WorldWideScience

Sample records for poison acid sites

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  3. Active sites in the alkylation of toluene with methanol : a study by selective acid-base poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgna, A.; Sepulveda, J.; Magni, S.I.; Apesteguia, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Selective acid–base poisoning of the alkylation of toluene with methanol was studied over alkali and alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolites. Surface acid–base properties of the samples were determined by infrared spectroscopy using carbon dioxide and pyridine as probe molecules. Selective poisoning

  4. Experimental arsanilic acid poisoning in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, J D.J.; Lewis, G; Done, J T

    1968-11-30

    Twenty-one pigs were poisoned with rations containing 611, 1000 or 2000 g. arsanilic acid per ton. The chief symptoms were tremor of the head and incoordination followed by progressive blindness, ataxia and paresis. The only post-mortem abnormality was distension of the urinary bladder. The principal histological lesions were degeneration of the optic nerves, optic tracts and peripheral nerves, but such lesions could not be detected until about four, 10 and 14 days respectively after the onset of symptoms. The arsenic levels in various tissues were estimated. Concentrations in liver and kidney cortex were highest in the early stages of illness, two to 14 days after the onset of symptoms.

  5. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  6. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. Regularly test and replace the batteries. Poisoning treatment Treatment depends on the person and the type ... Injury Prevention, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: chemical ... poison treatments, snakebite, syrup of ipecac July 12, 2017 Featured ...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    . The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D......); suggestions for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 900 mg/L (6250 μmol/L)(2D), coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation (2D), acute hyperammonemia (2D), or pH ≤ 7.10 (2D). Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent (1D) or the serum VPA concentration is between...... 50 and 100 mg/L (350-700 μmol/L)(2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR in VPA poisoning (1D). If hemodialysis is not available, then intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous renal replacement therapy (2D) is an acceptable alternative. CONCLUSIONS: VPA is moderately dialyzable...

  8. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-18

    May 18, 2015 ... CASE REPORT. Niger J Paed 2015; 42 (3):237 –240. Abdulkadir I. Hassan L. Abdullahi F. Akeredolu FD. Purdue S. Okpe M. Sobowale AM. Adewumi OA. Abdullahi U. Onadiran ... Recommended management protocols include resting the esophagus or the ... of acid 5 hours prior to presentation. The acid ...

  9. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  10. Investigation of "mysterious" disease in livestock: hydrocyanic acid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, L; Katoch, R C

    1989-12-01

    An investigation of "mysterious" disease due to hydrocyanic acid (HCN) poisoning in livestock in this state was carried out. Detailed clinicopathological and pathological studies were conducted. Characteristic signs of acute tympany followed with profuse frothing, convulsions and dyspnea were recorded. Cynosis of the mucosa with characteristic anoxemic tissue changes and a high concentration of HCN in rumen content, feed and skeletal muscles were recorded. These were sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Successful treatment with a specific antidote was achieved, and further morbidity and mortality was checked.

  11. [Etiology of combined inhalational hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, T; Dirnhofer, R

    1979-01-01

    A young man was found dead in a kitchen, that was partly burnt. Autopsy revealed, as cause of death, a combined intoxication following inhalation of carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid. Own investigations on the pyrolysis of pieces of furniture found in the kitchen (plastic plates containing melamine and plates containing formaldehyde) showed, that hydrocyanic acid was liberated through combustion of such substances and inhaled by the victim. The poisoning picture is discussed, and discussion includes especially considerations on the peculiar sensitivity of the brain toward the action of hydrocyanic acid and the relative insensitivity of the heart muscle. It is thought that the cause of such sensitivity difference lies in the physiological differences of the intracellular energy production. Finally the dangers of combustion gases developing from burning plastic materials are reemphasized.

  12. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  13. Poisoning Experiments Aimed at Discriminating Active and Less-Active Sites of Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydride for Alkane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Saggio, Guillaume; Taoufik, Mostafa; Basset, Jean-Marie; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Only 50% of the silica-supported tantalum hydride sites are active in the metathesis of propane. Indeed, more than 45% of the tantalum hydride can be eliminated by a selective oxygen poisoning of inactive sites with no significant decrease

  14. 2, 4-D Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Poisoning; Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Hiran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, (2, 4-D is a selective herbicide available as the acids, esters and several salts which vary in their chemical properties, environmental behaviour, and to a lesser extent toxicity. The salt and ester forms are derivatives of the parent acid. It is widely used as a weed killer. The 2, 4-D dimethylamine is one of the salts of this group. Case Presentation: We report a case of ingestion of 2, 4-D herbicide intentionally. The patient had presented in a local hospital but transferred to our hospital in a state of deep coma. CT scan head showed diffuse cerebral oedema. The patient recovered completely after treatment with forced alkaline diuresis. Discussion: Anticholinesterase compounds are the most commonly used insecticide and the commonest compound used as poison in India. This case report emphasizes that not all poisonings are caused by anticholinesterase compounds. The initial clinical manifestations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D poisoning are very similar to alcohol, sedative drugs, or aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons making it even more difficult for the treating physician to suspect poisoning due to these compounds. It is thus important to identify the correct compound for proper management. Prompt diagnosis and correct treatment can save the life of a patient. The poisoning is also sometimes confused with poisoning due to anticholinesterase compound. Conclusion: 2, 4-D is a poison which carries a high mortality. Prolonged coma, metabolic complications, skeletal muscle injury and myotonia are some of the complications of 2, 4-D. Forced alkaline diuresis resulted in saving our patient which otherwise had poor prognosis.

  15. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in red blood cells (RBCs. These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning.

  16. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  17. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  18. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3, a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01. Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01. A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.

  19. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  20. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2017-02-01

    Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model. The accuracy of the model's predictions was assessed by simulating clinical observations in patients poisoned by lead and treated with succimer. The CLT model calculates blood lead concentrations as the sum of the background exposure and the acute or chronic lead poisoning. The latter was due either to ingestion of traditional remedies or occupational exposure to lead-polluted ambient air. The exposure duration was known. The blood lead concentrations predicted by the CLT model were compared to the measured blood lead concentrations. Pre-chelation blood lead concentrations ranged between 99 and 150 μg/dL. The model was able to simulate accurately the blood lead concentrations during and after succimer treatment. The pattern of urine lead excretion was successfully predicted in some patients, while poorly predicted in others. Our model is able to predict blood lead concentrations after succimer therapy, at least, in situations where the duration of lead exposure is known.

  1. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harduin, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author) [fr

  2. Poisoning Experiments Aimed at Discriminating Active and Less-Active Sites of Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydride for Alkane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Saggio, Guillaume

    2010-10-04

    Only 50% of the silica-supported tantalum hydride sites are active in the metathesis of propane. Indeed, more than 45% of the tantalum hydride can be eliminated by a selective oxygen poisoning of inactive sites with no significant decrease in the global turnover. Conversely, cyclopentane induces no such selective poisoning. Hence, the active tantalum hydride sites that show greater resistance to oxygen poisoning correspond to the νTa-H bands of higher wavenumbers, particularly that at 1860cm-1. These active tantalum hydride sites should correspond to tris- or monohydride species relatively far from silica surface oxygen atoms. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D; MacTier, Robert; Lavergne, Valery; Hoffman, Robert S; Gosselin, Sophie

    2015-06-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. The latest literature search conducted in November 2014 retrieved a total of 79 articles for final qualitative analysis, including one observational study, one uncontrolled cohort study with aggregate analysis, 70 case reports and case series, and 7 pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data were reported for 82 overdose patients while pharmaco/toxicokinetic grading was performed in 55 patients. The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D); suggestions for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 900 mg/L (6250 μmol/L)(2D), coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation (2D), acute hyperammonemia (2D), or pH ≤ 7.10 (2D). Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent (1D) or the serum VPA concentration is between 50 and 100 mg/L (350-700 μmol/L)(2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR in VPA poisoning (1D). If hemodialysis is not available, then intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous

  4. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  5. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J. Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer

  6. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  7. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  8. Description of a Mass Poisoning in a Rural District in Mozambique: The First Documented Bongkrekic Acid Poisoning in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Cook, Kyla; Kasper, Amelia M; Vergara, Alfredo; Salomão, Cristolde; Oliveira, Fernanda; Ismael, Hamida; Saeze, Cristovão; Mosse, Carla; Fernandes, Quinhas; Viegas, Sofia Omar; Baltazar, Cynthia S; Doyle, Timothy J; Yard, Ellen; Steck, Alaina; Serret, Mayda; Falconer, Travis M; Kern, Sara E; Brzezinski, Jennifer L; Turner, James A; Boyd, Brian L; Jani, Ilesh V

    2018-04-17

    On 9 January 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, >230 persons became sick and 75 died of an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage. An investigation was conducted to identify case patients and determine the cause of the outbreak. A case patient was defined as any resident of Chitima who developed any new or unexplained neurologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular symptom from 9 January at 6:00 am through 12 January at 11:59 pm. We conducted medical record reviews, healthcare worker and community surveys, anthropologic and toxicologic investigations of local medicinal plants and commercial pesticides, and laboratory testing of the suspect and control pombe. We identified 234 case patients; 75 (32%) died and 159 recovered. Overall, 61% of case patients were female (n = 142), and ages ranged from 1 to 87 years (median, 30 years). Signs and symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and generalized malaise. Death was preceded by psychomotor agitation and abnormal posturing. The median interval from pombe consumption to symptom onset was 16 hours. Toxic levels of bongkrekic acid (BA) were detected in the suspect pombe but not the control pombe. Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans, the bacteria that produces BA, was detected in the flour used to make the pombe. We report for the first time an outbreak of a highly lethal illness linked to BA, a deadly food-borne toxin in Africa. Given that no previous outbreaks have been recognized outside Asia, our investigation suggests that BA might be an unrecognized cause of toxic outbreaks globally.

  9. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  10. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... Time of the sting Location of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  17. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm complicating corrosive acid poisoning: Diagnosis with CT and treatment with transarterial embolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Chalapathi Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of intercostal artery are very rare. All the published cases have been caused by trauma, either iatrogenic or otherwise. They can cause hemothorax, retroperitoneal hemorrhage or can present as pulsatile chest mass. Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced CT and conventional angiogram can accurately diagnose this condition. All the reported cases have been treated by embolisation, stenting or surgery. We report an unusual case of intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm arising as a complication of corrosive poisoning presenting with hematemesis and treated by glue embolisation. The authors believe this to be the first case of intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm that is non-traumatic, complicating corrosive poisoning and presenting with hematemesis.

  3. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  4. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  5. Clinical aspects of percutaneous poisoning by the chemical warfare agent VX: effects of application site and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Murray G; Hill, Ira; Conley, John; Sawyer, Thomas W; Caneva, Duane C; Lundy, Paul M

    2004-11-01

    O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) is an extremely toxic organophosphate nerve agent that has been weaponized and stockpiled in a number of different countries, and it has been used in recent terrorist events. It differs from other well-known organophosphate nerve agents in that its primary use is as a contact poison rather than as an inhalation hazard. For this reason, we examined the effects of application site and skin decontamination on VX toxicity in anesthetized domestic swine after topical application. VX applied to the surface of the ear rapidly resulted in signs of toxicity consistent with the development of cholinergic crisis, including apnea and death. VX on the epigastrium resulted in a marked delayed development of toxic signs, reduced toxicity, and reduction in the rate of cholinesterase depression compared with animals exposed on the ear. Skin decontamination (15 minutes post-VX on the ear) arrested the development of clinical signs and prevented further cholinesterase inhibition and death. These results confirm earlier work that demonstrates the importance of exposure site on the resultant toxicity of this agent and they also show that decontamination postexposure has the potential to be an integral and extremely important component of medical countermeasures against this agent.

  6. Merthiolate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merthiolate poisoning is difficult to treat. How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis ( ...

  7. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  8. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  9. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  10. Screening method for detection of immediate amino acid decarboxylases--producing bacteria implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Husniza; Mohd Fuat, A R; Vimala, B; Ghazali, H M

    2011-08-01

    Assessment of amino acid decarboxylase activity can be conducted using tubed broth or plated agar. In this study, the test was carried out in microtitre plates containing lysine, ornithine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or histidine as biogenic amine precursors. Møller decarboxylase base broth (MDB) with or without 1% of a known amino acid were added to wells of a 96 well-microtitre plate. The wells were inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter anitratus or Staphylococcus aureus to the final concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) cfu/ml and incubated at 35ºC. The absorbance of the culture broth was read at 570 nm at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 hour. Comparison of means of A'(570) between 0 hour and a specified incubation time was determined statistically. Positive decarboxylase activities were detected in the media inoculated with E. coli and K. pneumoniae in less than 6 hours. The current method is suitable for immediate producers of amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. It costs less as it uses less amino acid and it has the potential to be used for screening aliquots of food materials for amino acid decarboxylase activities.

  11. Detecting coevolving amino acid sites using Bayesian mutational mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimmic, Matthew W.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Bustamente, Carlos D.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: The evolution of protein sequences is constrained by complex interactions between amino acid residues. Because harmful substitutions may be compensated for by other substitutions at neighboring sites, residues can coevolve. We describe a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to the detection...

  12. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  13. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  14. Use of amino acid-based polymeric material for isolation of a protein from poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Kadir; Köse, Kazım; Güngüneş, Hakan; Köse, Dursun Ali

    2017-02-01

    Melittin is a small protein with 126 amino acid residues which exists in the bee and snake venom. In this study, the Fe(II)-Ni(II) double-salt incorporated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid), poly(HEMA-MAsp), magnetic microparticles were synthesized for the separation of melittin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and Mossbauer spectroscopy techniques were used for the characterization. The melittin adsorption capacity of magnetic microparticles in aqueous solution were identified as 69.60 mg/g, whereas that in real be venom solution was 46.80 mg/g microparticle. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 5 times and no significant decrease were observed in the adsorption capacity.

  15. Arsenic species excretion after dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) treatment of an acute arsenic trioxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich-Ramm, R. [Ordinariat fuer Arbeitsmedizin der Universitaet Hamburg und Zentralinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Schaller, K.H.; Angerer, J. [Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schillerstr. 25, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Horn, J. [Medizinische Klinik II, Toxikologische-internistische Intensivstation, Klinikum Nuernberg, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We studied the urinary excretion of the different arsenic species in urine samples from a young man who tried to commit suicide by ingesting about 0.6 g arsenic trioxide. He received immediate therapy with dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) after his delivery into the hospital. We assessed urinary arsenite (inorganic trivalent arsenic), arsenate (inorganic pentavalent arsenic), pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine with ion-exchange chromatography and on-line hydride-technique atomic absorption spectrometry. The predominant amount of the excreted arsenic was unchanged trivalent inorganic arsenic (37.4%), followed by pentavalent inorganic arsenic (2.6%), MMA (2.1%), DMA (0.2%) and one unidentified arsenic species (0.7%, if calculated as DMA). In the first urine voiding in the clinic, the total arsenic concentration was 215 mg/l, which fell 1000-fold after 8 days of DMPS therapy. A most striking finding was the almost complete inhibition of the second methylation step in arsenic metabolism. As mechanisms for the reduced methylation efficiency, the saturation of the enzymatic process of arsenic methylation, the high dosage of antidote DMPS, which might inhibit the activity of the methyl transferases, and analytical reasons are discussed. The high dosage of DMPS is the most likely explanation. The patient left the hospital after a 12-day treatment with antidote. (orig.)

  16. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  17. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely , for more information . If you use an e-cigarette, keep the liquid nicotine refills locked up out ... to a child. See Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children . Never place poisonous products in ...

  18. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  19. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  20. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  1. Characterization of reference and site specific humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.

    1988-11-01

    As a contribution to the interlaboratory exercise for the complexation of humic acid and colloid generation (COCO-Club activities) in the CEC project MIRAGE-II, the characterization of selected humic acids have been carried out at TU Muenchen, regarding their elemental compositions, inorganic impurities, spectroscopic properties, size distributions and proton exchange capacities. The commercial humic acid (Na salt) from Aldrich Co. is purified to a protonated form and used as reference material. Furthermore two humic acids extracted from groundwaters from Gorleben (FRG) and Boom Clay (B) are purified to protonated forms and taken as site specific materials. These three humic acids, together with the original Na salt from Aldrich Co., are included in the present characterization exercise. The results of characterization provide basic knowledge supporting the forthcoming study of complexation of actinides and fission products with humic acid and their migration processes in the geosphere. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of reference and site specific human acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the interlaboratory exercise for the complexation of humic acid and colloid generation (COCO-Club activities) in the CEC project MIRAGE-II, the characterization of humic acids have been carried out, as for their elemental compositions, inorganic impurities, spectroscopic properties, size distributions and proton exchange capacities. The commercial humic acid (Na salt) from Aldrich Co. is purified to a protonated form and used as a reference material, and the humic acid extracted from one of Gorleben groundwaters is also purified to a protonated form and taken as a site specific material. These two humic acids, together with the original Na salt from Aldrich Co., are included for the characterization exercise. The results of characterization provide a basic knowledge that supports the forthcoming study of complexation of humic acids with actinides and fission products in their migration processes in the geosphere. (orig.)

  3. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  4. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin or eye contact may include: Skin burning, drainage, and pain Eye burning, drainage, and pain Vision loss ... The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ... pressure Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The person ...

  5. Predicting protein amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqiu; Yu, Hua; Gong, Xiujun

    2017-08-01

    Amidation is the fourth major category of post-translational modifications, which plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Identifying amidation sites can help us understanding the amidation and recognizing the original reason of many kinds of diseases. But the traditional experimental methods for predicting amidation sites are often time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we propose a computational method for predicting amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features. Three kinds of feature extraction methods are used to build a feature vector enabling to capture not only the physicochemical properties but also position related information of the amino acids. An extremely randomized trees algorithm is applied to choose the optimal features to remove redundancy and dependence among components of the feature vector by a supervised fashion. Finally the support vector machine classifier is used to label the amidation sites. When tested on an independent data set, it shows that the proposed method performs better than all the previous ones with the prediction accuracy of 0.962 at the Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.89 and area under curve of 0.964.

  6. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy rash Overview Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  7. Acidity of edge surface sites of montmorillonite and kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Sprik, Michiel; Cheng, Jun; Meijer, Evert Jan; Wang, Rucheng

    2013-09-01

    Acid-base chemistry of clay minerals is central to their interfacial properties, but up to now a quantitative understanding on the surface acidity is still lacking. In this study, with first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) based vertical energy gap technique, we calculate the acidity constants of surface groups on (0 1 0)-type edges of montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are representatives of 2:1 and 1:1-type clay minerals, respectively. It shows that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups of kaolinite have pKas of 6.9 and 5.7 and those of montmorillonite have pKas of 7.0 and 8.3, respectively. For each mineral, the calculated pKas are consistent with the experimental ranges derived from fittings of titration curves, indicating that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups are the major acidic sites responsible to pH-dependent experimental observations. The effect of Mg substitution in montmorillonite is investigated and it is found that Mg substitution increases the pKas of the neighboring tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Si-OH2 groups by 2-3 pKa units. Furthermore, our calculation shows that the pKa of edge tbnd Mg-(OH2)2 is as high as 13.2, indicating the protonated state dominates under common pH. Together with previous adsorption experiments, our derived acidity constants suggest that tbnd Si-O- and tbnd Al-(OH)2 groups are the most probable edge sites for complexing heavy metal cations.

  8. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  9. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  10. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  12. Remediation of acid tar sludge at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grajczak, P.; McManus, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    An old refinery site in Texas was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than original engineering estimates through aggressive project management and the application of an innovative design. The authors planned to solidify the petroleum acid sludge and place it in an on-site, constructed landfill. Careful evaluation of available solidification technologies lead to selection of the DCR process, a patented stabilization process far waste treatment. The technology offered low expansion factor, low reagent to waste ratio, and low cost. The process also proved to be efficient and safe, implemented using a custom-designed, transportable treatment unit. High treatment rates and continuous uninterrupted operation resulted in early completion of the waste treatment task

  13. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  14. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  15. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  16. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  17. Look what I found! Poison hunting on eBay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2005-01-01

    Many substances deemed too dangerous for commercial use are still available to the general public. The purchase of these substances may potentially place members of the general public at risk for serious poisonings. This study was designed to document the large variety of dangerous poisons readily available on a popular online auction Web site. Methods. Over a 10-month period, the online auction Web site eBays was searched daily using the terms "poison" and "contents." Product name, active ingredients, what form the product is in, amount in container, and relative toxicity rating (Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Gosselin, et al.) were recorded. If available, pictures of the products were saved. One hundred twenty-one individual products were identified. Fifty-five were in solid/tablet form, 37 were powders, and 29 were liquids. Product containers were full for 56 items and partially full for 65. Twenty-four products contained ingredients rated as "supertoxic" and included strychnine (10), arsenic trioxide (8), cyanide (2) and nicotine, pilocarpine, phosphorus, powdered conium maculatum (1 each). Sixty-three products contained "extremely toxic" ingredients including thallium, picrotoxin, soluble barium, antimony, mercury, arsenates, podophyllin, fluoride, zinc phosphide, atropine, scopolamine, and plant extracts of gelsemium, aconite, larkspur, and croton. Twenty-one products contained "very toxic" ingredients including lead, copper, camphor, caffeine, theobromine, creosote, pyrogallic acid, sparteine, quinine, lindane, warfarin, phenol, and digitalis. The remaining 13 were "moderately-slightly toxic." While the viability of the labeled ingredients could not be verified, the transportation, handling, and potential utilization of these dangerous poisons by the general public could result in serious poisonings.

  18. Biochemistry of fluoroacetate poisoning: the isolation and some properties of the fluorotricarboxylic acid inhibitor of citrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R; Wakelin, R W

    1953-01-01

    It has been suggested that the toxicity of fluoroacetate is due to the enzymic synthesis of a fluorotricarboxylic acid, which 'jams' the tricarboxylic acid cycle at the citrate stage. This communication presents the proof of this hypothesis. The inhibitory substance for citrate metabolism synthesized by enzymic action from fluoroacetate has been isolated as a compouud in crystalline form of great potency. Under the conditions of test it inhibits the disappearance of approximately 300 times its weight of citric acid in 30 min. The final isolation involved a separation from citric acid by the use of ion-exchange resin, and fractional extraction with ether. It is a monofluorotricarboxylic acid, as shown by its migration on a paper chromatogram, by its fluorine content (estimated spectrochemically), and by its titration curve. It does not give the colour reaction with sodium sulphide for pentabromacetone produced from citric acid by the usual methods. It gives an infra-red band which may be expected from a C-F bond. By a process of exclusion, it is considered to be a fluorocitric acid; a final decision must await synthesis.

  19. Sites that Can Produce Left-handed Amino Acids in the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Famiano, Michael A.; Onaka, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2018-03-01

    The Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which uses electron anti-neutrinos and the magnetic field from a source object such as a supernova to selectively destroy one amino acid chirality, is studied for possible sites that would produce meteoroids with partially left-handed amino acids. Several sites appear to provide the requisite magnetic field intensities and electron anti-neutrino fluxes. These results have obvious implications for the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  1. Effect of Na poisoning catalyst (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) on denitration process and SO3 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haiping; Chen, Yu; Qi, Cong; Ru, Yu

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to study the effect of alkali metal sodium (Na) poisoning on the performance of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. The result showed that Na2SO4 poisoning leads to a reduced denitration rate of the SCR catalyst and an increase in the SO3 generation rate. Na2O poisoning leads to a significant reduction in the denitration rate of the SCR catalyst and marginally improves the formation of SO3. The maximum of the SO3 generation rate for a Na2SO4-poisoned catalyst reached 1.35%, whereas it was only 0.85% for the SCR catalyst. When the SO2 was contained in flue gas, the denitration rate for the Na2O-poisoned catalyst clearly increased by more than 28%. However, the effect of SO2 on the Na2SO4-poisoned catalyst was very slight. The denitration rate of the SCR catalyst decreased with an increase in the Na content. The BET and XRD results showed that Na poisoning of the catalyst decreased the number of acid sites, the reducibility of the catalyst, the surface area, and pore volume. The H2-TPR and NH3-TPD results show that Na decreases the number of acid sites and the reducibility of the catalyst. The FT-IR and XPS results showed that Na2O poisoning led to the decrease of V5+dbnd O bonds and the consumptions of oxygen atoms. Na2SO4 poisoning can improve surface adsorbed oxygen, which was beneficial for the SO2-SO3 conversion reaction.

  2. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  3. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  4. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  5. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  6. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    functional tissue damage in ... cury or alcohol) .... †The degree of poisoning, together with drug or poison levels, usually determines the .... monoxide, caffeine and the sym- .... the brain. It usually occurs when two or more drugs, which increase.

  7. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  8. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  9. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the effect of water elimination and the effect of burn-up residue boron, thereby reduce the effect of burnable poison rods as the neutron poisons at the final stage of reactor core lifetime. Constitution: In a burnable poison rod according to the present invention, a hollow burnable poison material is filled in an external fuel can, an inner fuel can mounted with a carbon rod is inserted to the hollow portion of the burnable poison material and helium gases are charged in the outer fuel can. In such a burnable poison rod, the reactivity worths after the burning are reduced to one-half as compared with the conventional case. Accordingly, since the effect of the burnable poison as the neutron poisons is reduced at the final stage of the reactor core of lifetime, the excess reactivity of the reactor core is increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas) Gas released when opening a partially filled industrial container of chlorine tablets that have been sitting ... change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the ...

  11. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  12. Diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite in diethylene glycol poisoning inducing necrosis in human proximal tubule cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Martin, Sarah; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2011-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a solvent and chemical intermediate, can produce an acute toxic syndrome, the hallmark of which is acute renal failure due to cortical tubular degeneration and proximal tubular necrosis. DEG is metabolized to two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA), which are believed to be the proximate toxicants. The precise mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated, so these studies were designed to determine which metabolite was responsible for the proximal tubule cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells in culture, obtained from normal cortical tissue and passaged 3-6 times, were incubated with increasing concentrations of DEG, 2-HEAA, or DGA separately and in combination for 48 h at pH 6 or 7.4, and various parameters of necrotic and apoptotic cell death were measured. DEG and 2-HEAA did not produce any cell death. DGA produced dose-dependent necrosis at concentrations above 25 mmol/l. DGA did not affect caspase-3 activity and increased annexin V staining only in propidium iodide-stained cells. Hence, DGA induced necrosis, not apoptosis, as corroborated by severe depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. DGA is structurally similar to citric acid cycle intermediates that are taken up by specific transporters in kidney cells. HPT cells, incubated with N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, a sodium dicarboxylate-1 transporter inhibitor showed significantly decreased cell death compared with DGA alone. These studies demonstrate that DGA is the toxic metabolite responsible for DEG-induced proximal tubular necrosis and suggest a possible transporter-mediated uptake of DGA leading to toxic accumulation and cellular dysfunction.

  13. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  14. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  15. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been out exploring the woods, you might want to give your pet a shower, too! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: February ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  17. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  19. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  20. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. Site-specific labeling of proteins with NMR-active unnatural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David H.; Cellitti, Susan E.; Hao Xueshi; Zhang Qiong; Jahnz, Michael; Summerer, Daniel; Schultz, Peter G.; Uno, Tetsuo; Geierstanger, Bernhard H.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of amino acids other than the canonical amino acids can now be easily incorporated in vivo into proteins at genetically encoded positions. The technology requires an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is added to the media while a TAG amber or frame shift codon specifies the incorporation site in the protein to be studied. These unnatural amino acids can be isotopically labeled and provide unique opportunities for site-specific labeling of proteins for NMR studies. In this perspective, we discuss these opportunities including new photocaged unnatural amino acids, outline usage of metal chelating and spin-labeled unnatural amino acids and expand the approach to in-cell NMR experiments.

  3. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  4. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  5. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  6. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of citrullination sites by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou's general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhe; Wang, Shi-Yun

    2018-04-22

    As one of the most important and common protein post-translational modifications, citrullination plays a key role in regulating various biological processes and is associated with several human diseases. The accurate identification of citrullination sites is crucial for elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of citrullination and designing drugs for related human diseases. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CitrSite is developed for the prediction of citrullination sites. With the assistance of support vector machine algorithm, the highlight of CKSAAP_CitrSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs surrounding a query site as input. As illustrated by 10-fold cross-validation, CKSAAP_CitrSite achieves a satisfactory performance with a Sensitivity of 77.59%, a Specificity of 95.26%, an Accuracy of 89.37% and a Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.7566, which is much better than those of the existing prediction method. Feature analysis shows that the N-terminal space containing pairs may play an important role in the prediction of citrullination sites, and the arginines close to N-terminus tend to be citrullinated. The conclusions derived from this study could offer useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of citrullination and related experimental validations. A user-friendly web-server for CKSAAP_CitrSite is available at 123.206.31.171/CKSAAP_CitrSite/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianming [San Diego, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Wu, Ning [Boston, MA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2008-07-15

    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  10. Acute methanol poisonings: Folates administration and visual sequelae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Nurieva, O.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Diblik, P.; Kuthan, P.; Pelclová, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-316 ISSN 1214-021X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Methanol poisoning * Treatment outcome * Folinic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2014

  11. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.Poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid (MSMA is reported in a herd of 24 Girolando cows that were introduced into a pasture sprayed with the herbicide. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and profuse diarrhea. Fourteen cows died and two were necropsied. Abomasal ulcers and renal congestion was observed. Main histologic lesions were multifocal, accentuated, necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis and omasitis, and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Mean arsenic concentrations in cows with clinical signs were 1.19±0.40, 10.52±2.16, and 76.06

  12. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  13. Human acid β-glucosidase: isolation and amino acid sequence of a peptide containing the catalytic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinur, T.; Osiecki, K.M.; Legler, G.; Gatt, S.; Desnick, R.J.; Grabowski, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Human acid β-glucosidase (D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.45) cleaves the glucosidic bonds of glucosylceramide and synthetic β-glucosides. The deficient activity of this hydrolase is the enzymatic defect in the subtypes and variants of Gaucher disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease. To isolate and characterize the catalytic site of the normal enzyme, brominated 3 H-labeled conduritol B epoxide ( 3 H-Br-CBE), which inhibits the enzyme by binding covalently to this site, was used as an affinity label. Under optimal conditions 1 mol of 3 H-Br-CBE bound to 1 mol of pure enzyme protein, indicating the presence of a single catalytic site per enzyme subunit. After V 8 protease digestion of the 3 H-Br-CBE-labeled homogeneous enzyme, three radiolabeled peptides, designated peptide A, B, or C, were resolved by reverse-phase HPLC. The partial amino acid sequence (37 residues) of peptide A (M/sub r/, 5000) was determined. The sequence of this peptide, which contained the catalytic site, had exact homology to the sequence near the carboxyl terminus of the protein, as predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the full-length cDNA encoding acid β-glucosidase

  14. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  15. Location and nature of calcium-binding sites in salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennick, A.; McLaughlin, A.C.; Grey, A.A.; Madapallimattam, G.

    1981-01-01

    The location of the calcium-binding sites in the human acidic proline-rich proteins, salivary proteins A and C, was determined by equilibrium dialysis of the tryptic peptides with buffers containing 45 Ca. All the calcium-binding sites are located in the NH 2 -terminal tryptic peptide (TX peptide). The nature of the calcium binding sites in the TX peptide and native salivary proteins A and C, as well as dephosphorylated proteins was compared. Two types of sites can be distinguished in peptide TX. Type I sites have an apparent dissociation constant (K) of 38 μM and are responsible for the binding of 2.6 mol of Ca/mol of peptide. The corresponding figures for Type II sites are 780 μM and 5.3 mol of Ca/mol of peptide. In the native proteins, the amount of calcium bound at the type II sites decreases to 3.9 mol of Ca/mol of proteins A and C and K increases to 1100 μM. The amount of calcium bound at type I sites decreases to 1.5 mol/mol of protein A and 0.6 mol/mol of protein C, but there is no change in K. Dephosphorylation affects the calcium binding at both types of sites. The experiments indicate that the COOH-terminal parts of the native proteins affect the number and the nature of the protein calcium-binding sites. Proton and phosphorous NMR data demonstrate that β-COOH in aspartic acid, as well as phosphoserine, are part of the calcium-binding sites. The difference in calcium binding to salivary proteins A and C may be due at least partially to differences in the environment of one or more aspartic acids

  16. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ... urushiol". These are called Rhus plants after the old scientific name (it was changed to toxidendron). A ...

  17. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in fumes produced any time you burn fuel in cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, ... prevent CO poisoning in my home? Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in ...

  19. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  20. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  1. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  2. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  3. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  4. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week. Be Smart about Storage Store all medicines and household products ... call medicine "candy." Identify poisonous plants in your house and yard and place them out of reach ...

  5. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  6. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  8. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the reactor core lifetime by decreasing the effect of neutron absorption of burnable poison rods by using material with less neutron absorbing effect. Constitution: Stainless steels used so far as the coating material for burnable poison rods have relatively great absorption in the thermal neutral region and are not preferred in view of the neutron economy. Burnable poison rods having fuel can made of zirconium alloy shows absorption the thermal neutron region lower by one digit than that of stainless steels but they shows absorption in the resonance region and the cost is higher. In view of the above, the fuel can of the burnable poison material is made of aluminum or aluminu alloy. This can reduce the neutron absorbing effect by stainless steel fuel can and effectively utilize neutrons that have been wastefully absorbed and consumed in stainless steels. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 and diazepam as site-2 specific probe. Results: Different analysis of binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin suggested two sets of association constants: high affinity association constant (k1 = 11.0 x 105 M-1 with low capacity (n1 = 2 and low affinity association (k2 = 4.0×105 M-1 constant with high capacity (n2 = 8 at pH 7.4 and 27°C. During concurrent administration of palmitic acid and metoprolol succinate in presence or absence of ranitidine or diazepam, it was found that palmitic acid displaced metoprolol succinate from its binding site on BSA resulting reduced binding of metoprolol succinate to BSA. The increment in free fraction of metoprolol succinate was from 26.27% to 55.08% upon the addition of increased concentration of palmitic acid at a concentration of 0×10-5 M to 16×10-5 M. In presence of ranitidine and diazepam, palmitic acid further increases the free fraction of metoprolol succinate from 33.05% to 66.95% and 40.68% to 72.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This data provided the evidence of interaction at higher concentration of palmitic acid at the binding sites on BSA, which might change the pharmacokinetic properties of metoprolol succinate.

  12. Site directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues at the active site of mouse aldehyde oxidase AOX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schumann

    Full Text Available Mouse aldehyde oxidase (mAOX1 forms a homodimer and belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdoenzymes which are characterized by an essential equatorial sulfur ligand coordinated to the molybdenum atom. In general, mammalian AOs are characterized by broad substrate specificity and an yet obscure physiological function. To define the physiological substrates and the enzymatic characteristics of mAOX1, we established a system for the heterologous expression of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed spectral features and a range of substrate specificity similar to the native protein purified from mouse liver. The EPR data of recombinant mAOX1 were similar to those of AO from rabbit liver, but differed from the homologous xanthine oxidoreductase enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids Val806, Met884 and Glu1265 at the active site resulted in a drastic decrease in the oxidation of aldehydes with no increase in the oxidation of purine substrates. The double mutant V806E/M884R and the single mutant E1265Q were catalytically inactive enzymes regardless of the aldehyde or purine substrates tested. Our results show that only Glu1265 is essential for the catalytic activity by initiating the base-catalyzed mechanism of substrate oxidation. In addition, it is concluded that the substrate specificity of molybdo-flavoenzymes is more complex and not only defined by the three characterized amino acids in the active site.

  13. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  14. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  15. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  16. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R

    2009-01-28

    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  17. Molecular Design of a Chiral Brønsted Acid with Two Different Acidic Sites: Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Azopyridinecarboxylate with Amidodienes Catalyzed by Chiral Carboxylic Acid-Monophosphoric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momiyama, Norie; Tabuse, Hideaki; Noda, Hirofumi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Fujinami, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Katsunori; Izumiseki, Atsuto; Funayama, Kosuke; Egawa, Fuyuki; Okada, Shino; Adachi, Hiroaki; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-09-07

    A chiral Brønsted acid containing two different acidic sites, chiral carboxylic acid-monophosphoric acid 1a, was designed to be a new and effective concept in catalytic asymmetric hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of azopyridinecarboxylate with amidodienes. The multipoint hydrogen-bonding interactions among the carboxylic acid, monophosphoric acid, azopyridinecarboxylate, and amidodiene achieved high catalytic and chiral efficiency, producing substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridazines with excellent stereocontrol in a single step. This constitutes the first example of regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective azo-hetero-Diels-Alder reactions by chiral Brønsted acid catalysis.

  18. Ammonia IRMS-TPD study on the distribution of acid sites in mordenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Miki; Suzuki, Katsuki; Katada, Naonobu; Kanougi, Tomonori; Atoguchi, Takashi

    2005-10-13

    Using an IRMS-TPD (temperature programmed desorption) of ammonia, we studied the nature, strength, crystallographic location, and distribution of acid sites of mordenite. In this method, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) work together to follow the thermal behavior of adsorbed and desorbed ammonia, respectively; therefore, adsorbed species were identified, and their thermal behavior was directly connected with the desorption of ammonia during an elevation of temperature. IR-measured TPD of the NH4(+) cation was similar to MS-measured TPD, thus showing the nature of Brønsted acidity. From the behavior of OH bands, it was found that the Brønsted acid sites consisted of two kinds of OH bands at high and low wavenumbers, ascribable to OH bands situated on 12- and 8-member rings (MR) of mordenite structure, respectively. The amount and strength of these Brønsted hydroxyls were measured quantitatively based on a theoretical equation using a curve fitting method. Up to ca. 30% of the exchange degree, NH4(+) was exchanged with Na+ on the 12-MR to arrive at saturation; therefore, in this region, the Brønsted acid site was situated on the large pore of 12-MR. The NH4(+) cation was then exchanged with Na+ on 8-MR, and finally exceeded the amount on 12-MR. In the 99% NH4-mordenite, Brønsted acid sites were located predominantly on the 8-MR more than on the 12-MR. Irrespective of the NH4(+) exchange degree, the strengths deltaH of Brønsted OH were 145 and 153 kJ mol(-1) on the 12- and 8-MR, respectively; that is, the strength of Brønsted acid site on the 8-MR was larger than that on the 12-MR. A density functional theory (DFT) calculation supported the difference in the strengths of the acid sites. Catalytic cracking activity of the Brønsted acid sites on the 8-MR declined rapidly, while that on the 12-MR was remarkably kept. The difference in strength and/or steric capacity may cause such a difference in the life of a catalyst.

  19. A combination of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol or a combination of Mg and Zn are both able to reduce the adverse effects of lindane-poisoning on rat brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Murat, Jean-Claude; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid (Vit C) and α-tocopherol (Vit E) or with Mg and Zn upon lindane-induced damages in liver and brain. Under our experimental conditions, lindane poisoning (5mg/kg body weight per day for 3 days) resulted in (1) an increased level of plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, (2) an increased activity of LDH, ALP, AST, ALT, (3) an oxidative stress in liver and brain as revealed by an increased level of lipids peroxidation (TBARS) and a decrease of glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in liver and brain. In conclusion, both Vit C+E or Mg+Zn treatments display beneficial effects upon oxidative stress induced by lindane treatment in liver and brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Absolute acidity of clay edge sites from ab-initio simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Sami; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-10-01

    We provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (0 1 0) face of pyrophyllite. Such information cannot be inferred directly from titration experiments, which do not discriminate between different sites and whose interpretation resorts to macroscopic models. The determination of the corresponding pKa then usually relies on bond valence models, sometimes improved by incorporating some structural information from ab-initio simulations. Here we use density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations, combined with thermodynamic integration, to compute the free energy of the reactions of water with the different surface groups, leading to a deprotonated site and an aqueous hydronium ion. Our approach consistently describes the clay and water sides of the interface and includes naturally electronic polarization effects. It also allows to investigate the structure and solvation of all sites separately. We find that the most acidic group is SiOH, due to its ability to establish strong hydrogen bonds with adsorbed water, as it also happens on the quartz and amorphous silica surfaces. The acidity constant of AlOH2 is only 1 pKa unit larger. Finally, the pKa of AlOH is outside the possible range in water and this site should not deprotonate in aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of surface sites and hence their acidity is strongly affected by the proximity of other sites, in particular for AlOH and AlOH2 which share the same Al. We discuss the implications of our findings on the applicability of bond valence models to predict the acidity of edge sites of clays.

  1. Spontaneous dispersion of PdO onto acid sites of zeolites studied by in situ DXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, K; Niwa, M; Yokota, S; Kato, K; Tanida, H; Uruga, T

    2003-01-01

    The generation of highly dispersed PdO over zeolite supports was studied using in situ energy-dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) technique. From the comparison with the Na-ZSM-5, it was found that the oxidation as well as the spontaneous dispersion of Pd was promoted through the interaction between PdO and acid sites of H-form zeolites. (author)

  2. The hydroxyl species and acid sites on diatomite surface: a combined IR and Raman study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P.; Wu, D. Q.; He, H. P.; Lin, Z. Y.

    2004-04-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), Raman spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine molecules (Py-Raman) and in situ Py-IR have been used to investigate the hydroxyl species and acid sites on diatomite surfaces. The Lewis (L) and Brønsted (B) acid sites, and various hydroxyl species, including isolated hydroxyl groups, H-bonded hydroxyl groups and physically adsorbed water, are identified. The L acid sites in diatomite samples are resulted from the clay impurities, and the B acid sites are resulted from some moderate strength H-bonded hydroxyl groups. At room temperature, both of the isolated and H-bonded silanols associate with the physically adsorbed water by hydrogen bond. After calcination treatment, physically adsorbed water will be desorbed from the silanols, and the silanols will condense with the increase of temperature. Generally, the H-bonded silanols condense more easily than the isolated ones. The properties of surface hydroxyl species of diatomaceous silica are more similar to precipitated silica rather than fumed silica.

  3. Brønsted acid sites based on penta-coordinated aluminum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichun; Jiang, Yijiao; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Duk Kim, Kyung; Stampfl, Catherine; Baiker, Alfons; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Huang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Zeolites and amorphous silica-alumina (ASA), which both provide Brønsted acid sites (BASs), are the most extensively used solid acid catalysts in the chemical industry. It is widely believed that BASs consist only of tetra-coordinated aluminum sites (AlIV) with bridging OH groups in zeolites or nearby silanols on ASA surfaces. Here we report the direct observation in ASA of a new type of BAS based on penta-coordinated aluminum species (AlV) by 27Al-{1H} dipolar-mediated correlation two-dimensional NMR experiments at high magnetic field under magic-angle spinning. Both BAS-AlIV and -AlV show a similar acidity to protonate probe molecular ammonia. The quantitative evaluation of 1H and 27Al sites demonstrates that BAS-AlV co-exists with BAS-AlIV rather than replaces it, which opens new avenues for strongly enhancing the acidity of these popular solid acids.

  4. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  5. Identification of nucleic acid binding sites on translin-associated factor X (TRAX protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Gupta

    Full Text Available Translin and TRAX proteins play roles in very important cellular processes such as DNA recombination, spatial and temporal expression of mRNA, and in siRNA processing. Translin forms a homomeric nucleic acid binding complex and binds to ssDNA and RNA. However, a mutant translin construct that forms homomeric complex lacking nucleic acid binding activity is able to form fully active heteromeric translin-TRAX complex when co-expressed with TRAX. A substantial progress has been made in identifying translin sites that mediate its binding activity, while TRAX was thought not to bind DNA or RNA on its own. We here for the first time demonstrate nucleic acid binding to TRAX by crosslinking radiolabeled ssDNA to heteromeric translin-TRAX complex using UV-laser. The TRAX and translin, photochemically crosslinked with ssDNA, were individually detected on SDS-PAGE. We mutated two motifs in TRAX and translin, designated B2 and B3, to help define the nucleic acid binding sites in the TRAX sequence. The most pronounced effect was observed in the mutants of B3 motif that impaired nucleic acid binding activity of the heteromeric complexes. We suggest that both translin and TRAX are binding competent and contribute to the nucleic acid binding activity.

  6. Identification of Nucleic Acid Binding Sites on Translin-Associated Factor X (TRAX) Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Kumar, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Translin and TRAX proteins play roles in very important cellular processes such as DNA recombination, spatial and temporal expression of mRNA, and in siRNA processing. Translin forms a homomeric nucleic acid binding complex and binds to ssDNA and RNA. However, a mutant translin construct that forms homomeric complex lacking nucleic acid binding activity is able to form fully active heteromeric translin-TRAX complex when co-expressed with TRAX. A substantial progress has been made in identifying translin sites that mediate its binding activity, while TRAX was thought not to bind DNA or RNA on its own. We here for the first time demonstrate nucleic acid binding to TRAX by crosslinking radiolabeled ssDNA to heteromeric translin-TRAX complex using UV-laser. The TRAX and translin, photochemically crosslinked with ssDNA, were individually detected on SDS-PAGE. We mutated two motifs in TRAX and translin, designated B2 and B3, to help define the nucleic acid binding sites in the TRAX sequence. The most pronounced effect was observed in the mutants of B3 motif that impaired nucleic acid binding activity of the heteromeric complexes. We suggest that both translin and TRAX are binding competent and contribute to the nucleic acid binding activity. PMID:22427937

  7. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  8. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1990-05-01

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  9. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  10. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  11. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  12. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  13. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  15. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  17. Formation of Broensted acids sites in the reaction of cyclohexanol on NaCeY zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, O.; Nattich, M.; Datka, J.; Gil, B.

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate why the catalytic activity of NaCeY in cyclohexanol reactions carried out in a pulse reactor increases with the pulse number. We studied therefore the effect of cyclohexanol and also of ethanol and water on catalytic activity NaCeY (of exchange degrees 36 and 72%) in cyclohexanol reactions: isomerization and disproportionation. We also studied the reaction of cyclohexanol and water with NaCeY zeolite by IR spectroscopy. Our results evidenced that new Broensted acid sites were formed by the reaction of cyclohexanol and water. This was shown by IR spectroscopy: the increase of Si-O 1 H-Al band 3638 cm -1 and in increase of ammonium ions band (upon ammonia adsorption). The new sites were formed by hydrolysis of Ce 3+ ions with water introduced in a pulse, or produced by dehydration of cyclohexanol catalyzed by acid sites. Formation of new Broensted acid sites resulted in an increase of catalytic activity of NaCeY in cyclohexane reaction as observed in this study and also in cyclohexanol reactions. (author)

  18. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. People who are sleeping or who ...

  19. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  1. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  2. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  5. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  6. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done more than 1 hour after touching the plant's sap. Flush the eyes out with water. Take care to clean under the fingernails well to remove ... room. If you are concerned, call your health care provider or poison control. At the ... Take a sample of the plant with you to the doctor or hospital, if ...

  7. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  8. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  9. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  10. GABAA [gamma-aminobutyric acid] type binding sites on membranes of spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoe, S.L.; Wekerle, L.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H] gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to seminal membranes of swines and rams was examined. Specific, GABA binding was demonstrated in both species, which showed the features of GABA A type receptors. The affinity of binding was similar in both species, whereas the density of seminal GABA binding sites was 5 times higher in swine. Our findings suggest that GABA may have a direct effect on spermatozoa

  11. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  12. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  14. Remedial action at the Acid/Pueblo Canyon site, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The Acid/Pueblo Canyon site (TA-45) was designated in 1976 for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During the period 1943 to 1964 untreated and treated liquid wastes generated by nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were discharged into the two canyons. A survey of the site conducted by LASL in 1976 to 1977 identified two areas where radiological contamination exceeded criteria levels. The selected remedial action was based on extensive radiological characterization and comprehensive engineering assessments and comprised the excavation and disposal of 390 yd 3 of contaminated soil and rock. This document describes the background to the remedial action, the parties involved in administering and executing it, the chronology of the work, verification of the adequacy of the remedial action, and the cost incurred. 14 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  15. Soil degradation by sulfuric acid disposition on uranium producing sites in south Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, I.; Gribachev, P.

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the damage of soils caused by spills of sulfuric acid solutions used for in situ leaching of uranium at eight uranium producing (by open-cast method) sites (total area of approximately 220 ha) in the region of Momino-Rakovski (South Bulgaria). The upper soil layer is cinnamonic pseudopodzolic ( or Eutric Planosols by FAO Legend, 1974). The results of the investigation show that the sulfuric acid spills caused strong acidification of upper (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-60 cm) soil horizons which is expressed as decreasing of pH (H 2 O) to 2.9-3.5 and increasing of exchangeable H + and Al 3+ to 18 and 32% from CEC. Acid degradation of soils is combined with reducing of organic matter content. The average concentration of the total heavy metal content in the upper soil horizon (in ppm) is: Cd=1.5; Cu=30; Pb=25; Zn=40 and U=8. No significant differences were detected between the upper and subsurface soil layers . The heavy metal concentration did not exceed the Bulgarian standards for heavy metals and uranium content of soils. But the coarse texture of the top soil layers, the lack of carbonates, The low CEC and strong acidity determine a low buffering capacity of the investigated soils and this can be considered as hazardous for plants. This indicates that a future soil monitoring should be carried out in the region together with measures for neutralizing of soil acidity

  16. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  17. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Paracetamol is frequently involved in intended self-poisoning, and concomitant overdosing of other drugs is commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate further concomitant drug overdose in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects on the outcome...... of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  18. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    for months and years, there is a possibility that every medic can encounter its unusual symptoms, requiring specific treatment. The following toxins cause the poisoning: ciguatoxin, meitotoxin, ostreotoxin, domoic acid and some other unspecified toxins. They are lipid soluble, thermo stable and cannot be decomposed by culinary processing. These toxins have neurotoxic, cardiotoxic, hemolytic properties and cause diarrheic syndrome. Clinical presentation is characterized by average latent period of 12 hours after the consummation, vomiting and diarrhea next 24 hours and neurological symptoms that appear at the beginning of the poisoning with paresthesias along the body, changing feeling of hot and cold, strong myalgia. Disturbances in cardiac rhythm and conduction, strong dehydration or shock are possible in severe cases. Light cases pass over in several days, but, more often the poisoning has a chronic course – from 3-4 months to 1 year, with prevalence of neurologic symptoms: myalgia, paresthesias, skin itching with scratches, depression. The management is not specific and includes stomach lavage with activated charcoal, fluids replacement during the first 24 hours, corticosteroids, antiallergics, high doses of vitamins from group B (Vit. B1, Vit. B6, Vit. B12, mannitol IV, nootropic medicaments, antidepressants and other symptomatic medicaments. The prophylaxis is done by examining every fish with specific test for detecting ciguateratoxin.

  19. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  20. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  1. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  2. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  3. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  4. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  5. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  8. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  9. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  10. Possible site-specific reagent for the general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimore, F S; Roon, R J

    1978-02-07

    The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. The amino acid analogue N-delta-chloroacetyl-L-ornithine (NCAO) has been tested as potential site specific reagent for this system. L-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki = 80 micrometer) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 micrometer NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. Approximately 80% inactivation of the system was observed after 90 min. When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. The inactivation was noncompetitive (Ki congruent to 60 micrometer) and could not be reversed by the removal of the NCAO. Addition of a five-fold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. Under parallel conditions of incubation, other closely related transport systems were not inhibited by NCAO.

  11. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  12. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  13. Utilizing knowledge base of amino acids structural neighborhoods to predict protein-protein interaction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Jan; Škoda, Petr; Hoksza, David

    2017-12-06

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a key role in an investigation of various biochemical processes, and their identification is thus of great importance. Although computational prediction of which amino acids take part in a PPI has been an active field of research for some time, the quality of in-silico methods is still far from perfect. We have developed a novel prediction method called INSPiRE which benefits from a knowledge base built from data available in Protein Data Bank. All proteins involved in PPIs were converted into labeled graphs with nodes corresponding to amino acids and edges to pairs of neighboring amino acids. A structural neighborhood of each node was then encoded into a bit string and stored in the knowledge base. When predicting PPIs, INSPiRE labels amino acids of unknown proteins as interface or non-interface based on how often their structural neighborhood appears as interface or non-interface in the knowledge base. We evaluated INSPiRE's behavior with respect to different types and sizes of the structural neighborhood. Furthermore, we examined the suitability of several different features for labeling the nodes. Our evaluations showed that INSPiRE clearly outperforms existing methods with respect to Matthews correlation coefficient. In this paper we introduce a new knowledge-based method for identification of protein-protein interaction sites called INSPiRE. Its knowledge base utilizes structural patterns of known interaction sites in the Protein Data Bank which are then used for PPI prediction. Extensive experiments on several well-established datasets show that INSPiRE significantly surpasses existing PPI approaches.

  14. Whole genome mRNA transcriptomics analysis reveals different modes of action of the diarrheic shellfish poisons okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin-1 versus azaspiracid-1 in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bovee, Toine F H; Portier, Liza; de Haan, Laura; Peijnenburg, Ad; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2018-02-01

    A study with DNA microarrays was performed to investigate the effects of two diarrhetic and one azaspiracid shellfish poison, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) respectively, on the whole-genome mRNA expression of undifferentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells. Previously, the most responding genes were used to develop a dedicated array tube test to screen shellfish samples on the presence of these toxins. In the present study the whole genome mRNA expression was analyzed in order to reveal modes of action and obtain hints on potential biomarkers suitable to be used in alternative bioassays. Effects on key genes in the most affected pathways and processes were confirmed by qPCR. OA and DTX-1 induced almost identical effects on mRNA expression, which strongly indicates that OA and DTX-1induce similar toxic effects. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicates that both compounds induce hypoxia related pathways/processes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The gene expression profile of AZA-1 is different and shows increased mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and glycolysis, suggesting a different mode of action for this toxin. Future studies should reveal whether identified pathways provide suitable biomarkers for rapid detection of DSPs in shellfish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Curare Alkaloids: Constituents of a Matis Dart Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca Garcia, Gonzalo R; Hennig, Lothar; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Bussmann, Rainer W; Tsetlin, Victor I; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-11-25

    A phytochemical study of dart and arrow poison from the Matis tribe led to the identification of D-(-)-quinic acid, L-malic acid, ethyldimethylamine, magnoflorine, and five new bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (BBIQAs), 1-5. D-Tubocurarine could not be identified among these products. BBIQA (3) contains a unique linkage at C-8 and C-11'. All structures were characterized by a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data. The effects of Matis poison and individual BBIQAs (1-3) on rat muscle nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique.

  16. Cadmium poisoning of oxygen reduction on platinum electrode in potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    Experiment with a rotating disk and ring apparatus showed no poisoning by cadmium in 8.5 M KOH, alone or with Cl(-) or CO3(=). Poisoning does not occur either in 0.1 M KOH supernatant at CdO, but a partially reversible poisoning results from .0001 M CdCl2 and traces of fatty acid are present. Evidence indicates that the catastrophic poisoning affects the four-electron O2 reduction more than it does the one-electron H3O(+) discharge.

  17. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  18. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaobo; Wu, Shujie; Liu, Bo; Liu, Heng; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2011-02-01

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization.

  19. Savannah River Site Tank Cleaning: Corrosion Rate For One Versus Eight Percent Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  20. Locations of the three primary binding sites for long-chain fatty acids on bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Era, S.; Bhamidipati, S.P.; Reed, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Binding of 13 C-enriched oleic acid to bovine serum albumin and to three large proteolytic fragments of albumin - two complementary fragments corresponding to the two halved of albumin and one fragment corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal domain - yielded unique patterns of NMR resonances (chemical shifts and relative intensities) that were used to identify the locations of binding of the first 5 mol of oleic acid to the multidomain albumin molecule. The first 3 mol of oleic acid added to intact albumin generated three distinct NMR resonances as a result of simultaneous binding of oleic acid to three heterogeneous sites (primary sites). This distribution suggests albumin to be a less symmetrical binding molecule than theoretical models predict. This work also demonstrates the power of NMR for the study of microenvironments of individual fatty acid binding sites in specific domain

  1. Catalytic Ozonation of Toluene Using Chilean Natural Zeolite: The Key Role of Brønsted and Lewis Acid Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Alejandro-Martín

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface physical-chemical characteristics of Chilean natural zeolite on the catalytic ozonation of toluene is presented in this article. Surface characteristics of natural zeolite were modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Prior to catalytic ozonation assays, natural and chemically modified zeolite samples were thermally treated at 623 and 823 K in order to enhance Brønsted and Lewis acid sites formation, respectively. Natural and modified zeolite samples were characterised by N2 adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, using pyridine as a probe molecule. The highest values of the reaction rate of toluene oxidation were observed when NH4Z1 and 2NH4Z1 zeolite samples were used. Those samples registered the highest density values of Lewis acid sites compared to other samples used here. Results indicate that the presence of strong Lewis acid sites at the 2NH4Z1 zeolite surface causes an increase in the reaction rate of toluene oxidation, confirming the role of Lewis acid sites during the catalytic ozonation of toluene at room temperature. Lewis acid sites decompose gaseous ozone into atomic oxygen, which reacts with the adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites. On the other hand, no significant contribution of Brønsted acid sites on the reaction rate was registered when NH4Z1 and 2NH4Z1 zeolite samples were used.

  2. Creating diversity by site-selective peptide modification: a customizable unit affords amino acids with high optical purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Estudillo, Ivan; Boto, Alicia

    2013-11-15

    The development of peptide libraries by site-selective modification of a few parent peptides would save valuable time and materials in discovery processes, but still is a difficult synthetic challenge. Herein natural hydroxyproline is introduced as a "convertible" unit for the production of a variety of optically pure amino acids, including expensive N-alkyl amino acids, and to achieve the mild, efficient, and site-selective modification of peptides.

  3. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  5. Description of 3,180 courses of chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid in children ≤ 5 y with severe lead poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: a retrospective analysis of programme data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Thurtle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC confirmed widespread contamination from lead-rich ore being processed for gold, and environmental management was begun. MSF commenced a medical management programme that included treatment with the oral chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer. Here we describe and evaluate the changes in venous blood lead level (VBLL associated with DMSA treatment in the largest cohort of children ≤ 5 y of age with severe paediatric lead intoxication reported to date to our knowledge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a retrospective analysis of programme data, we describe change in VBLL after DMSA treatment courses in a cohort of 1,156 children ≤ 5 y of age who underwent between one and 15 courses of chelation treatment. Courses of DMSA of 19 or 28 d duration administered to children with VBLL ≥ 45 µg/dl were included. Impact of DMSA was calculated as end-course VBLL as a percentage of pre-course VBLL (ECP. Mixed model regression with nested random effects was used to evaluate the relative associations of covariates with ECP. Of 3,180 treatment courses administered, 36% and 6% of courses commenced with VBLL ≥ 80 µg/dl and ≥ 120 µg/dl, respectively. Overall mean ECP was 74.5% (95% CI 69.7%-79.7%; among 159 inpatient courses, ECP was 47.7% (95% CI 39.7%-57.3%. ECP after 19-d courses (n = 2,262 was lower in older children, first-ever courses, courses with a longer interval since a previous course, courses with more directly observed doses, and courses with higher pre-course VBLLs. Low haemoglobin was associated with higher ECP. Twenty children aged ≤ 5 y who commenced chelation died during the period studied, with lead poisoning a primary factor in six deaths. Monitoring of alanine

  6. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  7. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Amino acid sequence surrounding the chondroitin sulfate attachment site of thrombomodulin regulates chondroitin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a cell-surface glycoprotein and a critical mediator of endothelial anticoagulant function. TM exists as both a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan (PG) form and a non-PG form lacking a CS chain (α-TM); therefore, TM can be described as a part-time PG. Previously, we reported that α-TM bears an immature, truncated linkage tetrasaccharide structure (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xyl). However, the biosynthetic mechanism to generate part-time PGs remains unclear. In this study, we used several mutants to demonstrate that the amino acid sequence surrounding the CS attachment site influences the efficiency of chondroitin polymerization. In particular, the presence of acidic residues surrounding the CS attachment site was indispensable for the elongation of CS. In addition, mutants defective in CS elongation did not exhibit anti-coagulant activity, as in the case with α-TM. Together, these data support a model for CS chain assembly in which specific core protein determinants are recognized by a key biosynthetic enzyme involved in chondroitin polymerization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modification and characterization of sites giving acid cracking on aluminium oxide supports; Modification et caracterisation des sites responsables du craquage acide sur des supports a base d`alumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, D

    1997-10-23

    The aim of this work is to characterize the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, especially the nature, the amount, the strength and the environment of acid sites. The techniques that have been used are: the thermo-desorption of trimethyl-phosphine followed by {sup 31}P MAS NMR, the infrared spectroscopy, the n-heptane cracking, the modification of {gamma} alumina by the addition of chlorine, silicon and alkali (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}), alkaline-earths (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}), lanthanum (La{sup 3+}) cations. The combination of these techniques has allowed to identify the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina through the n-heptane transformation reactions under reforming conditions. We have shown that Lewis acidity is responsible for cracking reactions leading to C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} whereas the cracking of n-heptane producing C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} is due to Broensted acid sites. The isomerization and cyclization reactions both require weaker Broensted acid sites than cracking leading to C{sub 3}-C{sub 4}. The mechanisms involved in the formation of products of these reactions have been identified. Despite the complexity of surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, this study has determined the environment of catalytically active sites, considering the presence of cation vacancies. (author) 206 refs.

  10. Success: evolutionary and structural properties of amino acids prove effective for succinylation site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Sharma, Alok; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2018-01-19

    Post-translational modification is considered an important biological mechanism with critical impact on the diversification of the proteome. Although a long list of such modifications has been studied, succinylation of lysine residues has recently attracted the interest of the scientific community. The experimental detection of succinylation sites is an expensive process, which consumes a lot of time and resources. Therefore, computational predictors of this covalent modification have emerged as a last resort to tackling lysine succinylation. In this paper, we propose a novel computational predictor called 'Success', which efficiently uses the structural and evolutionary information of amino acids for predicting succinylation sites. To do this, each lysine was described as a vector that combined the above information of surrounding amino acids. We then designed a support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel for discriminating between succinylated and non-succinylated residues. We finally compared the Success predictor with three state-of-the-art predictors in the literature. As a result, our proposed predictor showed a significant improvement over the compared predictors in statistical metrics, such as sensitivity (0.866), accuracy (0.838) and Matthews correlation coefficient (0.677) on a benchmark dataset. The proposed predictor effectively uses the structural and evolutionary information of the amino acids surrounding a lysine. The bigram feature extraction approach, while retaining the same number of features, facilitates a better description of lysines. A support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel was used to discriminate between modified and unmodified lysines. The aforementioned aspects make the Success predictor outperform three state-of-the-art predictors in succinylation detection.

  11. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  12. Trends in types of calls managed by U.S. poison centers 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce D; Seung, Hyunuk; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-12-05

    The number of cases reported to poison centers has decreased since 2008 but there is evidence that the complexity of calls is increasing. The objectives are to evaluate national poison center data for trends in reason and how these changes effect management site, medical outcomes, and poison center workload. Data regarding reason, age, management site, and medical outcome were extracted from annual reports of the National Poison Data System from 2000 to 2015. The proportion of cases by year were determined for unintentional and intentional exposures. Analysis of data from a single poison center from 2005 to 2015 compared the number of interactions between poison center staff and callers for unintentional versus intentional reasons. Trend analyses found that from 2000 to 2015 the percent of unintentional cases decreased (from 85.9 to 78.4%, p Poison centers are managing more intentional exposures and fewer unintentional exposures. Intentional exposures require more poison center staff expertise and time. Looking only at poison center total call volume may not be an adequate method to gauge productivity.

  13. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  15. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  16. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IN LJUBLJANA FROM 1990 TO 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbon monoxide (CO is the most common lethal poisoning. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Slovenia is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of sublethal acute CO poisoning in Ljubljana region (Slovenia.Methods. A retrospective study involved CO poisoned patients admited to Poison Control Centre and Centre of Intensive Care Medicine of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1999.Results. There were annualy approximately 2.4 cases of sublethal CO poisonings per 100.000 population in Ljubljana region. Of these, 25% were suicide attempts and 75% were unintentional poisonings (28% happened in domestic environment as a result of heating, cooking or bathing, 22% were associated with fire, 11% happened in the working site, 10% happened in the workroom at home and only 3% occurred in the moving vehicle. Among the patients there were 72% male and 28% female. The domestic source of CO was a gas water heater or residential heating device in the 63% of the cases, a coal stove in the 32% and an oil heater in the 6%. In the 18% of the suicide attempts we found also acute drug or alcohol intoxication, and 18% of patients poisoned in the fire were intoxicated with alcohol. Collective poisoning happened in the 25% of cases affecting from 2 to 6 persons.Conclusions. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Ljubljana region appers to be seven times lower than in other countries. The main reason is misdiagnosing of CO poisoning. In the future we should consider CO poisoning more often, particularly in all patients with flu-like symptoms, unexplained headache and worsening of pre-existing diseases. We should always exclude the collective poisoning and the presence of alcohol or other drugs.

  20. Identification of metal ion binding sites based on amino acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyong; Hu, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Xiaojin; Gao, Sujuan; Ding, Changjiang; Feng, Yonge; Bao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The identification of metal ion binding sites is important for protein function annotation and the design of new drug molecules. This study presents an effective method of analyzing and identifying the binding residues of metal ions based solely on sequence information. Ten metal ions were extracted from the BioLip database: Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, K+ and Co2+. The analysis showed that Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, and Co2+ were sensitive to the conservation of amino acids at binding sites, and promising results can be achieved using the Position Weight Scoring Matrix algorithm, with an accuracy of over 79.9% and a Matthews correlation coefficient of over 0.6. The binding sites of other metals can also be accurately identified using the Support Vector Machine algorithm with multifeature parameters as input. In addition, we found that Ca2+ was insensitive to hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity information and Mn2+ was insensitive to polarization charge information. An online server was constructed based on the framework of the proposed method and is freely available at http://60.31.198.140:8081/metal/HomePage/HomePage.html.

  1. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  3. Imaging Preferential Flow Pathways of Contaminants from Passive Acid Mine Drainage Mitigation Sites Using Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N.; Mount, G.; Terry, N.; Herndon, E.; Singer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Critical Zone represents the surficial and shallow layer of rock, air, water, and soil where most interactions between living organisms and the Earth occur. Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal extraction can influence both biological and geochemical processes across this zone. Conservative estimates suggest that more than 300 million gallons of AMD are released daily, making this acidic solution of water and contaminants a common issue in areas with legacy or current coal extraction. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) provides a rapid and minimally invasive method to identify and monitor contaminant pathways from AMD remediation systems in the subsurface of the Critical Zone. The technique yields spatially continuous data of subsurface resistivity that can be inverted to determine electrical conductivity as a function of depth. Since elevated concentrations of heavy metals can directly influence soil conductivity, ERI data can be used to trace the flow pathways or perhaps unknown mine conduits and transport of heavy metals through the subsurface near acid mine drainage sources. This study aims to examine preferential contaminant migration from those sources through substrate pores, fractures, and shallow mine workings in the near subsurface surrounding AMD sites in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. We utilize time lapse ERI measures during different hydrologic conditions to better understand the variability of preferential flow pathways in relation to changes in stage and discharge within the remediation systems. To confirm ERI findings, and provide constraint to geochemical reactions occurring in the shallow subsurface, we conducted Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrometry analysis of groundwater samples from boreholes along the survey transects. Through these combined methods, we can provide insight into the ability of engineered systems to contain and isolate metals in passive acid mine drainage treatment systems.

  4. Bronsted acid site number evaluation using isopropylamine decomposition on Y-zeolite contaminated with vanadium in a simultaneous DSC-TGA analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Perez, Yonnathan; Forero, Liliam Alexandra Palomeque; Torres, Diana Vanessa Cristiano; Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Acid-site catalyzed decomposition of isopropylamine was followed in a simultaneous DSC-TGA analyzer. USY zeolite samples with and without vanadium were studied. Results show that acid sites number decreases linearly with vanadium concentration in zeolite indicating that vanadium neutralizes acid sites on catalyst and the metal is able to move on the surface of the solid. The neutralizing species probably contain only one vanadium atom. The reaction enthalpy plus desorption heat of the products show that vanadium preferentially neutralizes the strongest acid sites on the zeolite. The application of the simultaneous DSC-TGA technique to quantify Bronsted acid sites on solids by this reaction is novel

  5. Endosulfan poisoning: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Qadir, Tooba Fatima; Moin, Ariba; Fatima, Huda; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Al Rubaish, Fatima A; Senthilkumaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture. Several cases of endosulfan poisoning have been reported from different regions of the world. Whether accidental or intentional, endosulfan ingestion proves to be fatal unless immediate, aggressive treatment is initiated. Management is mainly supportive as no antidote exists for endosulfan poisoning as yet. The use of endosulfan needs to be strictly regulated and eventually banned worldwide altogether to lower the current morbidity and mortality resulting from this pesticide. Additionally, monitoring biological samples, using non-invasive techniques such as breast milk sampling, can provide an effective method of observing the elimination of this environmentally persistent organic pollutant from the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  7. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Vapor-Phase Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol to Aromatics over Pt/HBeta: Identification of the Role of Acid Sites and Metal Sites on the Reaction Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Lei [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 P.R. China; Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Peng, Bo [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhu, Xinli [Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 P.R. China

    2018-02-05

    Hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol, a phenolic compound derived from lignin fraction of biomass, over a Pt/HBeta catalyst at 350 °C and atmospheric pressure produces benzene, toluene, xylenes, and C9+ aromatics with yield of 42%, 29%, 12%, and 5%, respectively. Reaction pathways for conversion of two functional groups (hydroxyl and methoxyl) over the bifunctional catalyst were studied. Both guaiacol and intermediate products (catechol and cyclopentanone) were fed onto zeolite HBeta and Pt/SiO2 to identify the individual role of acid site and metal site. Acid sites (mainly Brønsted acid site, BAS) catalyze transalkylation and dehydroxylation reactions in sequence, producing phenol, cresols and xylenols as the major products at high conversion. Pt sites catalyze demethylation reaction resulting in catechol as the primary product, which can either be deoxygenated to phenol followed by phenol to benzene, or decarbonylated to cyclopentanone and further to butane. The close proximity of Pt and BAS in bifunctional Pt/HBeta enables both transalkylation and deoxygenation reactions with inhibited demethylation and decarbonylation reactions, producing aromatics as major final products with a total yield > 85%. Both activity and stability of bifunctional Pt/HBeta during hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol is improved compared to HBeta and Pt/SiO2. The addition of water to the feed further improves the activity and stability via hydrolysis of O-CH3 bond of guaiacol on BAS and removing coke around Pt.

  9. Dansyl labeling to modulate the relative affinity of bile acids for the binding sites of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacova, Jana; Sastre, German; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2011-09-08

    Binding of natural bile acids to human serum albumin (HSA) is an important step in enterohepatic circulation and provides a measure of liver function. In this article, we report on the use of four dansyl (Dns) derivatives of cholic acid (ChA) to demonstrate a regiodifferentiation in their relative affinity for the two binding sites of HSA. Using both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, formation of Dns-ChA@HSA complexes was confirmed; the corresponding binding constants were determined, and their distribution between bulk solution and HSA microenvironment was estimated. By means of energy transfer from Trp to the Dns moiety, donor-acceptor distances were estimated (21-25 Å) and found to be compatible with both site 1 and site 2 occupancies. Nevertheless, titration using warfarin and ibuprofen as specific displacement probes clearly indicated that 3α- and 3β-Dns-ChA bind to HSA at site 2, whereas their C-7 regioisomers bind to HSA at site 1. Furthermore, the C-3-labeled compounds are displaced by lithocholic acid, whereas they are insensitive to ChA, confirming the assumption that the former binds to HSA at site 2. Thus, Dns labeling provides a useful tool to modulate the relative affinity of ChA to the major binding sites of HSA and, in combination with other fluorescent ChA analogs, to mimic the binding behavior of natural bile acids.

  10. Xylazine Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2016-10-01

    Xylazine is a sedative, analgesic, anesthetic, and central muscle relaxant approved for animals but not humans. Although xylazine is an emerging drug of abuse, there are limited data on potentially adverse exposures to the drug. The intent of this study was to describe potentially adverse xylazine exposures reported to a large poison center system. All xylazine exposures reported to Texas poison centers between 2000 and 2014 were included. The distribution of cases by select variables was determined. Of 76 total cases, 93% of the patients were ≥20 years of age, and 54% were male. Fifty-one percent of the exposures occurred by injection, 28% by ingestion, 16% were dermal, 14% were ocular, and 3% by inhalation. Sixty-four percent of the exposures were unintentional, 32% were intentional, and 1% each was related to malicious use and adverse reaction. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, 21% were managed on-site, and 9% were referred to a health care facility. The most common clinical effects were drowsiness or lethargy (47%), bradycardia (20%), hypotension (11%), hypertension (9%), puncture or wound (8%), and slurred speech (8%). Xylazine exposures tended to involve patients who were adult males, exposures were typically unintentional; and most often occurred by injection. Most of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when a poison center was contacted. The most frequently reported adverse effects were cardiovascular or neurologic in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lead poisoning in Australian fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1970-09-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 3 Australian fruit bats. Diagnoses were indicated by the finding of large acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal and hepatic cells, and toxic amounts of lead in tissues. The source of lead was believed to be peeling leaded paint from the walls of the bats' cage.

  12. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor's transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.

  13. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  14. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  15. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  16. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  17. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  19. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  20. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  1. A decade of monitoring at Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) sites: can we observe trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Thimonier, Anne; Schmitt, Maria; Walthert, Lorenz; Waldner, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity from 1995 or later until 2007 were investigated at several forest sites throughout Switzerland to assess the effects of air pollution abatements on deposition and the response of the soil solution chemistry. Deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements at nine sites of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research network (LWF) since 1995 or later. Soil solution was measured at seven plots at four soil depths since 1998 or later. Trends in the molar ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil solutions and in concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N (NO(3)-N + NH(4)-N), sulfate (SO(4)-S), and base cations (BC) were used to detect changes in soil solution chemistry. Acid deposition significantly decreased at three out of the nine study sites due to a decrease in total N deposition. Total SO(4)-S deposition decreased at the nine sites, but due to the relatively low amount of SO(4)-S load compared to N deposition, it did not contribute to decrease acid deposition significantly. No trend in total BC deposition was detected. In the soil solution, no trend in concentrations and fluxes of BC, SO(4)-S, and inorganic N were found at most soil depths at five out of the seven sites. This suggests that the soil solution reacted very little to the changes in atmospheric deposition. A stronger reduction in base cations compared to aluminum was detected at two sites, which might indicate that acidification of the soil solution was proceeding faster at these sites.

  2. A class frequency mixture model that adjusts for site-specific amino acid frequencies and improves inference of protein phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Karen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widely used substitution models for proteins, such as the Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT or Whelan and Goldman (WAG models, are based on empirical amino acid interchange matrices estimated from databases of protein alignments that incorporate the average amino acid frequencies of the data set under examination (e.g JTT + F. Variation in the evolutionary process between sites is typically modelled by a rates-across-sites distribution such as the gamma (Γ distribution. However, sites in proteins also vary in the kinds of amino acid interchanges that are favoured, a feature that is ignored by standard empirical substitution matrices. Here we examine the degree to which the pattern of evolution at sites differs from that expected based on empirical amino acid substitution models and evaluate the impact of these deviations on phylogenetic estimation. Results We analyzed 21 large protein alignments with two statistical tests designed to detect deviation of site-specific amino acid distributions from data simulated under the standard empirical substitution model: JTT+ F + Γ. We found that the number of states at a given site is, on average, smaller and the frequencies of these states are less uniform than expected based on a JTT + F + Γ substitution model. With a four-taxon example, we show that phylogenetic estimation under the JTT + F + Γ model is seriously biased by a long-branch attraction artefact if the data are simulated under a model utilizing the observed site-specific amino acid frequencies from an alignment. Principal components analyses indicate the existence of at least four major site-specific frequency classes in these 21 protein alignments. Using a mixture model with these four separate classes of site-specific state frequencies plus a fifth class of global frequencies (the JTT + cF + Γ model, significant improvements in model fit for real data sets can be achieved. This simple mixture model also reduces the long

  3. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  4. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...... is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available...

  5. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  7. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation

  8. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  9. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  10. Investigation of prototypal MOFs consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites for quinoline synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Leng, Kunyue; Cash, Lindsay; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Stackhouse, Chavis A; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-03-21

    A series of prototypal metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites, have been systematically investigated for Friedländer annulation reaction, a straightforward approach to synthesizing quinoline and its derivatives. Amongst them MMCF-2 demonstrates significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the benchmark MOFs, HKUST-1 and MOF-505, as a result of a high-density of accessible Cu(II) Lewis acid sites and large window size in the cuboctahedral cage-based nanoreactor of MMCF-2.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  13. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  14. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p < 0.001). The incriminated fish was later identified as a scombroid fish of Euthynnus with a histamine content of 271.9 mg/100 g flesh in 1 leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish

  15. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  16. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by acid mine drainage in old labour sites (SE, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Agudo, Ines; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Recio, Clemente

    2015-04-01

    The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Iron is present in oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, and silicates; lead and zinc occur in sulfides (galena and sphalerite, respectively), carbonates, sulfates, and lead or zinc-bearing (manganese, iron) oxides. Mining started with the Romans and activity peaked in the second half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 1980's. From 1940 to 1957, mineral concentration was made by froth flotation and, prior to this, by gravimetric techniques. The mining wastes, or tailings, with a very fine particle size were deposited inland (tailings dams) and, since 1957, huge releases were made in directly the sea coast. The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from abandoned mine sites by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. Several common chemical and physical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction and mixing could alter water isotopic composition. Evaporation, which causes an enrichment in δD and δ18O in the residual water, is an important process in semiarid areas. The results obtained indicate that, for sites near the coast, waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by A. ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred.

  17. What is the definition of a poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uges, D R

    2001-03-01

    New insights in medicine and acceptable treatments necessitates an adjustment of the existing definition of clinical or forensic poisoning to: 'An individual's medical or social unacceptable condition as a consequence of being under influence of an exogenous substance in a dose too high for the person concerned'. For medical and legal purposes it is important to know how the victim became poisoned. In general, there are three ways of causing medical poisoning: accidental poisoning, including iatrogenic poisoning, experimental and intentional poisoning. Nowadays iatrogenic intoxication, poisoning caused by the Münchhausen's syndrome (by proxy) and experimental poisoning (designer drugs) have a major place in contemporary toxicology. Although some toxicologists use the word 'intoxication' only overdoses with central effects, in this article 'intoxication' and 'poisoning' are considered to be synonymous.

  18. Modulation of salivation and heartburn in response to the site of acid infusion in the human oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S K; Agrawal, K; Mahmoud, M A

    2010-09-01

    The pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease includes increased acid reflux, reduced salivation and impaired peristalsis. This may depend upon the height of acid wave and magnitude of oesophageal mucosal exposure. Interestingly, the effect of site of acid infusion upon salivary secretion and heartburn has not been examined in any detail. To examine whether acid infusion in the upper oesophagus may cause increased salivation and heartburn as compared with acid infusion in the lower oesophagus. Twelve healthy male subjects (mean age 30) received infusions of HCl, citric acid and acetic acid at 10 and 20 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) for fixed time periods. Parotid saliva collected periodically and heartburn severity scored using standardized scale. Standard statistical methods (paired t-tests, analysis of variance) were used to determine the significance of results. Acid infusion in the upper oesophagus increased parotid flow rate as compared with that in the lower oesophagus (P heartburn score at 20 cm as well as 10 cm above LES (P heartburn in response to acid infusion in the upper vs. lower part of the oesophagus. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-03-01

    The alcohols, methanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, have many features in common, the most important of which is the fact that the compounds themselves are relatively non-toxic but are metabolized, initially by alcohol dehydrogenase, to various toxic intermediates. These compounds are readily available worldwide in commercial products as well as in homemade alcoholic beverages, both of which lead to most of the poisoning cases, from either unintentional or intentional ingestion. Although relatively infrequent in overall occurrence, poisonings by metabolically-toxic alcohols do unfortunately occur in outbreaks and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. These poisonings have traditionally been treated with ethanol since it competes for the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase and decreases the formation of toxic metabolites. Although ethanol can be effective in these poisonings, there are substantial practical problems with its use and so fomepizole, a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, was developed for a hopefully better treatment for metabolically-toxic alcohol poisonings. Fomepizole has few side effects and is easy to use in practice and it may obviate the need for haemodialysis in some, but not all, patients. Hence, fomepizole has largely replaced ethanol as the toxic alcohol antidote in many countries. Nevertheless, ethanol remains an important alternative because access to fomepizole can be limited, the cost may appear excessive, or the physician may prefer ethanol due to experience. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Iodine 125-lysergic acid diethylamide binds to a novel serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagaloff, K.A.; Hartig, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    125 I-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 125 I-LSD) binds with high affinity to serotonergic sites on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells by use of a novel high resolution stripping film technique for light microscopic autoradiography. In membrane preparations from rat choroid plexus, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg of protein, which is 10-fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The choroid plexus site exhibits a novel pharmacology that does not match the properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT1a), 5-HT1b, or 5-HT2 serotonergic sites. 125 I-LSD binding to the choroid plexus site is potently inhibited by mianserin, serotonin, and (+)-LSD. Other serotonergic, dopaminergic, and adrenergic agonists and antagonists exhibit moderate to weak affinities for this site. The rat choroid plexus 125 I-LSD binding site appears to represent a new type of serotonergic site which is located on non-neuronal cells in this tissue

  1. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

    2011-12-31

    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  2. Food deprivation modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, A; Bidder, M; Fares, F; Gavish, M

    1990-12-03

    The effect of 5 days of food deprivation followed by 5 days of refeeding on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, central benzodiazepine receptors (CBR), and peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites (PBzS) was studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Starvation induced a decrease in the density of PBzS in peripheral organs: adrenal (35%; P less than 0.001), kidney (33%; P less than 0.01), and heart (34%; P less than 0.001). Restoration of [3H]PK 11195 binding to normal values was observed in all three organs after 5 days of refeeding. The density of PBzS in the ovary, pituitary, and hypothalamus was not affected by starvation. Food deprivation resulted in a 35% decrease in cerebellar GABA receptors (P less than 0.01), while CBR in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex remained unaltered. The changes in PBzS observed in the heart and kidney may be related to the long-term metabolic stress associated with starvation and to the functional changes occurring in these organs. The down-regulation of the adrenal PBzS is attributable to the suppressive effect of hypercortisolemia on pituitary ACTH release. The reduction in cerebellar GABA receptors may be an adaptive response to food deprivation stress and may be relevant to the proaggressive effect of hunger.

  3. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  4. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  5. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  6. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  7. Enzyme active site mimics based on TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides and amino acid residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the scope and limitations of the application of TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides or amino acid residues as enzyme active site mimics, as ligands in asymmetric catalysis and as hydrolysis catalysts attached to vancomycin. For the mimicry of functional group enzymes, of

  8. Dehydroisomerization of n-butane over Pt-ZSMMMm5(I): effect of the metal loading and acid site concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirngruber, G.D.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to isobutene over Pt–ZSM5 catalysts with a high Si/Al ratio was studied. The catalytic activity increases with increasing metal loading. Butenes formed via dehydrogenation over the metallic particles are converted to isobutene over the Brønsted acid sites. The

  9. Triazacyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded histidine and aspartic acid residues as mimics of non-heme metalloenzyme active sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.; Soulimani, F.; Jacobs, H.J.F.; Versluis, C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and coordination behaviour to copper(II) of two close structural triazacyclophane-based mimics of two often encountered aspartic acid and histidine containing metalloenzyme active sites. Coordination of these mimics to copper(I) and their reaction with molecular oxygen

  10. Multi-dimensional modeling of CO poisoning effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hyun Chul; Lee, Kwan Soo; Um, Suk Kee

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), which is preferentially absorbed on the platinum catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), is extremely detrimental to cell performance. Essentially, the carbon monoxide absorption diminishes the cell's performance by blocking and reducing the number of catalyst sites available for the hydrogen oxidation reaction. In order to obtain a full understanding of CO poisoning characteristics and remediate CO-poisoned PEMFCs, a CO poisoning numerical model is developed and incorporated into a fully three-dimensional electrochemical and transport coupled PEMFC model. By performing CFD numerical simulations, this paper clearly demonstrates the CO poisoning mechanisms and characteristics of PEMFCs. The predictive capability for CO poisoning effects enables us to find major contributors to CO tolerance in a PEMFC and thus successfully integrate CO-resistant fuel cell systems

  11. Dynamic HypA zinc site is essential for acid viability and proper urease maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan C; Hu, Heidi Q; Merrell, D Scott; Maroney, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori requires urease activity in order to survive in the acid environment of the human stomach. Urease is regulated in part by nickelation, a process that requires the HypA protein, which is a putative nickel metallochaperone that is generally associated with hydrogenase maturation. However, in H. pylori, HypA plays a dual role. In addition to an N-terminal nickel binding site, HypA proteins also contain a structural zinc site that is coordinated by two rigorously conserved CXXC sequences, which in H. pylori are flanked by His residues. These structural Zn sites are known to be dynamic, converting from Zn(Cys)4 centers at pH 7.2 to Zn(Cys)2(His)2 centers at pH 6.3 in the presence of Ni(ii) ions. In this study, mutant strains of H. pylori that express zinc site variants of the HypA protein are used to show that the structural changes in the zinc site are important for the acid viability of the bacterium, and that a reduction in acid viability in these variants can be traced in large measure to deficient urease activity. This in turn leads to a model that connects the Zn(Cys)4 coordination to urease maturation.

  12. Neurologic Complications of Methanol Poisoning: A Clinicoepidemiological Report from Poisoning Treatment Centers in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Eghbali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we sought to investigate clinical findings (with a focus on neurologic effects and also to analyze outcomes of a series of patients with methanol poisoning admitted to two poisoning treatment centers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, methanol-poisoned patients admitted to departments of forensic medicine and toxicology of Loghman Hakim and Baharloo hospitals in Tehran during October 2010 to October 2011 were included; and their data were recorded in predesigned checklists. Results: Twenty-eight methanol poisoned patients (82.1% men with mean age of 29.3±4.6 years were studied. Most patients (67.9% had metabolic acidosis at presentation. On admission, all patients had different degrees of decrease in consciousness, who the majority of them (57.1% were admitted with mildly reduced consciousness (grade I of Grady coma scale. Headache and vertigo were observed in 7.1% and 17.9% of patients, respectively. Most patients (53.6% had no ocular effects, while 46.6% of patients developed impaired vision. All patients received sodium bicarbonate. Ethanol as antidote and folic acid were given to 18 patients (64.2% and 16 patients (57.1%, respectively. Six patients (21.4% underwent hemodialysis. Over half of the patients (53.6% fully recovered and were discharged without complications. Four patients (14.3% developed total blindness. Four patients (14.3% left the hospital against medical advice by self-discharge (they had no significant complication at the time of discharge. Five patients (17.9% died; who compared to survived cases had significantly lower blood pH (P=0.028, higher coma grade (P

  13. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization. Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi genes. Results Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. Conclusion This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  14. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING IN RELATION TO PSEUDOCHOLINESTERASE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajyalakshmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The state of Andhra Pradesh, particularly the coastal districts are an area of intensive agricultural production. Pesticide use is high, and the state has one of the highest reported rates of pesticide poisoning in India. The resources for treating this number of cases in government hospitals are limited and likely to have an impact on patient outcome. The present study was carried out in one such hospital of the state. Amongst these pesticides, insecticides constitute an important group, and organophosphorus compounds are possibly the insecticides widely used, all over the world. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred patients of pesticide poisoning admitted into the medical ward of Government General Hospital, Kakinada during the period of August 2010 to July 2014 were studied. Detailed history was taken in each case from patient and attendants. A meticulous physical examination was done on each of them at the time of admission. The diagnosis of poisoning was suspected from the characteristic garlic and kerosene like odour, characteristic signs and symptoms of poisoning and corroborative evidence collected in the form of packets or containers obtained from the site by family members or bystanders. RESULTS Out of the 14 patients who died, 11 died due to organophosphate poisoning, 2 patients died due to organochlorine poisoning and 1 patient died due to herbicide poisoning. Out of the 11 patients who expired due to organophosphate poisoning, 10 patients had pseudocholinesterase value ≤1 unit/mL. The remaining one (1 patient who died, had a pseudocholinesterase value of 2.2 units/mL. Of the 11 patients who died due to organophosphate poisoning, Monocrotophos recorded highest number of deaths (6 cases, followed by dimethoate, which was responsible for 2 deaths. Methyl parathion, Profenophos and Chlorpyriphos caused 1 death each. An organochlorine compound, Endosulfan caused 2 deaths. Paraquat, a herbicide was responsible for 1 death

  15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummis, S.C.R.; Johnston, G.A.R.; Nicoletti, G.; Holan, G.

    1991-01-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial [ 3 H]diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli [ 3 H]diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing [ 3 H]benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligand spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed

  16. Advanced biotherapy for the treatment of sulfur mustard poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxue; Yang, Yuyan; Meng, Wenqi; Xu, Qingqiang; Lin, Fengwu; Chen, Yongchun; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Kai

    2018-04-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress. By highlighting these and other research studies, we hereby summarize the progress in this field in an effort to provide useful information on the clinical treatment of SM poisoning. This review summarizes the major advances of SM poisoning therapy by means of biological products (peptide and protein drugs, polysaccharides drugs, nucleic acid drugs, etc.), and cell transplantation (e.g., bone marrow, limbal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells), as well as other relevant biotherapeutic approaches. We searched the database PubMed for published domestic and international articles using web based resources for information on histological, immunochemical, ultrastructural, and treatment features of SM-induced manifestations in both animal models and human tissues. To this end, we applied keywords containing mustard gas, chemical warfare, SM, eye, lung and skin. Our review provides a comprehensive understanding of the advances of available biotherapies in SM poisoning, and its potential for the treatment of SM-induced injuries. Potentially, our review will provide new insights for future research studies in this field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  18. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  19. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stool Burns of the esophagus (food pipe) and stomach Severe abdominal pain Vomiting, possibly with blood HEART AND BLOOD Collapse Low blood pressure (develops rapidly) Severe change in pH (too much or too little acid in the ...

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monotis , Thecadinium spp. and Amphidinium carterae Toxins implicated: Ciguatoxins; possibly maitotoxin, okadaic acid, palytoxin analogs, and others. ... in approximately 20% of those acutely exposed to ciguatoxins and lasts for several years, which may be ...

  1. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ciguatera poisoning in Spanish travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Joaquim; Macià, Maria; Oliveira, Inés; Corachán, Manuel

    2003-05-31

    Ciguatera poisoning appears after ingestion of contaminated fish from tropical coral reefs. Due to the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of a specific test in humans, the diagnosis is often difficult. A retrospective study of 10 patients consulting for a clinical and epidemiological picture compatible with ciguatera poisoning after a trip to tropical countries between 1993 and 2000. Most infections but one were acquired in the Caribbean area and there were 8 females. Clinical manifestations started within the first 24 hours after fish ingestion. Chief symptoms were diarrhea and nausea, followed by neurological symptoms, mainly limbs paresthesias that persisted for several weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms was variable and not related to age or initial symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning has to be considered in the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis affecting travellers to tropical areas.

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  4. Site-Directed Spin-Labeling of Nucleic Acids by Click Chemistry. Detection of Abasic Sites in Duplex DNA by EPR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Snorri; Vogel, Stefan; Shelke, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    and the nitroxide spin label. The spin label was used to detect, for the first time, abasic sites in duplex DNA by X-band CW-EPR spectroscopy and give information about other structural deformations as well as local conformational changes in DNA. For example, reduced mobility of the spin label in a mismatched pair...... label out of the duplex and toward the solution. Thus, reposition of the spin label, when acting as a mercury(II)-controlled mechanical lever, can be readily detected by EPR spectroscopy. The ease of incorporation and properties of the new spin label make it attractive for EPR studies of nucleic acids...

  5. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... add poison control as a contact in your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of the conversation by following #PreventPoison and #NPPW2017 on social media, and check out AAPCC's NPPW webpage and press ...

  6. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  7. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  8. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...... was used to achieve consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymized votes and opinions were compiled and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-five articles were identified, including 63 deaths...... appears to be amenable to extracorporeal treatments. Despite clinical evidence comprised mostly of case reports and suboptimal toxicokinetic data, the workgroup recommended extracorporeal removal in the case of severe metformin poisoning....

  10. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  11. Lipid resuscitation in acute poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Gosselin, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to provide intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as a treatment modality for the reversal of various drug toxicity was discovered in the last decade. Numerous publications, in both humans and animals attest to its clinical use, but current supporting evidence...... is inconsistent. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent systematic review reported evidence for benefit of ILE in bupivacaine toxicity. Human randomized trials, large observational studies as well as animal models of orogastric poisoning failed to report a clear benefit of ILE for nonlocal anesthetics poisoning. SUMMARY: ILE...

  12. iSNO-PseAAC: predict cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in proteins by incorporating position specific amino acid propensity into pseudo amino acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins are responsible for sensing and transducing signals to regulate various cellular functions and signaling events. S-nitrosylation (SNO is one of the most important and universal PTMs. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is highly desired to develop computational methods for timely identifying the exact SNO sites in proteins because this kind of information is very useful for both basic research and drug development. Here, a new predictor, called iSNO-PseAAC, was developed for identifying the SNO sites in proteins by incorporating the position-specific amino acid propensity (PSAAP into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC. The predictor was implemented using the conditional random field (CRF algorithm. As a demonstration, a benchmark dataset was constructed that contains 731 SNO sites and 810 non-SNO sites. To reduce the homology bias, none of these sites were derived from the proteins that had [Formula: see text] pairwise sequence identity to any other. It was observed that the overall cross-validation success rate achieved by iSNO-PseAAC in identifying nitrosylated proteins on an independent dataset was over 90%, indicating that the new predictor is quite promising. Furthermore, a user-friendly web-server for iSNO-PseAAC was established at http://app.aporc.org/iSNO-PseAAC/, by which users can easily obtain the desired results without the need to follow the mathematical equations involved during the process of developing the prediction method. It is anticipated that iSNO-PseAAC may become a useful high throughput tool for identifying the SNO sites, or at the very least play a complementary role to the existing methods in this area.

  13. Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter. Identification of a conserved glutamic acid as a third coordinate in the endogenous Zn(2+)-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løland, Claus Juul; Norregaard, L; Gether, U

    1999-01-01

    , high affinity Zn(2+)-binding site. To achieve further insight into the tertiary organization of hDAT, we set out to identify additional residues involved in Zn(2+) binding and subsequently to engineer artificial Zn(2+)-binding sites. Ten aspartic acids and glutamic acids, predicted...

  14. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  15. New insights into Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalyst acidity. Part I: Nature of acidic sites probed by NH 3 titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Currier, Neal; Peden, Charles H. F.; Yezerets, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    In this work we investigated an unusual acidity feature of a Cu/SSZ-13 catalyst used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR). In particular, this catalyst showed two distinct NH3 desorption peaks in NH3-TPD measurements, in contrast to single, unresolved desorption peaks observed for other Cu-exchanged zeolites conventionally used in the SCR studies, including its isostructural but chemically different analogue Cu/SAPO-34. We further observed that the intensities of the two TPD peaks, which represented the amount of stored NH3, changed in opposite directions in response to progressive mild hydrothermal aging, while the total storage capacity was preserved. We proposed an explanation for this remarkable behavior, by using model reference samples and additional characterization techniques. At least three NH3 storage sites were identified: two distinct populations of Cu sites responsible for low-temperature NH3 storage, and Brønsted acid sites responsible for high-temperature NH3 storage. Contrary to the commonly accepted mechanism that Brønsted acid site loss during hydrothermal aging is driven by dealumination, we concluded that the decline in the number of Brønsted acid sites upon mild hydrothermal aging for Cu/SSZ-13 was not due to dealumination, but rather transformation of Cu sites, i.e., gradual conversion of ZCuOH (Cu2+ singly coordinated with Zeolite) to Z2Cu (Cu2+ doubly coordinated with Zeolite). This transformation was responsible for the increased low-temperature desorption peak in NH3-TPD since each ZCuOH adsorbed ~1 NH3 molecule while each Z2Cu adsorbed ~2 NH3 molecules under the conditions used here. These findings were used in Part II of this series of studies to develop a method for quantifying hydrothermal ageing of industrial Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts. Authors would like to thank Randall Jines for his help with collecting the reactor data, Nancy W. Washton for measuring the NMR data and Tamas Varga for in-situ XRD measurements

  16. Dr Pugh: a poisoner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, J D; Morris, G M

    2012-07-01

    On 16 February 1845 the Reverend W. H. Browne, rector of St John's Church in Launceston, Van Diemen's Land, wrote in his journal, "My dear Wife died very suddenly almost immediately after and in consequence of taking a preparation of Hyd. Cyan. Acid prepared & supplied by Dr Pugh". This journal entry raises a number of questions. Was Dr Pugh treating a condition which he thought merited that treatment or was it a ghastly mistake? Was Caroline Browne suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis? Was hydrocyanic acid an accepted treatment at that time? Did Mrs Browne take the wrong dose? Was an incorrect concentration of the drug prepared by Dr Pugh? Did he use the wrong pharmacopoeia in preparing the hydrocyanic acid? Why was there no inquest? Only some of these questions can be answered.

  17. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cathrine; Vallersnes, Odd M; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hovda, Knut E

    2012-01-04

    Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA

  18. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt", and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009 were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62% were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%, opioids (22% and CO or fire smoke (10%. The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91% patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of

  19. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... was a protective factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 0.26; CI 0.07, 0.96). Concomitant acetylsalicylic acid overdose was a risk factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (OR 4.87; CI 1.52, 15.7) and death or liver transplantation (OR 6.04; CI 1.69, 21.6). A tendency towards a more...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  20. Assessment of acid mine drainage remediation schemes on ground water flow regimes at a reclaimed mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, M.A.; Bowders, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water modeling and a field monitoring program were conducted for a 35-acre reclaimed surface mine site that continues to produce acid mine drainage (AMD). The modeling effort was focused on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD production. The field work included surface surveys and monitoring of ground water levels with time, seepage areas, and sedimentation ponds located on the site. The surveys provided the physical and topographic characteristics of the site. Pump tests conducted at the site provided general hydraulic conductivities (k) for two major areas of the site; undisturbed area (k ≅ 2.9 x 10 -5 ft/s) and disturbed area (k ≅ 3.3 x 10 -4 ft/s to 2.0 x 10 -3 ft/s). The monitored ground water data indicated rapid change in ground water levels during recharge events. Such behavior is indicative of flow regime that is dominated by fracture flow. Modeling of an approximately 700 ft by 1,500 ft area of the site was achieved using the US GS code MODFLOW, and ground water field measurements were used to calibrate the model. A hydraulic conductivity of about 1.15 x 10 -3 ft/s was estimated for the undisturbed area and 1.15 x 10 -2 ft/s for the reclaimed area. Remedial measures for diverting the ground water away from the areas of spoil included the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall and discrete sealing techniques. Modeling results indicated that the most effective remedial technique for this site is the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall installed at the interface (highwall) between the disturbed and undisturbed zones. Using this scheme caused a dewatering effect in the reclaimed area and therefore reduction in the volume of the AMD generated at the site

  1. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonta, Lital [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2009-02-24

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2017-10-10

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Prospects for Fungal Bioremediation of Acidic Radioactive Waste Sites: Characterization and Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkavc, Rok; Matrosova, Vera Y; Grichenko, Olga E; Gostinčar, Cene; Volpe, Robert P; Klimenkova, Polina; Gaidamakova, Elena K; Zhou, Carol E; Stewart, Benjamin J; Lyman, Mathew G; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Courtot, Melanie; Singh, Jatinder; Dalgard, Clifton L; Hamilton, Theron; Frey, Kenneth G; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Dugan, Lawrence; Daly, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Highly concentrated radionuclide waste produced during the Cold War era is stored at US Department of Energy (DOE) production sites. This radioactive waste was often highly acidic and mixed with heavy metals, and has been leaking into the environment since the 1950s. Because of the danger and expense of cleanup of such radioactive sites by physicochemical processes, in situ bioremediation methods are being developed for cleanup of contaminated ground and groundwater. To date, the most developed microbial treatment proposed for high-level radioactive sites employs the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans . However, the use of Deinococcus spp. and other bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to low pH. We report the characterization of 27 diverse environmental yeasts for their resistance to ionizing radiation (chronic and acute), heavy metals, pH minima, temperature maxima and optima, and their ability to form biofilms. Remarkably, many yeasts are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and heavy metals. They also excrete carboxylic acids and are exceptionally tolerant to low pH. A special focus is placed on Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149, which was the most resistant to acid and gamma radiation. MD1149 is capable of growing under 66 Gy/h at pH 2.3 and in the presence of high concentrations of mercury and chromium compounds, and forming biofilms under high-level chronic radiation and low pH. We present the whole genome sequence and annotation of R. taiwanensis strain MD1149, with a comparison to other Rhodotorula species. This survey elevates yeasts to the frontier of biology's most radiation-resistant representatives, presenting a strong rationale for a role of fungi in bioremediation of acidic radioactive waste sites.

  5. Prospects for Fungal Bioremediation of Acidic Radioactive Waste Sites: Characterization and Genome Sequence of Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Tkavc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated radionuclide waste produced during the Cold War era is stored at US Department of Energy (DOE production sites. This radioactive waste was often highly acidic and mixed with heavy metals, and has been leaking into the environment since the 1950s. Because of the danger and expense of cleanup of such radioactive sites by physicochemical processes, in situ bioremediation methods are being developed for cleanup of contaminated ground and groundwater. To date, the most developed microbial treatment proposed for high-level radioactive sites employs the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. However, the use of Deinococcus spp. and other bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to low pH. We report the characterization of 27 diverse environmental yeasts for their resistance to ionizing radiation (chronic and acute, heavy metals, pH minima, temperature maxima and optima, and their ability to form biofilms. Remarkably, many yeasts are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and heavy metals. They also excrete carboxylic acids and are exceptionally tolerant to low pH. A special focus is placed on Rhodotorula taiwanensis MD1149, which was the most resistant to acid and gamma radiation. MD1149 is capable of growing under 66 Gy/h at pH 2.3 and in the presence of high concentrations of mercury and chromium compounds, and forming biofilms under high-level chronic radiation and low pH. We present the whole genome sequence and annotation of R. taiwanensis strain MD1149, with a comparison to other Rhodotorula species. This survey elevates yeasts to the frontier of biology's most radiation-resistant representatives, presenting a strong rationale for a role of fungi in bioremediation of acidic radioactive waste sites.

  6. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  7. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  8. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal

    2002-01-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  9. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  10. Pathologic anatomy of lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B C

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-two dogs diagnosed as having lead poisoning were studied postmortem. Enlarged, pale staining nuclei of renal proximal tubular cells and hepatocytes were present in all affected dogs and they frequently contained acid-fast inclusions. Bone changes, consisting of persistent, thick cartilaginous trabeculae rimmed with bone, caused radiopaque bands in the metaphyses of eight immature dogs. Brain lesions were characterized by vascular damage. Distended arterioles and capillaries were lined with swollen or necrotic endothelium and were often surrounded by hemorrhage and edema. These changes were associated with laminar necrosis in the cerebral cortex. Proliferation of new capillaries and gliosis occurred in dogs with chronic encephalopathies. Other changes included hyperplasia of bone marrow, metarubricytes in blood vessels, necrosis of occasional striated muscle fibers, decreased numbers of sperm and ovarian follicles, and peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  12. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  13. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  14. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  15. Programmed elimination of neutronic poisons in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriere, G. de la

    1967-11-01

    This work deals with the use of salts of elements having a large neutron capture cross-section, so-called 'soluble poisons' which are dissolved in the moderating water to control the reactivity of heavy-water reactors, and more particularly to compensate the xenon effect in the reactor EL 4. The report describes the controlled elimination of these poisons by fixation on ion-exchange resins. The poisons considered are lithium-6, cadmium and gadolinium in the sulphate form, and boron as boric acid. The thermodynamic and kinetic constants of the ion-exchange reactions were first determined and a study was then made of the fixation of these compounds in beds of small-calibre resins placed in columns. Lithium-6 is the poison which is most easily applicable to compensate the xenon effect in the reactor EL 4. It can be eliminated rapidly and completely from heavy water, and its use does not lead to supplementary problems of protection against the gamma radiation of the reactor circuits. (author) [fr

  16. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 Triggered Isothermal Amplification for Site-Specific Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Huiying; Xing, Da

    2018-02-06

    A novel CRISPR/Cas9 triggered isothermal exponential amplification reaction (CAS-EXPAR) strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage and nicking endonuclease (NEase) mediated nucleic acids amplification was developed for rapid and site-specific nucleic acid detection. CAS-EXPAR was primed by the target DNA fragment produced by cleavage of CRISPR/Cas9, and the amplification reaction performed cyclically to generate a large number of DNA replicates which were detected using a real-time fluorescence monitoring method. This strategy that combines the advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 and exponential amplification showed high specificity as well as rapid amplification kinetics. Unlike conventional nucleic acids amplification reactions, CAS-EXPAR does not require exogenous primers, which often cause target-independent amplification. Instead, primers are first generated by Cas9/sgRNA directed site-specific cleavage of target and accumulated during the reaction. It was demonstrated this strategy gave a detection limit of 0.82 amol and showed excellent specificity in discriminating single-base mismatch. Moreover, the applicability of this method to detect DNA methylation and L. monocytogenes total RNA was also verified. Therefore, CAS-EXPAR may provide a new paradigm for efficient nucleic acid amplification and hold the potential for molecular diagnostic applications.

  17. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  18. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. PMID:23566956

  19. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein

  20. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    , with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with ... probabilities that a site comes from the site class with > 1. Current implementations, however, use the naive EB (NEB) approach and fail to account for sampling errors in maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, such as the proportions and ratios for the site classes. In small data sets lacking...... information, this approach may lead to unreliable posterior probability calculations. In this paper, we develop a Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach to the problem, which assigns a prior to the model parameters and integrates over their uncertainties. We compare the new and old methods on real and simulated...

  1. Radiosynthesis and Evaluation of [(11)C]3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic Acid as Potential PET Ligand for the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus H; Hansen, Hanne D; Bay, Tina

    2017-01-01

    understanding of this population of binding sites. With its high specific affinity and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier in pharmacological doses, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) seems like a suitable PET radiotracer candidate. Here, we report...... autoradiography on sections of pig brain was performed using [(3)H]HOCPCA. In vivo evaluation of [(11)C]HOCPCA showed no brain uptake, possibly due to a limited uptake of HOCPCA by the MCT1 transporter at tracer doses of [(11)C]HOCPCA....

  2. Phenylacetic acids and the structurally related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac bind to specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid sites in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Skonberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    with a twofold higher affinity than GHB. Measuring the affinities of structurally related NSAIDs for the [(3)H]NCS-382 site identified diclofenac, a clinically relevant NSAID (Voltaren, Diclon) of the phenylacetic acid (PAA) type, as a GHB ligand (K(i) value of 5.1 microM). Other non-NSAID PAAs also exhibited...... affinities similar to GHB. Our data raise the interesting possibility that the widely used over-the-counter drug compound, diclofenac, might affect GHB binding at relevant clinical dosages. Furthermore, the identification of PAAs as GHB ligands supplies new information about the structural preferences...

  3. Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid Pathways are Activated in Spatially Different Domains Around the Infection Site During Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Katou, Shinpei; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    The innate immune response is, in the first place, elicited at the site of infection. Thus, the host response can be different among the infected cells and the cells surrounding them. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI), a form of innate immunity in plants, is triggered by specific recognition between pathogen effectors and their corresponding plant cytosolic immune receptors, resulting in rapid localized cell death known as hypersensitive response (HR). HR cell death is usually limited to a few cells at the infection site, and is surrounded by a few layers of cells massively expressing defense genes such as Pathogenesis-Related Gene 1 (PR1). This virtually concentric pattern of the cellular responses in ETI is proposed to be regulated by a concentration gradient of salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone accumulated around the infection site. Recent studies demonstrated that jasmonic acid (JA), another phytohormone known to be mutually antagonistic to SA in many cases, is also accumulated in and required for ETI, suggesting that ETI is a unique case. However, the molecular basis for this uniqueness remained largely to be solved. Here, we found that, using intravital time-lapse imaging, the JA signaling pathway is activated in the cells surrounding the central SA-active cells around the infection sites in Arabidopsis thaliana. This distinct spatial organization explains how these two phythormone pathways in a mutually antagonistic relationship can be activated simultaneously during ETI. Our results re-emphasize that the spatial consideration is a key strategy to gain mechanistic insights into the apparently complex signaling cross-talk in immunity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  4. CD44 Binding to Hyaluronic Acid Is Redox Regulated by a Labile Disulfide Bond in the Hyaluronic Acid Binding Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kellett-Clarke

    Full Text Available CD44 is the primary leukocyte cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA, a component of the extracellular matrix. Enzymatic post translational cleavage of labile disulfide bonds is a mechanism by which proteins are structurally regulated by imparting an allosteric change and altering activity. We have identified one such disulfide bond in CD44 formed by Cys77 and Cys97 that stabilises the HA binding groove. This bond is labile on the surface of leukocytes treated with chemical and enzymatic reducing agents. Analysis of CD44 crystal structures reveal the disulfide bond to be solvent accessible and in the-LH hook configuration characteristic of labile disulfide bonds. Kinetic trapping and binding experiments on CD44-Fc chimeric proteins show the bond is preferentially reduced over the other disulfide bonds in CD44 and reduction inhibits the CD44-HA interaction. Furthermore cells transfected with CD44 no longer adhere to HA coated surfaces after pre-treatment with reducing agents. The implications of CD44 redox regulation are discussed in the context of immune function, disease and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Treatment of acidic mine waters from the Solbec-Cupra site using the Mediaflex{trademark} process; Traitement des eaux minieres acides du site Solbec-Cupra par le procede Mediaflex{sub TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belanger, M -C; Ross, A; Shoiry, J [Valoraction Inc., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Applications and development of Mediaflex{trademark} filter treatment technology are described. The method combines physical, chemical, and biological processes into a technology suitable for purification of sanitary landfill leachates, septic tank sludge, and acidic mine waters. More than a dozen of the patented filters are in use. The treatment can reach 99.9% removal of heavy metals and phenolic compounds present in waste water. Since installation of the Mediaflex{sub TM} filter at the Cambior Solbec-Cupra mining site more than 50,000 cubic metres of acidic mine waste waters (pH 5.5) have been treated. After Mediaflex{sub TM} filtration, the pH is approximately 8.0, with the heavy metal content reduced substantially. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. An active site mutant of Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase forms new non-natural fatty acids providing insights on the mechanism of the enzymatic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangqi; Drujon, Thierry; Correia, Isabelle; Ploux, Olivier; Guianvarc'h, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    We have produced and purified an active site mutant of the Escherichia coli cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) by replacing the strictly conserved G236 within cyclopropane synthases, by a glutamate residue, which corresponds to E146 of the homologous mycolic acid methyltransferase, Hma, producing hydroxymethyl mycolic acids. The G236E CFAS mutant had less than 1% of the in vitro activity of the wild type enzyme. We expressed the G236E CFAS mutant in an E. coli (DE3) strain in which the chromosomal cfa gene had been deleted. After extraction of phospholipids and conversion into the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), we observed the formation of cyclopropanated FAMEs suggesting that the mutant retained some of the normal activity in vivo. However, we also observed the formation of new C17 methyl-branched unsaturated FAMEs whose structures were determined using GC/MS and NMR analyses. The double bond was located at different positions 8, 9 or 10, and the methyl group at position 10 or 9. Thus, this new FAMEs are likely arising from a 16:1 acyl chain of a phospholipid that had been transformed by the G236E CFAS mutant in vivo. The reaction catalyzed by this G236E CFAS mutant thus starts by the methylation of the unsaturated acyl chain at position 10 or 9 yielding a carbocation at position 9 or 10 respectively. It follows then two competing steps, a normal cyclopropanation or hydride shift/elimination events giving different combinations of alkenes. This study not only provides further evidence that cyclopropane synthases (CSs) form a carbocationic intermediate but also opens the way to CSs engineering for the synthesis of non-natural fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational Identification of Protein Pupylation Sites by Using Profile-Based Composition of k-Spaced Amino Acid Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mehedi Hasan

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic proteins are regulated by pupylation, a type of post-translational modification that contributes to cellular function in bacterial organisms. In pupylation process, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup tagging is functionally analogous to ubiquitination in order to tag target proteins for proteasomal degradation. To date, several experimental methods have been developed to identify pupylated proteins and their pupylation sites, but these experimental methods are generally laborious and costly. Therefore, computational methods that can accurately predict potential pupylation sites based on protein sequence information are highly desirable. In this paper, a novel predictor termed as pbPUP has been developed for accurate prediction of pupylation sites. In particular, a sophisticated sequence encoding scheme [i.e. the profile-based composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs (pbCKSAAP] is used to represent the sequence patterns and evolutionary information of the sequence fragments surrounding pupylation sites. Then, a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier is trained using the pbCKSAAP encoding scheme. The final pbPUP predictor achieves an AUC value of 0.849 in 10-fold cross-validation tests and outperforms other existing predictors on a comprehensive independent test dataset. The proposed method is anticipated to be a helpful computational resource for the prediction of pupylation sites. The web server and curated datasets in this study are freely available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/pbPUP/.

  8. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  9. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Chilean Oak: Influence of Brønsted Acid Sites of Chilean Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Alejandro Martín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Chilean natural zeolite as catalyst on bio-oil upgrade processes. The aim of this study was to analyze chemical composition of bio-oil samples obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of Chilean native oak in order to increase bio-oil stability during storage. In order to identify chemical compounds before and after storage, biomass pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 623 K and bio-oil samples were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS. A bio-oil fractionation method was successfully applied here. Results indicate that bio-oil viscosity decreases due to active sites on the zeolite framework. Active acids sites were associated with an increment of alcohols, aldehydes, and hydrocarbon content during storage. Higher composition on aldehydes and alcohols after storage could be attributed to the occurrence of carbonyl reduction reactions that promotes them. These reactions are influenced by zeolite surface characteristics and could be achieved via the direct contribution of Brønsted acid sites to Chilean natural zeolite.

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  11. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates

  12. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  13. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  14. Biogenic and Synthetic Peptides with Oppositely Charged Amino Acids as Binding Sites for Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Altintoprak, Klara; Wege, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M; Rothenstein, Dirk

    2017-01-28

    Proteins regulate diverse biological processes by the specific interaction with, e.g., nucleic acids, proteins and inorganic molecules. The generation of inorganic hybrid materials, such as shell formation in mollusks, is a protein-controlled mineralization process. Moreover, inorganic-binding peptides are attractive for the bioinspired mineralization of non-natural inorganic functional materials for technical applications. However, it is still challenging to identify mineral-binding peptide motifs from biological systems as well as for technical systems. Here, three complementary approaches were combined to analyze protein motifs consisting of alternating positively and negatively charged amino acids: (i) the screening of natural biomineralization proteins; (ii) the selection of inorganic-binding peptides derived from phage display; and (iii) the mineralization of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based templates. A respective peptide motif displayed on the TMV surface had a major impact on the SiO₂ mineralization. In addition, similar motifs were found in zinc oxide- and zirconia-binding peptides indicating a general binding feature. The comparative analysis presented here raises new questions regarding whether or not there is a common design principle based on acidic and basic amino acids for peptides interacting with minerals.

  15. Oxidative Metabolites of Curcumin Poison Human Type II Topoisomerases†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketron, Adam C.; Gordon, Odaine N.; Schneider, Claus; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenol curcumin is the principal flavor and color component of the spice turmeric. Beyond its culinary uses, curcumin is believed to positively impact human health and displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and chemopreventive properties. It also is in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. In aqueous solution at physiological pH, curcumin undergoes spontaneous autoxidation that is enhanced by oxidizing agents. The reaction proceeds through a series of quinone methide and other reactive intermediates to form a final dioxygenated bicyclopentadione product. Several naturally occurring polyphenols that can form quinones have been shown to act as topoisomerase II poisons (i.e., increase levels of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage). Because several of these compounds have chemopreventive properties, we determined the effects of curcumin, its oxidative metabolites, and structurally related degradation products (vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane), on the DNA cleavage activities of human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. Intermediates in the curcumin oxidation pathway increased DNA scission mediated by both enzymes ~4-5–fold. In contrast, curcumin and the bicyclopentadione, as well as vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane, had no effect on DNA cleavage. As found for other quinone-based compounds, curcumin oxidation intermediates acted as redox-dependent (as opposed to interfacial) topoisomerase II poisons. Finally, under conditions that promote oxidation, the dietary spice turmeric enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. Thus, even within the more complex spice formulation, oxidized curcumin intermediates appear to function as topoisomerase II poisons. PMID:23253398

  16. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death.

  17. Metal-Free, Site-Selective Peptide Modification by Conversion of "Customizable" Units into β-Substituted Dehydroamino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Carlos J; Hernández, Dácil; Boto, Alicia

    2018-01-12

    Our site-selective modification of serine or threonine units in peptides allows the generation of β-substituted dehydroamino acids, which increase peptide resistance to hydrolysis and may improve their biological properties. Both the terminal and internal positions can be modified, and different customizable units can be activated separately. Remarkably, high Z selectivity is achieved, even at internal positions. The conversion involves a one-pot oxidative radical scission/phosphorylation process by using the low-toxicity (diacetoxyiodo)benzene/iodine system as the scission reagent. The resulting α-amino phosphonates undergo a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to produce the dehydroamino acid derivatives (in a Z/E ratio of usually >98:2) under mild and metal-free conditions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Subnucleosomes and their relationships to the arrangement of histone binding sites along nucleosome deoxyribonucleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.A.; Mencke, A.J.; Chambers, S.A.; Oosterhof, D.K.; Rill, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Micrococcal nuclease cleaves within nucleosomes at sites spaced about 10.4 base pairs (bp) apart. Cleavages at sites equivalent to 30-35 bp from the ends of 146-bp cores cause spontaneous loss of an H2a-H2b pair associated with 30-40 bp length DNA. Cleavages at certain other sites do not affect the nucleosome integrity unless a solvent perturbant such as urea is added. Chromatin moderately digested with micrococcal nuclease, when fractionated by sedimentation or electrophoresis in the presence of 3 M urea, yielded four previously unobserved subnucleosomes with the following histone/DNA compositions: (H3) 2 (H4) 2 (H2a)(H2b)/95-115 bp; (H3)(H4)/70-80 bp DNA; (H2a)(H2b)/50-60 bp DNA; and (H1)/60-70 bp DNA. All but the latter subnucleosome were also obtained upon DNase I digestion of purified nucleosome cores labeled on the 5' ends with 32 P. Only subnucleosomes that retained H2a and H2b also retained labeled ends. These results show that H2a and H2b are paired on the terminal 30-40 bp of core DNA, as suggested from analyses of histone-DNA cross-link products by Mirzabekov and coworkers. Considerations of the orgins and compositions of subnucleosomes and of cross-linking data suggest an expanded model for the locations of histone binding sites along nucleosome core DNA. The principal features of this model are (i) strong electrostatic binding sites of H2a and H2b occur at positions approximately 20-30 bp from the core ends, (ii) strong electrostatic binding sites of H3 and H4 occur primarily on the central 40 bp of core DNA, (iii) strong nonelectrostatic, urea-sensitive binding sites of H3 and H4 occur at positions approximately 30-50 bp from the core ends, and (iv) urea-sensitive binding sites of H2a or H2b may occur on the terminal 10-20 bp of core DNA

  19. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were

  20. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were previously not amenable to low cost limestone treatment.

  1. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; KAHRAMANER, Zelal; BOSNAK, Mehmet; KOCAMAZ, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  2. Personality traits in persons with manganese poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, A A

    1976-10-01

    Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.

  3. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-01-01

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper

  4. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  5. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  6. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  7. [Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of toxic waste poisoning in Abidjan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiembre, Issaka; Koné, Blaise A; Dongo, Kouassi; Tanner, Marcel; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cissé, Guéladio

    2009-01-01

    In the nights of 19 to 21 August, 2006, highly toxic waste products were dumped at various sites in Abidjan, and numerous cases of poisoning were reported to the health authorities, who were unprepared for such a problem. The research group on Environment and Health in Urban Environment from the Swiss Center of Scientific Research and its partners at the Swiss Tropical Institute undertook this study whose objectives were to: describe the epidemiologic profile of the people poisoned; identify the main clinical symptoms and the risk factors for poisoning; and recommend steps to attenuate the effects and to prevent intermediate- and long-term consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the populations living around the discharge sites (n=6). The sample size was calculated at 619 people per site, to identify a 1% risk and a standard error of 0.4%, because of variability of the human impact factor at the different sites. Households were chosen at each site by the transect technique. Six teams, each including a physician, a public health agent and a local guide collected the data, after specific training. A pilot investigation made it possible to validate the final questionnaire. Of 4573 people surveyed, 4344 people, about 95%, were home during the toxic waste discharge. In all, 2369 (51.8%) had signs of poisoning. Sex, district of residence, and presence at home at the time of the discharge were all statistically related to poisoning. The distribution of poison victims according to health centre shows that 1297 people (64.4%) visited a health center AA(3/4) 615 of them (about 47.4%) a public or official centre, and 778 (about 60%), an unofficial centre; 379 (29.2%) were managed by an NGO, 159 individuals (12.3%) by mobile units, 63 individuals (4.8%) by the unofficial public health centre, and 35 (2.7%) at an unspecified site. Of those who sought care, 673 people (about 51.8%) received a medical prescription, and 815 (or 62.7%) had been given the drug directly

  8. Clinical observations and acid-base imbalances in sheep during chronic copper poisoningAvaliação clínica e hemogasométrica de ovinos com intoxicação cúprica acumulativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Satsuk Mori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve male sheep were intoxicated with copper and four served as controls. When hemoglobinuria was first diagnosed, the poisoned sheep were randomly distributed into two groups: 4 untreated and 8 tetratiomolybdate-treated. Blood samples and clinical evaluation were performed daily, from the onset of poisoning until the 30th day. Analysis of packed cell volume, plasma free hemoglobin, and blood gas were made. Elevated heart rates and rectal temperature, and reduced respiratory and ruminal movement rates were recorded in the intoxicated group. The poisoned sheep developed mild alkalosis caused by bicarbonate retention, while a short-periodic increase of pCO2 occurred to compensate the ongoing alkalosis. Elevated degree of anemia was directly proportional to heart rate, while high degree of alkalosis was inversely proportional to respiratory rate. Further, there was an elevated positive relationship between plasma free hemoglobin and rectal temperature, and an increase in rectal temperature accompanied a reduced ruminal movement.Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, sendo 12 submetidos à intoxicação cúprica e quatro animais controle. Quando foi verificada a presença de hemoglobinúria, os animais intoxicados foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos, quatro animais não tratados e oito animais tratados com tetratiomolybidato de amônia. Foi realizado exame clínico e coleta de sangue diariamente desde o início da intoxicação até 30 dias após. Foram analisados o volume globular, concentração de hemoglobina plasmática e avaliação hemogasométrica. Nos animais intoxicados, foi observado elevação da freqüência cardíaca e da temperatura retal e redução da freqüência respiratória e dos movimentos ruminais. Os ovinos intoxicados desenvolveram alcalose moderada causada por retenção de bicarbonato seguido de um aumento pontual da pCO2 para compensar a alcalose em curso. Quanto maior o grau de anemia foi maior a freqüência card

  9. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav, S

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3 to 7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004 to 0.75 percent arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed.

  10. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3-7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004-0.75% arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed. 5 references.

  11. Calls to Poison Centers for hookah smoking exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzky, Sandra S; Spiller, Henry A; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2018-06-01

    Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults. This article provides background information on hookah smoking, describes hookah-induced acute injuries that could precipitate poison center calls, and offers suggestions for exposure characterization.

  12. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts.

  13. Characteristics of poisoning cases in Adiyaman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate poisoning cases in an intensive care unit (ICU in order to determine the profile of poisoning cases, update epidemiological data in Adiyaman, and contribute to data about poisoning in our country. Methods: Between 01-01-2012 and 31-12-2013 174 patients (116 males, 58 females with a mean age of 23.7 years were treated. Demographic characteristics, reasons and ways of poisoning, types of toxic substances, length of their ICU stay and prognosis were evaluated. Results: 2733 patients admitted to the intensive care unit were 174 poisoning cases. Poisoning ways were suicide by drug overdose (n=162, 93.1%, and accidental poisoning (n=12,6.9%.119 patients (66.5% had single drug intake, thirty-three patients (18.4% with multiple drug intake, and 16 (8.9% were poisoned by organic phosphates. The most common drug used for suicide was antidepressants (n=87.5%. 32 patients (18.4% took analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A total of 152 patients taking the drug, 22 patients were poisoned by other means. The median length of patient stay was 2 days (range 1-20 days. Ninety-nine patients (56.9% recovered and were discharged.72 patients (41.4% were admitted to inpatient after intensive care unit. Patients were followed up by asking poisoning suicidal psychiatric consultation.1 patient was followed up for 20 days in intensive care due to alcohol poisoning but was died.2 patients (1.1% were referred to a center forward. Conclusion: Majority of the patients were females, who took drugs with suicidal intention. Frequent use of antidepressants, which are not subject to control by authorities, to commit suicide was remarkable.

  14. Implications for the formation of abasic sites following modification of polydeoxycytidylic acid by acrolein in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.; Sysel, I.A.; Tibbels, T.S.; Cohen, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Polydeoxycytidylic acid (poly dC) was incubated with excess acrolein. A Nensorb 20 nucleic acid purification cartridge was used to bind the polymeric material in the poly dC/acrolein reaction mixture. The non-polymeric material eluted from this column had a UV absorbance four times higher than that of the control. The flourescence spectrum of the eluted material did not correspond to that of unmodified cytosine. Separate aliquots of the reaction mixture were digested to deoxynucleotide 3 ' -monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal nuclease and spleen phosphodiesterase. The products were converted to 3 2P-labelled deoxynucleotide 3 ' ,5-biphosphates by incubation with T4 polynucleotide kinase and excess [γ- 3 2P]ATP. The ' -monophosphate was selectively removed by incubation with nuclease P1. Two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on polyethyleneimine cellulose (PEI)-cellulose and detection of 3 2P-labeled deoxynucleotide 5 ' -monophosphates by autoradiography failed to provide evidence for the formation of an acrolein adduct of deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate. When acrolein-modified deoxycytidine 5 ' -monophosphate, was detected. These data show that acrolein-modified deoxycytidine 3 ' -monophosphates are substrates for 3 2P labeling by T4 polynucleotide kinase and are stable under the assay conditions employed

  15. [Suicide by poisoning in the Souss-Massa-Drâa region of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahir, Siham; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Hami, Hind; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Benali, Doha; Ouammi, Lahcen; Windy, Maria; Benchekh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate self-poisoning is a serious problem in Morocco, including in the Souss-Massa-Drâa region. However, our understanding of the problem of suicidal poisoning remains limited. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of patients, toxic substances and poisoning and to identify the risk factors influencing patient outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted of all cases of deliberate self-poisoning recorded between 1981 and 2007 by the Centre Anti-Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc. 1,130 cases of self-poisoning were identified. The mean age was 25 ± 10.1 years and the sex ratio was 0.4. Paraphenylenediamine was the most common cause of death (48 deaths), followed by hydrochloric acid (15 deaths). A close relationship was found between progression to healing and female adolescents and between progression to death and men in other age groups. The study also found that patients who used paraphenylenediamine were twelve times more likely to die (CI95%: 7.4%-19.2%) than those who used other substances. Patients with respiratory and cardiovascular conditions had a relative risk of 9.8 (CI95%: 6.3%-16%) and 3.6 (CI95%: 2.3%-5.7%). Of the 937 cases with known outcome, 89 died (9.5%).

  16. Dephosphorylation of microtubule-binding sites at the neurofilament-H tail domain by alkaline, acid, and protein phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisanaga, S; Yasugawa, S; Yamakawa, T; Miyamoto, E; Ikebe, M; Uchiyama, M; Kishimoto, T

    1993-06-01

    The dephosphorylation-induced interaction of neurofilaments (NFs) with microtubules (MTs) was investigated by using several phosphatases. Escherichia coli alkaline and wheat germ acid phosphatases increased the electrophoretic mobility of NF-H and NF-M by dephosphorylation, and induced the binding of NF-H to MTs. The binding of NFs to MTs was observed only after the electrophoretic mobility of NF-H approached the exhaustively dephosphorylated level when alkaline phosphatase was used. The number of phosphate remaining when NF-H began to bind to MTs was estimated by measuring phosphate bound to NF-H. NF-H did not bind to MTs even when about 40 phosphates from the total of 51 had been removed by alkaline phosphatase. The removal of 6 further phosphates finally resulted in the association of NF-H with MTs. A similar finding, that the restricted phosphorylation sites in the NF-H tail domain, but not the total amount of phosphates, were important for binding to MTs, was also obtained with acid phosphatases. In contrast to alkaline and acid phosphatases, four classes of protein phosphatases (protein phosphatases 1, 2A, 2B, and 2C) were ineffective for shifting the electrophoretic mobility of NF proteins and for inducing the association of NFs to MTs.

  17. Concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrite and nitrate in the gas and aerosol phase at a site in the emission zone during ESCOMPTE 2001 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, K.; Möller, D.; Auel, R.; Wieprecht, W.; Kalaß, D.

    2005-03-01

    Ground-based measurements were performed at the "Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d`Emissions" (ESCOMPTE) field site E3 (Realtor) about 30 km north of the urban environment of Marseille and east of the industrial centre Berre pond to investigate the formation of nitrous and nitric acid and to detect the distribution of reactive N-species between the gas and particle phase during photochemical pollution events. A wet denuder sampling for gases followed by a steam jet collection for aerosols was both coupled to anion chromatographic analysis. The analytical system provided data continuously with 30-min time resolution between June 13 and July 13, 2001. Indications for heterogeneous formation of nitrous acid during nighttime and daytime on ground and aerosol surfaces were found, the average HNO 2/NO 2 ratio was 6%. Highest concentrations were observed during two episodes of strong pollution accumulation when sea breeze transported industrial, traffic and urban pollution land-inwards. After nocturnal heterogeneous formation (about 0.1 ppb v h -1 were estimated corresponding to increasing HNO 2/NO 2 ratios) and accumulation processes up to 1.2 ppb v HNO 2 were observed. Their photolysis produces up to 5-9×10 6 OH cm -3 s -1 and will contribute significantly to initiation of the daily photochemistry in the lowest part of the troposphere. For the key tropospheric species, HNO 3 daily peaks up to 4 ppb v were detected.

  18. NH{sub 3} adsorption on the Lewis and Bronsted acid sites of MoO{sub 3} (0 1 0) surface: A cluster DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Fan, Junyan [Foundation Department, Shanxi Police Academy, No. 27 Second Section of Old Jinci Road, Taiyuan 030021, Shanxi (China); Zuo, Zhijun [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Li, Zhe, E-mail: lizhe@tyut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Jinshan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China)

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of NH{sub 3} on the Lewis and Bronsted acid sites of MoO{sub 3} (0 1 0) surface has been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT) method using the clusters models. The calculated results indicate that NH{sub 3} could strongly adsorb on both the Lewis and Bronsted acid sites in the form of NH{sub 3} species and NH{sub 4}{sup +} respectively, whereas the adsorption on the Lewis acid site is found to be more favorable energetically than that on the Bronsted acid site. For the Lewis acid site Mulliken population analysis shows a donation of lone pairs from NH{sub 3} to the surface and activation of N–H bond. The overlaps of N-s, N-p and Mo-d orbitals suggest the strong interaction between N and Mo atoms. For the Bronsted acid site N–H bond is also activated by the formation of NH{sub 4}{sup +} species. The hybridizations between H and O atoms as well as N and H atoms are the major reasons for strong chemical adsorption of NH{sub 3} and the existence of NH{sub 4}{sup +} species, which partly attributed to the presence of N–H… O hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the formation of a second Lewis acid site at adjacent or diagonal site results in slight changes of adsorption stability, structural changes and charge redistributions, suggesting its small influence on NH{sub 3} adsorption.

  19. Eight amino acids form the ATP recognition site of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubala, Martin; Teisinger, Jan; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kopecký ml., Vladimír; Baumruk, V.; Krumscheid, R.; Plášek, J.; Schoner, W.; Amler, Evžen

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 21 (2003), s. 6446-6452 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0254; GA ČR GA204/01/1001; GA ČR GA309/02/1479 Grant - others:GA-(CZ) CZE00/033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 123100001; CEZ:MSM 113100001; CEZ:MSM 113200001 Keywords : sodium pump * ATP-binding site * TNP-ATP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  20. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  1. Wildlife and the coal waste policy debate: proposed rules for coal waste disposal ignore lessons from 45 years of wildlife poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examines wildlife poisoning from coal combustion waste (CCW) in the context of EPA's proposed policy that would allow continued use of surface impoundments as a disposal method. Data from 21 confirmed damage sites were evaluated, ranging from locations where historic poisoning has led to corrective actions that have greatly improved environmental...

  2. [Role of the vitamin factor in preventing phenol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, R I; Pozniakovskiĭ, V M; Agarkova, I A

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on rats were made to examine the effect of vitamin B1, pantothenic and ascorbic acids on the acetylation system and some characteristics of protein metabolism under chronic exposure to phenol. Inhibition of phenol vapours led to inhibition of the acetylation on the 105th day of the experiment, to accumulation of pyruvic acid by the blood and diurnal urine, to elevation of cholesterol content in the blood serum. The total content of protein and protein fractions in the blood serum remained unchanged. Additional vitaminization of the animals with thiamine (150 micrograms), calcium pantothenate (650 micrograms) or with their mixture containing ascorbic acid (2 mg) resulted in normalization of the test characteristics of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The data obtained and the clinical trials carried out by the authors suggest introduction of the physiological doses of thiamine, calcium pantothenate and ascorbic acid into the diet of the workers in order to prevent phenol poisonings more effectively.

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    patients, including six fatalities, it was concluded that digoxin is slightly dialyzable (level of evidence = B), and that ECTR is unlikely to improve the outcome of digoxin-toxic patients whether or not digoxin immune Fab (Fab) is administered. Despite the lack of robust clinical evidence, the workgroup...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context......, and is not indicated for removal of digoxin-Fab complex....

  4. Evaluation and control of poisoning of impregnated carbons used for organic iodide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.; Rankovic, L.

    1979-01-01

    By the evaluation of the chemical reactions which have taken place on impregnated activated carbon surfaces exposed to nuclear reactor atmospheric environments, the role of various impregnants has been studied. The evaluation shows several different paths for the aging and posioning to take place. The four major causes were found to be: organic solvent contamination; inorganic acid gas contamination; formation of organic acids on carbon surface; and, formation of SO 2 from carbon sulfur content. Prevention of poisoning by the first two paths can be accomplished only by procedural changes within the facility. However the last three poisoning paths can be controlled to some extent by the selection of carbon pretreatment techniques and the type of impregnant used. Results were generated by evaluating used carbons from 14 nuclear power plants and by artificial poisoning of laboratory impregnated carbons. Impregnants which have antioxidant properties, besides reaction with organic iodides, can increase the life of the impregnated activated carbons

  5. Studies of light water lattices by the homogeneous boron poisoning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, J.; Calament, J.; Girard, Y.; Golinelli, C.

    1964-01-01

    By homogeneously poisoning a critical facility with boric acid, one can balance important reactivities. Furthermore this technique is particularly interesting, due to the fact that it allows the substitution of cross sections to kinetic parameters in lattice calculations. With this use of boric acid as a poison arise important technological problems which are described in this report, the last part of which deals with the accuracy of the measurements made in these conditions. The main features of a lattice study made according to this moderator poisoning technique concern the determination of the concentration of dissolved boron which makes the multiplying assembly just critical and the determination of the reactivity factor as a function of temperature (this study has been carried out fill above 95 deg. C). (authors) [fr

  6. The poisoning effect of PbO on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lingling [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yu, Ming’e [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The poisoning effects of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts for low temperature NH{sub 3}-SCR were investigated. • Low concentration of Mn{sup 4+} and chemisorbed oxygen (O{sub b}) were not favorable for the generation of intermediates. • The decreased Ce{sup 3+} and less reducible of manganese oxides hindered the redox cycle (Mn{sup 3+} + Ce{sup 4+} ↔ Mn{sup 4+} + Ce{sup 3+}). • The doping of PbO not only altered acid sites but also inhibited ammonia adsorption as well as activation. • The poisoning of PbO resulted in the decrease of ad-NO{sub x} species (only a spot of bidentate nitrates remained). - Abstract: Lead oxide (PbO) as one of the typical heavy metals in flue gas from power plants has strong accumulation as well as poisoning effects on SCR catalysts. In this paper, a series of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The poisoning effects of PbO over Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} samples for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH{sub 3} were investigated based on catalytic activity test and characterizations. The NO conversion of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} was greatly decreased after the addition of PbO. It was obvious that the NO conversion efficiency of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst declined from 96.75% to about 40% at 200 °C when Pb:Mn molar ratio reached 0.5. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR), Ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were carried out to study the deactivation reasons of PbO poisoned catalysts. Manganese oxides’ crystallization, less reducible of manganese and cerium oxides, the decreasing of surface area, Mn{sup 4+} as well as Ce{sup 3+} concentration and chemisorbed oxygen (O{sub b}) after the introduction of PbO, all of these resulted in a poor SCR performance

  7. Isolation and properties of the acid site-specific endonuclease from mature eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibirtsev, Yu.T.; Konechnyi, A.A.; Rasskazov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    An acid site-specific endonuclease has been detected in mature sea urchin eggs and cells of embryos at early stages of differentiation. Fractionation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromatography on columns with DEAE, phosphocellulose, and hydroxyapatite resulted in an 18,000-fold purification. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined at ∼ 29,000, the optimum pH 5.5. The activity of the enzyme does not depend on divalent metal ions, EDTA, ATP, and tRNA, but it is modulated to a substantial degree by NaCl. The maximum rate of cleavage of the DNA supercoil (form I) is observed at 100 mM NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 350 mM only slightly lowers the rate of cleavage of form I, yielding form II, but entirely suppresses the accumulation of form III. Restriction analysis of the products of enzymatic hydrolysis of Co1E1 and pBR322 DNA showed that at the early stages of hydrolysis the enzyme exhibits pronounced specificity for definite sites, the number of which is 12 for Co1 E1 DNA and 8 sites for pBR322 DNA

  8. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janire Mingo

    Full Text Available Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis.

  9. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  10. Tunable translational control using site-specific unnatural amino acid incorporation in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation of target gene transcripts in Escherichia coli harboring UAG amber stop codons can be switched on by the amber-codon-specific incorporation of an exogenously supplied unnatural amino acid, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. Here, we report that this translational switch can control the translational efficiency at any intermediate magnitude by adjustment of the 3-iodo-L-tyrosine concentration in the medium, as a tunable translational controller. The translational efficiency of a target gene reached maximum levels with 10−5 M 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, and intermediate levels were observed with suboptimal concentrations (approximately spanning a 2-log10 concentration range, 10−7–10−5 M. Such intermediate-level expression was also confirmed in individual bacteria.

  11. Policy for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at mine sites in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    One of the major environmental issues facing the provincial government of British Columbia is the prevention of environmental impacts from metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The government's major challenge in regulating ML/ARD is to ensure that all mines are planned and operated in a manner that allows for effective problem detection and mitigation, and that the mines emphasize problem prevention at the outset. This paper reviews the legislated requirements regarding ML/ARD prevention and lists guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. Some of the measures to predict and to mitigate ML/ARD include underwater storage of problematic materials, engineered covers, blending of wastes and drainage collection and treatment. Requirements applicable to construction materials, backfill, geotechnical and hydrological considerations, and security of funds for ML/ARD measures are also discussed

  12. Hierarchical SAPO‐34 Architectures with Tailored Acid Sites using Sustainable Sugar Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto, Ivana; Ivaldi, Chiara; Paul, Geo; Chapman, Stephanie; Marchese, Leonardo; Raja, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In a distinct, bottom‐up synthetic methodology, monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and disaccharides (sucrose) have been used as mesoporogens to template hierarchical SAPO‐34 catalysts. Detailed materials characterization, which includes solid‐state magic angle spinning NMR and probe‐based FTIR, reveals that, although the mesopore dimensions are modified by the identity of the sugar template, the desirable acid characteristics of the microporous framework are retained. When the activity of the hierarchical SAPO‐34 catalysts was evaluated in the industrially relevant Beckmann rearrangement, under liquid‐phase conditions, the enhanced mass‐transport properties of sucrose‐templated hierarchical SAPO‐34 were found to deliver a superior yield of ϵ‐caprolactam. PMID:29686961

  13. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  14. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  15. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  16. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and ... In a pre-structured proforma, data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, duration of hospitalization ... responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths ... cleansed with water at the time of admission.

  17. Cardiological aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Jakub; Gawlik, Iwona; Dębski, Grzegorz; Popiołek, Lech; Marchewka, Wojciech; Hydzik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiological manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Background/introduction: Carbon monoxide intoxication is one of the most important toxicological causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early clinical manifestation of CO poisoning is cardiotoxicity. We enrolled 75 patients (34 males and 41 females, mean age 37.6 ± 17.7 y/o) hospitalized due to CO poisoning. Laboratory tests including troponin I, blood pressure measurements, HR and electrocardiograms (ECG) were collected. Pach's scale scoring and grading system was used to establish severity of poisoning. Grade of poisoning is positively correlated with troponin I levels and systolic blood pressure. Moreover, troponin levels are significantly correlated with exposition time, lactates and are higher in tachycardiac, hypertensive and positive ECG subpopulations. COHb levels are indicative of exposure but do not correlate with grade of poisoning. The main cause of CO poisoning were bathroom heaters - 83%, only 11% of examined intoxicated population were equipped with CO detectors. Complex cardiological screening covering troponin levels, ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurements as well as complete blood count with particular attention to platelet parameters should be performed in each case where CO intoxication is suspected. More emphasis on education on CO poisoning is needed.

  18. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  19. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... delay or gap in poison center services. The State of New York has determined that the Research... Noncompetitive Replacement Awards to the Research Foundation of SUNY and the New York City Health & Hospitals... the Research Foundation of SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also...

  20. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  1. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  2. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  3. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  4. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  5. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  6. Binding site of ribosomal proteins on prokaryotic 5S ribonucleic acids: a study with ribonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1982-01-01

    The binding sites of ribosomal proteins L18 and L25 on 5S RNA from Escherichia coli were probed with ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom endonuclease. The results for the protein-RNA complexes, which were compared with those for the free RNA [Douthwaite, S...... stearothermophilus 5S RNA. Several protein-induced changes in the RNA structures were identified; some are possibly allosteric in nature. The two prokaryotic 5S RNAs were also incubated with total 50S subunit proteins from E. coli and B. stearothermophilus ribosomes. Homologous and heterologous reconstitution....... stearothermophilus 5S RNA, which may have been due to a third ribosomal protein L5....

  7. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  8. Poisoning of animals by industrial fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P

    1937-01-01

    Autopsy findings of game that died presumably due to poisoning by arsenic are presented. Corrosive gastroenteritis with edema and ecchymosis of the mucosa, and partly ulceration of the stomach, and fatty degeneration of the kidneys and liver were found in hares and stags. Arsenic was detected in the gastric content, liver, and other organs. These cases were diagnosed as acute to subacute poisoning by arsenic. Catarrhal gastrointestinal mucosa, pseudomembranes, in the esophagus, inflammatory edema of the nasal septum and laryngeai mucosa, and sometimes liver cirrhosis and edema of the spleen were found in red deer, roes, and hares. In these cases, poisoning by arsenic could not be identified as the primary cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to those observed in game around a smelter prior to the installation of an efficient arsenic trap.

  9. Burnable poison fuel element and its fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi; Inoue, Kotaro; Aizawa, Hiroko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to optionally vary the excess reactivity and fuel reactivity. Method: Burnable poisons with a large neutron absorption cross section are contained in fuel material, by which the excess reactivity at the initial stage in the reactor is suppressed by the burnable poisons and the excess reactivity is released due to the reduction in the atomic number density of the burnable poisons accompanying the burning. The burnable poison comprises spherical or rod-like body made of a single material or spherical or rod-like member made of a plurality kind of materials laminated in a layer. These spheres or rods are dispersed in the fuel material. By adequately selecting the shape, combination and the arrangement of the burnable poisons, the axial power distribution of the fuel rods are flattened. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Naohide

    2007-01-01

    gaenglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increased signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. (author)

  11. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  12. Fatty Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Metal Binding to the Multi-Metal Site on Serum Albumin: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blindauer, Claudia A; Khazaipoul, Siavash; Yu, Ruitao; Stewart, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major protein in blood plasma and is responsible for circulatory transport of a range of small molecules including fatty acids, metal ions and drugs. We previously identified the major plasma Zn2+ transport site on HSA and revealed that fatty-acid binding (at a distinct site called the FA2 site) and Zn2+ binding are interdependent via an allosteric mechanism. Since binding affinities of long-chain fatty acids exceed those of plasma Zn2+, this means that under certain circumstances the binding of fatty acid molecules to HSA is likely to diminish HSA Zn2+-binding, and hence affects the control of circulatory and cellular Zn2+ dynamics. This relationship between circulatory fatty acid and Zn2+ dynamics is likely to have important physiological and pathological implications, especially since it has been recognised that Zn2+ acts as a signalling agent in many cell types. Fatty acid levels in the blood are dynamic, but most importantly, chronic elevation of plasma fatty acid levels is associated with some metabolic disorders and disease states - including myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the metal-binding properties of albumin and highlight the importance of their interplay with fatty acid binding. We also consider the impact of this dynamic link upon levels and speciation of plasma Zn2+, its effect upon cellular Zn2+ homeostasis and its relevance to cardiovascular and circulatory processes in health and disease.

  13. The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The acidic properties of mixed tin + antimony oxide catalysts were studied in the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, cyclopropane, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene and the dehydration of isopropanol over the mixed oxides outgassed at room temperature and 698/sup 0/K. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx. 50 at. % and then decreased with further increase in the antimony content. Outgassing of the catalysts at 698/sup 0/K increased the isomerization rate of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, but decreased those for cyclopropane and isopropanol due to poisoning by the propylene produced. For 1-butene and cis-2-butene and catalysts outgassed at 698/sup 0/K, only catalysts with less than 50Vertical Bar3< antimony were active. The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity. Graphs and 10 references.

  14. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  15. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  16. Mapping Substance P Binding Sites on the Neurokinin-1 Receptor Using Genetic Incorporation of a Photoreactive Amino Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Park, Minyoung; Huber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    that the binding site for SP includes multiple domains in the N-terminal (Nt) segment and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) of NK1. To map precisely the NK1 residues that interact with SP, we applied a novel receptor-based targeted photocross-linking approach. We used amber codon suppression to introduce...... the photoreactive unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (BzF) at 11 selected individual positions in the Nt tail (residues 11-21) and 23 positions in the ECLII (residues 170(C-10)-193(C+13)) of NK1. The 34 NK1 variants were expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells and retained the ability to interact...

  17. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal poisoning - veterinary-medical and criminal-legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.

  19. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mix household chemicals. Doing so can cause dangerous gases. Always store household chemicals in the container they ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  20. Monitoring Replication Protein A (RPA) dynamics in homologous recombination through site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Nilisha; Origanti, Sofia; Davenport, Eric Parker; Gandhi, Disha; Kaniecki, Kyle; Mehl, Ryan A; Greene, Eric C; Dockendorff, Chris; Antony, Edwin

    2017-09-19

    An essential coordinator of all DNA metabolic processes is Replication Protein A (RPA). RPA orchestrates these processes by binding to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and interacting with several other DNA binding proteins. Determining the real-time kinetics of single players such as RPA in the presence of multiple DNA processors to better understand the associated mechanistic events is technically challenging. To overcome this hurdle, we utilized non-canonical amino acids and bio-orthogonal chemistry to site-specifically incorporate a chemical fluorophore onto a single subunit of heterotrimeric RPA. Upon binding to ssDNA, this fluorescent RPA (RPAf) generates a quantifiable change in fluorescence, thus serving as a reporter of its dynamics on DNA in the presence of multiple other DNA binding proteins. Using RPAf, we describe the kinetics of facilitated self-exchange and exchange by Rad51 and mediator proteins during various stages in homologous recombination. RPAf is widely applicable to investigate its mechanism of action in processes such as DNA replication, repair and telomere maintenance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Influence of porous texture and surface chemistry on the CO₂ adsorption capacity of porous carbons: acidic and basic site interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Angela; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D

    2014-12-10

    Doped porous carbons exhibiting highly developed porosity and rich surface chemistry have been prepared and subsequently applied to clarify the influence of both factors on carbon dioxide capture. Nanocasting was selected as synthetic route, in which a polyaramide precursor (3-aminobenzoic acid) was thermally polymerized inside the porosity of an SBA-15 template in the presence of different H3PO4 concentrations. The surface chemistry and the porous texture of the carbons could be easily modulated by varying the H3PO4 concentration and carbonization temperature. Porous texture was found to be the determinant factor on carbon dioxide adsorption at 0 °C, while surface chemistry played an important role at higher adsorption temperatures. We proved that nitrogen functionalities acted as basic sites and oxygen and phosphorus groups as acidic ones toward adsorption of CO2 molecules. Among the nitrogen functional groups, pyrrolic groups exhibited the highest influence, while the positive effect of pyridinic and quaternary functionalities was smaller. Finally, some of these N-doped carbons exhibit CO2 heats of adsorption higher than 42 kJ/mol, which make them excellent candidates for CO2 capture.

  2. The CO poisoning effect in PEMFCs operational at temperatures up to 200 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; He, Ronghuan; Gao, Ji-An

    2003-01-01

    The CO poisoning effect on carbon-supported platinum catalysts (at a loading of 0.5 mg Pt/cm(2) per electrode! in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been investigated in a temperature range from 125 to 200 degreesC with the phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes...

  3. Fermented corn flour poisoning in rural areas of China. III. Isolation and identification of main toxin produced by causal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W J; Chen, X M; Meng, H D; Meng, Z H

    1989-03-01

    Flavotoxin A was isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans culture in semisolid potato-dextrose-agar medium, which was isolated from fermented corn meal that had caused food poisoning outbreaks in China. The isolation, purification, and chemical structure of this toxin were studied. The NMR spectra, the uv spectra, and molar extinction coefficients, and the mass spectra of Flavotoxin A are in good agreement with those reported for bongkrekic acid. Therefore, Flavotoxin A and bongkrekic acid are the same organic chemical compound; the molecular formula is C28H38O7. The oral LD50 of the purified Flavotoxin A in mice was 3.16 mg/kg (1.53-6.15 mg/kg). The existence of bongkrekic acid in toxic fermented corn samples collected during food poisoning outbreaks was also confirmed. It is concluded that bongkrekic acid has played an important role in the outbreaks of fermented corn poisoning.

  4. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  5. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  6. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black...

  7. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...

  8. A flexible metal-organic framework with a high density of sulfonic acid sites for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xu, Gang; Dou, Yibo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Heng; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Banglin

    2017-11-01

    The design of stable electrolyte materials with high proton conductivity for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells remains a challenge. Most of the materials explored have good conductivity at high relative humidity (RH), but significantly decreased conductivity at reduced RH. Here we report a chemically stable and structurally flexible metal-organic framework (MOF), BUT-8(Cr)A, possessing a three-dimensional framework structure with one-dimensional channels, in which high-density sulfonic acid (-SO3H) sites arrange on channel surfaces for proton conduction. We propose that its flexible nature, together with its -SO3H sites, could allow BUT-8(Cr)A to self-adapt its framework under different humid environments to ensure smooth proton conduction pathways mediated by water molecules. Relative to other MOFs, BUT-8(Cr)A not only has a high proton conductivity of 1.27 × 10-1 S cm-1 at 100% RH and 80 °C but also maintains moderately high proton conductivity at a wide range of RH and temperature.

  9. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Reactor scram device using fluid poison tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio; Hasegawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the response function in the reactor scram with no wide space by injecting poisons in soluble poison guide tubes to such a liquid level as giving no effect on usual reactor operation. Constitution: Soluble poison guide tubes in a reactor are connected at their upper ends to a buffer tank and at their lower ends to a pressurizer by way of a header and an injection valve. The header is connected by way of a valve with a level meter, one end of which is connected to the buffer tank. During reactor operation, the injection valve is closed and the soluble poisons in the pressurizer vessel is maintained at a pressurized state and, while on the other hand, soluble poisons are injected by way of the header to the lower end of the soluble poison guide tubes by the opening of a valve, which is thereafter closed. Upon scram, a valve is closed to protect the level meter and pressurized poisons are rapidly filled in the guide tubes by the release of the injection valve. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation.

  12. A review of pitfalls and progress in chelation treatment of metal poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ole; Aaseth, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Most acute and chronic human metal poisonings are due to oral or inhalation exposure. Almost 80% of published animal experiments on chelation in metal poisoning used single or repeated intraperitoneal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of metal and chelator, impeding extrapolation to clinical settings. Intramuscular administration of dimercaptopropanol (BAL) has until now been used in acute arsenic, lead, and mercury poisonings, but repeated BAL administration increased the brain uptake of As, Pb and Hg in experimental animals. Also, diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) has been used as antidote in acute experimental animal parenteral Cd poisoning, and both DDC and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD, disulfiram, Antabuse) have been used in nickel allergic patients. However, even one dose of DDC given immediately after oral Cd or Ni increased their brain uptake considerably. The calcium salt of ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) but not dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) increased the brain uptake of Pb. In oral Cd or Hg poisoning, early oral administration of DMSA or dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) increased survival and reduced intestinal metal uptake. Oral administration of Prussian Blue or resins with fixed chelating groups that are not absorbed offer chelation approaches for decorporation after oral exposure to various metals. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) nebulizers for pulmonary chelation after inhalation exposure need further development. Also, combined chelation with more than one compound may offer extensive advances. Solid knowledge on the chemistry of metal chelates together with relevant animal experiments should guide development of chelation procedures to alleviate and not aggravate the clinical status of poisoned patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacology of morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide at opioid, excitatory amino acid, GABA and glycine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.E.; Smith, M.T. (Department of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland (Australia)); Dood, P.R. (Clinical Research Centre, Royal Brisbane Hospital Foundation, Brisbane (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    Morphine in high doses and its major metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, cause CNS excitation following intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration by an unknown mechanism. This study investigated whether morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide interact at major excitatory (glutamate), major inhibitory (GABA or glycine), or opioid binding sites. Homogenate binding assays were performed using specific radioligands. At opioid receptors, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused an equipotent sodium shift, consistent with morphine-3-glucuronide behaving as an agonist. This suggests that morphine-3-glucuronide-mediated excitation is not caused by an interaction at opioid receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused a weak inhibition of the binding of [sup 3]H-MK801 (non-competitive antagonist) and [sup 125]I-ifenprodil (polyamine site antagonist), but at unphysiologically high concentrations. This suggests that CNS excitation would not result from an interaction of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine with these sites on the NMDA receptor. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine inhibited the binding of [sup 3]H-muscimol (GABA receptor agonist), [sup 3]H-diazepam and [sup 3]H-flunitraxepam (benzodiazepine agonists) binding very weakly, suggesting the excitatory effects of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine are not elicited through GABA[sub A] receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine did not prevent re-uptake of glutamate into presynaptic nerve terminals. In addition, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine did not inhibit the binding of [sup 3]H-strychnine (glycine receptor antagonist) to synaptic membranes prepared from bovine spinal cord. It is concluded that excitation caused by high-dose morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide is not mediated by an interaction with postsynaptic amino acid receptors. (au) (30 refs.).

  14. Fission product poisoning in KS-150 reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the KS-150 reactor was used to study reactivity changes induced by reactor poisoning with fission products Xe 135 and Sm 149 . A comparison of transients caused by the poisoning showed the following differences: (1) the duration of the transient Xe poisoning (2 days) is shorter by one order of magnitude than the duration of Sm poisoning (20 days); however, the level of Xe poisoning is greater approximately by one order than the level of the Sm poisoning; (2) the level of steady-state Xe poisoning depends on the output level of the reactor; steady-state Sm poisoning does not depend on this level; (3) following reactor shutdown Xe poisoning may increase to the maximum value of up to Δrhosub(Xe)=20% and will then gradually decrease; Sm poisoning may reach maximum values of up to Δrhosub(Sm)=2% and does not decrease. (J.B.)

  15. Hydrogen gas getters: Susceptibility to poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroz, E.J.; Dye, R.C.; Duke, J.R.; Weinrach, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 40% (∼9,000) of the ∼23,000 transuranic (TRU) waste drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are presently unshippable because conservative calculations suggest that the hydrogen concentration may exceed the lower explosive limit for hydrogen. This situation extends across nearly all DOE sites holding and generating TRU waste. The incorporation of a hydrogen getter such as DEB into the waste drums (or the TRUPACT II shipping containers) could substantially mitigate the explosion risk. The result would be to increase the number of drums that qualify for transportation to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without having to resort to expensive re-packaging or waste treatment technologies. However, before this approach can be implemented, key technical questions must be answered. Foremost among these is the question of whether the presence of other chemical vapors and gases in the drum might poison the catalytic reaction between hydrogen and DEB. This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to obtain fundamental information on the chemical mechanism of the catalytic reaction of hydrogen with one commonly used hydrogen getter, DEB. Experiments with these materials showed that the method of exposure affects the nature of the reaction products. The results of this work contributed to the development of a mechanistic model of the reaction

  16. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  17. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-07-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem.

  18. Impact of ursodeoxycholic acid on a CCK1R cholesterol-binding site may contribute to its positive effects in digestive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aditya J; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their effects on a cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant (Y140A) disrupting a key site of cholesterol action. The results show that, similar to the impact of cholesterol on CCK receptors, bile acid effects were limited to CCK1R, with no effects on CCK2R. Chenodeoxycholic acid had a negative impact on CCK1R function, while ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on CCK1R function in normal membranes but was protective against the negative impact of elevated cholesterol on this receptor. The cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant Y140A was resistant to effects of both bile acids. These data suggest that bile acids compete with the action of cholesterol on CCK1R, probably by interacting at the same site, although the conformational impact of each bile acid appears to be different, with ursodeoxycholic acid capable of correcting the abnormal conformation of CCK1R in a high-cholesterol environment. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in reducing cholesterol gallstone formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  20. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  1. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  2. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  3. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  4. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  5. Acute selenium poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortridge, E H; O' Hara, P J; Marshall, P M

    1971-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six (67%) of 557 calves of approximately 150-200 kg live-weight died following subcutaneous injection of a solution containing 100 mg selenium as sodium selenite. Eight per cent of the 254 heifer calves and 56% of the 303 steers died. The calves had endured the stress of being weaned twice and held in stockyards twice as well as encountering wet weather during the 4 days before receiving the selenium. The heifer calves were also vaccinated with Br. abortus strain 19 vaccine at the same time as receiving the selenium. The clinical signs and pathological findings of circulatory failure and myocardial damage were similar to those previously reported in acute selenium poisoning.

  6. Lead poisoning in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H M

    1963-08-17

    During the period 1957 to 1959 a considerable number of dogs were seen which were suffering from colic. Colic is not normally a condition commonly encountered in the dog, and the number of cases seen was large in proportion to the number of dogs in the population concerned. A number of other dogs exhibited nervous signs which varied from symptoms of mild anxiety to exaggerated fits. There was a certain amount of overlapping between the 2 groups in that some cases which originally only showed signs of colic later progressed to the stage where they showed nervous symptoms. The following report deals with 28 cases of lead poisoning in dogs and cats which occurred at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia. 8 references, 4 tables.

  7. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify...... disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Eighty-four articles met inclusion criteria, including 1 controlled clinical trial, 3 animal studies, and 80 case reports or case series, yielding an overall very low...... quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 143 patients (130 sets of which could be analyzed for patient-level entry data), including 14 fatalities, were reviewed. Toxicokinetic data on 87 patients were also included. After the second round of voting, the workgroup concluded...

  8. Effects of lead poisoning on various plasma constituents in the Canada goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, G.L.; John, T.M.; McKeown, B.A.; Sileo, L.; George, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and uric acid levels were measured in lead-poisoned Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although plasma glucose levels were only slightly elevated, uric acid was significantly higher and free fatty acids were significantly lower. Altered plasma levels were attributed to increased protein catabolism and renal dysfunction. Plasma level of growth hormone and prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Growth hormone remained unchanged while prolactin was unusually high. The increased prolactin levels may reflect an effort to stabilize free fatty acids. 30 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  9. Determination of the positions of aluminum atoms introduced into SSZ-35 and the catalytic properties of the generated Brønsted acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Akinobu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Nishitoba, Toshiki; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by 27 Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), 29 Si MAS, and 1 H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature 1 H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined.

  10. Chronic copper poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D B

    1964-08-08

    This communication presented evidence of the elevation of plasma GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate transaminase) concentration during the development of copper toxicity in some experimental lambs, and also demonstrated that plasma GOT concentration can be used to assess the course of the disease during treatment. A group of Kerry Hill lambs were fed 1 1/2 lb per day of a proprietary concentrate containing 40 parts of copper per million on a dry-matter basis in addition to hay and water ad lib. Data was included for the plasma GOT concentrations of the lambs, bled weekly after weaning from pasture to this diet. There was some variation between the individual lambs, and in one there was no increase in plasma GOT by the 20th week when all the surviving lambs were slaughtered. The concentrations of copper found in the caudate lobe of the liver and in the kidney cortex post mortem were given. The overall findings showed that the liver gave a reliable indication of the copper status of an animal whereas the kidney cortex copper concentration was a better criterion for the diagnosis of copper poisoning and was in agreement with the results of Eden, Todd, and Grocey and Thompson. Observations demonstrated the benefits resulting from the early diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning in lambs, when treatment of affected animals may be commenced before the haemolytic crisis develops. Treatment included reducing the copper intake and dosing with ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, and the plasma GOT concentration may be used to assess the rate of recovery. 4 references, 3 tables.

  11. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration

  12. TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts: searching for mRNA fragments with miRNA binding sites with encoded amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillo, Olga; Régnier, Mireille; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNA molecules that inhibit the translation of target genes. microRNA binding sites are located in the untranslated regions as well as in the coding domains. We describe TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts developed using python as tools for the extraction of nucleotide sequences for miRNA binding sites with their encoded amino acid residue sequences. The scripts allow for retrieving a set of additional sequences at left and at right from the binding site. The scripts presents all received data in table formats that are easy to analyse further. The predicted data finds utility in molecular and evolutionary biology studies. They find use in studying miRNA binding sites in animals and plants. TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts are available for free from authors upon request and at https: //sites.google.com/site/malaheenee/downloads for download.

  13. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  14. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  15. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  16. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  17. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  19. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Pesticide poisonings remain a serious public .... prevent or increase threshold for the development of seizure, which ... Nigeria. Procurement of consumables and equipment ... enormous financial burden on them often leading to.

  20. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  1. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  2. Cutting system for burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Toyama, Norihide; Koshino, Yasuo; Fujii, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Burnable poison rods attached to spent fuels are contained in a containing box and transported to a receiving pool. The burnable poison rod-containing box is provisionally situated by the operation to a handling device to a provisional setting rack in a cutting pool and attached to a cutting guide of a cutting device upon cutting. The burnable poison rod is cut only in a cutting pool water and tritium generated upon cutting is dissolved into the cutting pool water. Diffusion of tritium is thus restricted. Further, the cutting pool is isolated by a partition device from the receiving pool during cutting of the burnable poison rod. Accordingly, water in which tritium is dissolved is inhibited from moving to the receiving pool and prevail of tritium contamination can be avoided. (T.M.)

  3. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  5. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Asou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ( 167 Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  6. MCNP apply in calculating reactor critical coefficient Keff under the changing of the burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinghua; Zhou Sichun; Zhang Qingxian; Zhao Feng; Liu Jun; Zhu Jian

    2013-01-01

    Taking Qinshan nuclear power plant as an example, in this paper, Monte Carlo method was used in the MCNP procedures for the establishment of nuclear power station simulation model, construct the reactor pressure vessel and vessel core component composition and arrangement, KCODE card was used to calculate the effect of the number and the location of burnable poison control rod factor K eff by the boron acid. The calculation results show that, with the increasing in the number of burnable poison control rod value-added factor K eff shown a downward trend, and with the burnable poison control rod from the dense to sparse, which K eff will be decreasing slowly. This condition is consistent with the theoretical. (authors)

  7. Effects of water on the esterification of free fatty acids by acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Deog-Keun; Lee, Jin-Suk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Wang, Zhong-Ming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd, Wushan, Tianhe, Guangzhou 510-640 (China)

    2010-03-15

    To maximize the production of biodiesel from soybean soapstock, the effects of water on the esterification of high-FFA (free fatty acid) oils were investigated. Oleic acid and high acid acid oil (HAAO) were esterified by reaction with methanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 as a heterogeneous catalyst or sulfuric acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied at oil to methanol molar ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 and reaction temperatures of 60 and 80 C. The rate of esterification of oleic acid significantly decreased as the initial water content increased to 20% of the oil. The activity of Amberlyst-15 decreased more rapidly than that of sulfuric acid, due to the direct poisoning of acid sites by water. Esterification using sulfuric acid was not affected by water until there was a 5% water addition at a 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol. FAME content of HAAO prepared from soapstock rapidly increased for the first 30 min of esterification. Following the 30-min mark, the rate of FAME production decreased significantly due to the accumulation of water. When methanol and Amberlyst-15 were removed from the HAAO after 30 min of esterification and fresh methanol and a catalyst were added, the time required to reach 85% FAME content was reduced from 6 h to 1.8 h. (author)

  8. Epidemiological trends in electronic cigarette exposures reported to U.S. Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkalanka, J P; Hardison, L S; Holstege, C P

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported an increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in both adults and adolescents. Poison Center calls provide data on exposures pertaining to e-cigarette devices and components (including nicotine-refill cartridges), potentially identifying epidemiological trends in reported exposures over time. To characterize the trends in e-cigarette exposures reported to United States (U.S.) Poison Centers between 01 June 2010 and 30 September 2013. We obtained data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) for all exposures involving e-cigarettes reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) by U.S. Poison Centers and described trends in exposures over time, demographics, geographical characteristics, clinical effects and outcomes, management site, and exposure route. A total of 1,700 exposures were reported to Poison Centers during this time. The most frequent age groups were children 5 years or below with 717 (42.2%) exposures and adults ages 20-39 years with 466 (27.4%) exposures. Temporal trends showed an increase of 1.36 exposures per month [95% CI: 1.16-1.56] from June 2010 through December 2012, after which exposures increased by 9.60 per month [95% CI: 8.64-10.55] from January through September 2013. The majority of patients who were followed reported that they had only minor effects. The majority of exposures to e-cigarette devices and components occurred in children of 5 years or below due to accidental exposure. Based on the available data, the reported exposures have resulted in minimal toxicity. Calls to Poison Centers regarding these products have rapidly increased since 2010, and continued surveillance may show changes in the epidemiological trends surrounding e-cigarette exposures.

  9. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  11. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  12. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when design...

  13. Acute pesticide poisoning: a proposed classification tool

    OpenAIRE

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Stober, Judy; Besbelli, Nida; Pronczuk, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Cases of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Developing countries are particularly susceptible due to poorer regulation, lack of surveillance systems, less enforcement, lack of training and inadequate access to information systems. Previous research has demonstrated wide variability in incidence rates for APP. This is possibly due to inconsistent reporting methodology and exclusion of occupational and non-intentional poisonings. The purpo...

  14. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Darren M.; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, ??adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti?digoxin Fab a...

  15. Accidental poisoning with detomidine and butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, N

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report concerning a veterinarian who spilled detomidine and butorphanol on dermatitic hands while sedating a horse. This resulted in acute poisoning from which the patient spontaneously recovered with supportive management. Veterinarians often suffer from occupational dermatitis and handle strong sedatives with no gloves while working around unpredictable animals. Thus, this group is at risk of accidental self-poisoning from this method.

  16. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  17. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  18. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  19. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  20. Low reactivity penalty burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor burnable poison rod is described which consists of an elongated tubular sheath enclosing a neutron absorbing material which, at least during reactor operation, also encloses a neutron moderating material. The excess reactivity existing at the beginning of core life is compensated for by the depletion of the burnable poison throughout the life of the core, so that the life of the core is extended. (UK)

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  2. Sticky situations: cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Shaun D; Koh, Cynthia; Qian, Lily; Qozi, Mariam; Seivard, Grant; Cantrell, F Lee

    2017-11-01

    Cyanoacrylate (Super Glue ® ) exposures are commonly reported to poison control centers, but little has been published in the medical literature regarding these exposures. We sought to characterize cyanoacrylate exposures reported to a poison control system. We performed a retrospective review of a poison system's database for all cases of single-substance human exposure to cyanoacrylate-containing products from 2005 to 2015. Data collected included age, gender, route of exposure, clinical effects, treatments recommended and medical outcome. There were a total of 893 patients, 505 (56.6%) of which were female. Patient ages ranged from 6 months to 88 years with a median of 11 years. The vast majority of exposures (n = 871, 97.5%) were unintentional, but a small number of exposures (n = 22, 2.5%) were due to intentional misuse (such as trying to stop a bleeding cut) or malicious intent (such as purposefully gluing a person's eyes shut as a prank). Routes of exposure included: ingestion, n = 337 (37.7%); ocular, n = 322 (36.1%); dermatologic, n = 285 (31.9%); inhalation, n = 16 (1.8%); nasal, n = 1 (0.1%); and otic, n = 1 (0.1%); some patients had multiple routes of exposure. Treatments recommended by the poison center included irrigation (n = 411), petroleum jelly (n = 143), mineral oil (n = 131), topical antibiotic ointment (n = 82), peanut butter (n = 6), acetone (n = 4) and WD-40 ® (n = 2). A total of 657 patients (73.6%) were managed on-site, while 236 (26.4%) were seen in a health care facility. Among all exposures, effects were classified as none (n = 287), minor (n = 529) and moderate (n = 77). No major effects or deaths were reported. In this case series, the majority of cases occurred in children and most exposures did not result in significant morbidity. Notably, there was wide variation in terms of recommended treatments; further study is needed to determine the optimal treatment

  3. Tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells: a preliminary study of possible binding sites and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A F; Reed, M I

    1990-07-01

    The binding mechanisms and binding sites involved in the tannic acid and chromic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells were investigated using the binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells as model systems. Inhibition studies of these model systems using amino acid homopolymers and compounds (common as red cell membrane constituents) suggest that the mechanisms involved are similar to those proposed for the conversion of hide or skin collagen to leather, as in commercial tanning. These studies also suggest that tannic acid-induced binding of IgA paraprotein to red cells involves the amino acid residues of L-arginine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-proline analogous to tanning with phenolic plant extracts. The amino acid residues of L-aspartate, L-glutamate and L-asparagine are involved in a similar manner in chronic chloride-induced binding of protein to red cells.

  4. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-12-01

    Ayurveda, Indian traditional system of medicine, is practiced commonly in South East Asia and in many parts of the world. Many ayurvedic drugs contain heavy metals and may lead to metal toxicity. Of these, chronic lead poisoning is the most common. Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare. We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use. The diagnosis of chronic arsenic poisoning was confirmed by high arsenic levels in the blood, urine, hair, and nails in all the three patients and in ayurvedic drug in two patients. The ayurvedic medication was discontinued and treatment with D-penicillamine started. At 6 months after treatment, blood arsenic levels returned to normal with clinical recovery in all of them. Arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication is much less common than lead poisoning, though mineral ayurvedic medicines may lead to it. We used D-penicillamine as chelator and all of them recovered. Whether withdrawal of medication alone or D-penicillamine also played a role in recovery is unclear and needs to be assessed.

  6. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Imported occupational lead poisoning: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, M; Scafa, F; Boeri, R; Flachi, Daniela; Candura, S M

    2013-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, occupational lead poisoning has become increasingly rare, however this metal remains a serious health hazard in the rest of the world. We observedfour male patients (aged 35 / 54 years) who had suffered recurrent abdominal pain due to recent lead exposure (for 7 to 13 months) in two Chinese battery recycling plants. On their return to Italy, three of them presented normocytic, normochromic anaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of b-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, improvement of the clinical picture, decreased ZP, and progressive normalization of the other lead biomarkers (Pb-B, ALA-D, ALA-U, urinary porphyrins). Temporary work in developing countries may result in imported lead poisoning. Differential diagnosis of this unusual condition requires careful medical history collection and specific toxicological analysis. Preventive measures for workers going abroad are needed.

  8. Poisoning following exposure to chemicals stored in mislabelled or unlabelled containers: a recipe for potential disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Yvette C; Slaughter, Robin J; Shieffelbien, Lucy M; Schep, Leo J

    2014-09-26

    To investigate poisoning exposures to chemicals that were unlabelled, mislabelled or not in their original containers in New Zealand over the last 10 years, based on calls to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC). Call data from the NZNPC between 2003 and 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Parameters reviewed included patient age, route and site of exposure, product classification and recommended intervention. Of the 324,411 calls received between 2003 and 2012, 100,465 calls were associated with acute human exposure to chemicals. There were 757 inquiries related to human exposure to mislabelled or unlabelled chemicals consisting of 0.75% of chemical exposures. Adults were involved in 51% of incidents, children, containers is a problem for all age groups. Although it represents a small proportion of total calls to the NZNPC it remains a potential risk for serious poisoning. It is important that chemicals are stored securely, in their original containers, and never stored in drinking vessels.

  9. TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts: searching for mRNA fragments with miRNA binding sites with encoded amino acid residues

    OpenAIRE

    Berillo, Olga; Régnier, Mireille; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNA molecules that inhibit the translation of target genes. microRNA binding sites are located in the untranslated regions as well as in the coding domains. We describe TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts developed using python as tools for the extraction of nucleotide sequences for miRNA binding sites with their encoded amino acid residue sequences. The scripts allow for retrieving a set of additional sequences at left and at right from the binding site. The scripts presents ...

  10. Sulphur poisoning of palladium catalysts used for methane combustion: Effect of the support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escandon, Lara S.; Ordonez, Salvador; Vega, Aurelio; Diez, Fernando V.

    2008-01-01

    Four different supported palladium catalysts (using alumina, silica, zirconia and titania as supports), prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, were tested as catalysts for methane oxidation in presence of sulphur dioxide. The catalyst supported on zirconia showed the best performance, whereas the silica-supported one showed the fastest deactivation. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments of the poisoned catalysts suggest that SO 2 adsorption capacity of the support plays a key role in the catalyst poisoning. In order to study the effect of promoters, expected to improve the thermal stability and thioresistance of the catalyst, commercial zirconia modified by yttrium and lantane was tested as supports. It was found that the presence of these promoters does not improve the performance of the zirconia-supported catalyst. A deactivation model - considering two different active sites (fresh and poisoning), pseudo-first order dependence on methane concentration and poisoning rate depending on sulphur concentration and fraction of non-poisoned palladium - was used for modelling the deactivation behaviour

  11. Scanning mutagenesis of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib eAhsan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform scanning mutagenesis of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from phylogenetic analysis of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution.

  12. A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Peters

    Full Text Available Structures of the multidrug-binding repressor protein QacR with monovalent and bivalent cationic drugs revealed that the carboxylate side-chains of E90 and E120 were proximal to the positively charged nitrogens of the ligands ethidium, malachite green and rhodamine 6G, and therefore may contribute to drug neutralization and binding affinity. Here, we report structural, biochemical and in vivo effects of substituting these glutamate residues. Unexpectedly, substitutions had little impact on ligand affinity or in vivo induction capabilities. Structures of QacR(E90Q and QacR(E120Q with ethidium or malachite green took similar global conformations that differed significantly from all previously described QacR-drug complexes but still prohibited binding to cognate DNA. Strikingly, the QacR(E90Q-rhodamine 6G complex revealed two mutually exclusive rhodamine 6G binding sites. Despite multiple structural changes, all drug binding was essentially isoenergetic. Thus, these data strongly suggest that rather than contributing significantly to ligand binding affinity, the role of acidic residues lining the QacR multidrug-binding pocket is primarily to attract and guide cationic drugs to the "best available" positions within the pocket that elicit QacR induction.

  13. Accelerated wound healing in mice by on-site production and delivery of CXCL12 by transformed lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågesjö, Evelina; Öhnstedt, Emelie; Mortier, Anneleen; Lofton, Hava; Huss, Fredrik; Proost, Paul; Roos, Stefan; Phillipson, Mia

    2018-02-20

    Impaired wound closure is a growing medical problem associated with metabolic diseases and aging. Immune cells play important roles in wound healing by following instructions from the microenvironment. Here, we developed a technology to bioengineer the wound microenvironment and enhance healing abilities of the immune cells. This resulted in strongly accelerated wound healing and was achieved by transforming Lactobacilli with a plasmid encoding CXCL12. CXCL12-delivering bacteria administrated topically to wounds in mice efficiently enhanced wound closure by increasing proliferation of dermal cells and macrophages, and led to increased TGF-β expression in macrophages. Bacteria-produced lactic acid reduced the local pH, which inhibited the peptidase CD26 and consequently enhanced the availability of bioactive CXCL12. Importantly, treatment with CXCL12-delivering Lactobacilli also improved wound closure in mice with hyperglycemia or peripheral ischemia, conditions associated with chronic wounds, and in a human skin wound model. Further, initial safety studies demonstrated that the topically applied transformed bacteria exerted effects restricted to the wound, as neither bacteria nor the chemokine produced could be detected in systemic circulation. Development of drugs accelerating wound healing is limited by the proteolytic nature of wounds. Our technology overcomes this by on-site chemokine production and reduced degradation, which together ensure prolonged chemokine bioavailability that instructed local immune cells and enhanced wound healing. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Acute poisoning with emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2004-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is the 4'-deoxy-4'-epi-methyl-amino benzoate salt of avermectin B1 (abamectin), which is similar structurally to natural fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Emamectin benzoate is being developed as a newer broad-spectrum insecticide for vegetables and has a very low application rate. The mechanism of action involves stimulation of high-affinity GABA receptors and a consequent increase in membrane chloride ion permeability. Animal studies indicate a wide margin of safety because mammalian species are much less sensitive due to lower GABA receptor affinities and relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, the literature has not reported human exposure resulting in toxicity. This paper describes a case of acute poisoning with Proclaim insecticide (Syngenta, Taiwan), consisting of 2.15% w/w emamectin benzoate in 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol and 1-hexanol. The clinical manifestation was transient gastrointestinal upset with endoscopy-proven gastric erosion and superficial gastritis, mild central nervous system depression, and aspiration pneumonia. No specific antidote exists for emamectin benzoate intoxication; this patient was treated successfully with gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, and empiric antibiotics. Drugs that enhance GABA activity such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines were avoided.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  16. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  17. Ion binding by humic and fulvic acids: A computational procedure based on functional site heterogeneity and the physical chemistry of polyelectrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Ephraim, J.; Mathuthu, A.

    1988-04-01

    Ion binding equilibria for humic and fulvic acids are examined from the point of view of functional site heterogeneity and the physical chemistry of polyelectrolyte solutions. A detailed explanation of the potentiometric properties of synthetic polyelectrolytes and ion-exchange gels is presented first to provide the basis for a parallel consideration of the potentiometric properties exhibited by humic and fulvic acids. The treatment is then extended to account for functional site heterogeneity. Sample results are presented for analysis of the ion-binding reactions of a standard soil fulvic acid (Armadale Horizons Bh) with this approach to test its capability for anticipation of metal ion removal from solution. The ultimate refined model is shown to be adaptable, after appropriate consideration of the heterogeneity and polyelectrolyte factors, to programming already available for the consideration of ion binding by inorganics in natural waters. (orig.)

  18. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  20. Chelation in metal intoxication. V. Lowering of manganese content in poisoned rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, S K; Mathur, A K

    1976-01-01

    Metal chelation has been considered useful in the management of manganese poisoning to a considerable extent. Our own studies in this direction have shown that some polyaminocarboxylic acids and a few amino acids are effective in not only removing manganese from the vital organs of experimentally poisoned animals but also in restoring certain metal induced biochemical and histological changes in such organs. Further, the success of p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), a chemotherapeutic agent for tuberculosis, in manganese mobilization has led us to examine some other structurally related compounds together with a few other possible metal binding agents for their ability to remove excess metal from the organs, their sub-cellular fractions and blood cells of manganese administered rats and to investigate if there exists any relationship between the structure of such compounds and their metal mobilizing capacity. The present communication deals with the results of these investigations.

  1. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  2. Design, Synthesis, and in Vitro Pharmacology of New Radiolabeled γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogues Including Photolabile Analogues with Irreversible Binding to the High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbatini, Paola; Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a psychotropic compound endogenous to the brain. Despite its potential physiological significance, the complete molecular mechanisms of action remain unexplained. To facilitate the isolation and identification of the high-affinity GHB binding site, we herein report ...

  3. Applications of site-specific labeling to study HAMLET, a tumoricidal complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Natalia; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Qasba, Pradman K

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) is a calcium-bound mammary gland-specific protein that is found in milk. This protein is a modulator of β1,4-galactosyltransferase enzyme, changing its acceptor specificity from N-acetyl-glucosamine to glucose, to produce lactose, milk's main carbohydrate. When calcium is removed from α-LA, it adopts a molten globule form, and this form, interestingly, when complexed with oleic acid (OA) acquires tumoricidal activity. Such a complex made from human α-LA (hLA) is known as HAMLET (Human A-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells), and its tumoricidal activity has been well established. In the present work, we have used site-specific labeling, a technique previously developed in our laboratory, to label HAMLET with biotin, or a fluoroprobe for confocal microscopy studies. In addition to full length hLA, the α-domain of hLA (αD-hLA) alone is also included in the present study. We have engineered these proteins with a 17-amino acid C-terminal extension (hLA-ext and αD-hLA-ext). A single Thr residue in this extension is glycosylated with 2-acetonyl-galactose (C2-keto-galactose) using polypeptide-α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II (ppGalNAc-T2) and further conjugated with aminooxy-derivatives of fluoroprobe or biotin molecules. We found that the molten globule form of hLA and αD-hLA proteins, with or without C-terminal extension, and with and without the conjugated fluoroprobe or biotin molecule, readily form a complex with OA and exhibits tumoricidal activity similar to HAMLET made with full-length hLA protein. The confocal microscopy studies with fluoroprobe-labeled samples show that these proteins are internalized into the cells and found even in the nucleus only when they are complexed with OA. The HAMLET conjugated with a single biotin molecule will be a useful tool to identify the cellular components that are involved with it in the tumoricidal activity.

  4. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Extracorporeal life support in the treatment of colchicine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Rahmani, Hassène; Stiel, Laure; Tournoud, Christine; Sauder, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Ingestions of Colchicum autumnale may lead to severe poisoning. It begins with gastrointestinal symptoms and leukocytosis, followed by multi-organ failure with shock and a possible late recovery phase. Mortality is highly dependent on the ingested dose. We report a case of accidental C. autumnale poisoning with refractory cardiogenic shock and eventual survival after extracorporeal life support (ECLS). A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on day 3 after ingestion of C. autumnale in a meal. She first suffered from nausea and vomiting leading to severe dehydration. She then developed multi-organ failure and refractory cardiogenic shock, with a mean arterial pressure nadir of 50 mmHg despite high doses of catecholamines and a left ventricular ejection fraction at 5-10%. Venous-arterial ECLS was therefore started at an initial rate of 3.5 L/min and 3,800 rev/min. Her symptoms also included pancytopenia on day 4 with diffuse bleeding requiring iterative blood product transfusion. Platelet and leukocyte count nadirs were 13 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 150-400 × 10(9)/L) and 0.77 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 4.2-10.7 × 10(9)/L), respectively. ECLS allowed good cardiac contractility recovery within a few days, with complications including bleeding made controllable. Indeed, because of hemostasis disorders, the patient presented hemoptysis and hematuria. She was treated with tranexamic acid and transfused with blood products. She received 15 erythrocyte concentrates, 13 platelet concentrates, and 7 fresh frozen plasma. ECLS was removed by day 10, with subsequent weaning from mechanical ventilation as well as from hemodialysis in the following days. This patient survives after the use of ECLS in Colchicum poisoning, with controllable complications. Thus, ECLS might be indicated to overcome the potentially refractory cardiogenic shock phase.

  6. Internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of a mammalian mRNA is regulated by amino acid availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, J.; Yaman, I.; Mishra, R.; Merrick, W. C.; Snider, M. D.; Lamers, W. H.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The cationic amino acid transporter, Cat-1, facilitates the uptake of the essential amino acids arginine and lysine. Amino acid starvation causes accumulation and increased translation of cat-1 mRNA, resulting in a 58-fold increase in protein levels and increased arginine uptake. A bicistronic mRNA

  7. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  8. Evaluation of Fe(II) oxidation at an acid mine drainage site using laboratory-scale reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Juliana; Burgos, William

    2010-05-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a severe environmental threat to the Appalachian region of the Eastern United States. The Susquehanna and Potomac River basins of Pennsylvania drain to the Chesapeake Bay, which is heavily polluted by acidity and metals from AMD. This study attempted to unravel the complex relationships between AMD geochemistry, microbial communities, hydrodynamic conditions, and the mineral precipitates for low-pH Fe mounds formed downstream of deep mine discharges, such as Lower Red Eyes in Somerset County, PA, USA. This site is contaminated with high concentrations of Fe (550 mg/L), Mn (115 mg/L), and other trace metals. At the site 95% of dissolved Fe(II) and 56% of total dissolved Fe is removed without treatment, across the mound, but there is no change in the concentration of trace metals. Fe(III) oxides were collected across the Red Eyes Fe mound and precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Schwertmannite was the dominant mineral phase with traces of goethite. The precipitates also contained minor amounts of Al2O3, MgO,and P2O5. Laboratory flow-through reactors were constructed to quantify Fe(II) oxidation and Fe removal over time at terrace and pool depositional facies. Conditions such as residence time, number of reactors in sequence and water column height were varied to determine optimal conditions for Fe removal. Reactors with sediments collected from an upstream terrace oxidized more than 50% of dissolved Fe(II) at a ten hour residence time, while upstream pool sediments only oxidized 40% of dissolved Fe(II). Downstream terrace and pool sediments were only capable of oxidizing 25% and 20% of Fe(II), respectively. Fe(II) oxidation rates measured in the reactors were determined to be between 3.99 x 10-8and 1.94 x 10-7mol L-1s-1. The sediments were not as efficient for total dissolved Fe removal and only 25% was removed under optimal conditions. The removal efficiency for all sediments

  9. Long chain fatty acids alter the interactive binding of ligands to the two principal drug binding sites of human serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Yamasaki

    Full Text Available A wide variety of drugs bind to human serum albumin (HSA at its two principal sites, namely site I and site II. A number of reports indicate that drug binding to these two binding sites are not completely independent, and that interactions between ligands of these two discrete sites can play a role. In this study, the effect of the binding of long-chain fatty acids on the interactive binding between dansyl-L-asparagine (DNSA; site I ligand and ibuprofen (site II ligand at pH6.5 was examined. Binding experiments showed that the binding of sodium oleate (Ole to HSA induces conformational changes in the molecule, which, in turn, changes the individual binding of DNSA and ibuprofen, as well as the mode of interaction between these two ligands from a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction in the case of the defatted HSA conformer to a 'nearly independent' binding in the case of non-defatted HSA conformer. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that ibuprofen and Ole are likely to modify the spatial orientation of DNSA at its binding site. Docking simulations suggest that the long-distance electric repulsion between DNSA and ibuprofen on defatted HSA contributes to a 'competitive-like' allosteric interaction, whereas extending the distance between ligands and/or increasing the flexibility or size of the DNSA binding site in fatted HSA evokes a change in the interaction mode to 'nearly independent' binding. The present findings provide further insights into the structural dynamics of HSA upon the binding of fatty acids, and its effects on drug binding and drug-drug interactions that occur on HSA.

  10. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  11. Burnable poison management in a HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, J

    1971-09-21

    It is the purpose with this paper to describe the state-of-the-art of burnable poison investigations made within the Dragon Project and to give the results of a number of calculations, which show that it is possible to control the large initial surplus reactivity of the first core and the radial power distribution with two types of burnable poison sticks with Gadolinium (one type of stick to be used in the inner core region, the other in the outer core region), where the poison will burn away so that keff always stays around the desired value 1.03, and with the radial form-factor not exceeding 1.20. The calculations made for this paper are not too accurate, especially the chosen timestep for calculating the burn-up of the burnable poison stick proved to be too large. Nevertheless, the calculations are good enough to draw the above mentioned conclusions, although they have not given the concentration of Gadolinium to be used in the burnable poison sticks very accurately.

  12. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Fuel assembly and burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1993-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having burnable poison rods arranged therein, the burnable poison comprises an elongate small outer tube and an inner tube coaxially disposed within the outer tube. Upper and lower end tubes each sealed at one end are connected to both of the upper and lower ends in the inner and the outer tubes respectively. A coolant inlet hole is disposed to the lower end tube, while a coolant leakage hole is disposed to the upper end tube. Burnable poison members are filled in an annular space. Further, the burnable poison-filling region is disposed excepting portions for 1/20 - 1/12 of the effective fuel length at each of the upper and the lower ends of the fuel rod. Then, the concentration of the burnable poisons in a region above a boundary defined at a position 1/3 - 1/2, from beneath, of the effective fuel length is made smaller than that in the lower region. This enables to suppress excess reactions of fuels to reduce the mass of the burnable neutron. Excellent reactivity control performance at the initial stage of the burning can be attained. (T.M.)

  15. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-5-neuraminic Acid-binding Site of the Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor (SiaP) of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain 2019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jason W.; Coussens, Nathan P.; Allen, Simon; Houtman, Jon C.D.; Turner, Keith H.; Zaleski, Anthony; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A. (Iowa); (Buck Inst.)

    2012-11-14

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic human pathogen causing otitis media in children and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The outer membrane of nontypeable H. influenzae is dominated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS), many of which incorporate sialic acid as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Sialic acid has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the survival of the bacteria within the host environment. H. influenzae is incapable of synthesizing sialic acid and is dependent on scavenging free sialic acid from the host environment. To achieve this, H. influenzae utilizes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. In this study, we characterize the binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) from nontypeable H. influenzae strain 2019. A crystal structure of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-bound SiaP was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Thermodynamic characterization of Neu5Ac binding shows this interaction is enthalpically driven with a substantial unfavorable contribution from entropy. This is expected because the binding of SiaP to Neu5Ac is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and has several buried water molecules. Point mutations targeting specific amino acids were introduced in the putative binding site. Complementation with the mutated siaP constructs resulted either in full, partial, or no complementation, depending on the role of specific residues. Mass spectrometry analysis of the O-deacylated LOS of the R127K point mutation confirmed the observation of reduced incorporation of Neu5Ac into the LOS. The decreased ability of H. influenzae to import sialic acid had negative effects on resistance to complement-mediated killing and viability of biofilms in vitro, confirming the importance of sialic acid transport to the bacterium.

  17. Emergency department management of children with acute isoniazid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, R A; Brownstein, D

    1986-06-01

    We suggest that the following therapeutic regimen be followed in cases of isoniazid poisoning in children. In cases of intractable seizure activity in a child which remains unexplained, consider isoniazid poisoning. Give pyridoxine as an intravenous bolus to all children in whom isoniazid toxicity is suspected, who exhibit seizure activity and are known to have been exposed to isoniazid, or who have a history of ingesting one gram or more of isoniazid. It should be given on a gram-for-gram basis, and the clinician need not await serum isoniazid levels before administering pyridoxine. It can be safely given at a rate of five grams per three minutes in a 50 ml volume. In fact, serum isoniazid determinations are not available in many emergency departments and have not been shown to correlate closely with symptomatology. When available, serum isoniazid levels at best are subject to variability owing to sampling procedures (serum protein must be removed within two hours of sampling). The result is that serum isoniazid levels play only a minor role in the emergency department management of isoniazid poisoning. To potentiate the antidotal effects of pyridoxine, diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) may be given intravenously, preferably at a second intravenous site. Because the lactic acidosis seen after seizures resolves spontaneously, and because metabolic alkalosis may result following excess lactate loading, administration of bicarbonate is usually not necessary, and may be harmful in some cases. After pyridoxine treatment, syrup of ipecac may be given to empty the stomach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Study of laboratory profile in patients with aluminium phosphide poisoning in the southwest of Iran from 2010 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhonde Jamshidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Aluminium phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides around the world. The substance releases phosphine gas in the presence of water, steam or stomach acid which can lead to poisoning. Phosphine poisoning is more about suicide the number of which is increasing day by day. Two-thirds of patients lose their lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the data on the clinical epidemiology and laboratory changes in patients poisoned with rice tablets. Material and methods : A total of 23 patients poisoned by aluminium phosphide who referred to Ahvaz Razi hospital within the period of 2010–2015 were studied. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results : The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ±7.3 years and 60.9% of the patients were male. 8.7% of the patients had hyponatremia and 21.7% of the patients had hypokalemia. In the majority of cases the amount of sodium and potassium was normal. 91% of patients had acidosis and serum bicarbonate was reduced in the majority of cases. The average interval between poisoning and admission was 1.48 ±0.76 hours. Conclusions : The pattern to change the electrolytes and other laboratory factors could be a good marker of the severity of the poisoning and the clinical conditions of the patient, which requires more specific research to prove the process.

  19. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The dependence of natural regeneration of forest trees on upper soil conditions and acidity at damaged sites in the Black Forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littek, T.

    1993-06-01

    It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of different upper soil conditions on the germination and establishment, as well as the growth, of young plants of various tree species. For this purpose, four test plots in the region of the Black Forest were laid out, in which, by various means of site preparation and fertilization, the upper soils were changed. Natural seeding of common spruce, European silver-fir, beech, sycamore maple, European mountainash, and grey alder was simulated by means of controlled sowing. For comparison, a greenhouse experiment was carried out, examining the germination and development of the same tree species in various soil substrata, using different fertilizers, and under the influence of artificial acid rain. The most important results - with a high level of variation depending on the tree species examined - can be summarized as follows: Based on the results of field and greenhouse experiments, as well as on the investigations of other authors, it can be concluded that natural regeneration of forest stands is considerably impeded under conditions of increasing soil acidity and by high acid depositions. This is seen directly as the result of unfavorable chemical conditions in the upper soil, as well as indirectly due to deteriorating competitiveness against other vegetation. Site preparation and lime or dolomite fertilization can be important measures in the practice of forestry, to encourage natural regeneration in highly acidic sites with an unfavourable humus layer and a high presence of competing vegetation. (orig./UWA). 2 figs., 85 tabs., 269 refs [de