic components of Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy as well as other Toxicodendron species. They are alk-(en-yl catechol derivatives with a 15- or 17-carbon side chain having different degrees of unsaturation. Although several methods have been developed for analysis of urushiols in plant tissues, the in situ localization of the different urushiol congeners has not been reported. Here, we report on the first analysis of urushiols in poison ivy stems by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI. Our results show that the urushiol congeners with 15-carbon side chains are mainly localized to the resin ducts, while those with 17-carbon side chains are widely distributed in cortex and vascular tissues. The presence of these urushiols in stem extracts of poison ivy seedlings was confirmed by GC-MS. These novel findings provide new insights into the spatial tissue distribution of urushiols that might be biosynthetically or functionally relevant.

  7. Challenges in the diagnosis of acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Cote, J L; Rizer, J; Vakkalanka, J P; Rege, S V; Holstege, C P

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify isolated acute cyanide poison cases and to identify reported signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science case reports and series using a number of MeSH descriptors pertaining to cyanide, toxicity, and poisonings. We excluded studies on plants, laboratory analyses, smoke inhalation poisonings, animals as well as non-English language articles and those in which data were not available. Data extracted included demographics, exposure characteristics, acute signs/symptoms, and medical management and outcome. From the initial 2976 articles retrieved, 65 articles (52 case reports, 13 case series) met inclusion criteria and described 102 patients. Most patients were unresponsive (78%), hypotensive (54%), or had respiratory failure (73%); other signs and symptoms included cardiac arrest (20%), seizures (20%), cyanosis (15%), cherry red skin (11%), and had an odor present (15%). Medical management included cyanide antidote kit (20%), sodium thiosulfate (40%), and hydroxocobalamin (29%). The majority of cases (66%) required intubation with mechanical ventilation and a substantial number (39%) developed refractory hypotension requiring vasopressor support. Contrary to general reviews published on cyanide toxicity, reports of cherry red skin and bitter almond odor were rare among published cyanide cases. Consistent with other studies, metabolic acidosis with significant lactic acidosis were the laboratory values consistently associated with cyanide toxicity. Healthcare providers may overlook cyanide toxicity in the differential diagnosis, if certain expected characteristics, such as the odor of almonds or a cherry red color of the skin are absent on physical examination.

  8. A novel procedure to measure the antioxidant capacity of Yerba maté extracts Procedimento padronizado para avaliar a capacidade antioxidante dos extratos de erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté extracts have in vitro antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. Thus, in order to assess the antioxidant capacity of yerba maté extracts, the following procedure is proposed: 100 µL of an aqueous dilution of the extracts is mixed in duplicate with 3.0 mL of a DPPH 'work solution in absolute methanol (100 µM.L-1, with an incubation time of 120 minutes in darkness at 37 ± 1 °C, and then absorbance is read at 517 nm against absolute methanol. The results should be expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents or Trolox equivalents in mass percentage (g% dm, dry matter in order to facilitate comparisons. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between 12.8 and 23.1 g TE % dm and from 9.1 to 16.4 g AAE % dm. The AOC determined by the DPPH assay proposed in the present study can be related to the total polyphenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.Extratos de erva-mate têm a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro atribuída à presença de compostos polifenólicos, principalmente ácidos clorogênicos e derivados do ácido dicafeoilquínico. Embora DPPH seja um dos ensaios mais utilizados para avaliar a capacidade antioxidante dos compostos puros e extratos de plantas, o fato de que há uma padronização pobre na sua aplicação torna as comparações entre os diferentes extratos muito difíceis. Visando conseguir uma técnica padronizada para medir a capacidade antioxidante de extratos de erva-mate, propomos o seguinte procedimento: 100 µL de uma diluição do extrato aquoso são misturados em duplicata, com 3,0 mL de uma solução de trabalho de DPPH em metanol absoluto

  9. Evolving global epidemiology, syndromic classification, general management, and prevention of unknown mushroom poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2005-02-01

    To assess the evolving global epidemiology of mushroom poisoning and to identify new and emerging mushroom poisonings and their treatments, a descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on mushroom poisoning was conducted. Data sources from observation studies conducted over the period 1959-2002 and describing 28,018 mushroom poisonings since 1951 were collected from case reports, case series, regional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, and laboratory studies of mushroom poisonings and the toxicokinetics of mycotoxins. Studies included in the review were selected by a MEDLINE search, 1966-2004, an Ovid OLDMEDLINE search, 1951-1965, and a medical library search for sources published before 1951. To better guide clinicians in establishing diagnoses and implementing therapies, despite confusing ingestion histories, data were extracted to permit an expanded syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning based on presentation timing and target organ systemic toxicity. The final 14 major syndromes of mushroom poisoning were stratified first by presentation timing and then by target organ systemic toxicity and included early (syndromes (> or =1 day). There were eight early syndromes (four neurotoxic, two gastrointestinal, two allergic); three late syndromes (hepatotoxic, accelerated nephrotoxic, erythromelalgia); and three delayed syndromes (delayed nephrotoxic, delayed neurotoxic, rhabdomyolysis). Four new mushroom poisoning syndromes were classified including accelerated nephrotoxicity (Amanita proxima, Amanita smithiana), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre, Russula subnigricans), erythromelalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens, Clitocybe acromelalgia), and delayed neurotoxicity (Hapalopilus rutilans). In addition, data sources were stratified by three chronological time periods with >1,000 confirmed mushroom ingestions reported and tested for any statistically significant secular trends in case fatalities from mushroom ingestions over the

  10. Differences in abuse potential of ADHD drugs measured by contrasting poison centre and therapeutic use data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2015-01-01

    with that of methylphenidate (MPH). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on enquiries were extracted from the Danish Poison Information Centre database (January 2006 to June 2012), while data on therapeutic use were provided by the Danish State Serum Institute (2007-2011). RESULTS: The study included 28 ATX and 394 MPH enquiries...

  11. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari; Budiyanto, F.; Hindarti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Banten Bay is categorized as a marine area that is busy with marine tourism activities, settlements and also industries. One potential impact of the condition is the occurrence of pollution from both industrial and domestic sources, erosion and sedimentation in the coastal environment. Samples were collected from 25 representative stations in April 2016. Chemical speciation of three heavy metals (Cu, Ni, and Zn) was studied using a modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The aims of this study are to determine geochemical speciation of 4 bounds of metal: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual, and to assess their impacts in the sediments of Banten Bay, Indonesia. The result shows that the percentage of Copper (45.90-83.75%), Nickel (18.28-65.66%), and Zinc (30.45-79.51%) were mostly accumulated in residual fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that about 0-7.07% of Copper and 1.11-24.35 % of Zinc at sites exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore, they are in low risk category. While 7.34-34.90 of Ni at sites exists in exchangeable fraction and therefore, it is in medium risk category to aquatic environment.

  12. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  14. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenging, more so in the setting of poor critical care facilities. The management requires the administration .... at the scene of the incident, signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and improvement .... outcomes in human organophosphate poisoning: an evaluation using meta-analytic techniques. Crit.

  16. Heavy metal poisoning: clinical presentations and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Danyal; Froberg, Blake; Wolf, Andrea; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2006-03-01

    Humans have had a long and tumultuous relationship with heavy metals. Their ubiquitous nature and our reliance on them for manufacturing have resulted at times in exposures sufficient to cause systemic toxicity. Their easy acquisition and potent toxicity have also made them popular choices for criminal poisonings. This article examines the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of poisoning from lead, mercury, arsenic, and thallium.

  17. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic white persons, 12.2 for non-Hispanic black persons, and 7.7 for Hispanic persons. Age In 2015, the drug-poisoning death rate was highest for adults aged 45–54. SOURCE: NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Drug-poisoning death rates, by state ...

  18. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  19. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  20. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  1. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  2. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  3. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  4. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause serious harm to young children. Opioid (Narcotic) Pain Medications Poison center data indicate that opioid and sedatives exposures are steadily increasing year over year. View all alerts right left NEW! Check out PoisonHelp.org Now there are two ...

  5. Poison centre network saves lives | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Snakebites, food poisoning, exposure to toxic chemicals: all are potentially fatal if the correct antidote isn't identified and applied — fast. Since 1988, INTOX, a computer-based program involving a global network of poison centres, has been providing those life-saving capabilities in minutes.

  6. [Mushroom poisoning. New possibilities for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, O

    1976-04-08

    Poisonous species of fungi in Germany are very few. Dangerous is the ingestion of raw, spoiled or poisonous mushrooms. There exist no reliable tests to determine whether a mushroom is safe except by expert examination and identification of the mushroom. In clinical practice the classification of mushroom poisoning is possible in muscarine-syndrome, gastroenteritic syndrome and in two-phase-syndrome. 90-95% of lethal mushroom poisonings are due to ingestion of Amanita phalloides. In severe cases extensive hepatic necrosis occurs, characterized by profound abnormalities in liver function caused by hepatic coma. In deep coma mortality rates amount to 70% or more. A new therapeutic measure (coated charcoal hemoperfusion)-first applied in liver failure by Chang (1972) and Williams (1973)-has been performed in 3 patients with severe poisoning after ingestion of Amanita phalloides (each patient had eaten at least 7-10 fungi Amanita phalloides). Two of the patients survived.

  7. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  8. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  9. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris, E-mail: pcwilson@ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 {sup o}C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 {sup o}C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most < 6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 {sup o}C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 {mu}g kg{sup -1} to 3.72 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 {+-} 41.71 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, lowest concentration 5.68 {+-} 0.38 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 {+-} 0.53 to 7.53 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. - Highlights: {yields} A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was

  10. [The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ainong; Ren, Siqing; Jian, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    To observe the prevention effects of patients with lung exudation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning in sodium bicarbonate (SB) with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection. To collect 38 patients with paraquat poisoning in hospital, after poison immediately with gastric lavage of 1.5% SB, and atomization inhalation of 5% SB 10~15 ml twice daily and intravenous injection of 5% SB twice a day, continuous application of 5~7 days. and the HRCT score and liver and kidney function was performed on patients with lung after treatment. And the extraction of 38 SB patients with previously untreated with SB for comparison. Lung HRCT average score in 72 h, 7 d, 30 d on patients with paraquat poisoning untreated with SB reached 2.87, 3.12, 2.13, HRCT display shows that the appearance of the wear glass shadow, grid shadow, honeycomb shadow, and other signs of fibrosis. Average HRCT reached 1.95, 2.20, 1.67 on patients treated with SB,signs of lung exudation and fibrosis was significantly reduced,compare two groups,there was statistically significance (Pparaquat poisoning with triple application of SB, the level of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) significantly decreased, the difference is statistically significant (Pparaquat poisoning,and protective effect on the function of liver and kidney is obvious, suggesting that the method for treatment of paraquat poisoning, prevention of paraquat lung and improve survival rate has the exact effect.

  11. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  12. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  13. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and BodyGenetic Testing: What You Should KnowRead Article >>Genetic Testing: What You Should KnowSocial PhobiaRead Article >>Social Phobia Visit our interactive symptom checker Visit our interactive ...

  15. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enghorm B, Flerlage J, eds. Johns Hopkins: The Harriet Lane Handbook . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason ...

  16. Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotangale, J P

    2011-04-01

    The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible.

  17. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  18. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label...

  19. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS...

  20. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    following parameters: sex (p < 0.05, chronic alcohol intake (p < 0.05, underlying diseases (p < 0.01, central venous catheter (p < 0.05 vasopressors (p < 0.05, coma (p < 0.001, H2 blockers (p < 0.001 and corticosteroids (p < 0.001. The multivariate analysis retained endotracheal intubation and antidepressant drug poisoning as an independent risk factor for pneumonia. Conclusion. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, risk factors for developing pneumonia were disclosed. Some of these factors may be modified by simple medical procedures, thus the incidence and mortality rate of pneumonia in drug poisoning might be substantially reduced.

  1. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  2. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  3. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  4. Lead poisoning in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table.

  5. Five cases of arsine poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phoon, W.H.; Chan, M.O.; Goh, C.H.; Edmondson, R.P.; Kwek, Y.K.; Gan, S.L.; Ngui, S.J.; Kwok, S.F.

    1984-04-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.

  6. Investigation of different extraction procedures for the determination of major and trace elements in coal by ICP-AES and ion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the extraction of major and trace elements from a coal sample, in deionized water, by using three different extraction techniques. Rotary mixing and ultrasonic extraction were examined for different extraction times, while the microwave assisted extraction was performed at different temperatures. Metal concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, As, Ni, Se, Sb and Pb in a solution were determined by employing the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; whereas the results obtained for Na, K, Ca and Mg were compared employing ion chromatography. Comparing the rotary and ultrasonic-assisted extraction it is shown that the former is more efficient for the determination of Fe, Na and Pb, whereas the latter one has proven more efficient for the determination of Co and Cr ions. Microwave-assisted extraction has proven the most efficient method for any elements tested in coal. In addition, sequential extraction of elements was done using microwave digestion. The results of sequential extraction experiments indicated associations of investigated elements with a mineral phase and organic matrix. Sequential extraction provided information on possible leaching of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Fe and Mn in environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030

  7. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Alinejad; Nasim Zamani; Mohammad Abdollahi; Omid Mehrpour

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in nor...

  8. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human fatality due to thallium poisoning: autopsy, microscopy, and mass spectrometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangxun; Huang, Wen; Duan, Yijie; Xing, Jingjun; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Thallium has been responsible for many intoxications since its discovery; however, toxicological profiles for thallium in human fatalities have not been updated recently. Autopsy, microscopic investigations, and toxicological analyses were performed on a married couple who died from thallium sulfate intended homicidal poisoning. The distribution of thallium was established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hair samples showing the highest thallium concentration. Electron microscopy revealed a dystrophic condition of hair with disorganized cuticle and atrophy of the hair bulb. Thallium interacts with cells at different levels, with prominent ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and high concentration of electron dense granules observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of several organs. Alopecia, toxic encephalopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed in the victims and suggested to be crucial implications for thallium poisoning. The analytical procedures used in this case are of considerable forensic importance in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  11. [The reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and general situation of pesticides poisoning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-yang; Wang, Hong-fei; Yin, Yu

    2005-10-01

    To introduce the reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and analyze epidemiologic characteristics of pesticides poisoning from reported cases in China. Case reports in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SAS 6.12. A total of 108 372 cases were reported from 1997 to 2003. Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoning, and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 25.39%, and 74.61% respectively. The fatality rate was 6.86%. The average age was 36.83 years for all pesticides poisoning patients, and 15-59 years old patients accounted for 84.11%. Among 0-14 years old non-occupational poisoning patients, 0-4 years children accounted for 33.51%. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning, female in non-occupational. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 86.02% of the pesticides poisoning. More attention should be paid to pesticides poisoning by the government and medical workers engaged in public health.

  12. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  13. Food poisoning associated with Kudoa septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Kamijo, Yoshito; Nakahashi, Susumu; Shindo, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Omori, Yukinari; Ishikura, Ken; Fujioka, Masaki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Taichi; Maruyama, Kazuo; Imai, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a recently identified cause of food poisoning. We report three cases of food poisoning due to ingestion of this parasite. Among the 358 people exposed during the same catered meal, 94 (including our 3 patients) developed vomiting and diarrhea within 1-9 h after ingestion of raw muscle from contaminated aquacultured olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). These symptoms occurred frequently but were temporary; only 1 patient was hospitalized for dehydration and was discharged 2 days later. In Japan, cases of food poisoning due to eating olive flounder have increased during recent years. This increase should prompt heightened awareness among clinicians diagnosing food poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood Poisoning: When to See a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I suspect I have blood poisoning. Should I see my doctor? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... illness and requires prompt medical attention. When to see a doctor If you recently had a medical ...

  15. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana DISEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal “dolma” made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant. Key words: Anticholinergic effects, Datura stramonium, plant poisoning, rhabdomyolysis

  16. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  18. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  19. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  20. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  1. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  2. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  3. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-10-01

    The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.

  4. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002743.htm Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to ...

  5. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach. PMID:6463007

  6. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach.

  7. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  8. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  10. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by thallium poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N; Talamon, C; Smadja, D; Said, G

    1997-10-01

    A 20-year-old man developed over three weeks a sensory and painful neuropathy associated with diffuse alopecia. There was motor weakness, and superficial and deep hypoesthesia of the inferior limbs. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Electrophysiological study mainly showed axonal motor neuropathy. This patient was admitted six weeks after the first symptoms. The clinical picture suggested thallium poisoning, which was confirmed by thallium concentrations in plasma, urine, hair and nails. After search, thallium was identified in a rat poison.

  11. Changing Spectrum Of Poisoning In Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R.S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved 1504 patients admitted with acute poisoning (985 males and 519 females with a mean age of 24.5 + -8.3 years, belonging mainly to the rural population (72% and middle income group (65.8%. Aluminum phosphide was the commonest poison ingested followed by Organ phosphorus, Copper Sulphate and Barbiturates. The overall mortality rate was 36.3% and suicidal intent was present most commonly. The underlying socio- economic factors have been discussed.

  12. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  13. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  14. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  15. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  16. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  17. A comparison of DNA extraction procedures for the detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, in clinical and environmental specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Stragier, Pieter; Roebben, Karen

    2008-01-01

    a significantly lower DL than the OT and FP. For the different PCR targets, IS2404 showed a significantly lower DL than mlsA, MIRU1, MIRU5 and VNTR6. The FP and M16 were considerably faster than the MB and OT, while the purity of the DNA extracted with the MB was significantly higher than the DNA extracted...

  18. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis DNA from Environmental Substrates and Quantification of Organisms by Using a General Internal Procedural Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Donnikov, M.; Vos, de R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares five commercially available DNA extraction methods with respect to DNA extraction efficiency of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from soil, manure, and compost and uses an Escherichia coli strain harboring a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein as a general

  19. [Consequences of thallium poisoning in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kubik, Alicja; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Gergont, Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Thallium poisoning appears very rare in developmental age and its consequences are quite different. The aim of this study was to characterised the course of thallium poisoning in adolescent and especially electroneurophysiological consequences of it. In a 15 year old boy with sensory-motor polyneuropathy thallium poisoning was recognised in the third week duration of the symptoms. Hemodialysis and hemodiaperfusion were used in the therapy. Data of the repeated electroneurographic and videoEEG examinations were collected. First electroneurographic data showed axonal motor polyneuropathy. Control after 1 year presented the largest form of the motor-sensory polyneuropathy. On videoEEG tape rejestered in the 5th month of clinical symptoms of poisoning, present were tonic seizures (although EEG pattern was flat with short low voltage theta activity). After next the 3 months of encephalopathy and phenobarbital therapy, voltage of the EEG pattern was slightly higher without any background and seizure activity. Thallium poisoning may result with catastrophic clinical consequences of polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Electroneurographic and electroencephalographic changes 1 year after indicate that clinical consequences of the poisoning are un-remediable.

  20. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  1. New method to discriminate between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts from fish muscle based on a simple acidification procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2007-01-01

    A new and simple method to distinguish between cathepsin B and cathepsin L in crude extracts of herring (Clupea harengus) muscle has been established. An acid treatment of crude extracts (exposed to pH 3 for 5 min) activated a latent form of cathepsin L and inactivated cathepsin B. Furthermore......, in neutral crude extract, the hydrolysis of benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginyl-4-methylcoumarine (Z-Phe-Arg-MCA) (cathepsin B and cathepsin L substrates) was between 0% and 15% of the hydrolysis of benzyloxycarbonyl-L-arginyl-L-arginyl-7-amino-4-methylcoumarine (Z-Arg-Arg-MCA; cathepsin B substrate......). Cathepsin B activity is measured in neutral extract using the specific cathepsin B substrate Z-Arg-Arg-MCA and cathepsin L activity is measured in acid-treated extract with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA as substrate. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074, did not inhibit the Z-Arg-Arg-MCA significantly without...

  2. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble

  3. [Development and application of poison databank and poisonous animal and plants sample databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye

    2008-03-01

    To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.

  4. Analysis of nine cases of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Liang

    2007-04-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  5. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... It is thought that Oleander may contain many other unknown or un-researched compounds that may have dangerous effects. Oleander bark contains rosage- nin, which is known for its strychnine-like effects. The entire plant including the milky white sap is toxic and any part can cause an adverse reaction.

  6. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Determination of illudin S in Omphalotus guepiniformis and foods that caused food poisoning by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of illudin S in fungi (Omphalotus guepiniformis: poisonous mushroom) and a food that caused food poisoning, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Illudin S in fungi and the food that caused food poisoning was extracted with methanol and then cleaned up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column (Inertsil ODS-3, 2.1 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (7 : 3) at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectral acquisition was performed in the positive mode and illudin S was targeted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The recoveries of illudin S were 84-94% from edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus serotinus). The detection limits of illudin S in the fungi (L. edodes, P. ostreatus and P. serotinus) were 0.08-0.10 microg/g respectively. Illudin S was detected in the food that caused food poisoning at the level of 2.0 and 15.1 microg/g in the soup and fungi, respectively. The recovery of illudin S from a mushroom soup (cooked at 100 degrees C for 10 min) sample which simulated food poisoning was 74.8%. These results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the determination of illudin S in fungi (O. guepiniformis) and foods that caused food poisoning.

  8. Fatal injury in eastern Sri Lanka, with special reference to cardenolide self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Haggalla, Sapumal

    2008-09-01

    Self-poisoning with plant seeds or fruits is a common method of self-harm in South Asia. While most deaths follow ingestion of Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) seeds, other plants are locally common. During review of fatal injuries seen in a teaching hospital in eastern Sri Lanka, we noted cases of fatal self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas (sea mango, pink eyed cerbera, odollam tree) fruits. We reviewed the post-mortem records of the Batticaloa Teaching Hospital and extracted data on all cases of fatal injury. During 2001 and 2002, 315 post mortems for injury were performed in Batticaloa Teaching Hospital. Intentional self-harm was responsible for 48.6% of cases. While T. peruviana was responsible for 33 deaths, C. manghas self-poisoning caused seven deaths. C. manghas cases had typical features of cardenolide poisoning with cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia. In the absence of pacing facilities and anti-digoxin Fab, management involved administration of atropine and of insulin and dextrose to lower serum potassium concentrations. C. manghas self-poisoning has only previously been reported from Kerala and Tamil Nadu in south India. While uncommon in other parts of Sri Lanka, it has become a common method of self-harm in one east coast district, accounting for 20% of fatal self-harm with plants in one hospital. Management was inadequate with the available resources, emphasising the need for an affordable antitoxin for plant cardenolide poisoning.

  9. New syndromes in mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Danel, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Several new mushroom poisoning syndromes have been described since the early 1990s. In these syndromes, the onset of symptoms generally occurs >6 hours after ingestion. Treatment is mainly supportive. The syndrome induced by Amanita smithiana/proxima consists of acute tubulopathy, which appears earlier and does not have the same poor prognosis as the orellanine-induced syndrome. It has been described since 1992 in the US and Canada with A. smithiana; in France, Spain and Italy with A. proxima; and in Japan with A. pseudoporphyria. The responsible toxin is probably 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid. The erythromelalgia syndrome has been described as early as the late 19th century in Japan and South Korea with Clitocybe acromelalga, and since 1996 in France and then Italy with C. amoenolens. Responsible toxins are probably acromelic acids identified in both species. Several cases of massive rhabdomyolysis have been reported since 1993 in France and 2001 in Poland after ingestion of large amounts of an edible and, until then, valuable species called Tricholoma equestre. These cases of rhabdomyolysis are associated with respiratory and cardiac (myocarditis) complications leading to death. Rhabdomyolysis with an apparently different mechanism was described in Taiwan in 2001 with Russula subnigricans. Finally, cases of encephalopathy were observed twice after ingestion of Hapalopilus rutilans in Germany in 1992 and Pleurocybella porrigens in Japan in 2004, where a convulsive encephalopathy outbreak was reported in patients with history of chronic renal failure.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  11. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  12. Mothers' Knowledge Levels Related to Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen BILGEN SIVRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate mothers’ level of knowledge regarding poisoning, to plan training for issues with an identified lack of knowledge, to collect required data regarding protection and approach issues on poisoning cases which may occur in children for various reasons. Methods: This descriptive study was performed after obtaining permission from the County Health Department and involved mothers who applied to Family Health Centers No. 1-7 between April 1st and May 31st 2012, and who agreed to participate in the study (n=290. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: “Personal Information Form,” “House Poisoning Evaluation Form” and “Home Poisoning Prevention Knowledge Level Form.” Results: Participant ages were between 16 and 50 years and the mean age was 33.09±7.10 years. The number of children ranged from 1 to 6, and 203 people had seven children under the age of six. 37.6% of the mothers were primary school graduates, while 74.5% were housewives. There was a significant relationship between the knowledge score of the mothers on poisoning and education, career, neighborhood, and social security (p<0.05. Conclusions: Childhood poisoning is the most common cause of admission to the hospital. Protective precautions such as family education, storage of medication out of reach of children and use of secure lids are thought to be important. Key words: First aid, level of knowledge, mother-child, nurses, poisoning

  13. Extraction and purification procedures for simultaneous quantification of phenolic xenoestrogens and steroid estrogens in river sediment by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinani, Said; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Bourcier, Sophie; Creusot, Nicolas; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim

    2008-11-01

    A sensitive and simple method based on ultrasonication extraction with a hexane/acetone (2:1, v/v) mixture, followed by clean up of the extract by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection, has been developed and validated for the analysis of 20 estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) including phenolic xenoestrogens, synthetic and natural estrogens in river sediment. After extraction and purification, analytes are derivatised with a BSTFA/TMCS/pyridine (49:1:50, v/v/v) mixture and quantified by GC/MS. The GC/MS method involves switching between electron ionisation (EI) and chemical ionisation (CI); it also switches between selected ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry detection. The applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analysing extracts of French river sediments for which bioanalytical tests (in vitro) had already shown that they were impacted by estrogenic endocrine disrupters. The biological contribution of all the products detected in each sediment extract was compared to the estrogenic activity measured by bioassays.

  14. Identification and quantitation of xenobiotics by 1H NMR spectroscopy in poisoning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbenotte, M; Azaroual, N; Cartigny, B; Vermeersch, G; Lhermitte, M

    2003-04-23

    In order to analyse a wide range of xenobiotics and their metabolites present in biological fluids, NMR spectroscopy can be used. A large variety of xenobiotics (therapeutic agents, pesticides, solvents, alcohols) can be characterized and quantitated directly, without sample preparation. NMR investigations were applied to acute poisoning cases, involving drugs such as salicylates and valproic acid (VPA). In a salicylate poisoning case, the three major metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid have been detected in crude urine, and rapid identification of lysine revealed the origin of the intoxication, namely lysine acetylsalicylate (Aspegic). Valproic acid as its glucuronide was identified in urine samples from two poisoned patients. 1H NMR was also used to identify and quantitate paraquat (Gramoxone) in urine owing to its two aromatic signals at 8.49 and 9.02 ppm, in two acutely poisoned patients (183 and 93 mg/l). An intentional poisoning case with tetrahydrofuran (THF) was also investigated. Serum and urine samples were collected. THF was characterized by its resonances at 1.90 and 3.76 ppm, and quantified at 813 and 850 mg/l in the two biological fluids, respectively. Moreover, two other compounds were detected: lactate and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis of serum samples from three poisoned patients revealed methanol in one case and ethylene glycol in the two others. Moreover, in the same spectrum, the corresponding metabolites formate and glycolate were found. Compared with the reference chromatographic or spectrophotometric methods, requiring time-consuming extraction and/or derivatization steps, NMR spectroscopy allows the determination of many exogenous and endogenous compounds, without any pre-selection of the analytes.

  15. Aluminum phosphide poisoning known as rice tablet: A common toxicity in North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, A; Pakravan, N; Rafiei, A; Feyzbakhsh, S M

    2011-04-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. The objective of this study was to survey ALP poisoning locally known as "Rice Tablet" and the outcome in a referral poisoning hospital in Mazandaran province, northern part of Iran. The study was a cross-sectional study from March 2007 to February 2008. Records of all patients admitted and hospitalized to a referral teaching hospital during the 2 year period were collected. Information including gender, age, cause of toxicity, amount of AIP consumed, route of exposure, time between exposure and hospital admission, signs and symptoms of toxicity at admission, therapeutic intervention, laboratory tests, and outcome were extracted from the patients' notes. Patients who died and survived were compared using appropriate statistical tests. During the two-year period, 102 patients, 46 men and 56 women with mean (±SD) age 28.5 ± 12.4 year were admitted with ALP poisoning. The most common signs and symptoms at admission were nausea (79.4%), vomiting (76.5%), and abdominal pain (31.4%). 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning (97%) leading to 19 (18.6%) deaths. Compared with the patients who survived, those who died had taken higher amount of ALP tablet (2.2 ± 2.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0, P poisoning is a common toxicity in Iran causing high morality. This is a serious health problem in agricultural region where ALP is readily available. Withdrawal of ALP tablet from the market and introduction of safer products as rodenticides and insecticides is recommended.

  16. Methadone Poisoning in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Allameh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Symptoms of methadone poisoning, as one of the most dangerous types of poisoning, are very serious in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe causes and clinical symptoms of methadone poisoning in children admitted to hospitals in Iran. Data Sources Relevant studies published in national and international journals before January 29, 2016 were identified by studying the available databases, including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, MagIran, and Irandoc. Study Selection After excluding duplicate, irrelevant, and low-quality articles, relevant papers were entered into the meta-analysis. The prevalence, mean, and standard deviation of methadone poisoning symptoms in children were statistically analyzed, using Stata version 11, and causes of methadone poisoning were presented in tables. Data Extraction Studies with unknown sample sizes, abstracts without access to full text, articles with quality assessment scores below 15.5, and studies carried out on non-Iranian populations were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results During the initial advanced search, 1594 articles were identified. After quality assessment, 12 papers were found eligible for the final systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reported symptoms included drowsiness, vomiting, apnea, cyanosis, seizure, ataxia, and delirium. In the meta-analysis, prevalence of symptoms in referred patients was estimated at 44% (0.95% confidence interval, 0.288 to 0.609. The causes of poisoning in children included accidental feeding by parents, storage of drugs in inappropriate containers, parental addiction, and low educational level of parents. Conclusions It is important to keep methadone in a suitable container away from children. Also, it is essential to focus on educating parents on health issues of their children.

  17. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is

  18. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  19. [Infrared image monitoring of local anesthetic poisoning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Angelo Manoel G; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Colman, Daniel; Carstens, Márcio G; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups. Thermographic and clinical observations were performed for each experiment, and the times in which the signs of intoxication occurred were recorded. In the thermal analysis, the thermograms corresponding to the times of interest were sought and relevant data sheets extracted for statistical analysis. Basal and experimental: the display of the thermal images at times was possible. It was possible to calculate the heat transfer rate in all cases. At baseline it was possible to see the physiology of microcirculation, characterized by thermal distribution in the craniocaudal direction. It was possible to visualize the pathophysiological changes or thermal dysautonomias caused by intoxication before clinical signs occur, characterized by areas of hyper-radiation, translating Autonomic Nervous System pathophysiological disorders. In animals poisoned by ropivacaine, there was no statistically significant difference in heat transfer rate at the experimental time. The maximum temperature, medium temperature, and heat transfer rate were different from the statistical point of view between groups at the experimental time, thus confirming the systemic thermographic predictive value. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrared image monitoring of local anesthetic poisoning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Manoel G. Carstens

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. Methods: Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups. Thermographic and clinical observations were performed for each experiment, and the times in which the signs of intoxication occurred were recorded. In the thermal analysis, the thermograms corresponding to the times of interest were sought and relevant data sheets extracted for statistical analysis. Results: Basal and experimental: the display of the thermal images at times was possible. It was possible to calculate the heat transfer rate in all cases. At baseline it was possible to see the physiology of microcirculation, characterized by thermal distribution in the craniocaudal direction. It was possible to visualize the pathophysiological changes or thermal dysautonomias caused by intoxication before clinical signs occur, characterized by areas of hyper-radiation, translating autonomic nervous system pathophysiological disorders. In animals poisoned by ropivacaine, there was no statistically significant difference in heat transfer rate at the experimental time. Conclusions: The maximum temperature, medium temperature, and heat transfer rate were different from the statistical point of view between groups at the experimental time, thus confirming the systemic thermographic predictive value.

  1. Infrared image monitoring of local anesthetic poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Angelo Manoel G; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Colman, Daniel; Carstens, Márcio G; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups. Thermographic and clinical observations were performed for each experiment, and the times in which the signs of intoxication occurred were recorded. In the thermal analysis, the thermograms corresponding to the times of interest were sought and relevant data sheets extracted for statistical analysis. Basal and experimental: the display of the thermal images at times was possible. It was possible to calculate the heat transfer rate in all cases. At baseline it was possible to see the physiology of microcirculation, characterized by thermal distribution in the craniocaudal direction. It was possible to visualize the pathophysiological changes or thermal dysautonomias caused by intoxication before clinical signs occur, characterized by areas of hyper-radiation, translating autonomic nervous system pathophysiological disorders. In animals poisoned by ropivacaine, there was no statistically significant difference in heat transfer rate at the experimental time. The maximum temperature, medium temperature, and heat transfer rate were different from the statistical point of view between groups at the experimental time, thus confirming the systemic thermographic predictive value. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Ball and chain: the global burden of lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Vinodinee; Erickson, Timothy B

    2012-07-01

    Lead, the 82nd element in our periodic table, has accompanied humankind throughout the millennia of our history and development. As a ubiquitous heavy metal, lead is used in multiple applications and nine billion tons continue to be extracted globally every year. Although the United States has succeeded in limiting lead exposure among its own citizens by banning the use of lead in gasoline and household paint, while instituting improved working conditions for those who are exposed to lead in the workplace, the battle against lead is not won. In addition, it continues to plague the rest of the world today; the United States has played an increasing role in the world's exposure to lead and plans to stop are currently stalled. The year 2011 marked the centennial celebration of the life's work of Dr. Alice Hamilton in exposing lead poisoning among industrial workers in Chicago, Illinois. Her legacy provides us with the opportunity to look back and reevaluate our leaded history in the US. It also reminds us that there is more to be done to mitigate lead poisoning both domestically and in the developing world.

  3. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  4. Comparison of simple extraction procedures in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based determination of serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, a surrogate marker of bile acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeníĿek, Martin; Vecka, Marek; Žížalová, Kateſina; Vítek, Libor

    2016-10-15

    The serum concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a marker of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity, has recently become an attractive diagnostic tool for researchers interested in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The rapidly increasing demand of C4 measurement led to the development of various fast, mostly mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. Our aim was to compare four simple (i.e., not requiring solid phase extraction) extraction procedures (two "one-phase", and two "two-phase") in terms of basic analytical performance and their labouriousness. All methods exhibited comparable extraction recoveries (ranging from 88 to 97%) and intra-assay precision (variation coefficients below 10%), and failed in the removal of phospholipids. Although marked differences were observed in desalting and deproteination, all methods can be considered satisfactory. Simple acetonitrile precipitation can be recommended if a fast extraction and minimal hands-on time is preferred; while two-phase ammonium sulphate:acetonitrile extraction should be chosen when maximal deproteination is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrocardiographic findings and cardiac manifestations in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Momenzadeh, Seyed-Akbar; Shadnia, Shahin

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) poisoning has a high mortality due to cardiovascular involvement. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of cardiac manifestations and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in 20 patients with acute AlP poisoning, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Tehran, Iran, over a period of 6 months (between October 2008 and April 2009). The sex, age, cause and manner of ingestion, number of ingested AlP tablets, cardiac and ECG manifestations, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-myocardial band (CPK-mb) and troponin-T (TnT) were extracted from the patients' files. All data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority (60%) of patients were male. The mean age was 27 ± 8.7 years. The mortality rate was 40%. In all of the patients, the cause of poisoning was intentional suicide and ingestion was the route of exposure. The mean number of ingested AlP tablets per patient was 2.2 ± 1.1. The average time interval between admission and cardiovascular manifestations or ECG findings was 168.8 ± 116.2 min. The range of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure was 60-130 mmHg and 40-70 mmHg, respectively. Dysrhythmia was observed in nine (45%) cases. Elevation of the ST segment was seen in nine cases (45%). Seven patients (35%) had prolonged QTc intervals. Bundle branch block (BBB) was observed in four (20%) patients. In nine (45%) patients, the serum cardiac TnT qualitative assay was positive. There were no significant differences between normal and abnormal ECG groups according to sex, age, number and manner of ingested AlP tablets and SBP. There was a significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and ECG findings and TnT-positive results with mortality in acute AlP poisoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  7. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  8. [Lead poisoning from traditional Indian medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Robert; Poupon, Joël

    2006-01-01

    The use of traditional remedies is spreading rapidly in developed countries. Although it is commonly thought that such medications are not harmful because they are of natural origin, they often contain dangerous ingredients, especially heavy metals. Several cases of poisoning, mainly lead poisoning, have been published, but none to our knowledge in France. We recently observed a case of lead poisoning in a man who had been taking ayurvedic remedies. A 32-year-old man was repeatedly hospitalized for paroxysmal abdominal pain with constipation, weight loss, anemia, and mild elevation of liver enzyme levels. Four months after the initial admission, blood lead measurement showed heavy metal poisoning. The patient was treated with a chelating agent and recovered uneventfully. Investigation revealed that the lead source was self-medication with an ayurvedic remedy, a powder used for four weeks before the first hospitalization. To our knowledge this is the first reported French case of lead poisoning due to a traditional remedy. The problem is undoubtedly more widespread, however, for use of traditional remedies is growing more here, and many of them contain dangerous ingredients. Patients from communities known to use traditional medicines or recently returned from countries where such treatments are widespread should be directly questioned about their use of these remedies, because this information will not usually be volunteered. Information directed at populations at risk is also advisable, for most users are unaware that so-called 'natural' medicines can be dangerous.

  9. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  11. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    -extraction. We investigated the use of lysis buffer for long-term storage of blood samples for qPCR analysis. Methods: Blood was collected from 13 healthy adults and diluted in MagMAX lysis/binding solution or PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and stored at -20 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months before RNA extraction....../binding solution over time and between samples stored and extracted by the two systems. Conclusions: The MagMAX system can be used for storage of human blood for up to 4 months and is equivalent to the PAXgene system for RNA extraction. It furthermore, provides a means for significant cost reduction in large......Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based RNA...

  12. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  15. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  16. Poison blamed for decline of Spain's majestic Black Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    catastrophic” decline in numbers because of illegal poisoning by hunters. The use of poisoned bait to kill foxes, badgers, wild dogs, feral cats and smaller birds of prey has reduced the population by almost a half in the past decade,.

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning: Systematic Review and Recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I; Friesen, Marjorie; Gosselin, Sophie; Hoffman, Robert S; Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Ghannoum, Marc

    2015-05-07

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person. A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. In total, 166 articles met inclusion criteria, which were mostly case reports, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. A total of 418 patients were reviewed, 228 of which allowed extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li(+)] is >4.0 mEq/L, or in the presence of a decreased level of consciousness, seizures, or life-threatening dysrhythmias irrespective of the [Li(+)] (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is suggested if the [Li(+)] is >5.0 mEq/L, significant confusion is present, or the expected time to reduce the [Li(+)] to 36 hours (2D). Extracorporeal treatment should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or [Li(+)] is lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity, patient's clinical status, and availability of extracorporeal treatments. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Sardinian poisonous and non-poisonous chemotypes of Ferula communis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Paolo; Sanjust, Enrico; Loi, Martina; Sollai, Francesca; Ballero, Mauro; Pintus, Manuela; Rescigno, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Ferula communis (L.), a plant belonging to Apiaceae, is widely present in Sardinia, Italy. Currently, interest in F. communis focuses on the presence of two chemotypes in the wild. One chemotype is poisonous to animals, whereas the other chemotype is non-poisonous. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been extracted and partially purified from the two chemotypes of F. communis. The biochemical characterization of the enzymes showed significant differences. In particular, while the two PPOs were not able to use 6- and 7-hydroxycoumarin as substrates, they showed distinct specificity for 6,7- and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin. Significant differences in the enzyme behavior towards common PPO inhibitors were also observed. In addition, activation energy and activation energy for denaturation were determined, showing significant differences between FP-PPO and FNP-PPO, particularly for denaturation kinetics. The possible roles of the two PPOs in determining differences in composition and toxicity of the two F. communis chemotypes are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A need for standardization in drinking water analysis – an investigation of DNA extraction procedure, primer choice and detection limit of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jakob; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    have been made to illuminate the effects specifically related to bacterial communities in drinking water. In this study, we investigated the impact of the DNA extraction and primer choice on the observed community structure, and we also estimated the detection limit of the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing....... The PowerWater DNA Isolation Kit resulted in significantly higher amounts of isolated DNA compared to the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil. Furthermore, extraction with the PowerWater kit lead to detection of a significantly higher number of OTUs. Likewise, the primer experiment revealed great discrepancies in OTU....... coli could be detected in all samples. However, samples with 101 cells/mL had several contaminating OTUs, constituting approximately 8% of the read abundances. For 16S rRNA gene analysis in drinking water samples, we recommend using the PowerWater DNA Isolation Kit for DNA extraction in combination...

  20. Industrial gassing poisonings due to trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, and 1-1-1 trichloroethane, 1961-80.

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, T B; Jones, R D

    1983-01-01

    During the period 1961-80, 384 cases of industrial gassing poisonings by trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, and 1-1-1 trichloroethane (methylchloroform) were reported to HM Factory Inspectorate. A study of these data, which have been collated and analysed with particular reference to sex, age, clinical manifestations, and circumstances of the incident, is presented. Possible bias of the data owing to its source and method of extraction is discussed. The study shows the hazards inherent in th...