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Sample records for poiseuille flow coefficients

  1. Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow...

  2. Simulations of magnetorheological suspensions in Poiseuille flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Yannis; Klingenberg, Daniel J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Particle-level simulations are conducted to study magnetorheological fluids in plane Poiseuille flow. The importance of the boundary conditions for the particles at the channel walls is examined by considering two extreme cases: no friction and infinite coefficient of friction. The inclusion of friction produces Bingham fluid behavior, as commonly observed experimentally for MR suspensions. Lamellar structures, similar to those reported for electrorheological fluids in shear flow, are observed in the post-yield region for both particle boundary conditions. The formation of these lamellae is accompanied by an increase in the bulk fluid velocity. The slip boundary condition produces higher fluid velocities and thicker lamellar structures. (orig.)

  3. Derivation of the formula for the filtration coefficient by application of Poiseuille's law in membrane transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jarzyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Kedem-Katchalsky equations a mathematical analysis of volume flow (Jv of a binary solution through a membrane (M is presented. Two cases of transport generators have been considered: hydrostatic (Δp as well as osmotic (Δπ pressure difference. Based on the Poiseuille's law we derive the formula for the membrane filtration coefficient (Lp which takes into account the membrane properties, kinetic viscosity and density of a solution flowing across the membrane. With use of this formula we have made model calculations of the filtration coefficient Lp and volume flow Jv for a polymer membrane in the case when the solutions on both sides of the membrane are mixed.

  4. Poiseuille equation for steady flow of fractal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2016-07-01

    Fractal fluid is considered in the framework of continuous models with noninteger dimensional spaces (NIDS). A recently proposed vector calculus in NIDS is used to get a description of fractal fluid flow in pipes with circular cross-sections. The Navier-Stokes equations of fractal incompressible viscous fluids are used to derive a generalization of the Poiseuille equation of steady flow of fractal media in pipe.

  5. The Fluctuation Theorem and Dissipation Theorem for Poiseuille Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, Sarah J; Reid, James C; Evans, Denis J; Searles, Debra J

    2011-01-01

    The fluctuation theorem and the dissipation theorem provide relationships to describe nonequilibrium systems arbitrarily far from, or close to equilibrium. They both rely on definition of a central property, the dissipation function. In this manuscript we apply these theorems to examine a boundary thermostatted system undergoing Poiseuille flow. The relationships are verified computationally and show that the dissipation theorem is potentially useful for study of boundary thermostatted systems consisting of complex molecules undergoing flow in the nonlinear regime.

  6. The dimension of attractors underlying periodic turbulent Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence; Moin, Parviz; Kim, John

    1992-01-01

    A lower bound on the Liapunov dimenison, D-lambda, of the attractor underlying turbulent, periodic Poiseuille flow at a pressure-gradient Reynolds number of 3200 is calculated, on the basis of a coarse-grained (16x33x8) numerical solution, to be approximately 352. Comparison of Liapunov exponent spectra from this and a higher-resolution (16x33x16) simulation on the same spatial domain shows these spectra to have a universal shape when properly scaled. On the basis of these scaling properties, and a partial exponent spectrum from a still higher-resolution (32x33x32) simulation, it is argued that the actual dimension of the attractor underlying motion of the given computational domain is approximately 780. It is suggested that this periodic turbulent shear flow is deterministic chaos, and that a strange attractor does underly solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in such flows.

  7. Generalized Couette Poiseuille flow with boundary mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Sanchez, J.; Weidman, P. D.

    1998-11-01

    A generalized similarity formulation extending the work of Terrill (1967) for Couette Poiseuille flow in the annulus between concentric cylinders of infinite extent is given. Boundary conditions compatible with the formulation allow a study of the effects of inner and outer cylinder transpiration, rotation, translation, stretching and twisting, in addition to that of an externally imposed constant axial pressure gradient. The problem is governed by [eta], the ratio of inner to outer radii, a Poiseuille number, and nine Reynolds numbers. Single-cylinder and planar problems can be recovered in the limits [eta][rightward arrow]0 and [eta][rightward arrow]1, respectively. Two coupled primary nonlinear equations govern the meridional motion generated by uniform mass flux through the porous walls and the azimuthal motion generated by torsional movement of the cylinders; subsidiary equations linearly slaved to the primary flow govern the effects of cylinder translation, cylinder rotation, and an external pressure gradient. Steady solutions of the primary equations for uniform source/sink flow of strength F through the inner cylinder are reported for 0[less-than-or-eq, slant][eta][less-than-or-eq, slant]1. Asymptotic results corroborating the numerical solutions are found in different limiting cases. For F0 is more complex in that unique solutions are found at low Reynolds numbers, a region of triple solutions exists at moderate Reynolds numbers, and a two-cell solution prevails at large Reynolds numbers. The subsidiary linear equations are solved at [eta]=0.5 to exhibit the effects of cylinder translation, rotation, and an axial pressure gradient on the source/sink flows.

  8. Dynamics of an elastic capsule in moderate Reynolds number Poiseuille flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamics of a capsule in moderate Re Poiseuille flow were explored numerically. ► Capsule tends to tumbling motion for larger membrane elasticity and higher Re flow. ► Capsule undergoes swinging motion for larger size and aspect ratio of the capsule. ► Capsule tends to migrate to a specific lateral equilibrium as Re increases. ► Equilibrium position varies differently around the transition of the dynamic motion. - Abstract: The dynamic motions and lateral equilibrium positions of a two-dimensional elastic capsule in a Poiseuille flow were explored at moderate Reynolds number (10 ⩽ Re ⩽ 100) as a function of the initial lateral position (y 0 ), Re, aspect ratio (ε), size ratio (λ), membrane stretching coefficient (φ) and bending coefficient (γ). The transition between tank-treading (TT) and swinging (SW) to tumbling (TU) motions was observed and the lateral equilibrium positions of the capsules varied according to the conditions. The initial behavior of the elastic capsule was influenced by variation in the initial lateral position (y 0 ), but the equilibrium position and dynamic motion of the capsule were not affected by such variation. The capsules had a stronger tendency toward TU motion at higher values of Re, φ and γ, whereas the capsules underwent TT or SW motion as the values of ε and λ increased. Under moderate Re Poiseuille flows, capsules tended to migrate across streamlines to a specific equilibrium position. The lateral equilibrium position shifted toward the centerline at larger λ and migrated toward the wall at larger ε,φandγ. As Re increased, the equilibrium position first shifted toward the bottom wall, then toward the channel center. However, different equilibrium position trends were obtained around the SW–TU transition. The capsule undergoing TU motion tended to migrate downward toward the bottom wall more than the capsule undergoing SW motion, all other conditions being similar.

  9. Diffusion in Poiseuille and Couette flows of binary mixtures of incompressible newtonian fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano Filho, E.; Qassim, R.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Using the continuum theory of binary mixtures of incompressible Newtonian fluids, Poiseuille and Couette flows are studied with a view to determining whether diffusion occurs in such flows. It is shown that diffusion is absent in the Couette case. However, in Poiseuille flow there are significant differences between the velocities of the species comprising the mixture. This result is in broad agreement with that of Mills for similar mixtures of nonuniform composition. (Author) [pt

  10. Endothelial shear stress estimation in the human carotid artery based on Womersley versus Poiseuille flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Janina C. V.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Nederveen, Aart J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; VanBavel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) dynamics are a major determinant of atherosclerosis development. The frequently used Poiseuille method to estimate ESS dynamics has important limitations. Therefore, we investigated whether Womersley flow may provide a better alternative for estimation of ESS while

  11. Study of the influence of diffusion on the flow velocity, for binary mixtures in Poiseuille and Couette flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano Filho, E.

    1981-05-01

    The influence of diffusion on the flow of binary mixtures of incompressible fluids in POISEUILLE and COUETTE flows, is studied. The constitutive equations sugested by SAMPAIO and WILLIAMS and by STRUMINSKII for the constituent stress tensor and for the diffusive force are used. Results show that diffusion does not influence the flow in the case of planar and circular COUETTE flows. On the other hand, diffusion does play an important part in planar and circular POISEUILLE flows. (Author) [pt

  12. Couette-Poiseuille flow experiment with zero mean advection velocity: Subcritical transition to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, L.; Lemoult, G.; Frontczak, I.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    We present an experimental setup that creates a shear flow with zero mean advection velocity achieved by counterbalancing the nonzero streamwise pressure gradient by moving boundaries, which generates plane Couette-Poiseuille flow. We obtain experimental results in the transitional regime for this flow. Using flow visualization, we characterize the subcritical transition to turbulence in Couette-Poiseuille flow and show the existence of turbulent spots generated by a permanent perturbation. Due to the zero mean advection velocity of the base profile, these turbulent structures are nearly stationary. We distinguish two regions of the turbulent spot: the active turbulent core, which is characterized by waviness of the streaks similar to traveling waves, and the surrounding region, which includes in addition the weak undisturbed streaks and oblique waves at the laminar-turbulent interface. We also study the dependence of the size of these two regions on Reynolds number. Finally, we show that the traveling waves move in the downstream (Poiseuille) direction.

  13. Universal dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Bruus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find that t...... that the steady state is reached after a characteristic time scale tau=(A/P)(2)(1/nu), where A and P are the cross-sectional area and perimeter, respectively, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid. For the initial dynamics of the flow rate Q for t......The dynamics in the onset of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of an incompressible liquid in a channel of circular cross section is well-studied theoretically. We use an eigenfunction expansion in a Hilbert space formalism to generalize the results to channels of an arbitrary cross section. We find...

  14. A continuum theory for two-phase flows of particulate solids: application to Poiseuille flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsorno, Davide; Varsakelis, Christos; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of this talk, we present a novel two-phase continuum model for incompressible fluid-saturated granular flows. The model accounts for both compaction and shear-induced dilatancy and accommodates correlations for the granular rheology in a thermodynamically consistent way. In the second part of this talk, we exercise this two-phase model in the numerical simulation of a fully-developed Poiseuille flow of a dense suspension. The numerical predictions are shown to compare favorably against experimental measurements and confirm that the model can capture the important characteristics of the flow field, such as segregation and formation of plug zones. Finally, results from parametric studies with respect to the initial concentration, the magnitude of the external forcing and the width of the channel are presented and the role of these physical parameters is quantified. Financial Support has been provided by SEDITRANS, an Initial Training Network of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme

  15. Molecular dynamic simulation of Copper and Platinum nanoparticles Poiseuille flow in a nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghraie, Davood; Mokhtari, Majid; Afrand, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, simulation of Poiseuille flow within nanochannel containing Copper and Platinum particles has been performed using molecular dynamic (MD). In this simulation LAMMPS code is used to simulate three-dimensional Poiseuille flow. The atomic interaction is governed by the modified Lennard-Jones potential. To study the wall effects on the surface tension and density profile, we placed two solid walls, one at the bottom boundary and the other at the top boundary. For solid-liquid interactions, the modified Lennard-Jones potential function was used. Velocity profiles and distribution of temperature and density have been obtained, and agglutination of nanoparticles has been discussed. It has also shown that with more particles, less time is required for the particles to fuse or agglutinate. Also, we can conclude that the agglutination time in nanochannel with Copper particles is faster that in Platinum nanoparticles. Finally, it is demonstrated that using nanoparticles raises thermal conduction in the channel.

  16. Stability of plane Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifdi Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The linear stability of plan Poiseuille flow of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically. The fourth-order Sommerfeld equation governing the stability analysis is solved by spectral method with expansions in lagrange’s polynomials, based on collocation points of Gauss-Lobatto. The critical values of Reynolds number, wave number and wave speed are computed. The results are shown through the neutral curve. The main purpose of this work is to check the combined effect of magnetic field and fluid’s elasticity on the stability of the plane Poiseuille flow. Based on the results obtained in this work, the magnetic field is predicted to have a stabilizing effect on the Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids. Hence, it will be shown that for second-order fluids (K 0 is that the critical Reynolds numbers Rec increase when the Hartman number M increases for certain value of elasticity number K and decrease for others. The latter result is in contrast to previous studies.

  17. Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).

  18. Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: from quiescence to steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.

  19. Experimental determination of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, R.; Abid, C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow. This situation corresponds to a mixed convection phenomenon in a horizontal rectangular channel uniformly heated from below. Flow visualisation and temperature measurements were achieved in order to describe the flow regimes and heat transfer behaviour. The classical measurement techniques such employing thermocouples give local measurement on one hand and on other hand they often disturb the flow. As the flow is three-dimensional, these techniques are not efficient. In order to not disturb the flow, a non-intrusive method is used for thermal measurement. The Planar laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) was implemented to determine thermal fields in the fluid. Experiments conducted for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to determine the heat transfer and thus to propose correlation for Nusselt number for a mixed convection flow in Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard configuration. First a description of the use of this technique in water flow is presented and then the obtained results for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to propose a correlation for the Nusselt number for such configuration of mixed convection. The comparison between the obtained heat transfer and the pure forced convection one confirms the well-known result that the convective heat transfer is greatly enhanced in mixed convection. Indeed, secondary flow induced by buoyant forces contributes to the refreshment of thermal boundary layers and so acts like mixers, which significantly enhances heat transfer.

  20. Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poiseuille’s equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD of 13 (12%. Marshall’s hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD flow rate increase of only 19 (13%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD of 43 (17% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille’s equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions.

  1. Nonlinear travelling waves in rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of viscous flow through a rotating pipe is considered. Small-amplitude stability characteristics are obtained by linearizing the Navier–Stokes equations around the base flow and solving the resulting eigenvalue problems. For linearly unstable configurations, the dynamics leads to fully developed finite-amplitude perturbations that are computed by direct numerical simulations of the complete Navier–Stokes equations. By systematically investigating all linearly unstable combinations of streamwise wave number k and azimuthal mode number m, for streamwise Reynolds numbers {{Re}}z ≤slant 500 and rotational Reynolds numbers {{Re}}{{Ω }} ≤slant 500, the complete range of nonlinear travelling waves is obtained and the associated flow fields are characterized.

  2. Thermal ignition in a reactive variable viscosity Poiseuille flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we investigate the thermal ignition in a strongly exothermic reaction of a variable viscosity combustible material flowing through a channel with isothermal walls under Arrhenius kinetics, neglecting the consumption of the material. Analytical solutions are constructed for the governing nonlinear boundary-value ...

  3. Non-modal stability in Hagen-Poiseuille flow of a Bingham fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Liu, Qiu Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Linear stability in Hagen-Poiseuille flow of a Bingham fluid is considered. Bingham fluid exhibits a yield stress in addition to a plastic viscosity. A Bingham number B, which describes the ratio of yield and viscous stresses, is used to characterize the behavior of Bingham-Hagen-Poiseuille flow. The effects of B on the stability are investigated using the energy method and the non-modal stability theory. The energy analysis shows that the non-axisymmetric disturbance has the lowest critical energy Reynolds number for all B. The global critical energy Reynolds number Reg increases with B. At sufficient large B, Reg has the order of B1/2. For the non-modal stability, we focus on response to external excitations and initial conditions. The former is studied by examining the ɛ-pseudospectrum, and the latter is by examining the energy growth function G(t). For the problem of response to external excitations, the maximum response is achieved by non-axisymmetric and streamwise uniform disturbances at the frequency of ω = 0, with a possible choice of the azimuthal wavenumbers of n = 1, 2, or 3. For the problem of response to initial conditions, it is found that there can be a rather large transient growth even though the linear operator of the Bingham-Hagen-Poiseuille flow has no unstable eigenvalue. For small B, the optimal disturbance is in the form of streamwise uniform vortices and streaks. For large B, the optimal disturbance is in the form of oblique waves. The optimal energy growth decreases and the optimal azimuthal wavenumber increases with the increase of B.

  4. Vesicle dynamics in a confined Poiseuille flow: from steady state to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouane, Othmane; Thiébaud, Marine; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Wagner, Christian; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are the major component of blood, and the flow of blood is dictated by that of RBCs. We employ vesicles, which consist of closed bilayer membranes enclosing a fluid, as a model system to study the behavior of RBCs under a confined Poiseuille flow. We extensively explore two main parameters: (i) the degree of confinement of vesicles within the channel and (ii) the flow strength. Rich and complex dynamics for vesicles are revealed, ranging from steady-state shapes (in the form of parachute and slipper shapes) to chaotic dynamics of shape. Chaos occurs through a cascade of multiple periodic oscillations of the vesicle shape. We summarize our results in a phase diagram in the parameter plane (degree of confinement and flow strength). This finding highlights the level of complexity of a flowing vesicle in the small Reynolds number where the flow is laminar in the absence of vesicles and can be rendered turbulent due to elasticity of vesicles.

  5. Density Distribution of Liquid Argon in Nano-channel Poiseuille Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jiangwei; Wang, Yuyi; Zhou, Zhe-Wei

    2017-11-01

    The density layering parallel to the boundaries of liquid has been measured in many experiments and also observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, a detail and systematic investigation of density distribution in nano-scale Poiseuille flows is carried out. Through analyzing the difference of density distribution curves obtained under different conditions, the influence of interaction parameters, configuration form of solid wall and temperature on the layering are investigated. The internal mechanism is also explored in this paper. The detail description of the density distribution results and simulation algorithm is given. National natural science foundation (A020405).

  6. Poiseuille, thermal transpiration and Couette flows of a rarefied gas between plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties in the transverse direction and their reciprocity relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    Slow flows of a rarefied gas between two plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties are studied based on kinetic theory. It is assumed that one wall is a diffuse reflection boundary and the other wall is a Maxwell-type boundary whose accommodation coefficient varies periodically in the direction perpendicular to the flow. The time-independent Poiseuille, thermal transpiration and Couette flows are considered. The flow behavior is numerically studied based on the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-Welander model of the Boltzmann equation. The flow field, the mass and heat flow rates in the gas, and the tangential force acting on the wall surface are studied over a wide range of the gas rarefaction degree and the parameters characterizing the distribution of the accommodation coefficient. The locally convex velocity distribution is observed in Couette flow of a highly rarefied gas, similarly to Poiseuille flow and thermal transpiration. The reciprocity relations are numerically confirmed over a wide range of the flow parameters.

  7. Onsager's variational principle for the dynamics of a vesicle in a Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2018-03-01

    We propose a systematic formulation of the migration behaviors of a vesicle in a Poiseuille flow based on Onsager's variational principle, which can be used to determine the most stable steady state. Our model is described by a combination of the phase field theory for the vesicle and the hydrodynamics for the flow field. The dynamics is governed by the bending elastic energy and the dissipation functional, the latter being composed of viscous dissipation of the flow field, dissipation of the bending energy of the vesicle, and the friction between the vesicle and the flow field. We performed a series of simulations on 2-dimensional systems by changing the bending elasticity of the membrane and observed 3 types of steady states, i.e., those with slipper shape, bullet shape, and snaking motion, and a quasi-steady state with zig-zag motion. We show that the transitions among these steady states can be quantitatively explained by evaluating the dissipation functional, which is determined by the competition between the friction on the vesicle surface and the viscous dissipation in the bulk flow.

  8. Numerical simulations of the laminar-turbulent transition process in plane Poiseuille flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiser, L.

    1982-04-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition in plane Poiseuille flow is simulated by numerical integration of the time-dependent three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. The mathematical model of a spatially periodic, timewise developing flow in a moving frame of reference is used to match vibrating-ribbon experiments of Nishioka et al. The numerical discretisation is based on a spectral method with Fourier and Chebyshev polynomial expansions in space and second order finite differences in time. The pressure is calculated using a new method which enforces incompressibility and boundary conditions exactly. This is achieved by deriving the correct boundary conditions for the pressure Poisson equation. The numerical results obtained for two-dimensional finite amplitude disturbances are consistent with nonlinear stability theory. The time-periodic secondary flow is attained by the time-dependent calculation with reasonable accuracy after a long quasi-steady state. No sign of two-dimensional instability, but strong three-dimensional instability as well of the periodic secondary flow as of the quasi-steady state is found. This secondary three-dimensional instability is shown to be responsible for transition. It is shown that the three-dimensional simulations presented here reproduce the experimentally observed transition process up to the spike stage. Detailed comparisons with measurements of mean velocity, rms-values of fluctuation and instantaneous velocity distribution reveal very satisfactory agreement. The formation of peak-valley structure, longitudinal vortices, local high-shear layers and distinct spike-type signals is shown. In addition, the three-dimensional flow field structure before breakdown is investigated. An array of horseshoe vortices similar to those inferred from boundary layer flow visualization experiments is found. Spike signals are produced by local accumulations of low-speed fluid in the downstream loops of these vortices. (orig.) [de

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  10. New linear theory of hydrodynamic instability of the Hagen-Poiseuille flow and the blood swirling flows formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims This paper deals with solving of a century-old paradox of linear stability for the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A new mechanism of dissipative hydrodynamic instability has been established herein, and a basis for the forming of helical structural organization of bloodstream and respective energy effectiveness of the cardiovascular system functioning has been defined by the authors. Materials and methods Theory of hydrodynamic instability, Galerkin’s approximation. Results A new condition Re > Reth-min ≈ 124 of linear (exponential instability of the Hagen-Poisseuille (HP flow with respect to extremely small by magnitude axially-symmetric disturbances of the tangential component of the velocity field is obtained. The disturbances necessarily shall have quasi-periodic longitudinal variability along the pipe axis that corresponds to the observed data. Conclusion We show that the obtained estimate of value of Reth-min corresponds to the condition of independence of the main result (on the linear instability of the HP flow when Re > Reth-min from the procedure of averaging used in the Galerkin approximation. Thus, we obtain the possible natural mechanism for the blood swirling flows formations observed in the aorta and the large blood vessels.

  11. Microscopic molecular dynamics characterization of the second-order non-Navier-Fourier constitutive laws in the Poiseuille gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, A.; Ravichandran, R. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. H.; Myong, R. S., E-mail: myong@gnu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Aircraft Parts Technology, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The second-order non-Navier-Fourier constitutive laws, expressed in a compact algebraic mathematical form, were validated for the force-driven Poiseuille gas flow by the deterministic atomic-level microscopic molecular dynamics (MD). Emphasis is placed on how completely different methods (a second-order continuum macroscopic theory based on the kinetic Boltzmann equation, the probabilistic mesoscopic direct simulation Monte Carlo, and, in particular, the deterministic microscopic MD) describe the non-classical physics, and whether the second-order non-Navier-Fourier constitutive laws derived from the continuum theory can be validated using MD solutions for the viscous stress and heat flux calculated directly from the molecular data using the statistical method. Peculiar behaviors (non-uniform tangent pressure profile and exotic instantaneous heat conduction from cold to hot [R. S. Myong, “A full analytical solution for the force-driven compressible Poiseuille gas flow based on a nonlinear coupled constitutive relation,” Phys. Fluids 23(1), 012002 (2011)]) were re-examined using atomic-level MD results. It was shown that all three results were in strong qualitative agreement with each other, implying that the second-order non-Navier-Fourier laws are indeed physically legitimate in the transition regime. Furthermore, it was shown that the non-Navier-Fourier constitutive laws are essential for describing non-zero normal stress and tangential heat flux, while the classical and non-classical laws remain similar for shear stress and normal heat flux.

  12. Letter: The link between the Reynolds shear stress and the large structures of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Barberá, Sergio; Hoyas, Sergio; Oberlack, Martin; Kraheberger, Stefanie

    2018-04-01

    The length and width of the long and wide structures appearing in turbulent Couette flows are studied by means of a new dataset of direct numerical simulation covering a stepped transition from pure Couette flow to pure Poiseuille one, at Reτ ≈ 130, based on the stationary wall. The existence of these structures is linked to the averaged Reynolds stress, u v ¯ : as soon as in any part of the channel u v ¯ changes its sign, the structures disappear. The length and width of the rolls are found to be, approximately, 50h and 2.5h, respectively. For this Reynolds number, simulations with a domain shorter than 100h cannot properly describe the behaviour of the longest structures of the flow.

  13. Influence of heat transfer on Poiseuille flow of MHD Jeffrey fluid through porous medium with slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.

    2017-07-01

    In the current article, we have discussed the Poiseuille flow of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic Jeffrey fluid between parallel plates through homogeneous porous medium using slip boundary conditions under the effect of heat transfer. The equations governing the fluid flow are modeled in Cartesian coordinate system. The energy equation is considered under the effects viscous dissipation and heat generation. Analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained. The effects of the various involved parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are studied and the results are presented through the graphs. It is observed from our analysis that, with increase of slip parameter and pressure gradient increase the velocity. The temperature is an increasing function of heat generation parameter, Brinkman number, thermal slip parameter and non-Newtonian fluid parameter.

  14. Analytical determination of 3-D global modes in Rayleigh-Benard-Poiseuille-type mixed convection flow; Determination analytique des modes globaux tridimensionnels en ecoulement de convection mixte du type Rayleigh-Benard-Poiseuille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinand, D

    2003-01-15

    This analytical study deals with the spatio-temporal evolution of linear thermo-convective instabilities in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below (the Rayleigh--Benard system) and subject to a horizontal pressure gradient (Poiseuille flow). The novelty consists of a spatially inhomogeneous temperature, in the form of a two-dimensional bump imposed on the lower plate, while the upper plate is kept at a constant temperature. The inhomogeneous boundary temperature and the mean flow of the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system break the symmetries of the classical Rayleigh--Benard system. The instabilities of interest are therefore spatially localised packets of convection rolls. If a mode of this type is synchronized, it is called a global mode. Assuming that the characteristic scale of the spatial variation of the lower plate temperature is large compared to the wavelength of the rolls, global modes are sought in the form of Eigenmodes in the confined vertical direction, modulated by a two-dimensional WKBJ expansion in the slowly-varying horizontal directions. Such an expansion breaks down at points where the group velocity of the instability vanishes, i.e. at WKBJ turning points. In the neighbourhood of one such point, located at the top of the temperature bump, the boundedness of the solution imposes a selection criterion for the global modes which provides the growth rate (or equivalently the critical threshold), the frequency and the wave vector of the most amplified global mode. This study thus generalizes to two-dimensional cases the methods used and the results obtained for one-dimensional inhomogeneities. The analysis is first applied to a simplified governing equation obtained by an envelope formalism and the analytical results are compared with numerical solutions of the amplitude equation. The formalism is finally applied to the Rayleigh--Benard--Poiseuille system described by the Navier--Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation. (author)

  15. Influence of complex interfacial rheology on the thermocapillary migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayan; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-02-01

    The effect of surface viscosity on the motion of a surfactant-laden droplet in the presence of a non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied, both analytically and numerically. The presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants along the droplet surface results in interfacial shear and dilatational viscosities. This, in turn, is responsible for the generation of surface-excess viscous stresses that obey the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive law for constant values of surface shear and dilatational viscosities. The present study is primarily focused on finding out how this confluence can be used to modulate droplet dynamics in the presence of Marangoni stress induced by nonuniform distribution of surfactants and temperature along the droplet surface, by exploiting an intricate interplay of the respective forcing parameters influencing the interfacial stresses. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and thermal convection, the steady-state migration velocity of a non-deformable spherical droplet, placed at the centerline of an imposed unbounded Poiseuille flow, is obtained for the limiting case when the surfactant transport along the interface is dominated by surface diffusion. Our analysis proves that the droplet migration velocity is unaffected by the shear viscosity whereas the dilatational viscosity has a significant effect on the same. The surface viscous effects always retard the migration of a surfactant-laden droplet when the temperature in the far-field increases in the direction of the imposed flow although the droplet always migrates towards the hotter region. On the contrary, if a large temperature gradient is applied in a direction opposite to that of the imposed flow, the direction of droplet migration gets reversed. However, for a sufficiently high value of dilatational surface viscosity, the direction of droplet migration reverses. For the limiting case in which the surfactant transport along the droplet surface is dominated by surface convection, on

  16. Pressure-Driven Poiseuille Flow: A Major Component of the Torque-Balance Governing Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific Plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians-Japan, Marianas-Izu-Bonin, and Tonga-Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub-Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e., Couette flow) and that the associated shear stresses at the lithosphere's base are resisting such motion. Recent studies on glacial isostatic adjustment and lithosphere dynamics provide tighter constraints on the viscosity and thickness of Earth's asthenosphere and, therefore, on the amount of shear stress that asthenosphere and lithosphere mutually exchange, by virtue of Newton's third law of motion. In light of these constraints, the notion that subduction is the main driver of present-day Pacific Plate motion becomes somewhat unviable, as the pulling force that would be required by slabs exceeds the maximum available from their negative buoyancy. Here we use coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics to show that the sub-Pacific asthenosphere features a significant component of pressure-driven (i.e., Poiseuille) flow and that this has driven at least 50% of the Pacific Plate motion since, at least, 15 Ma. A corollary of our models is that a sublithospheric pressure difference as high as ±50 MPa is required across the Pacific domain.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Couette-Poiseuille Flow With Zero Skin Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gary N.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    2015-01-01

    The near-wall scaling of mean velocity U(yw) is addressed for the case of zero skin friction on one wall of a fully turbulent channel flow. The present DNS results can be added to the evidence in support of the conjecture that U is proportional to the square root of yw in the region just above the wall at which the mean shear dU=dy = 0.

  18. Entropy generation in Poiseuille flow through a channel partially filled with a porous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a theoretical analysis of entropy generation due to fully developed flow and heat transfer through a parallel plate channel partially filled with a porous medium under the effect of transverse magnetic field and radiation is presented. Both horizontal plates of the channel are kept at constant and equal temperature. An exact solution of governing equation for both porous and clear fluid regions has been obtained in closed form. The entropy generation number and the Bejan number are also calculated. The effects of various parameters such as magnetic field parameter, radiation parameter, Brinkman number, permeability parameter, ratios of viscosities and thermal conductivities are examined on velocity, temperature, entropy generation rate.

  19. Numerical Simulations of the Motion and Deformation of Three RBCs during Poiseuille Flow through a Constricted Vessel Using IB-LBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongyang; Wei, Yikun; Wu, Chuanyu; Sun, Liang; Zheng, Wenguang

    2018-01-01

    The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) was used to examine the motion and deformation of three elastic red blood cells (RBCs) during Poiseuille flow through constricted microchannels. The objective was to determine the effects of the degree of constriction and the Reynolds (Re) number of the flow on the physical characteristics of the RBCs. It was found that, with decreasing constriction ratio, the RBCs experienced greater forced deformation as they squeezed through the constriction area compared to at other parts of the microchannel. It was also observed that a longer time was required for the RBCs to squeeze through a narrower constriction. The RBCs subsequently regained a stable shape and gradually migrated toward the centerline of the flow beyond the constriction area. However, a sick RBC was observed to be incapable of passing through a constricted vessel with a constriction ratio ≤1/3 for Re numbers below 0.40.

  20. Anchoring Distortions Coupled with Plane Couette & Poiseuille Flows of Nematic Polymers in Viscous Solvents: Morphology in Molecular Orientation, Stress & Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Hong; Forest, M. G

    2006-01-01

    .... The morphology has various physical realizations, all coupled through the model equations: the orientational distribution of the ensemble of rods, anisotropic viscoelastic stresses, and flow feedback...

  1. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of activation energy in Couette-Poiseuille flow of nanofluid in the presence of chemical reaction and convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, A.; Shehzad, N.; Ellahi, R.

    2018-03-01

    The motivation of the current article is to explore the energy activation in MHD radiative Couette-Poiseuille flow nanofluid in horizontal channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model of Buongiorno [1] effectively describes the current flow analysis. Additionally, the impact of chemical reaction is also taken in account. The governing flow equations are simplified with the help of boundary layer approximations. Non-linear coupled equations for momentum, energy and mass transfer are tackled with analytical (HAM) technique. The influence of dimensionless convergence parameter like Brownian motion parameter, radiation parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter, dimensionless activation energy, thermophoresis parameter, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless reaction rate, Schmidt number, Brinkman number, Biot number and convection diffusion parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed graphically and in tabular form. From the results, it is elaborate that the nanoparticle concentration is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy and the performance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle concentration gives reverse pattern to that of thermophoresis parameter.

  3. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Dragoljub; Živković Slaven

    2005-01-01

    The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely ma...

  4. Analysis of Poiseuille Flow Property in Two-Dimensional Mi-cro Channels of Microfluidic Pneumatic Micro-Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Long, Wei; Chen, Yajun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the control mechanism and mathematical description of the microfluidic flow in the microfluidic process of the PDMS membrane type pneumatic micro-valve were studied. The velocity and pressure variation law of the velocity field inside micro valve was analyzed by numerical simulation method. The influence of the two kinds of inlet drive modes on the working effect and the pressure flow characteristics of the pneumatic micro-valve was studied. The structure of the elastic solid valve diaphragm under the dual action of the airway and the liquid channel was analyzed. Deformation and stress distribution. The results show that the gas flow in the gas flow channel under the diaphragm by the vacuum part of the role of the formation of a suction gas vortex, pressure-driven mode was easier under the diaphragm to produce a strong gas vortex, resulting in internal and external pressure to promote diaphragm cut-off liquid channel; In the pressure pneumatic mode, the stress at both ends of the diaphragm was smaller, the membrane was not easy to tear failure.

  5. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely made of sawn timber as the basic material. They belong to the group of export products, so it is especially significant to analyze the duration of the production cycle, and the type and the degree of stoppages in this type of production. Parallel method of production is applied in chair manufacture. The study shows that the value of flow coefficient is close to one or higher, in most cases. The results indicate that the percentage of interoperational stoppage is unjustifiably high, so it is proposed how to decrease the percentage of stoppages in the manufacturing process.

  6. Modeling the Design Flow Coefficient of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Drozdov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In calculating gas-dynamic characteristics by the universal modeling method it is necessary to determine a non-incidence flow rate through the blades of an impeller because of its relationship with the magnitude of incidence losses. The flow area decreased by the blades of finite thickness and the blades load have impact on the critical streamline direction. The universal modeling method in primary designing uses for this a scheme of replacing the influence of the blade load by the vortex effect with identical circulation. Finally, calculating the inviscid flow around the blades allows selecting a value of the inlet blade angle. For impellers with small design flow coefficients, the condition of the non-incidence inlet for the primary design and for the calculation of the inviscid flow is significantly different. The calculating correctness of the non-incidence regime for the non-viscous flow was checked earlier by measurements of the flow in the impellers. The paper presents CFD calculations of twenty impellers in a tenfold range of design flow coefficients. To provide correct comparison, it takes into account the differences in the value of the loading factor calculated by the programs of inviscid quasi-three-dimensional calculation and CFD programs. Shows the identity of inlet conditions for both methods. To increase primary design accuracy, the calculation model was refined. The formula for calculating vortex-induced velocity involves an empirical coefficient. The analysis of data for 32 impellers with different blade profiling allowed working out formulas for calculating empirical coefficient, depending on the type of an impeller, the blade load and the width of the throat at an impeller inlet. The new scheme-based calculation with the empirical coefficient is accurate enough for the primary design.

  7. Perturbation Solutions for Hagen-Poiseuille Flow and Heat Transfer of Third-Grade Fluid with Temperature-Dependent Viscosities and Internal Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Ogunmola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular perturbation technique is applied to analyze the fluid flow and heat transfer in a pipe containing third-grade fluid with temperature-dependent viscosities and heat generation under slip and no slip conditions. The obtained approximate solutions were used to investigate the effects of slip on the heat transfer characteristics of the laminar flow in a pipe under Reynolds’s and Vogel’s temperature-dependent viscosities. Also, the effects of parameters such as variable viscosity, non-Newtonian parameter, viscous dissipation, and pressure gradient at various values were established. The results of this work were compared with the numerical results found in literature and good agreements were established. The results can be used to advance the analysis and study of the behavior of third-grade fluid flow and steady state heat transfer processes such as those found in coal slurries, polymer solutions, textiles, ceramics, catalytic reactors, and oil recovery applications.

  8. Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1983-03-01

    The correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients in heated triangular array of rod bundles, in terms of the flow hydrodynamic parameters is presented. The analysis is made first for fluid with Prandtl numbers varying from moderated to high (Pr>0.2), and then extended to fluids with low Prandtl numbers (0.004 [pt

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW REGULATION BASED ON WAVELET COEFFICIENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Pavlova, O.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of revealing new characteristic features of renal blood flow autoregulation in healthy and pathological states through the application of discrete wavelet transforms to experimental time series for normotensive and hypertensive rats....... A reduction in the variability of the wavelet coefficients in hypertension is observed at both the microscopic level of the blood flow in efferent arterioles of individual nephrons and at the macroscopic level of the blood pressure in the main arteries. The reduction is manifest in both of the main frequency...

  10. Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.

  11. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, S.; Pinho, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section

  12. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, S. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal)]. E-mail: srosa@ipb.pt; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEM, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)]. E-mail: fpinho@fe.up.pt

    2006-04-15

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section.

  13. A methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow coefficients and flow rate in hydraulic valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés, José R.; Rodríguez, José M.; Saumell, Javier; Pütz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of flow in hydraulic valves. • We characterize the flow coefficients with a generic function with two parameters. • The parameters are derived from CFD simulations of the generic geometry. • We apply the methodology to two cases from the automotive brake industry. • We validate by comparing with CFD results varying the original dimensions. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow rate in hydraulic valve systems. This methodology is based on the derivation, from CFD simulations, of the flow coefficient of the critical restrictions as a function of the Reynolds number, using a generalized square root function with two parameters. The methodology is then demonstrated by applying it to two completely different hydraulic systems: a brake master cylinder and an ABS valve. This type of parametric valve models facilitates their implementation in dynamic simulation models of complex hydraulic systems

  14. Discharge Coefficient Measurements for Flow Through Compound-Angle Conical Holes with Cross-Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion-shaped film holes with compound angles are currently being investigated for high temperature gas turbine airfoil film cooling. An accurate prediction of the coolant blowing rate through these film holes is essential in determining the film effectiveness. Therefore, the discharge coefficients associated with these film holes for a range of hole pressure ratios is essential in designing airfoil cooling circuits. Most of the available discharge coefficient data in open literature has been for cylindrical holes. The main objective of this experimental investigation was to measure the discharge coefficients for subsonic as well as supersonic pressure ratios through a single conical-diffusion hole. The conical hole has an exit-to-inlet area ratio of 4, a nominal flow length-to-inlet diameter ratio of 4, and an angle with respect to the exit plane (inclination angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Measurements were performed with and without a cross-flow. For the cases with a cross-flow, discharge coefficients were measured for each of the hole geometries and 5 angles between the projected conical hole axis and the cross-flow direction of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°. Results are compared with available data in open literature for cylindrical film holes as well as limited data for conical film holes.

  15. An approach to Poiseuille's law in an undergraduate laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sianoudis, I A; Drakaki, E

    2008-01-01

    The continuous growth of computer and sensor technology allows many researchers to develop simple modifications and/or refinements to standard educational experiments, making them more attractive and comprehensible to students and thus increasing their educational impact. In the framework of this approach, the present study proposes an alternative experimental setup, which allows the confirmation of Hagen-Poiseuille's law, governing the flow of real fluids through tubes, a law with numerous important applications in both technology and medicine. In the proposed educational procedure, experimental measurements of fluid outflow are performed with the use of a motion sensor and a suitable computer program, allowing the determination of both the hydrostatic pressure and the flow rate. The dependence of the flow rate on parameters such as viscosity of the fluid, length and radius of the tube and the pressure difference between the ends of the tube are also studied, providing a laboratory activity which is useful and attractive for first year students, especially those of technologically oriented departments

  16. Study for discharge coefficient of flow nozzles. Prediction by using numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Norio; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Arai, Kenji; Matsumoto, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear plant, as water feeding into reactor have much effect on thermal power of plant, it is important to measure accurately the flow rate of water. Flow nozzle is on of typical differential pressure type flow meters and the discharge coefficient is used to calculate the flow rate. This coefficient is given by actual experiment and theory. We studied the theoretical assumption of the discharge coefficient curve using numerical simulation and evaluated the effect of flow nozzle configuration on the coefficient numerically and experimentally. As the result, numerical simulation can predict the discharge coefficient of theoretical curve within 0.3%. And we found that the throat length and throat tapping location of flow nozzle have much effect on the coefficient. (author)

  17. Transport coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow through a four-cusp channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Parise, J.A.R.; Souza Mendes, P.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow in a four-cusp channel were determined. A numerical solution was developed for laminar flow an and experimental study for turbulent flow was carried out. Systematic variations of the Reynolds number were done in the range 900-30000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients for the four-cusp channel are much lower than the coefficients for the circular tube. (author) [pt

  18. Determination of Flow Resistance Coefficient for Vegetation in Open Channel: Laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliza Ahmad, Noor; Ali, ZarinaMd; Arish, Nur Aini Mohd; Munirah Mat Daud, Azra; Fatin Amirah Alias, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on determination of flow resistances coefficient for grass in an open channel. Laboratory works were conducted to examine the effects of varying of roughness elements on the flume to determine flow resistance coefficient and also to determine the optimum flow resistance with five different flow rate, Q. Laboratory study with two type of vegetation which are Cow Grass and Pearl Grass were implementing to the bed of a flume. The roughness coefficient, n value is determine using Manning’s equation while Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method was used to determine the surface resistance. From the experiment, the flow resistance coefficient for Cow Grass in range 0.0008 - 0.0039 while Pearl Grass value for the flow resistance coefficient are in between 0.0013 - 0.0054. As a conclusion the vegetation roughness value in open channel are depends on density, distribution type of vegetation used and physical characteristic of the vegetation itself

  19. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-01-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...

  20. Determination of aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients for wings in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Leland A.; El-Banna, Hesham M.

    1992-01-01

    The quasianalytical approach is applied to the 3-D full potential equation to compute wing aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients in the transonic regime. Symbolic manipulation is used to reduce the effort associated with obtaining the sensitivity equations, and the large sensitivity system is solved using 'state of the art' routines. The quasianalytical approach is believed to be reasonably accurate and computationally efficient for 3-D problems.

  1. Numerical study on over reading coefficient in wet steam flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuesong; Yuan Dewen; Yan Xiao; Peng Xingjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the flow process of wet steam in Venturi under interested conditions with CFD simulation software. The effect of pressure, mass flow rate, throat radius on over reading factor was analyzed. This paper aims to improve the wet steam over reading model and the prediction accuracy in wet steam. The results prove that the mass flow has a small effect on over reading coefficient, while the effect that throat radius has on over reading coefficient increases as the pressure rises. (authors)

  2. Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) flow coefficient of reactivity: (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarber, W.K.; Stout, J.W.; Atherton, R.

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the results of an experimental program to measure and categorize the causes for increases in the magnitude of the LWBR flow coefficient of reactivity at 10,932 EFPH from previously measured near zero values to a value of about 6 x 10 -4 Δ rho for a flow decrease from 100 to 80% of full flow. Reactor protection analyses confirmed that existing protection systems were adequate for continued operation. Subsequently, the flow coefficient decreased in magnitude to approximately 2.25 x 10 -4 Δ rho at 20,000 EFPH and remained about constant through the remainder of core life, 29,047 EFPH. The increase in flow coefficient of reactivity is attributed to a flow-force dependent change in the effective core diameter such that an increase in core flow decreased the core diameter, resulting in an increase in fuel-to-water ratio and a consequent decrease in the reactivity of this relatively undermoderated core. This report discusses why the increased flow coefficient did not occur until after 10,932 EFPH and why the magnitude of flow coefficient reduced with continued core operation

  3. A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.

  4. Accelerated and Decelerated Flows in a Circular Pipe : 1st Report, Velocity Profile and Friction Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Junichi; Morikawa, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the flow characteristics of a transient flow in a circular pipe, an accelerated and a decelerated flow are studied, and effects of acceleration upon the formation of a velocity profile, transition and a friction coefficient are determined for a wide range of accelerations. The results of the accelerated flow show that there are two patterns in the formation of a sectional velocity profile and transition, one of which is observed when the acceleration is relatively large ...

  5. Semi-empirical model for heat transfer coefficient in liquid metal turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1982-01-01

    The heat transfer by forced convection in a metal liquid turbulent flow for circular ducts is analyzed. An analogy between the momentum and heat in the wall surface, is determined, aiming to determine an expression for heat transfer coefficient in function of the friction coefficient. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Uncertainty Quantification of Turbulence Model Closure Coefficients for Transonic Wall-Bounded Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John; West, Thomas; Hosder, Serhat; Rumsey, Christopher; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kleb, William

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of commonly used turbulence models in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes due to uncertainty in the values of closure coefficients for transonic, wall-bounded flows and to rank the contribution of each coefficient to uncertainty in various output flow quantities of interest. Specifically, uncertainty quantification of turbulence model closure coefficients was performed for transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump at zero degrees angle of attack and the RAE 2822 transonic airfoil at a lift coefficient of 0.744. Three turbulence models were considered: the Spalart-Allmaras Model, Wilcox (2006) k-w Model, and the Menter Shear-Stress Trans- port Model. The FUN3D code developed by NASA Langley Research Center was used as the flow solver. The uncertainty quantification analysis employed stochastic expansions based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos as an efficient means of uncertainty propagation. Several integrated and point-quantities are considered as uncertain outputs for both CFD problems. All closure coefficients were treated as epistemic uncertain variables represented with intervals. Sobol indices were used to rank the relative contributions of each closure coefficient to the total uncertainty in the output quantities of interest. This study identified a number of closure coefficients for each turbulence model for which more information will reduce the amount of uncertainty in the output significantly for transonic, wall-bounded flows.

  7. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-09-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip boundary condition can be applied. The measured viscous slip coefficients of binary gas mixtures exhibit a concave function of the molar ratio of the mixture, showing a similar profile with numerical results. However, from the detailed comparison between the measured and numerical values with the complete and incomplete accommodation at a surface, it is inappropriate to estimate the viscous slip coefficient for the mixture numerically by employing separately measured tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for each component. The time variation of the molar ratio in the downstream chamber was measured by sampling the gas from the chamber using the quadrupole mass spectrometer. In our measurements, it is indicated that the volume flow rate of argon is larger than that of helium because of the difference in the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient.

  8. Bayesian inversion from sabine absorption coefficients to flow resistivity values for porous absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    to determine the flow resistivity of a porous material from the Sabine absorption coefficient was investigated through a reliable model. The model for the flow resistivity estimation is based on an equivalent fluid model, i.e., Miki’s model, together with the most advanced model that accounts for edge...... diffraction, named Thomasson’s finite size correction. As input data, a set of the Sabine absorption coefficients in a recent absorption round robin test in 13 European chambers was used. Finally, the flow resistivity of the test specimen is characterized via the Bayesian framework, together...

  9. Transport coefficients in high-temperature ionized air flows with electronic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Oblapenko, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    Transport coefficients are studied in high-temperature ionized air mixtures using the modified Chapman-Enskog method. The 11-component mixture N2/N2+/N /N+/O2/O2+/O /O+/N O /N O+/e- , taking into account the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules and electronic degrees of freedom of both atomic and molecular species, is considered. Using the PAINeT software package, developed by the authors of the paper, in wide temperature range calculations of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusion, diffusion, and shear viscosity coefficients for an equilibrium ionized air mixture and non-equilibrium flow conditions for mixture compositions, characteristic of those in shock tube experiments and re-entry conditions, are performed. For the equilibrium air case, the computed transport coefficients are compared to those obtained using simplified kinetic theory algorithms. It is shown that neglecting electronic excitation leads to a significant underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 25 000 K. For non-equilibrium test cases, it is shown that the thermal diffusion coefficients of neutral species and the self-diffusion coefficients of all species are strongly affected by the mixture composition, while the thermal conductivity coefficient is most strongly influenced by the degree of ionization of the flow. Neglecting electronic excitation causes noticeable underestimation of the thermal conductivity coefficient at temperatures higher than 20 000 K.

  10. Experimental measurement of fluid force coefficients for helical tube arrays in air cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Shifang; Liu Reilan

    1993-01-01

    A helical coil steam generator is extensively used in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) and Sodium Cooled Reactor (SCR) nuclear power stations because of its compact structure, good heat-exchange, and small volume. The experimental model is established by the structure parameter of 200MW HTGCR. The fluid elastic instability of helical tube arrays in air cross flow is studied in this experiment, and the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays having the same notational direction of two adjacent layers in air cross flow are obtained. As compared to the fluid force coefficients of cylinder tube arrays, the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays are smaller in the low velocity area, and greater in the high velocity area. The experimental results help the study of the dynamic characteristics of helical tube arrays in air cross flow

  11. Integral linear momentum balance in combining flows for calculating the pressure drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for calculating the loss coefficient in combining flows in tee functions are obtained by an integral linear momentum balance. It is a practice, when solving this type of problem, to neglect the pressure difference in the upstream location as well as the wall-fluid interaction in the lateral branch of the junction. In this work it is demonstrated the influence of the above parameters on the loss coefficient based on experimental values and by apropriate algebraic manipulation of the loss coefficient values published by previous investigators. (Author) [pt

  12. Influence of Boussinesq coefficient on depth-averaged modelling of rapid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liang, Dongfang; Xiao, Yang

    2018-04-01

    The traditional Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme has been proven to be incapable of modelling trans-critical flows. Its inherent lack of shock-capturing capability often results in spurious oscillations and computational instabilities. However, the ADI scheme is still widely adopted in flood modelling software, and various special treatments have been designed to stabilise the computation. Modification of the Boussinesq coefficient to adjust the amount of fluid inertia is a numerical treatment that allows the ADI scheme to be applicable to rapid flows. This study comprehensively examines the impact of this numerical treatment over a range of flow conditions. A shock-capturing TVD-MacCormack model is used to provide reference results. For unsteady flows over a frictionless bed, such as idealised dam-break floods, the results suggest that an increase in the value of the Boussinesq coefficient reduces the amplitude of the spurious oscillations. The opposite is observed for steady rapid flows over a frictional bed. Finally, a two-dimensional urban flooding phenomenon is presented, involving unsteady flow over a frictional bed. The results show that increasing the value of the Boussinesq coefficient can significantly reduce the numerical oscillations and reduce the predicted area of inundation. In order to stabilise the ADI computations, the Boussinesq coefficient could be judiciously raised or lowered depending on whether the rapid flow is steady or unsteady and whether the bed is frictional or frictionless. An increase in the Boussinesq coefficient generally leads to overprediction of the propagating speed of the flood wave over a frictionless bed, but the opposite is true when bed friction is significant.

  13. Controlling the Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient by the Characteristics of External Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuromskii, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The engineering-physical fundamentals of substance synthesis in a boiling apparatus are presented. We have modeled a system of automatic stabilization of the maximum internal heat transfer coefficient in such an apparatus by the characteristics of external flows on the basis of adaptive seeking algorithms. The results of operation of the system in the shop are presented.

  14. A Simple Student Laboratory on Osmotic Flow, Osmotic Pressure, and the Reflection Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Joseph J.; Ford, George D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise containing a practical series of experiments that novice students can perform within two hours. The exercise provides a confirmation of van't Hoff's law while placing more emphasis on osmotic flow than pressure. Students can determine parameters such as the reflection coefficient which stress the interaction of both…

  15. Elemental transport coefficients in viscous plasma flows near local thermodynamic equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, Alessio; Kustova, Elena V.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a convenient formulation of elemental transport coefficients in chemically reacting and plasma flows locally approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. A set of transport coefficients for elemental diffusion velocities, heat flux, and electric current is introduced. These coefficients relate the transport fluxes with the electric field and with the spatial gradients of elemental fractions, pressure, and temperature. The proposed formalism based on chemical elements and fully symmetric with the classical transport theory based on chemical species, is particularly suitable to model mixing and demixing phenomena due to diffusion of chemical elements. The aim of this work is threefold: to define a simple and rigorous framework suitable for numerical implementation, to allow order of magnitude estimations and qualitative predictions of elemental transport phenomena, and to gain a deeper insight into the physics of chemically reacting flows near local equilibrium.

  16. Mass transfer coefficient in disturbed flow due to orifice for flow accelerated corrosion in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2015-01-01

    The flow of fluid in pipes cause corrosion wherein the inner surface of pipe becomes progressively thinner and susceptible to failure. This form of corrosion dependent on flow dynamics is called Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and has been observed in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) is related to extent of wall thinning and it changes from its value in a straight pipe (with same fluid parameters) for flow in orifices, bends, junctions etc. due to gross disturbance of the velocity profile. This paper presents two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for an orifice configuration in a straight pipe. Turbulent model K- ω with shear stress transport and transition flow was the model used for simulation studies. The mass transfer boundary layer (MTBL) thickness δ mtbl is related to the Schmidt number (Sc) and hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ h , as δ mtbl ~ δh/(Sc 1/3 ). MTBL is significantly smaller than δ h and hence boundary layer meshing was carried out deep into δ mtbl . Uniform velocity profile was applied at the inlet. Post orifice fluid shows large recirculating flows on the upper and lower wall. At various locations after orifice, mass transfer coefficient is calculated and compared with the value in straight pipe with fully developed turbulent flow. The MTC due to the orifice increases and it is correlated with enhanced FAC in region after orifice. (author)

  17. On the skin friction coefficient in viscoelastic wall-bounded flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housiadas, Kostas D.; Beris, Antony N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We decompose the skin friction coefficient to its individual contributions. ► The contributions are evaluated using simulation results in turbulent channel flow. ► We present a fitting curve for the drag reduction. ► A new formula for the skin friction coefficient is also developed. ► The results agree well with experimental data from the literature. -- Abstract: Analysis of the skin friction coefficient for wall bounded viscoelastic flows is performed by utilizing available direct numerical simulation (DNS) results for viscoelastic turbulent channel flow. The Oldroyd-B, FENE-P and Giesekus constitutive models are used. First, we analyze the friction coefficient in viscous, viscoelastic and inertial stress contributions, as these arise from suitable momentum balances, for the flow in channels and pipes. Following Fukagata et al. (Phys. Fluids, 14, p. L73, 2002) and Yu et al. (Int. J. Heat. Fluid Flow, 25, p. 961, 2004) these three contributions are evaluated averaging available numerical results, and presented for selected values of flow and rheological parameters. Second, based on DNS results, we develop a universal function for the relative drag reduction as a function of the friction Weissenberg number. This leads to a closed-form approximate expression for the inverse of the square root of the skin friction coefficient for viscoelastic turbulent pipe flow as a function of the friction Reynolds number involving two primary material parameters, and a secondary one which also depends on the flow. The primary parameters are the zero shear-rate elasticity number, El 0 , and the limiting value for the drag reduction at high Weissenberg number, LDR, while the secondary one is the relative wall viscosity, μ w . The predictions reproduce both types A and B of drag reduction, as first introduced by Virk (Nature, 253, p. 109, 1975), corresponding to partially and fully extended polymer molecules, respectively. Comparison of the results for the

  18. Discharge coefficient correlations for circular-arc venturi flowmeters at critical /sonic/ flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, B. T.; Britton, C. L.; Seidl, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed to support theoretical predictions for discharge coefficients in circular-arc venturi flow meters operating in the critical sonic flow regime at throat Reynolds numbers above 150 thousand. The data tend to verify the predicted 0.25% decrease in the discharge coefficient during transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Four different test gases and three flow measurement facilities were used in the experiments with 17 venturis with throat sizes from 0.15 to 1.37 in. and Beta ratios ranging from 0.014 to 0.25. Recommendations are given as to how the effectiveness of future studies in the field could be improved.

  19. Determination of flow times and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the Main river using 3HHO as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.J.; Mundschenk, H.

    1989-01-01

    Single discharges from nuclear power plants as well as discrete labeling with tritiated water are used to determine flow times, flow velocities and longitudinal dispersion coefficients in German rivers as shown here, for example, for the Main river. (orig.)

  20. Penggunaan Hukum Hagen-Poiseuille dalam Penentuan Koefisien Viskositas Zat Cair dengan Prinsip Kontrol Berat Berbantuan Software Logger Pro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Adini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pengukuran koefisien viskositas zat cair menggunakan hukum Hagen-Poiseuille dengan metode Microcomputer Based Laboratory telah dilakukan. Viskositas merupakan ukuran penolakan fluida terhadap perubahan bentuk di bawah tekanan shear. Hukum Hagen-Poiseuille digunakan dalam penelitian ini karena zat cair yang digunakan merupakan zat cair Newtonian. Tangki viskometer kapiler yang dikaitkan ke sensor gaya diisi zat cair untuk kemudian dialirkan keluar melalui pipa kapiler dengan panjang (9,8±0,09×10-2 m dan diameter dalam (2,1620±0,0096 ×10-3 m. Data penurunan massa zat cair direkam menggunakan sensor gaya buatan Vernier Tecnology dan analisis fitting data menggunakan software Logger Pro. Nilai karakteristik waktu diperoleh dari hasil fitting data digunakan untuk perhitungan koefisien viskositas zat cair menggunakan hukum Hagen-Poiseuille. Dari percobaan ini diperoleh nilai koefisien viskositas air sebesar (1,063±0,113 mPa.s yang sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori yaitu 1,002 mPa.s, oli SAE 10W-30 sebesar (79,01±8,90 Pa.s sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori 76,8 Pa.s, dan gliserin sebesar (593,4±56,7 mPa.s sesuai dengan nilai acuan teori 612 mPa.s.Measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient using Hagen-Poiseuille law with Microcomputer-Based Laboratory method has been done. Viscosity is the fluid declination measure of form changes under sheer pressure. Hagen-Poiseuille law is used in this study because the liquid used is a Newtonian liquid. Capillary viscometer tanks attached to force sensors are filled with liquid to be streamed out through capillary tubes of length (9.8 ± 0.09 × 10-2 m and the inner diameter (2.1620 ± 0.0096 × 10-3 m. Data on the mass degradation of liquids was recorded using a Vernier Technology force sensor while the data fitting analysis using Logger Pro software. The time characteristic values which obtained from the data fittings are used in the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient using Hagen-Poiseuille law

  1. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A A; Wasbari, F; Zakaria, M S; Ibrahim, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly

  2. Reynolds number and friction coefficient for axial-parallel flow through complex cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markfort, D.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal and hydraulic lay-out of reactor fuel elements and other heat transfer equipment makes use of established functional relationship between dimensionless characters, the former being transferred from circular tube to more complex geometries. The stringent requirement (from theory) for 'geometrical similarity' is bypassed by defining 'equivalent diameters'. But dimensionless numbers may be derived from 'flow-integral-conditions' while the geometrical components contained therein reduce if not completely abolish the requirement for geometrical similarity. The derivation is demonstrated by using the Reynolds number. A friction coefficient valid for any kind of flow regime can be defined using integral-conditions. Correlations of friction coefficient and Reynolds number using universal-velocity profiles confirm the analysis when compared to well known experimental data. (orig.) [de

  3. Constraint and flow: Poiseuille shear response of a surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. To minimize their free energy in aqueous solution, surfactant molecules self-assemble to form some basic morphologies – globular micelles, highly extended thead- like micelles and membrane bilayers – which themselves order to display a rich variety of mesophase symmetries and properties. In membrane ...

  4. ''Over the horizon'' SANS: Measurements on near-surface Poiseuille shear-induced ordering of dilute solutions of threadlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Kreke, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Although the behavior of a fluid under shear near a surface can be expected to be critically important to its drag and lubrication properties, most shear measurements to date have been of the bulk. This paper outlines the use of a specially developed Poiseuille shear cell at grazing incidence to measure the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal from the first few tens of microns in the interfacial region. The authors illustrate the technique with measurements made on the near-surface ordering in flow past a quartz surface of dilute surfactant solutions comprising highly extended self-assembling ''threadlike'' micelles

  5. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface – fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two–phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  6. Measurements of elliptic flow and higher-order Fourier coefficients with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We report the measurements of collective harmonic flow coefficients $v_n$ for $n=2-6$ in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector. They are extracted via an event plane method based on the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter over a broad range in $p_T$, $eta$ and centrality. The $v_n$ coefficients are found to change weakly within $|eta|<2.5$ and all with the same qualitative trend as a function of $p_T$: all rise up to 3-4 GeV, and then fall towards higher $p_T$. The high statistical precision of the $v_2$ term, allow us to clearly determine its trend out to 20 GeV for a broad centrality classes. The same harmonic flow coefficients are also obtained via a Fourier analysis of the two-particle $Deltaphi-Deltaeta$ correlation with a large $Deltaeta$ gap. A detailed comparison with the event plane method allow us to determine the regions of the two-particle phase space (in $p_T$ and $Deltaeta$ and centrality), in which the collective phenomena play a dominating role. The physics implications ...

  7. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation on Force Coefficients in Transonic Airfoil Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Min; Kang, Hui Bo; Kwon, Young Doo; Kwon, Soon Bum [Kyungpook National Univeristy, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heung Kyun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The present study investigated the effects of non-equilibrium condensation with the angle of attack on the coefficients of pressure, lift, and drag in the transonic 2-D flow of NACA0012 by numerical analysis of the total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme. At T{sub 0}=298 K and α=3°, the lift coefficients for M{sub ∞}=0.78 and 0.81 decreased monotonically with increasing Φ{sub 0}. In contrast, for M{sub ∞} corresponding to the Mach number of the force break, CL increased with Φ{sub 0}. For α=3° and Φ{sub 0}=0%, CD increased markedly as M{sub ∞} increased. However, at Φ{sub 0}=60% and α=3°, which corresponded to the case of the condensation having a large influence, CD increased slightly as M{sub ∞} increased. The decrease in profile drag by non-equilibrium condensation grew as the angle of attack and stagnation relative humidity increased for the same free stream transonic Mach number. At Φ{sub 0}=0%, the coefficient of the wave drag increased with the attack angle and free stream Mach number. When Φ{sub 0}>50%, the coefficient of the wave drag decreased as α and M{sub ∞} increased. Lowering Φ{sub 0} and increasing M{sub ∞} increased the maximum Mach number.

  8. Rarefied-flow pitching moment coefficient measurements of the Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the process for obtaining the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow pitching moment from flight gyro data is presented. The extraction technique involves differentiation of the output of the pitch gyro after accounting for nonaerodynamic torques, such as those produced by gravity gradient and the Orbiter's auxiliary power unit and adjusting for drift biases. The overview of the extraction technique includes examples of results from each of the steps involved in the process, using the STS-32 mission as a typical sample case. The total pitching moment and moment coefficient (Cm) for that flight are calculated and compared with preflight predictions. The flight results show the anticipated decrease in Cm with increasing altitude. However, the total moment coefficient is less than predicted using preflight estimates.

  9. Effect of Boundary-Layer Bleed Hole Inclination Angle and Scaling on Flow Coefficient Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorn, Michael B.; Barnhart, Paul J.; Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Phase II data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments study at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented which include flow coefficient behavior for 21 bleed hole configurations. The bleed configurations are all round holes with hole diameters ranging from 0.795 to 6.35 mm, hole inclination angles from 20deg to 90deg, and thickness-to-diameter ratios from 0.25 to 2.0. All configurations were tested at a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m and at discrete local Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92. Interactions between the design parameters of hole diameter, hole inclination angle, and thickness-to-diameter as well as the interactions between the flow parameters of pressure ratio and Mach number upon the flow coefficient are examined, and a preliminary statistical model is proposed. An existing correlation is also examined with respect to this data.

  10. Large scale steam flow test: Pressure drop data and calculated pressure loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.B.; Spears, J.R.; Feder, A.R.; Moore, B.P.; Young, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the result of large scale steam flow testing, 3 million to 7 million lbs/hr., conducted at approximate steam qualities of 25, 45, 70 and 100 percent (dry, saturated). It is concluded from the test data that reasonable estimates of piping component pressure loss coefficients for single phase flow in complex piping geometries can be calculated using available engineering literature. This includes the effects of nearby upstream and downstream components, compressibility, and internal obstructions, such as splitters, and ladder rungs on individual piping components. Despite expected uncertainties in the data resulting from the complexity of the piping geometry and two-phase flow, the test data support the conclusion that the predicted dry steam K-factors are accurate and provide useful insight into the effect of entrained liquid on the flow resistance. The K-factors calculated from the wet steam test data were compared to two-phase K-factors based on the Martinelli-Nelson pressure drop correlations. This comparison supports the concept of a two-phase multiplier for estimating the resistance of piping with liquid entrained into the flow. The test data in general appears to be reasonably consistent with the shape of a curve based on the Martinelli-Nelson correlation over the tested range of steam quality

  11. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate in dialyzers with various filtration coefficients using dimensionless correlation equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kengo; Namekawa, Koki; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of filtration coefficient and internal filtration on dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer coefficient in dialyzers using dimensionless mass transfer correlation equations. Aqueous solution of vitamin B 12 clearances were obtained for REXEED-15L as a low flux dialyzer, and APS-15EA and APS-15UA as high flux dialyzers. All the other design specifications were identical for these dialyzers except for filtration coefficient. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated, moreover, the exponents of Reynolds number (Re) and film mass transfer coefficient of the dialysis-side fluid (k D ) for each flow rate were derived from the Wilson plot and dimensionless correlation equation. The exponents of Re were 0.4 for the low flux dialyzer whereas 0.5 for the high flux dialyzers. Dialysis fluid of the low flux dialyzer was close to laminar flow because of its low filtration coefficient. On the other hand, dialysis fluid of the high flux dialyzers was assumed to be orthogonal flow. Higher filtration coefficient was associated with higher k D influenced by mass transfer rate through diffusion and internal filtration. Higher filtration coefficient of dialyzers and internal filtration affect orthogonal flow of dialysis fluid.

  12. Onset of Absolute Instability Induced by Viscous Dissipation in the Poiseuille-Darcy-Benard Convection of a Newtonian Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandão, P V; Alves, L S de B; Barletta, A

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the transition from convective to absolute instability induced by viscous dissipation. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first time such a study is reported in the literature. Its framework is provided by the Poiseuille-Darcy-Benard convection of a Newtonian fluid. We found the same behaviour observed in the absence of viscous dissipation whenever the Gebhart number is smaller than Ge < 0.95, which is the stabilising effect of the cross flow. When 0.95 < Ge < 4.31, weak cross flows still stabilise the onset of absolute instability but stronger cross flows destabilise it. For a stronger viscous dissipation, i.e. Ge > 4.31, the cross flow always destabilises this onset. The latter two conditions create a scenario where viscous dissipation is capable of inducing a transition to absolute instability in the absence of wall heating, i.e. with a zero Rayleigh number

  13. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (2), flow dynamics calculations for determining mixing factors and mass transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Yasushi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to predict and mitigate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in PWR and BWR secondary systems, computer program packages for evaluating FAC have been developed by coupling one through three dimensional (1-3D) computational flow dynamics (CFD) models and corrosion models. To evaluate corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path, flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume were obtained with 1D computational flow dynamics (CFD) codes. Precise flow turbulence and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface were calculated with 3D CFD codes to determine wall thinning rates. One of the engineering options is application of k-ε calculation as a 3D CFD code, which has limitation of detail evaluation of flow distribution at very surface of large scale piping. A combination of k-ε calculation and wall function was proposed to evaluate precise distribution of mass transfer coefficients with reasonable CPU volume and computing time and, at the same time, reasonable accuracy. (author)

  14. Flow Function of Pharmaceutical Powders Is Predominantly Governed by Cohesion, Not by Friction Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lap Yin; Mao, Chen; Srivastava, Ishan; Du, Ping; Yang, Chia-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the flow function (FFc) of pharmaceutical powders, as measured by rotational shear cell, is predominantly governed by cohesion but not friction coefficients. Driven by an earlier report showing an inverse correlation between FFc and the cohesion divided by the corresponding pre-consolidation stress (Wang et al. 2016. Powder Tech. 294:105-112), we performed analysis on a large data set containing 1130 measurements from a ring shear tester and identified a near-perfect inverse correlation between the FFc and cohesion. Conversely, no correlation was found between FFc and friction angles. We also conducted theoretical analysis and estimated such correlations based on Mohr-Coulomb failure model. We discovered that the correlation between FFc and cohesion can sustain as long as the angle of internal friction at incipient flow is not significantly larger than the angle of internal friction at steady-state flow, a condition covering almost all pharmaceutical powders. The outcome of this study bears significance in pharmaceutical development. Because the cohesion value is strongly influenced by the interparticle cohesive forces, this study effectively shows that it is more efficient to improve the pharmaceutical powder flow by lowering the interparticle cohesive forces than by lowering the interparticle frictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-06-15

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R{sup 2}=0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k{sub L}a=4,652-1,9807 h{sup -1}.

  16. Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R 2 =0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k L a=4,652-1,9807 h -1

  17. Prediction of flow boiling heat transfer coefficient for carbon dioxide in minichannels and conventional channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikielewicz Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented are the results of calculations using authors own model to predict heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of carbon dioxide. The experimental data from various researches were collected. Calculations were conducted for a full range of quality variation and a wide range of mass velocity. The aim of the study was to test the sensitivity of the in-house model. The results show the importance of taking into account the surface tension as the parameter exhibiting its importance in case of the flow in minichannels as well as the influence of reduced pressure. The calculations were accomplished to test the sensitivity of the heat transfer model with respect to selection of the appropriate two-phase flow multiplier, which is one of the elements of the heat transfer model. For that purpose correlations due to Müller-Steinhagen and Heck as well as the one due to Friedel were considered. Obtained results show a good consistency with experimental results, however the selection of two-phase flow multiplier does not significantly influence the consistency of calculations.

  18. OF CHEZY DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT C AND RELATIVE ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT n WITHIN THE FRAMWEWORK OF RESEARCH OF FREE-FLOW PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    The software is also capable of generating graphs (curves to describe the relations in question. The proposed methodology and the software designated for the calculation of Chezy and roughness coefficients makes it possible for users to identify the hydraulic properties of pipelines made of advanced materials or having advanced coatings. The availability of the above information is to optimize the selection of the pipeline repair material on the basis of the assessment of hydraulic compatibility between the sections of the pipeline in operation and those being repaired.

  19. Measurement of off-diagonal transport coefficients in two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, T S; Goode, P A

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent description of low capillary number two-phase flow in porous media relies on the independence of phase transport. An extended Darcy's law with a saturation dependent effective permeability is used for each phase. The driving force for each phase is given by its pressure gradient and the body force. This diagonally dominant form neglects momentum transfer from one phase to the other. Numerical and analytical modeling in regular geometries have however shown that while this approximation is simple and acceptable in some cases, many practical problems require inclusion of momentum transfer across the interface. Its inclusion leads to a generalized form of extended Darcy's law in which both the diagonal relative permeabilities and the off-diagonal terms depend not only on saturation but also on the viscosity ratio. Analogous to application of thermodynamics to dynamical systems, any of the extended forms of Darcy's law assumes quasi-static interfaces of fluids for describing displacement problems. Despite the importance of the permeability coefficients in oil recovery, soil moisture transport, contaminant removal, etc., direct measurements to infer the magnitude of the off-diagonal coefficients have been lacking. The published data based on cocurrent and countercurrent displacement experiments are necessarily indirect. In this paper, we propose a null experiment to measure the off-diagonal term directly. For a given non-wetting phase pressure-gradient, the null method is based on measuring a counter pressure drop in the wetting phase required to maintain a zero flux. The ratio of the off-diagonal coefficient to the wetting phase diagonal coefficient (relative permeability) may then be determined. The apparatus is described in detail, along with the results obtained. We demonstrate the validity of the experimental results and conclude the paper by comparing experimental data to numerical simulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experiment of flow regime map and local condensing heat transfer coefficients inside three dimensional inner microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Xin, Ming Dao

    1999-03-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube. The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper. The flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow, stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically carried out. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out. As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes, those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region, 38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75% for the intermittent flow, respectively. The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1.8-6.9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  1. Experiments and numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer coefficients inside an autoclave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamlouch, T.; Roux, S.; Bailleul, J.-L.; Lefèvre, N.; Sobotka, V.

    2017-10-01

    Today's aerospace industrial first priority is the quality improvement of the composite material parts with the reduction of the manufacturing time in order to increase their quality/cost ratio. A fabrication method that could meet these specifications especially for large parts is the autoclave curing process. In fact the autoclave molding ensures the thermal control of the composite parts during the whole curing cycle. However the geometry of the tools as well as their positioning in the autoclave induce non uniform and complex flows around composite parts. This heterogeneity implies non-uniform heat transfers which can directly impact on part quality. One of the main challenges is therefore to describe the flow field inside an autoclave as well as the convective heat transfer from the heated pressurized gas to the composite part and the mold. For this purpose, and given the technical issues associated with instrumentation and measurements in actual autoclaves, an autoclave model was designed and then manufactured based on similarity laws. This tool allows the measurement of the flow field around representative real industrial molds using the PIV technique and the characterization of the heat transfer thanks to thermal instrumentation. The experimental results are then compared with those derived from numerical simulations using a commercial RANS CFD code. This study aims at developing a semi-empirical approach for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient around the parts and therefore predicts its thermal history during the process with a view of optimization.

  2. Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary dry inclined bridge cables in laminar flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead to an ef......Stay cables are the most flexible elements of cable-stayed bridges. When exposed to wind loading, they often undergo large amplitude vibrations, thus motivating serious design concerns. In most cases, vibrations are observed in the presence of water rivulets or ice accretions, which lead...... experimental and theoretical research in the last two decades, even though a definitive understanding of the flow around inclined cables under various surface conditions has not been achieved. A comparative study on the aerodynamic coefficients of stationary inclined stay cables, under various surface...

  3. Condensation heat transfer coefficient in horizontal stratified cocurrent flow of steam and cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kap; Kim, Hho Jung

    1986-01-01

    Some studies on direct-contact condensation in cocurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water were reviewed. Several approaches have been performed to develop the condensation heat transfer coefficient relationship. The local Nusselt number is correlated in terms of the local water Reynolds and Prandtl numbers as well as the steam Froude number. In addition, a turbulence-centered model, developed principally for gas absorption in several geometries, is modified by using calculated interfacial parameters for the turbulent velocity and length scales. These approaches result in a fairly good agreement with the data, whereas, the turbulence-centered model is here recommended since it is based on the turbulent properties which may be closely related to the condensation phenomena. (Author)

  4. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test...... chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori...... and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber’s influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber’s absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%...

  5. Rate Coefficient Determinations for H + NO2 → OH + NO from High Pressure Flow Reactor Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Francis M; Dryer, Frederick L

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction H + NO2 → OH + NO (R1) have been determined over the nominal temperature and pressure ranges of 737-882 K and 10-20 atm, respectively, from measurements in two different flow reactor facilities: one laminar and one turbulent. Considering the existing database of experimental k1 measurements, the present conditions add measurements of k1 at previously unconsidered temperatures between ∼820-880 K, as well as at pressures that exceed existing measurements by over an order of magnitude. Experimental measurements of NOx-perturbed H2 oxidation have been interpreted by a quasi-steady state NOx plateau (QSSP) method. At the QSSP conditions considered here, overall reactivity is sensitive only to the rates of R1 and H + O2 + M → HO2 + M (R2.M). Consequently, the ratio of k1 to k2.M may be extracted as a simple algebraic function of measured NO2, O2, and total gas concentrations with only minimal complication (within measurement uncertainty) due to treatment of overall gas composition M that differs slightly from pure bath gas B. Absolute values of k1 have been determined with reference to the relatively well-known, pressure-dependent rate coefficients of R2.B for B = Ar and N2. Rate coefficients for the title reaction determined from present experimental interpretation of both laminar and turbulent flow reactor results appear to be in very good agreement around a representative value of 1.05 × 10(14) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) (1.74 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)). Further, the results of this study agree both with existing low pressure flash photolysis k1 determinations of Ko and Fontijn (J. Phys. Chem. 95 3984) near 760 K as well as a present fit to the theoretical expression of Su et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 106 8261). These results indicate that, over the temperature range considered in this study and up to at least 20 atm, net chemistry due to stabilization of the H-NO2 reaction intermediate to form isomers of HNO2 may proceed at

  6. Transport coefficients for electrolytes in arbitrarily shaped nano- and microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    for the hydraulic and electrical transport coefficients which satisfy Onsager relations. In the limit of non-overlapping Debye layers, the transport coefficients are simply expressed in terms of parameters of the electrolyte as well as the geometrical correction factor for the Hagen-Poiseuille part of the problem....... In particular, we consider the limits of thin non-overlapping as well as strongly overlapping Debye layers, respectively, and calculate the corrections to the hydraulic resistance due to electro-hydrodynamic interactions.......We consider laminar flow of incompressible electrolytes in long, straight channels driven by pressure and electro-osmosis. We use a Hilbert space eigenfunction expansion to address the general problem of an arbitrary cross-section and obtain general results in linear-response theory...

  7. A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satbir; You, Donghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new SGS model is developed for LES of turbulent flows in complex geometries. ► A dynamic global-coefficient SGS model is coupled with a scale-similarity model. ► Overcome some of difficulties associated with eddy-viscosity closures. ► Does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for stabilization. ► The predictive capability is demonstrated in a number of turbulent flow simulations. -- Abstract: A dynamic global-coefficient mixed subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows in complex geometries is developed. In the present model, the subgrid-scale stress is decomposed into the modified Leonard stress, cross stress, and subgrid-scale Reynolds stress. The modified Leonard stress is explicitly computed assuming a scale similarity, while the cross stress and the subgrid-scale Reynolds stress are modeled using the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model. The model coefficient is determined by a dynamic procedure based on the global-equilibrium between the subgrid-scale dissipation and the viscous dissipation. The new model relieves some of the difficulties associated with an eddy-viscosity closure, such as the nonalignment of the principal axes of the subgrid-scale stress tensor and the strain rate tensor and the anisotropy of turbulent flow fields, while, like other dynamic global-coefficient models, it does not require averaging or clipping of the model coefficient for numerical stabilization. The combination of the global-coefficient eddy-viscosity model and a scale-similarity model is demonstrated to produce improved predictions in a number of turbulent flow simulations

  8. Determination of the hypersonic-continuum/rarefied-flow drag coefficient of the Viking lander capsule 1 aeroshell from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Walberg, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an investigation to determine the full scale drag coefficient in the high speed, low density regime of the Viking lander capsule 1 entry vehicle are presented. The principal flight data used in the study were from onboard pressure, mass spectrometer, and accelerometer instrumentation. The hypersonic continuum flow drag coefficient was unambiguously obtained from pressure and accelerometer data; the free molecule flow drag coefficient was indirectly estimated from accelerometer and mass spectrometer data; the slip flow drag coefficient variation was obtained from an appropriate scaling of existing experimental sphere data. Comparison of the flight derived drag hypersonic continuum flow regime except for Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 100,000, for which an unaccountable difference between flight and ground test data of about 8% existed. The flight derived drag coefficients in the free molecule flow regime were considerably larger than those previously calculated with classical theory. The general character of the previously determined temperature profile was not changed appreciably by the results of this investigation; however, a slightly more symmetrical temperature variation at the highest altitudes was obtained.

  9. Prediction of local loss coefficient for turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer: Effect of Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansion with a chamfer is studied numerically. • Reynolds number dependency of the local loss coefficient is investigated. • Extended correlation is proposed for estimation of the local loss coefficient. - Abstract: This paper reports the pressure losses in turbulent flows through axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. A parametric study is performed for dimensionless chamfer lengths of 0–0.5, expansion ratios of 2–6, and chamfer angles of 0–45° in a Reynolds number range of 1 × 10 5 –8 × 10 5 . The chamfer effect on the expansion losses and its dependence on the Reynolds number are analyzed in detail along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. On the basis of numerical results, an existing correlation of the local loss coefficient is also extended to take into account the effect of the Reynolds number additionally

  10. Flow map and measurement of void fraction and heat transfer coefficient using an image analysis technique for flow boiling of water in a silicon microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S G; Duttagupta, S P; Jain, A; Sridharan, A; Agrawal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on the generation of the flow regime map for two-phase water flow in microchannels of a hydraulic diameter of 140 µm. An image analysis algorithm has been developed and utilized to obtain the local void fraction. The image processing technique is also employed to identify and estimate the percentage of different flow regimes and heat transfer coefficient, as a function of position, heat flux and mass flow rate. Both void fraction and heat transfer coefficient are found to increase monotonically along the length of the microchannel. At low heat flux and low flow rates, bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes are apparent. However, the flow is predominately annular at high heat flux and high flow rate. A breakup of the flow frequency suggests that the flow is bistable in the annular regime, in that at a fixed location, the flow periodically switches from single-phase liquid to annular and vice versa. Otherwise, the occurrence of three regimes—single-phase liquid, bubbly and slug are observed. These results provide several useful insights about two-phase flow in microchannels besides being of fundamental interest

  11. Assessment of Mass Transfer Coefficients in Coalescing Slug Flow in Vertical Pipes and Applications to Tubular Airlift Membrane Bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Berube, P.R.; Nopens, I.

    2011-01-01

    by the gas flow. It was noted that coalescence of bubbles affects the MTH. Coalescence increased the “width” of the peaks (i.e. the estimate of the variability of the mass transfer coefficient) and the height of the peak (i.e. amount of time that a mass transfer coefficient of a given value is maintained......). A semi-empirical relationship based on the Lévêque relationship for the Sherwood number (mass transfer coefficient) was formulated for the laminar regime. A test case comparison between water and activated sludge was performed based on full-scale airlift MBR operational conditions. It was found...

  12. Measurement of local heat transfer coefficient during gas–liquid Taylor bubble train flow by infra-red thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; D h = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time

  13. Study of the influence of surfactants on the activity coefficients and mass transfer coefficients of methanol in aqueous mixtures by reversed-flow gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsalos, Efthimios; Brezovska, Boryana; Sevastos, Dimitrios; Vagena, Artemis; Koliadima, Athanasia; Kapolos, John; Karaiskakis, George

    2017-11-17

    This work focuses on the influences of surfactants on the activity coefficients, γ, of methanol in binary mixtures with water, as well as on the mass transfer coefficients, k c , for the evaporation of methanol, which is a ubiquitous component in the troposphere, from mixtures of methanol with water at various surfactant's and methanol's concentrations. The technique used is the Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (R.F.G.C.), a version of Inverse Gas Chromatography, which allows determining both parameters by performing only one experiment for the k c parameter and two experiments for the γ parameter. The k c and γ values decrease in the presence of the three surfactants used (CTAB, SDS, TRITON X-100) at all methanol's and surfactant's concentrations. The decrease in the methanol's molar fraction, at constant number of surfactant films leads to a decrease in the k c and γ values, while the decrease in the surfactant's concentration, at constant methanol's molar fraction leads to an increase in both the k c and γ parameters. Mass transfer coefficients for the evaporation of methanol at the surfactant films, are also calculated which are approximately between 4 and 5 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mass transfer coefficients at the liquid films. Finally, thicknesses of the boundary layer of methanol in the mixtures of methanol with water were determined. The quantities found are compared with those given in the literature or calculated theoretically using various empirical equations. The precision of the R.F.G.C. method for measuring γ and k c parameters is approximately high (94.3-98.0%), showing that R.F.G.C. can be used with success not only for the thermodynamic study of solutions, but also for the interphase transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement and modeling the coefficient of restitution of char particles under simulated entrained flow gasifier conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, LaTosha M.

    predict the coefficient of restitution (COR) which is the ratio of the rebound velocity to the impacting velocity (which is a necessary boundary condition for Discrete Phase Models). However, particle-wall impact models do not use actual geometries of char particles and motion of char particles due to gasifier operating conditions. This work attempts to include the surface geometry and rotation of the particles. To meet the objectives of this work, the general methodology used for this work involved (1) determining the likelihood of particle becoming entrapped, (2) assessing the limitations of particle-wall impact models for the COR through cold flow experiments in order to adapt them to the non-ideal conditions (surface and particle geometry) within a gasifier, (3) determining how to account for the influence of the carbon and the ash composition in the determination of the sticking probability of size fractions and specific gravities within a PSD and within the scope of particle wall impact models, and (4) using a methodology that quantifies the sticking probability (albeit a criterion or parameter) to predict the partitioning of a PSD into slag and flyash based on the proximate analysis. In this study, through sensitivity analysis the scenario for particle becoming entrapped within a slag layer was ruled out. Cold flow educator experiments were performed to measure the COR. Results showed a variation in the coefficient of restitution as a function of rebound angle due rotation of particles from the educator prior to impact. The particles were then simply dropped in "drop" experiments (without educator) to determine the influence of sphericity on particle rotation and therefore, the coefficient of restitution. The results showed that in addition to surface irregularities, the particle shape and orientation of the particle prior to impacting the target surface contributed to this variation of the coefficient of restitution as a function of rebounding angle. Oblique

  15. ON THE VARIATION OF ZONAL GRAVITY COEFFICIENTS OF A GIANT PLANET CAUSED BY ITS DEEP ZONAL FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Dali; Zhang Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients J-bar 2n , n=1,2,3,..., without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, ΔJ 2n =J 2n -J-bar 2n , n=1,2,3,..., caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4 . It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., ΔJ 2n >=J-bar 2n for n ≥ 5.

  16. Effect of flow rate on the adsorption coefficient of radioactive krypton on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.C.; Underhill, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    For some time, there have been questions relative to the effect of carrier gas velocity on the adsorption coefficient for radioactive noble gases on activated charcoal. Resolution of these questions is particularly important in terms of developing standard procedures for determining such coefficients under laboratory conditions. Studies at the Harvard Air Cleaning Laboratory appear to confirm that the adsorption coefficient for radioactive krypton on activated charcoal is independent of the velocity of the carrier gas

  17. Blood flow vs. venous pressure effects on filtration coefficient in oleic acid-injured lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, D; Corboz, M; Menaouar, A; Parker, J C; Sanou, S; Bayat, S; Benchetrit, G; Grimbert, F A

    1998-03-01

    On the basis of changes in capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) in 24 rabbit lungs, we determined whether elevations in pulmonary venous pressure (Ppv) or blood flow (BF) produced differences in filtration surface area in oleic acid-injured (OA) or control (Con) lungs. Lungs were cyclically ventilated and perfused under zone 3 conditions by using blood and 5% albumin with no pharmacological modulation of vascular tone. Pulmonary arterial, venous, and capillary pressures were measured by using arterial, venous, and double occlusion. Before and during each Kfc-measurement maneuver, microvascular/total vascular compliance was measured by using venous occlusion. Kfc was measured before and 30 min after injury, by using a Ppv elevation of 7 cmH2O or a BF elevation from 1 to 2 l . min-1 . 100 g-1 to obtain a similar double occlusion pressure. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased more with BF than with Ppv in both Con and OA lungs [29 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 0.7 (means +/- SE) cmH2O; P Kfc (200 +/- 40 vs. 83 +/- 14%, respectively; P < 0.01) and microvascular/total vascular compliance ratio (86 +/- 4 vs. 68 +/- 5%, respectively; P < 0.01) increased more with BF than with Ppv. In conclusion, for a given OA-induced increase in hydraulic conductivity, BF elevation increased filtration surface area more than did Ppv elevation. The steep pulmonary pressure profile induced by increased BF could result in the recruitment of injured capillaries and could also shift downstream the compression point of blind (zone 1) and open injured vessels (zone 2).

  18. Flowchart on Choosing Optimal Method of Observing Transverse Dispersion Coefficient for Solute Transport in Open Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Oh Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methods for observing and estimating the transverse dispersion coefficient in an analysis of the solute transport in open channel flow. It may be difficult to select an optimal method to calculate dispersion coefficients from tracer data among numerous methodologies. A flowchart was proposed in this study to select an appropriate method under the transport situation of either time-variant or steady condition. When making the flowchart, the strengths and limitations of the methods were evaluated based on its derivation procedure which was conducted under specific assumptions. Additionally, application examples of these methods on experimental data were illustrated using previous works. Furthermore, the observed dispersion coefficients in a laboratory channel were validated by using transport numerical modeling, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental results from tracer tests. This flowchart may assist in choosing the better methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in various river mixing situations.

  19. Impact of higher-order flows in the moment equations on Pfirsch-Schlüter friction coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M., E-mail: honda.mitsuru@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The impact of the higher-order flows in the moment approach on an estimate of the friction coefficients is numerically examined. The higher-order flows are described by the lower-order hydrodynamic flows using the collisional plasma assumption. Their effects have not been consistently taken into account thus far in the widely used neoclassical transport codes based on the moment equations in terms of the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux. Due to numerically solving the friction-flow matrix without using the small-mass ratio expansion, it is clearly revealed that incorporating the higher-order flow effects is of importance especially for plasmas including multiple hydrogenic ions and other lighter species with similar masses.

  20. Derivation of a correlation for Drag coefficient in two-dimensional bounded supercavitating flows, using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaghat, R.; Hosseinalipour, S.M.; Derakhshani, S.M.E. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used as a new approach for the determination of the relations between drag coefficient and Cavitation Number with cavity geometry in supercavitating flows which have been most widely used in the hydrodynamics researches. Also the result of the ANNs as a cost function potentially will be used in an optimization algorithm. Instead of complex differential equations and limited experimental data, faster and simpler solutions were obtained using equations derived from the ANN model. For training of the ANN the numerical results are used that are obtained from a boundary element method (BEM). At this problem, a two-dimensional supercavitation potential inviscid flow pasts a symmetric two-dimensional cavitator, which is placed perpendicular to the flow in a channel of infinite width and immediately a cavity is formed behind the cavitator. It was found that the coefficient of multiple determination (R{sup 2}-value) between the actual and ANN predicted data is equal to about 0.9998 for the drag coefficient and Cavitation number. As seen from the obtained results, the calculated cavity geometry for all drag coefficients and Cavitation Numbers are obviously within acceptable limits. (orig.)

  1. Advanced 2-dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Pregowski, Jerzy; Kruk, Mariusz; Kepka, Cezary; Staruch, Adam D; Witkowski, Adam

    2014-07-01

    The widespread clinical application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has resulted in increased referral patterns of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses to invasive coronary angiography. We evaluated the application of advanced quantitative coronary angiography (A-QCA) for predicting fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions detected on CCTA. Fifty-six patients with 66 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥ 50% to 80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. A-QCA including calculation of the Poiseuille-based index defined as the ratio of lesion length to the fourth power of the minimal lumen diameter (MLD) was performed. Significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. The mean FFR was 0.86 ± 0.09, and 18 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with lesion length (R=-0.303, P=0.013), MLD (R=0.527, P44%, and >69%, respectively (maximum negative predictive value of 94% for MLA, maximum positive predictive value of 58% for diameter stenosis). The Poiseuille-based index was the most accurate (C statistic 0.86, sensitivity 100%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 56%, and negative predictive value 100%) predictor of FFR ≤ 0.80, but showed the lowest interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.37). A-QCA might be used to rule out significant ischemia in intermediate stenoses detected by CCTA. The diagnostic application of the Poiseuille-based angiographic index is precluded by its high interobserver variability.

  2. Experimental measurement of the interfacial heat transfer coefficients of subcooled flow boiling using micro-thermocouple and double directional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong-Jin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Models or correlations for phase interface are needed to analyze the multi-phase flow. Interfacial heat transfer coefficients are important to constitute energy equation of multi-phase flow, specially. In subcooled boiling flow, bubble condensation at the bubble-liquid interface is a major mechanism of heat transfer within bulk subcooled liquid. Bubble collapse rates and temperatures of each phase are needed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation. Bubble collapse rates were calculated through image processing in single direction, generally. And in case of liquid bulk temperature, which has been obtained by general temperature sensor such as thermocouple, was used. However, multi-directional images are needed to analyze images due to limitations of single directional image processing. Also, temperature sensor, which has a fast response time, must be used to obtain more accurate interfacial heat transfer coefficient. Low pressure subcooled water flow experiments using micro-thermocouple and double directional image processing with mirrors were conducted to investigate bubble condensation phenomena and to modify interfacial heat transfer correlation. Experiments were performed in a vertical subcooled boiling flow of a rectangular channel. Bubble condensing traces with respect to time were recorded by high speed camera in double direction and bubble collapse rates were calculated by processing recorded digital images. Temperatures were measured by micro-thermocouple, which is a K-type with a 12.7 μm diameter. The liquid temperature was estimated by the developed algorithm to discriminate phases and find each phase temperature in the measured temperature including both liquid and bubble temperature. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation was calculated from the bubble collapse rates and the estimated liquid temperature, and its correlation was modified. The modified

  3. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique for Determining Turbulent Flow Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Givehchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the friction coefficient in pipes is very important in many water and wastewater engineering issues, such as distribution of velocity and shear stress, erosion, sediment transport and head loss. In analyzing these problems, knowing the friction coefficient, can obtain estimates that are more accurate. In this study in order to estimate the friction coefficient in pipes, using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS, grid partition method was used. For training and testing of neuro-fuzzy model, the data derived from the Colebrook’s equation was used. In the neuro-fuzzy approach, pipe relative roughness and Reynolds number are considered as input variables and friction coefficient as output variable is considered. Performance of the proposed approach was evaluated by using of the data obtained from the Colebrook’s equation and based on statistical indicators such as coefficient determination (R2, root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE. The results showed that the adaptive nerou-fuzzy inference system with grid partition method and gauss model as an input membership function and linear as an output function could estimate friction coefficient more accurately than other conditions. The new proposed approach in this paper has capability of application in the practical design issues and can be combined with mathematical and numerical models of sediment transfer or real-time updating of these models.

  4. Experimental determination of convective heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Majumdar, Alok K.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A series of cold flow heat transfer tests was conducted with a 7.5-percent scale model of the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor (SRM) to measure the heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region around the nose of the submerged nozzle. Modifications were made to an existing 7.5 percent scale model of the internal geometry of the aft end of the SRM, including the gimballed nozzle in order to accomplish the measurements. The model nozzle nose was fitted with a stainless steel shell with numerous thermocouples welded to the backside of the thin wall. A transient 'thin skin' experimental technique was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle gimbal angle, and model location were correlated with a Stanton number versus Reynolds number correlation which may be used to determine the convective heating rates for the full scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle.

  5. Flow and linear coefficient of thermal expansion of four types of Base Plate waxes compared with ADA standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzavi A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Waxes have a lot of applications in dentistry. Such materials are of thermoplastic type that undergoes deformation in different temperatures. Two important properties of base plate waxes are flow and their coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Recently, different institutions, inside the country, produce dentistry waxes, while they have not been standardized. Consequently, consumers' dissatisfaction are observed. In this research, the two above- mentioned factors were compared between three kinds of Iranian waxes with Cavex that is foreign production, based on test number 24 of ADA. To measure the flow rate in the temperatures of 23, 37 and 45°c, Wilcoxon statistical analysis was used. The results showed that in 23°c, the flow rate of Cavex and Azardent waxes met ADA standards; however, it was not true for two others types. In 37°c, the flow of none of the waxes was standardized and in 45°c their flow was acceptable, moreover, thermal expansion coefficient, for Cavex and Azardent types, was based on ADA standard.

  6. Incorporation of velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and particle surface friction into kinetic theory for modeling granular flow cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009)10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Operating Cash Flow, Earning Response Coefficient, and Fixed Asset Revaluation: Study on Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andison Andison

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the effect of operating cash flow to the abnormal return and the effect of operating cash flow to the abnormal return of companies that conduct the revaluation is higher than that of non revaluation which adopted SFAS No. 16 (2012. The analysis used in this study are multiple regression, for the period 2012-2015. The results showed that operating cash flow has no effect on non-sampled companies revaluation, while the sample of firms that perform revaluation proves that operating cash flow has a positive and significant impact on the abnormal return. Moreover, the effect of revaluation policy can strengthen the influence between operating cash flow to the firm abnormal return than non revaluation.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i1.4820

  8. Photographic guidance for selecting flow resistance coefficients in high-gradient channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Yochum; Francesco Comiti; Ellen Wohl; Gabrielle C. L. David; Luca Mao

    2014-01-01

    Photographic guidance is presented to assist with the estimation of Manning’s n and Darcy-Weisbach f in high-gradient plane-bed, step-pool, and cascade channels. Reaches both with and without instream wood are included. These coefficients are necessary for the estimation of reachaverage velocity, energy loss, and...

  9. Determination of Kinetic Coefficients in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Using Sugarcane Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sana mousavian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of sugar from sugarcane produces a high volume of effluent carrying large amounts of organics and BOD5. Discharging the effluent into rivers and into the environment endangers the aquatic life and increases the risks of environmental pollution. This study was conducted in 2012 to determine the kinetic coefficients of the anaerobic treatment systems (UASB at the wastewater treatment plant of Imam Khomeini Sugarcane Agro-industrial Plant in Shushtar. The parameters of BOD5, COD, and TSS were measured at the inlet and outlet of the WWTP. Subsequently, the operation and design parameters of the system were determined. Using the modified Monod Equations, the kinetic coefficients Ks, Y, Kd, μ max, and K max for employing the UASB process at the WWPT in question were calculated as 506.4mg/l, 0.11 g VSS/g COD, 0.0045 d-1, 0.0069 d-1, and 0.055 d-1, respectively. The kinetic coefficients obtained in this study can be used in the steering and operation as well as fundamental design of similar plants, especially in hot areas.

  10. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energy of Selected Organic Liquids using Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalisanni Khalid; Rashid Atta Khan; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of vaporize organic liquid has ecological consequences when the compounds are introduced into both freshwater and marine environments through industrial effluents, or introduced directly into the air from industrial unit processes such as bioreactors and cooling towers. In such cases, a rapid and simple method are needed to measure physicochemical properties of the organic liquids. The Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) sampling technique is an easy, fast and accurate procedure. It was used to measure the diffusion coefficients of vapors from liquid into a carrier gas and at the same time to determine the rate coefficients for the evaporation of the respective liquid. The mathematical expression describing the elution curves of the samples peaks was derived and used to calculate the respective parameters for the selected liquid pollutants selected such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-hexadecane, evaporating into the carrier gas of nitrogen. The values of diffusion coefficients found were compared with those calculated theoretically or reported in the literature. The values of evaporation rate were used to determine the activation energy of respective samples using Arrhenius equation. An interesting finding of this work is by using an alternative mathematical analysis based on equilibrium at the liquid-gas interphase, the comparison leads to profound agreement between theoretical values of diffusion coefficients and experimental evidence. (author)

  11. An improved method based on wavelet coefficient correlation to filter noise in Doppler ultrasound blood flow signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Renzhi; Zu, Yunxiao; Shao, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The blood echo signal maintained through Medical ultrasound Doppler devices would always include vascular wall pulsation signal .The traditional method to de-noise wall signal is using high-pass filter, which will also remove the lowfrequency part of the blood flow signal. Some scholars put forward a method based on region selective reduction, which at first estimates of the wall pulsation signals and then removes the wall signal from the mixed signal. Apparently, this method uses the correlation between wavelet coefficients to distinguish blood signal from wall signal, but in fact it is a kind of wavelet threshold de-noising method, whose effect is not so much ideal. In order to maintain a better effect, this paper proposes an improved method based on wavelet coefficient correlation to separate blood signal and wall signal, and simulates the algorithm by computer to verify its validity.

  12. Flow patterns and heat transfer coefficients in flow-boiling and convective condensation of R22 inside a micro fin of new design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzio, A.; Niro, A.; Garaviglia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Saturated flow boiling and convective condensation experiments for oil-free refrigerant R22 been carried out with a micro fin tube of new design and with a smooth tube. Both tube have the same outer diameter of 9.52 mm and are horizontally operated. Two-phase flow pattern data have been obtained in addition of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drops; more-over, adiabatic tests have been also performed in order for flow pattern map to cover even adiabatic flows. Data are for mass fluxes ranging from about 90 to 400 Kg/s m 2 . In boiling tests, the nominal saturation temperature is 5 degree C, with inlet quality varying from 0.2 to 0.6 and the quality change ranging from 0.1 to 0.5. In condensation, results are for saturation temperature equal to 35 degree C, with inlet quality between 0.8 and 0.4, and quality change within 0.6 and 0.2. The comparison shows a large heat transfer augmentation with a moderate increment of pressure drops, especially in evaporation were the enhancement factor comes up to 4 while the penalty factor is about 1.4 at the most. Heat transfer coefficients both in evaporation and condensation are compared to the predictions of some recent correlations specifically proposed or modified for micro fin tube

  13. Model for definition of heat transfer coefficient in an annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, J.

    1976-01-01

    Near-wall heat exchange in a vertical tube at high vapor velocity in a two-phase vapor and liquid flow is investigated. The flow divides inside the tube into a near-wall liquid film and a vapor nucleus containing liquid droplets, with the boundaries being uniform. The liquid film thickness determines the main resistance during heat transfer between the wall and vapor nucleus. The theoretical model presented is verified in water vaporization experiments, the R12 cooling agent and certain hydrocarbons. The loss of friction pressure is determined by the Lockart-Martinelli method. The approximately universal Carman velocity profile is used to evaluate the velocity in film, and basing on this, film thickness is determined. The parameter ranges were: Resub(vap)=10 4 -3x10 6 , Resub(liq.)=0.9-10. The theoretical model ensures good correlation with the experiment

  14. Numerical study of the influence of flow blockage on the aerodynamic coefficients of models in low-speed wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, V. T.; Kalugin, V. T.; Lapygin, V. I.; Khlupnov, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    With the use of ANSYS Fluent software and ANSYS ICEM CFD calculation grid generator, the flows past a wing airfoil, an infinite cylinder, and 3D blunted bodies located in the open and closed test sections of low-speed wind tunnels were calculated. The mathematical model of the flows included the Reynolds equations and the SST model of turbulence. It was found that the ratios between the aerodynamic coefficients in the test section and in the free (unbounded) stream could be fairly well approximated with a piecewise-linear function of the blockage factor, whose value weakly depended on the angle of attack. The calculated data and data gained in the analysis of previously reported experimental studies proved to be in a good agreement. The impact of the extension of the closed test section on the airfoil lift force is analyzed.

  15. Development of the loss coefficient correlation for cross flow between graphite fuel blocks in the core of prismatic very high temperature reactor-PMR200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross flow experimental data are produced with wedge-shaped and parallel gaps. • The results of a CFD analysis and experimental data are in good agreement. • Pressure loss coefficient for the cross gap between fuel blocks in PMR200 is found. • A new correlation of the cross flow loss coefficient for PMR200 is proposed. - Abstract: The core of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) PMR200 (a prismatic modular reactor rated at 200 MW of thermal power) consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of graphite. If the core bypass flow ratio increases, the coolant channel flow is decreased and can then lower the heat removal efficiency, resulting in a locally increased fuel block temperature. The coolant channels in the fuel blocks are connected to bypass gaps by the cross gap, complicating flow distribution in the VHTR core. Therefore, reliable estimation of the bypass flow is highly important for the design and safety analysis of the VHTR core. Because of the complexity of the core geometry and gap configuration, it is challenging to predict the flow distribution in the VHTR core. To analyze this flow distribution accurately, it is necessary to determine the cross flow phenomena, and the loss coefficient across the cross gap has to be evaluated to determine the flow distribution in the VHTR core when a lumped parameter code or a flow network analysis code that uses the correlation of the loss coefficient is employed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a loss coefficient correlation applicable to the cross gap in the PMR200 core. The cross flow was evaluated experimentally using the difference between the measured inlet and outlet mass flow rates. Next, the applicability of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX 15, was confirmed by comparing the experimental data and CFD analysis results. To understand the cross flow phenomena, the loss coefficient was evaluated; in the high Reynolds number region

  16. Development of the loss coefficient correlation for cross flow between graphite fuel blocks in the core of prismatic very high temperature reactor-PMR200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Hun, E-mail: huny12@snu.ac.kr; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr; Park, Goon-Cherl, E-mail: parkgc@snu.ac.kr

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Cross flow experimental data are produced with wedge-shaped and parallel gaps. • The results of a CFD analysis and experimental data are in good agreement. • Pressure loss coefficient for the cross gap between fuel blocks in PMR200 is found. • A new correlation of the cross flow loss coefficient for PMR200 is proposed. - Abstract: The core of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) PMR200 (a prismatic modular reactor rated at 200 MW of thermal power) consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of graphite. If the core bypass flow ratio increases, the coolant channel flow is decreased and can then lower the heat removal efficiency, resulting in a locally increased fuel block temperature. The coolant channels in the fuel blocks are connected to bypass gaps by the cross gap, complicating flow distribution in the VHTR core. Therefore, reliable estimation of the bypass flow is highly important for the design and safety analysis of the VHTR core. Because of the complexity of the core geometry and gap configuration, it is challenging to predict the flow distribution in the VHTR core. To analyze this flow distribution accurately, it is necessary to determine the cross flow phenomena, and the loss coefficient across the cross gap has to be evaluated to determine the flow distribution in the VHTR core when a lumped parameter code or a flow network analysis code that uses the correlation of the loss coefficient is employed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a loss coefficient correlation applicable to the cross gap in the PMR200 core. The cross flow was evaluated experimentally using the difference between the measured inlet and outlet mass flow rates. Next, the applicability of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX 15, was confirmed by comparing the experimental data and CFD analysis results. To understand the cross flow phenomena, the loss coefficient was evaluated; in the high Reynolds number region

  17. Transport of temperature-velocity covariance in gas-solid flow and its relation to the axial dispersion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Sun, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The presence of solid particles in a steady laminar flow generates velocity fluctuations with respect to the mean fluid velocity that are termed pseudo-turbulence. The level of these pseudo-turbulent velocity fluctuations has been characterized in statistically homogeneous fixed particle assemblies and freely evolving suspensions using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) by Mehrabadi et al. (JFM, 2015), and it is found to be a significant contribution to the total kinetic energy associated with the flow. The correlation of these velocity fluctuations with temperature (or a passive scalar) generates a flux term that appears in the transport equation for the average fluid temperature (or average scalar concentration). The magnitude of this transport of temperature-velocity covariance is quantified using PR-DNS of thermally fully developed flow past a statistically homogeneous fixed assembly of particles, and the budget of the average fluid temperature equation is presented. The relation of this transport term to the axial dispersion coefficient (Brenner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 1980) is established. The simulation results are then interpreted in the context of our understanding of axial dispersion in gas-solid flow. NSF CBET 1336941.

  18. Evolution of dispersion coefficient in the single rough-walled fracture before and after circulated flow near the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding detailed solute transport mechanism in a single fracture is required to expand it to the complex fractured medium. Dispersion in the variable-aperture fractures occurs by combined effects of molecular diffusion, macro dispersion and Taylor dispersion. It has been reported that Taylor dispersion which is proportional to the square of the velocity dominates for the high velocity, while macro dispersion is proportional to the velocity. Contributions of each scheme are different as the velocity changes. To investigate relationship between Reynolds number and dispersion coefficient, single acrylic rough-walled fracture which has 20 cm length and 1.03 mm average aperture was designed. In this experiment, dispersion coefficient was calculated at the middle of the fracture and at the edge of the fracture via moment analysis using breakthrough curve (BTC) of fluorescent solute under the Reynolds number 0.08, 0.28, 2.78, 8.2 and 16.4. In the results, distinct dispersion regime was observed at the highly rough-walled fracture, which is inconsistent with the model that was suggested by previous research. In the range of Re 2.78. The reason of this transition zone was related to the generation of circulated flow near the wall. It can flush the trapped contaminant out to the main flow channel, which makes tailing effect diminished. Also, these circulation zones were visualized using microscope, CCD camera and fluorescent particles.

  19. Generalized Skew Coefficients of Annual Peak Flows for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Generalized skew was determined from analysis of records from 147 streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia. The analysis followed guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data described in Bulletin 17B, except that stations having 50 or more years of record were used instead of stations with the less restrictive recommendation of 25 or more years of record. The generalized-skew analysis included contouring, averaging, and regression of station skews. The best method was considered the one with the smallest mean square error (MSE). MSE is defined as the following quantity summed and divided by the number of peaks: the square of the difference of an individual logarithm (base 10) of peak flow less the mean of all individual logarithms of peak flow. Contouring of station skews was the best method for determining generalized skew for West Virginia, with a MSE of about 0.2174. This MSE is an improvement over the MSE of about 0.3025 for the national map presented in Bulletin 17B.

  20. Determination of friction factors and heat transfer coefficients for flow past artificially roughened surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1979-12-01

    Because convective heat transfer is enhanced in flow past rough surfaces, much experimental and analytical effort over the past several decades has been devoted to the evaluation of artificial roughening for potential application to the heat transfer surfaces of gas-cooled reactors. Unfortunately, much of the analytical development in this field has been inadequately explained in the literature; this has led to misinterpretation of some of the subsequent experimental findings, compounding the uncertainty. This work provides a critical review of the underlying assumptions, theoretical foundations, and supporting experimental evidence for the analytical procedures in current use for the evaluation of roughness effects. It is a concise presentation of the available formulations with recommendations concerning their applicability to rough rod bundles

  1. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  2. PAINeT: An object-oriented software package for simulations of flow-field, transport coefficients and flux terms in non-equilibrium gas mixture flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The software package Planet Atmosphere Investigator of Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics (PAINeT) has been devel-oped for studying the non-equilibrium effects associated with electronic excitation, chemical reactions and ionization. These studies are necessary for modeling process in shock tubes, in high enthalpy flows, in nozzles or jet engines, in combustion and explosion processes, in modern plasma-chemical and laser technologies. The advantages and possibilities of the package implementation are stated. Within the framework of the package implementation, based on kinetic theory approximations (one-temperature and state-to-state approaches), calculations are carried out, and the limits of applicability of a simplified description of shock-heated air flows and any other mixtures chosen by the user are given. Using kinetic theory algorithms, a numerical calculation of the heat fluxes and relaxation terms can be performed, which is necessary for further comparison of engineering simulation with experi-mental data. The influence of state-to-state distributions over electronic energy levels on the coefficients of thermal conductivity, diffusion, heat fluxes and diffusion velocities of the components of various gas mixtures behind shock waves is studied. Using the software package the accuracy of different approximations of the kinetic theory of gases is estimated. As an example state-resolved atomic ionized mixture of N/N+/O/O+/e- is considered. It is shown that state-resolved diffusion coefficients of neutral and ionized species vary from level to level. Comparing results of engineering applications with those given by PAINeT, recommendations for adequate models selection are proposed.

  3. A convenient method for calculation of ionic diffusion coefficients for accurate selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryahina, K.; Spanel, P.

    2005-07-01

    A method to calculate diffusion coefficients of ions important for the selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, is presented. The ions, on which this method is demonstrated, include the SIFT-MS precursors H3O+(H2O)0,1,2,3, NO.+(H2O)0,1,2 and O2+ and the product ions relevant to analysis of breath trace metabolites ammonia (NH3+(H2O)0,1,2, NH4+(H2O)0,1,2), acetaldehyde (C2H4OH+(H2O)0,1,2), acetone (CH3CO+, (CH3)2CO+, (CH3)2COH+(H2O)0,1, (CH3)2CO.NO+), ethanol (C2H5OHH+(H2O)0,1,2) and isoprene (C5H7+, C5H8+, C5H9+). Theoretical model of the (12, 4) potential for interaction between the ions and the helium atoms is used, with the repulsive part approximated by the mean hard-sphere cross section and the attractive part describing ion-induced dipole interactions. The reduced zero-field mobilities at 300 K are calculated using the Viehland and Mason theory [L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, E.A. Mason, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 60 (1995) 37-95], parameterised by a simple formula as a function of the mean hard-sphere cross section, and converted to diffusion coefficients using the Einstein relation. The method is tested on a set of experimental data for simple ions and cluster ions.

  4. Enhancing heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks using converging flow passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Maziar; Daneshipour, Mahdi; Valipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Rafee, Roohollah; Saedodin, Seyfolah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks are studied. • The Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers are presented for width-tapered MCHS. • Converging walls are found to enhance the thermal performance of MCHS. • The optimum performance of MCHS for fixed inlet and outlet pressures is discussed. • For the optimum configuration, the pumping power is reduced up to 75%. - Abstract: Constrained fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks (MCHS) with converging channels are investigated using the finite volume method (FVM) in the laminar regime. The maximum pressure of the MCHS loop is assumed to be limited due to constructional or operational conditions. Results show that the Poiseuille number increases with increased tapering, while the required pumping power decreases. Meanwhile, the Nusselt number increases with tapering as well as the convection heat transfer coefficient. The MCHS having the optimum heat transfer performance is found to have a width-tapered ratio equal to 0.5. For this tapering configuration and at the maximum pressure constraint of 3000 Pa, the pumping power reduces by a factor of 4 while the overall heat removal rate is kept fixed in comparison with a straight channel

  5. Calculation of Friction Coefficient and Analysis of Fluid Flow in a Stepped Micro-Channel for Wide Range of Knudsen Number Using Lattice Boltzmann (MRT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bakhshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro scale gas flows has attracted significant research interest in the last two decades. In this research, the fluid flow of gases in the stepped micro-channel at a wide range of Knudsen number has been analyzed with using the Lattice Boltzmann (MRT method. In the model, a modified second-order slip boundary condition and a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity are used to consider the velocity slip at the boundaries and to cover the slip and transition regimes of flow and to gain an accurate simulation of rarefied gases. It includes the slip and transition regimes of flow. The flow specifications such as pressure loss, velocity profile, streamline and friction coefficient at different conditions have been presented. The results show good agreement with available experimental data. The calculation shows that the friction coefficient decreases with increasing the Knudsen number and stepping the micro-channel has an inverse effect on the friction coefficient. Furthermore, a new correlation is suggested for calculation of the friction coefficient in the stepped micro-channel as below: C_f Re  = 3.113+2.915/(1 +2 Kn+ 0.641 exp⁡(3.203/(1 + 2 Kn

  6. Numerical Analysis of Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal Grooves with Shear Stress at the Liquid-Vapor Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... A computer model was developed using a finite difference solution which finds the mean velocity, Poiseuille number, and volumetric flow rate in terms of the groove geometry, meniscus contact angle...

  7. Measurements of Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Helium Flowing in a Tube at Surface Temperatures up to 5900 Deg R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maynard F.; Kirchgessner, Thomas A.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of average heat transfer and friction coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients were made with helium flowing through electrically heated smooth tubes with length-diameter ratios of 60 and 92 for the following range of conditions: Average surface temperature from 1457 to 4533 R, Reynolds numbe r from 3230 to 60,000, heat flux up to 583,200 Btu per hr per ft2 of heat transfer area, and exit Mach numbe r up to 1.0. The results indicate that, in the turbulent range of Reynolds number, good correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is obtained when the physical properties and density of helium are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average heat transfer coefficients are best correlated on the basis that the coefficient varies with [1 + (L/D))(sup -0,7)] and that the physical properties and density are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average friction coefficients for the tests with no heat addition are in complete agreement with the Karman-Nikuradse line. The average friction coefficients for heat addition are in poor agreement with the accepted line.

  8. A Data-Driven Approach to Develop Physically Sound Predictors: Application to Depth-Averaged Velocities and Drag Coefficients on Vegetated Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, R. O.; Goldstein, E. B.; Coco, G.

    2016-12-01

    We use a machine learning approach to seek accurate, physically sound predictors, to estimate two relevant flow parameters for open-channel vegetated flows: mean velocities and drag coefficients. A genetic programming algorithm is used to find a robust relationship between properties of the vegetation and flow parameters. We use data published from several laboratory experiments covering a broad range of conditions to obtain: a) in the case of mean flow, an equation that matches the accuracy of other predictors from recent literature while showing a less complex structure, and b) for drag coefficients, a predictor that relies on both single element and array parameters. We investigate different criteria for dataset size and data selection to evaluate their impact on the resulting predictor, as well as simple strategies to obtain only dimensionally consistent equations, and avoid the need for dimensional coefficients. The results show that a proper methodology can deliver physically sound models representative of the processes involved, such that genetic programming and machine learning techniques can be used as powerful tools to study complicated phenomena and develop not only purely empirical, but "hybrid" models, coupling results from machine learning methodologies into physics-based models.

  9. Effect of energy equation in one control-volume bulk-flow model for the prediction of labyrinth seal dynamic coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangioli, Filippo; Pennacchi, Paolo; Vannini, Giuseppe; Ciuchicchi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The influence of sealing components on the rotordynamic stability of turbomachinery has become a key topic because the oil and gas market is increasingly demanding high rotational speeds and high efficiency. This leads the turbomachinery manufacturers to design higher flexibility ratios and to reduce the clearance of the seals. Accurate prediction of the effective damping of seals is critical to avoid instability problems; in recent years, "negative-swirl" swirl brakes have been used to reverse the circumferential direction of the inlet flow, which changes the sign of the cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and generates stabilizing forces. Experimental tests for a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal were performed by manufacturers with positive and negative pre-swirl values to investigate the pre-swirl effect on the cross-coupled stiffness coefficient. Those results are used as a benchmark in this paper. To analyse the rotor-fluid interaction in the seals, the bulk-flow numeric approach is more time efficient than computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although the accuracy of the coefficients prediction in bulk-flow models is satisfactory for liquid phase application, the accuracy of the results strongly depends on the operating conditions in the case of the gas phase. In this paper, the authors propose an improvement in the state-of-the-art bulk-flow model by introducing the effect of the energy equation in the zeroth-order solution to better characterize real gas properties due to the enthalpy variation along the seal cavities. The consideration of the energy equation allows for a better estimation of the coefficients in the case of a negative pre-swirl ratio, therefore, it extend the prediction fidelity over a wide range of operating conditions. The numeric results are also compared to the state-of-the-art bulk-flow model, which highlights the improvement in the model.

  10. Wall Shear Rate in the Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille Flow at Low Axial Reynolds Number

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dumont, E.; Fayolle, F.; Sobolík, Václav; Legrand, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2002), s. 679-689 ISSN 0017-9310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : Taylor vortices * electrodiffusion diagnostics * model fluid s Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.268, year: 2002

  11. A Numerical Investigation of the Non-Linear Mechanics of Wave Disturbances in Plane Poiseuille Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-09-02

    i OCXXLL UJ rn - •• • O •>a£ •> O »QC • S —nt-Q£ 00_IUJ< O0_IUJ< XLUI—LU QU< • OU< • *.< •>_! »•< »-J Z •Q.NOZ ROCOCO ...OU< * OU< *U- ^"O •X •» »Oi-i »<t *—J *< *—I »—<CM z ••a.cMoz Rococo -l-ocoto—• •»** o<<<x«-i • ora-<i- oru.<ti-FHO—z JUJO’-’Z...roro CO ro rococo OOOOOOOOOOOOOO oooooooooooooo oooooooooooooo oooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo co C* o -* c\\j ro -4- i n >o l*» oo cr

  12. Axial Couette-Poiseuille flow of power-law viscoplastic fluids in concentric annuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Petr; David, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, 3/4 (2003), s. 111-119 ISSN 0920-4105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : boreholes * channel geometry * viscoplastic materials Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.570, year: 2003

  13. Estimation of added-mass and damping coefficients of a tethered spherical float using potential flow theory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Chandramohan, P.; Sastry, J.S.; Narasimhan, S.

    Added-mass (alpha) and damping coefficients (beta) of a tethered spherical float, undergoing oscillatory motion in sinusoidal waves, have been derived from the motion generated velocity potential for one degree-of-freedom (surge) using potential...

  14. Pressure loss coefficient and flow rate of side hole in a lower end plug for dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: shinch@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Ju-Yong, E-mail: juyong@kaeri.re.kr; In, Wang-Kee, E-mail: wkin@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A lower end plug with side flow holes is suggested to provide alternative flow paths of the inner channel. • The inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug is estimated from the experiment. • The flow rate through the side holes is estimated in a complete entrance blockage of inner channel. • The consequence in the reactor core condition is evaluated with a subchannel analysis code. - Abstract: Dual-cooled annular nuclear fuel for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been introduced for a significant increase in reactor power. KAERI has been developing a dual-cooled annular fuel for a power uprate of 20% in an optimized PWR in Korea, the OPR1000. This annular fuel can help decrease the fuel temperature substantially relative to conventional cylindrical fuel at a power uprate. Annular fuel has dual flow channels around itself; however, the inner flow channel has a weakness in that it is isolated unlike the outer flow channel, which is open to other neighbouring outer channels for a coolant exchange in the reactor core. If the entrance of the inner channel is, as a hypothetical event, completely blocked by debris, the inner channel will then experience a rapid increase in coolant temperature such that a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) may occur. Therefore, a remedy to avoid such a postulated accident is indispensable for the safety of annular fuel. A lower end plug with side flow holes was suggested to provide alternative flow paths in addition to the central entrance of the inner channel. In this paper, the inlet loss coefficient of the lower end plug and the flow rate through the side holes were estimated from the experimental results even in a complete entrance blockage of the inner channel. An optimization for the side hole was also performed, and the results are applied to a subchannel analysis to evaluate the consequence in the reactor core condition.

  15. A Numerical Procedure for Flow Distribution and Pressure Drops for U and Z Type Configurations Plate Heat Exchangers with Variable Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, R; Lecuona, A; Ventas, R; Vereda, C

    2012-01-01

    In Plate Heat Exchangers it is important to determine the flow distribution and pressure drops, because they affect directly the performance of a heat exchanger. This work proposes an incompressible, one-dimensional, steady state, discrete model allowing for variable overall momentum coefficients to determine these magnitudes. The model consists on a modified version of the Bajura and Jones model for dividing and combining flow manifolds. The numerical procedure is based on the finite differences approximation approach proposed by Datta and Majumdar. A linear overall momentum coefficient distribution is used in the dividing manifold, but the model is not limited to linear distributions. Comparisons are made with experimental, numerical and analytical data, yielding good results.

  16. Higher harmonic flow coefficients of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411263188; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Conti, C.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. D.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530780; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074064975; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron De Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411295721; Lehner, S.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461684; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Mishra, T.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405870; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal Da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323375618; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413319628; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860996; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250599171; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413533751; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509307; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-k.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The elliptic, triangular, quadrangular and pentagonal anisotropic flow coefficients for π±, K± and p+p ¯ ¯ ¯ p+p¯ in Pb-Pb collisions at s NN − − − √ =2.76 sNN=2.76 TeV were measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method,

  17. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  18. Influence of slip velocity in Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow between parallel plates - A mathematical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, D. S.; Lee, U Sik

    2016-01-01

    This theoretical study investigates three types of basic flows of viscous incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid such as (i) plane Couette flow, (ii) Poiseuille flow and (iii) generalized Couette flow with slip velocity at the boundary. The analytic solutions to the nonlinear boundary value problems have been obtained. The effects of various physical parameters on the velocity, flow rate, wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow are analyzed through appropriate graphs. It is observed that in plane Poiseuille flow and generalized Couette flow, the velocity and flow rate of the fluid increase considerably with the increase of the slip parameter, power law index, pressure gradient. The fluid velocity is significantly higher in plane Poiseuille flow than in plane Couette flow. The wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow decrease considerably with the increase of the power law index and increase significantly with the increase of the yield stress of the fluid. The wall shear stress and frictional resistance to flow are considerably higher in plane Poiseuille flow than in generalized Couette flow.

  19. The impact of nudging coefficient for the initialization on the atmospheric flow field and the photochemical ozone concentration of Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hwa Woon; Sung, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Jung, Woo-Sik

    In order to incorporate correctly the large or local scale circulation in the model, a nudging term is introduced into the equation of motion. Nudging effects should be included properly in the model to reduce the uncertainties and improve the air flow field. To improve the meteorological components, the nudging coefficient should perform the adequate influence on complex area for the model initialization technique which related to data reliability and error suppression. Several numerical experiments have been undertaken in order to evaluate the effects on air quality modeling by comparing the performance of the meteorological result with variable nudging coefficient experiment. All experiments are calculated by the upper wind conditions (synoptic or asynoptic condition), respectively. Consequently, it is important to examine the model response to nudging effect of wind and mass information. The MM5-CMAQ model was used to assess the ozone differences in each case, during the episode day in Seoul, Korea and we revealed that there were large differences in the ozone concentration for each run. These results suggest that for the appropriate simulation of large or small-scale circulations, nudging considering the synoptic and asynoptic nudging coefficient does have a clear advantage over dynamic initialization, so appropriate limitation of these nudging coefficient values on its upper wind conditions is necessary before making an assessment. The statistical verifications showed that adequate nudging coefficient for both wind and temperature data throughout the model had a consistently positive impact on the atmospheric and air quality field. On the case dominated by large-scale circulation, a large nudging coefficient shows a minor improvement in the atmospheric and air quality field. However, when small-scale convection is present, the large nudging coefficient produces consistent improvement in the atmospheric and air quality field.

  20. Discrete Boltzmann Method with Maxwell-Type Boundary Condition for Slip Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Chen, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The rarefied effect of gas flow in microchannel is significant and cannot be well described by traditional hydrodynamic models. It has been known that discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) has the potential to investigate flows in a relatively wider range of Knudsen number because of its intrinsic kinetic nature inherited from Boltzmann equation. It is crucial to have a proper kinetic boundary condition for DBM to capture the velocity slip and the flow characteristics in the Knudsen layer. In this paper, we present a DBM combined with Maxwell-type boundary condition model for slip flow. The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient is introduced to implement a gas-surface interaction model. Both the velocity slip and the Knudsen layer under various Knudsen numbers and accommodation coefficients can be well described. Two kinds of slip flows, including Couette flow and Poiseuille flow, are simulated to verify the model. To dynamically compare results from different models, the relation between the definition of Knudsen number in hard sphere model and that in BGK model is clarified. Support of National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11475028, 11772064, and 11502117 Science Challenge Project under Grant Nos. JCKY2016212A501 and TZ2016002

  1. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow around a confined circular cyclinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafizaadeh, M.; Zadehgol, A.

    2002-01-01

    A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) based on a single time relaxation BGK model has been developed. Several benchmark problems including the Poiseuille flow, the lid driven cavity flow and the flow around a circular cylinder have been performed employing a d2q9 lattice. The laminar flow around a circular cylinder within a channel has been extensively investigated using the present lattice Boltzmann model. Both symmetric and asymmetric placement configurations of the circular cylinder within the channel have been considered. A new treatment for the outlet velocity and pressure (density) boundary conditions has been proposed and validated. The present LBM results are in excellent agreement with those of the other existing CFD results. Careful examination of the LBM results and an appropriate calculation of the lift coefficient based on the rectangular lattice representation of the circular cylinder reveals that the periodic oscillation of the lift coefficient has a second harmonic when the cylinder is placed asymmetrically within the channel. The second harmonic could be associated with an asymmetrical shedding pattern of the vortices behind the cylinder from the upper and lower sides of the cylinder. (author)

  2. Measurements of local mass transfer coefficient of Flow Accelerated Corrosion at feeder outlet pipes in CANDU using Plaster of Paris method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Kwon; Dong Un Seo; Goon-Cherl Park

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is a corrosion mechanism that results in wall thinning in piping systems and components. FAC on carbon steels in pure water has occurred in a number of industry and power plant. A pipe wall thinning due to the FAC at nuclear power plant is just reported in confined to carbon steel pipe on the secondary system which does not equip a radioactive component. Recently, at Canadian Deuterium Uranium type reactor, it is reported that the feeder lines suffer the wall thinning on the primary system to equip 380 feeder pipes. Differently from the fast FAC rate of the secondary system on PWR, FAC rate of feeder pipes on CANDU is not more than the 0.2 mm/year. Although the FAC rate of feeder pipe is relatively slow, the narrow thickness margin of 2.6089 mm is endangered sufficiently by only the slow FAC rate. The FAC is governed by the mass transfer coefficient which is determined by the flow field. To well predict the FAC rate, mass transfer coefficient should be well measured or calculated. New measurement method of mass transfer coefficient is developed to obtain the coefficient for the complex shape like feeder pipe. The method evaluated the naphthalene sublimation method to apply it under the water flow. The naphthalene sublimation method can be used to study mass and heat transfer with confidence for a variety of applications, but with certain restrictions. At present, Plaster of paris method can modified the sublimation method to overcome the restrictions. This method is particularly useful in complex flows on geometries and for flows with large gradients in wall transport rate. The test specimen can be easily prepared by several methods, including dipping, machining, spraying, and casting. The local transfer coefficients can be determined with high accuracy and in detail by automated measurement systems that eliminate most human errors during the measurement process. To evaluate the method, the

  3. Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on Friction Coefficient and Surface Roughness of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steel Using Arc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Esah; Ourdjini, Ali; Ali, Mubarak; Akhter, Parvez; Hj. Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi; Abdul Hamid, Mansor

    In the present study, the effect of various N2 gas flow rates on friction coefficient and surface roughness of TiN-coated D2 tool steel was examined by a commercially available cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD) technique. A Pin-on-Disc test was carried out to study the Coefficient of friction (COF) versus sliding distance. A surface roughness tester measured the surface roughness parameters. The minimum values for the COF and surface roughness were recorded at a N2 gas flow rate of 200 sccm. The increase in the COF and surface roughness at a N2 gas flow rate of 100 sccm was mainly attributed to an increase in both size and number of titanium particles, whereas the increase at 300 sccm was attributed to a larger number of growth defects generated during the coating process. These ideas make it possible to optimize the coating properties as a function of N2 gas flow rate for specific applications, e.g. cutting tools for automobiles, aircraft, and various mechanical parts.

  4. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients at cryogenic temperatures for multi-component refrigerant mixtures of nitrogen-hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The recuperative heat exchanger governs the overall performance of the mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler. In these heat exchangers, the non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture of nitrogen-hydrocarbons undergoes boiling and condensation simultaneously at cryogenic temperature. Hence, the design of such heat exchanger is crucial. However, due to lack of empirical correlations to predict two-phase heat transfer coefficients of multi-component mixtures at low temperature, the design of such heat exchanger is difficult.

  5. Calculation of skin-friction coefficients for low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flows. M.S. Thesis - California Univ. at Davis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, P. K.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.

  6. Measurement of the higher-order anisotropic flow coefficients for identified hadrons in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of the anisotropic flow coefficients v2{Ψ2} ,v3{Ψ3} ,v4{Ψ4} , and v4{Ψ2} for identified particles (π±,K± , and p +p ¯ ) at midrapidity, obtained relative to the event planes Ψm at forward rapidities in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV , are presented as a function of collision centrality and particle transverse momenta pT. The vn coefficients show characteristic patterns consistent with hydrodynamical expansion of the matter produced in the collisions. For each harmonic n , a modified valence quark-number Nq scaling [plotting vn{Ψm} /(Nq) n /2 versus transverse kinetic energies (KET) /Nq] is observed to yield a single curve for all the measured particle species for a broad range of KET. A simultaneous blast-wave model fit to the observed vn{Ψm} (pT) coefficients and published particle spectra identifies radial flow anisotropies ρn{Ψm} and spatial eccentricities sn{Ψm} at freeze-out. These are generally smaller than the initial-state participant-plane geometric eccentricities ɛn{ΨmPP} as also observed in the final eccentricity from quantum interferometry measurements with respect to the event plane.

  7. Longitudinal dispersion coefficient depending on superficial velocity of hydrogen isotopes flowing in column packed with zeolite pellets at 77.4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoh, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, K.; Takashima, S.; Moriyama, S.T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Authors have been developing a cryogenic pressure swing adsorption system for hydrogen isotope separation. In the problem of its design and operation, it is necessary to predict the concentration profiles developing in packed beds of adsorbent pellets. The profiling is affected by the longitudinal dispersion of gas flowing in packed beds, in addition to the mass transfer resistance in porous media of adsorbent pellets. In this work, an equation is derived for estimating the packed-bed dispersion coefficient of hydrogen isotopes, by analyzing the breakthrough curves of trace D{sub 2} or HD replacing H{sub 2} adsorbed in synthetic zeolite particles packed columns at the liquefied nitrogen temperature 77.4 K. Since specialized for hydrogen isotopes, this equation can be considered to estimate the dispersion coefficients more reliable for the cryogenic hydrogen isotope adsorption process, than the existing equations. (authors)

  8. Thermodynamic parameters and transport coefficients of the U-C-F gas mixture in the steady flow gaseous core fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.S. van den.

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters and transport coefficients have been calculated for a multicomponent reacting U-C-F gas mixture in the steady flow gaseous core fission reactor. Element abundances are consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas mixture and a cooled solid graphite wall at 2500 K. Results are presented for various pressures, a fluorine potential of 5.6 and temperatures between 2500 and 7000 K. As a result of dissociation processes of uranium and carbon fluoride compounds, ''effective'' values of thermodynamic parameters and transport coefficients show anomalous behaviour with respect to so-called ''frozen'' values. The chemical reaction energy of the U-C-F gas mixture has been calculated as the driving-force behind the process of fuel redistribution to attain criticality conditions inside a functioning reactor. (author)

  9. Higher harmonic flow coefficients of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. D.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Mishra, T.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-09-01

    The elliptic, triangular, quadrangular and pentagonal anisotropic flow coefficients for π±, K± and p+overline{p} in Pb-Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV were measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, correlating the identified hadrons with reference particles from a different pseudorapidity region. Effects not related to the common event symmetry planes (non-flow) were estimated using correlations in pp collisions and were subtracted from the measurement. The obtained flow coefficients exhibit a clear mass ordering for transverse momentum ( p T) values below ≈ 3 GeV/ c. In the intermediate p T region (3 fairly well by a hydrodynamical model (iEBE-VISHNU) that uses initial conditions generated by A Multi-Phase Transport model (AMPT) and describes the expansion of the fireball using a value of 0.08 for the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ( η/s), coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD). Finally, expectations from AMPT alone fail to quantitatively describe the measurements for all harmonics throughout the measured transverse momentum region. However, the comparison to the AMPT model highlights the importance of the late hadronic rescattering stage to the development of the observed mass ordering at low values of p T and of coalescence as a particle production mechanism for the particle type grouping at intermediate values of p T for all harmonics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Higher harmonic flow coefficients of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yalcin, Serpil; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-09-28

    The elliptic, triangular, quadrangular and pentagonal anisotropic flow coefficients for $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ and p+$\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}$ in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV were measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, correlating the identified hadrons with reference particles from a different pseudorapidity region. Effects not related to the common event symmetry planes (non-flow) were estimated using correlations in pp collisions and were subtracted from the measurement. The obtained flow coefficients exhibit a clear mass ordering for transverse momentum ($p_{\\mathrm{T}}$) values below $\\approx$ 3 GeV/$c$. In the intermediate $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ region ($3 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 6$ GeV/$c$), particles group at an approximate level according to the number of constituent quarks, suggesting that coalescence might be the relevant particle production mechanism in this region. The results for $p_{\\m...

  11. Prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficient based on gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime in horizontal microfin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yueshe; Wang Yanling; Wang, G.-X.; Honda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A physical model of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime is presented for predicting the enhanced evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal microfin tubes. The model is based on the equivalence of a periodical distortion of the disturbance wave in the substrate layer. Corresponding to the stratified flow model proposed previously by authors, the dimensionless quantity Fr 0 = G/[gd e ρ v (ρ l - ρ v )] 0.5 may be used as a measure for determining the applicability of the present theoretical model, which was used to restrict the transition boundary between the stratified-wavy flow and the annular/intermittent flows. Comparison of the prediction of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants reveals that a good agreement is obtained or the trend is better than that of the previously developed stratified flow model for Fr 0 > 4.0 as long as the partial dry out of tube does not occur. Obviously, the developed annular model is applicable and reliable for evaporation in horizontal microfin tubes under the case of high heat flux and high mass flux.

  12. Prediction of evaporation heat transfer coefficient based on gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime in horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yueshe, E-mail: wangys@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yanling, Wang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, G -X [Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3903 (United States); Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, 337 Kasuya-machi, Kasuya-gun, Kukuoka 811-2307 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    A physical model of gas-liquid two-phase annular flow regime is presented for predicting the enhanced evaporation heat transfer characteristics in horizontal microfin tubes. The model is based on the equivalence of a periodical distortion of the disturbance wave in the substrate layer. Corresponding to the stratified flow model proposed previously by authors, the dimensionless quantity Fr{sub 0} = G/[gd{sub e}{rho}{sub v}({rho}{sub l} - {rho}{sub v})]{sup 0.5} may be used as a measure for determining the applicability of the present theoretical model, which was used to restrict the transition boundary between the stratified-wavy flow and the annular/intermittent flows. Comparison of the prediction of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants reveals that a good agreement is obtained or the trend is better than that of the previously developed stratified flow model for Fr{sub 0} > 4.0 as long as the partial dry out of tube does not occur. Obviously, the developed annular model is applicable and reliable for evaporation in horizontal microfin tubes under the case of high heat flux and high mass flux.

  13. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L -1 ) at a flow rate of 500 mL h -1 (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD) -1 . The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L -1 ) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 , NaCl concentration of 1 g L -1 and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m -3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid Flow in a Porous Tree-Shaped Network

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Tree-shaped flow networks connect one point to an infinity of points and are everywhere in Nature. These networks often own minimal flow resistance and vessel sizes obey to scaling power-laws. In this paper presents a model for fluid flow through a tree-shaped network with porous tubes. Hagen–Poiseuille flow is assumed for tubes and Darcy flow for the porous wall.

  15. Experimental investigation of the liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient for upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Ji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gas-liquid two-phase mass transfer process in microchannels is complicated due to the special dynamical characteristics. In this work, a novel method was explored to measure the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Pressure transducers were utilized to measure the pressure variation of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in three vertical rectangular microchannels and the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa was calculated through the Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation of the gas phase. Carbon dioxide-water, carbon dioxide-ethanol and carbon dioxide-n-propanol were used as working fluids, respectively. The dimensions of the microchannels were 40 µm×240 µm (depth×width, 100 µm×800 µm and 100 µm×2000 µm, respectively. Results showed that the channel diameter and the capillary number influence kLa remarkably and that the maximum value of kLa occurs in the annular flow regime. A new correlation of kLa was proposed based on the Sherwood number, Schmidt number and the capillary number. The predicted values of kLa agreed well with the experimental data.

  16. The influence of the friction coefficients, the power and the flowrate on the two-phase flow instabilities in natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerris, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    A study of non-linear effects of a two phases flow instabilities has been done using theoretical and experimental models. The experimental model is based on a boiling channel placed in a water loop of natural convection. Studies of stability, with introduction of fluctuations over different parameters, have been achieved using the two models. The results of the experimental model agree with those of the theoretical model. It was found that the head loss coefficients K I and K E of the inlet and outlet channel respectively, had an influence over the stability of the system. An increase in the former produces an increase in the stability while an increase in the latter has the effect of increasing the instability. In the experiment, oscillations of the flow rate were observed. Two types of oscillations were noticed: (1) small oscillations called pressure drop oscillations, (2) large oscillations called density wave oscillations. A study of the variation of these two types of oscillations with power and the coefficient K I and K E had been achieved. It was found that pressure drop oscillations disappeared with the increase of power and the density waves oscillations increased with the increase of power

  17. Modelling and Pareto optimization of heat transfer and flow coefficients in microchannels using GMDH type neural networks and genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.; Borji, M.; Khalkhali, A.; Habibdoust, A.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of water flow in a set of rectangular microchannels are numerically investigated using Fluent and compared with those of experimental results. Two metamodels based on the evolved group method of data handling (GMDH) type neural networks are then obtained for modelling of both pressure drop (ΔP) and Nusselt number (Nu) with respect to design variables such as geometrical parameters of microchannels, the amount of heat flux and the Reynolds number. Using such obtained polynomial neural networks, multi-objective genetic algorithms (GAs) (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II) with a new diversity preserving mechanism is then used for Pareto based optimization of microchannels considering two conflicting objectives such as (ΔP) and (Nu). It is shown that some interesting and important relationships as useful optimal design principles involved in the performance of microchannels can be discovered by Pareto based multi-objective optimization of the obtained polynomial metamodels representing their heat transfer and flow characteristics. Such important optimal principles would not have been obtained without the use of both GMDH type neural network modelling and the Pareto optimization approach

  18. Three-dimensional granular model of semi-solid metallic alloys undergoing solidification: Fluid flow and localization of feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A.B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) granular model which simulates fluid flow within solidifying alloys with a globular microstructure, such as that found in grain refined Al alloys, is presented. The model geometry within a representative volume element (RVE) consists of a set of prismatic triangular elements representing the intergranular liquid channels. The pressure field within the liquid channels is calculated using a finite elements (FEs) method assuming a Poiseuille flow within each channel and flow conservation at triple lines. The fluid flow is induced by solidification shrinkage and openings at grain boundaries due to deformation of the coherent solid. The granular model predictions are validated against bulk data calculated with averaging techniques. The results show that a fluid flow simulation of globular semi-solid materials is able to reproduce both a map of the 3-D intergranular pressure and the localization of feeding within the mushy zone. A new hot cracking sensitivity coefficient is then proposed. Based on a mass balance performed over a solidifying isothermal volume element, this coefficient accounts for tensile deformation of the semi-solid domain and for the induced intergranular liquid feeding. The fluid flow model is then used to calculate the pressure drop in the mushy zone during the direct chill casting of aluminum alloy billets. The predicted pressure demonstrates that deep in the mushy zone where the permeability is low the local pressure can be significantly lower than the pressure predicted by averaging techniques.

  19. Estimation of mass transfer parameters in a Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille heterogeneous reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A bench-scale, continuous vortex flow reactor (VFR, with a radius ratio, h, equal to 0.48 and an aspect ratio, G, equal to 11.19 was studied. This reactor may be used in the enzymatic hydrolysis of polypeptides obtained from sweet cheese whey with enzymes immobilized on agarose gel. Operational conditions were 2410 < Re q < 11793 and 30-min residence time for glycerol-water, 14% w/w, 27ºC (Re ax = 1.1 and for water, 38ºC (Re ax = 1.5. Residence time distributions (RTDs were obtained after pulse injections of different tracers (including dyed solid particles. Mass transfer coefficients of a lumped-parameter model of the reactor were estimated from these data. Model fitting to experimental data was accurate. Working conditions were selected so that transport properties of the fluids would be similar to the ones in the actual process at the final stages of whey hydrolysis.

  20. Friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of two-phase flow in helically coiled tube once-through steam generator for integrated type marine water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hideki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Matsuoka, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Two-phase friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients in a once-through steam generator with helically coiled tubes were investigated with the model test rig of an integrated type marine water reactor. As the dimensions of the heat transfer tubes and the thermal-fluid conditions are almost the same as those of real reactors, the data applicable directly to the real reactor design were obtained. As to the friction pressure drop, modified Kozeki's prediction which is based on the experimental data by Kozeki for coiled tubes, agreed the best with the experimental data. Modified Martinelli-Nelson's prediction which is based on Martinelli-Nelson's multiplier using Ito's equation for single-phase flow in coiled tube, agreed within 30%. The effect of coiled tube on the average heat transfer coefficients at boiling region were small, and the predictions for straight tube could also be applied to coiled tube. Schrock-Grossman's correlation agreed well with the experimental data at the pressures of lower than 3.5 MPa. It was suggested that dryout should be occurred at the quality of greater than 90% within the conditions of this report. (author)

  1. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well

  2. Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perroud, P.; De La Harpe, A.; Rebiere, J.

    1960-12-01

    Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm 2 , flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x s > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [fr

  3. Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

    2014-03-01

    Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

  4. Flow condensation heat transfer coefficients of R22, R134a, R407C, and R410A inside plain and microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Dongsoo; Cho, Youngmok; Park, Kiho [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Flow condensation heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of R22, R134a, R407C, and R410A inside horizontal plain and microfin tubes of 9.52 mm outside diameter and 1 m length were measured at the condensation temperature of 40{sup o}C with mass fluxes of 100, 200, and 300 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a heat flux of 7.7-7.9 kW m{sup -2}. For a plain tube, HTCs of R134a and R410A were similar to those of R22 while HTCs of R407C are 11-15% lower than those of R22. For a microfin tube, HTCs of R134a were similar to those of R22 while HTCs of R407C and R410A were 23-53% and 10-21% lower than those of R22. For a plain tube, our correlation agreed well with the present data for all refrigerants exhibiting a mean deviation of 11.6%. Finally, HTCs of a microfin tube were 2-3 times higher than those of a plain tube and the heat transfer enhancement factor decreased as the mass flux increased for all refrigerants tested. (Author)

  5. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  6. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  7. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-12

    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.

  8. Conveyor belt effect in the flow through a tube of a viscous fluid with spinning particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, B U

    2012-04-28

    The extended Navier-Stokes equations describing the steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid with spinning particles are solved for flow through a circular cylindrical tube. The flow caused by an applied torque density in the azimuthal direction and linear in the radial distance from the axis is compared with the flow caused by a uniform applied force density directed along the axis of the tube. In both cases the flow velocity is of Poiseuille type plus a correction. In the first case the flow velocity is caused by the conveyor belt effect of spinning particles. The corrections to the Poiseuille flow pattern in the two cases differ only by a proportionality factor. The spin velocity profiles in the two cases are also proportional.

  9. The impact of deformable interfaces and Poiseuille flow on the thermocapillary instability of three immiscible phases confined in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Uguz, A. Kerem

    2013-01-01

    an already unstable system and works to destabilize a stable system. Lastly, the dependence of the linear stability of the system on viscosity ratio, depth ratio, and Prandtl number, Pr, experimentally adjustable parameters, is discussed. Whereas Pr has little effect on the stability of the system, we show...

  10. On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Fayed, Hassan E.

    2015-10-20

    Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.

  11. On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Fayed, Hassan E.; Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Iliev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.

  12. The effect of ultrasound on arterial blood flow: 1. Steady fully developed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper models the effects of ultrasound heating of the tissues and the resultant perturbation on blood flow in the arteries and veins. It is assumed that the blood vessel is rigid and the undisturbed flow is fully developed. Acoustical perturbation on this Poiseuille flow, for the general three-dimensional flow with heat transfer in an infinitely long pipe is considered. Closed form analytical solutions are obtained to the problem. It is discovered that the effects of the ultrasound heating are concentrated at the walls of the blood vessels. (author). 4 refs

  13. Flow induced crystallisation of penetrable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Alberto; Brader, Joseph M.

    2018-03-01

    For a system of Brownian particles interacting via a soft exponential potential we investigate the interaction between equilibrium crystallisation and spatially varying shear flow. For thermodynamic state points within the liquid part of the phase diagram, but close to the crystallisation phase boundary, we observe that imposing a Poiseuille flow can induce nonequilibrium crystalline ordering in regions of low shear gradient. The physical mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is shear-induced particle migration, which causes particles to drift preferentially towards the center of the flow channel, thus increasing the local density in the channel center. The method employed is classical dynamical density functional theory.

  14. Experiments and correlations of pressure loss coefficients for hexagonal arranged rod bundles (P/D > 1.02) with helical wire spacers in laminar and turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Yonekawa, S.; Hoffmann, H.

    1987-05-01

    Advanced pressurized water reactors as well as sodium cooled fast reactors, in their breeding and absorber elements, use tightly packed rod bundles with hexagonally arranged rods. Helical wires or helical fins serve as spacers. The pressure loss coefficients of twelve bundles with helical wires were determined systematically in water experiments. High measuring accuracy was achieved by very precise fabrication of the bundles and the shroud as well as by investigations of the proper measuring techniques. The results show a dependency of the loss coefficients on the Reynolds number and on the P/D and H/D ratios of the bundles. These results together with available systematic experimental results of investigations at P/D > 1.1 were used to develop a correlation to determine the pressure loss coefficients of tightly and widely packed hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wire spacers. These correlations were used to recalculate and compare results of pressure loss investigations found in the literature; good agreement was demonstrated. Hence, calculation methods exist for a broad range of applications to determine the pressure loss coefficients of hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wires for spacers. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Influence of liquid viscosity and surface tension on the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for solid foam packings in co-current two-phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Bartelds, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient and other hydrodynamic parameters such as liquid holdup and frictional pressure drop are presented for gas and liquid moving in co-current upflow and downflow through solid foam packings of 10 and of 40 pores per linear inch (ppi). The effect of increasing

  16. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Gui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-LBM is then validated through a benchmark problem: a 3D steady Poiseuille flow. The results from the numerical simulations are consistent with those derived analytically which indicates that the MRT-LBM effectively simulates Bingham fluids but with better stability. A parallel MRT-LBM framework is introduced, and the parallel efficiency is tested through a simple case. The MRT-LBM is shown to be appropriate for parallel implementation and to have high efficiency. Finally, a Bingham fluid flowing past a square-based prism with a fixed sphere is simulated. It is found the drag coefficient is a function of both Reynolds number (Re and Bingham number (Bn. These results reveal the flow behavior of Bingham plastics.

  17. Early Regimes of Water Capillary Flow in Slit Silica Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Mejia, Andres

    2015-01-01

    on the dynamics of capillaryfilling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes:an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by aconstant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus...... velocity profiles identify the passage froman inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicatea transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling ratescomputed for higher air pressures reveal a significant...... retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus....

  18. Correlations for heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for turbulent flow of air through square and hexagonal ducts with twisted tape insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rupesh J.; Kore, Sandeep S.; Joshi, Prathamesh S.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental and numerical Nusselt number and friction factor investigation for turbulent flow through a non-circular duct with twisted-tape inserts have been presented. The non-circular ducts include square, hexagonal duct. The results of non-circular ducts are compared with circular duct. All the ducts have same equivalent diameter. The twist ratios used for the experiment are Y = 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5. Experiments were carried out on square duct, hexagonal duct and circular duct. The Reynolds number lied between 10,000 and 1, 05,000. The present study is restricted to the flow of air at Pr = 0.7 only and within a narrow temperature range of 40 to 75 ΟC, within which the compressible nature of air can be neglected. The results reveal that, both Nusselt number and friction factor increases as the side of non-circular duct increases. Maximum Nusselt number and friction factor is obtained in case of circular duct with twisted tape. Further the correlations of Nu and f are given for different non circular duct with twisted tape insert for engineering applications for the turbulent regime. Since the thermal performance factor (η) is observed to be within the range of 0.8 to 1.13 for both circular and noncircular ducts, the overall benefit of using twisted tape in the flow field shall nevertheless be marginal.

  19. Comparison of drift-velocity and drag coefficient approaches for one-dimensional two-fluid models in bubbly flow regime and validation with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Zarzuela, C.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G. [Institute for Industrial Safety, Radiology and Environmental (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Peña-Monferrer, C.; Chiva, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: congoque@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: cpena@uji.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    Two-phase flow simulation has been an extended research topic over the years due to the importance of predicting with accuracy the flow behavior within different installations, including nuclear power plants. Some of them are low pressure events, like low water pressure injection, nuclear refueling or natural circulation. This work is devoted to investigate the level of accuracy of the results when a two-phase flow experiment, which has been carried out at low pressure, is performed in a one-dimensional simulation code. In particular, the codes that have been selected to represent the experiment are the best-estimate system codes RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACE v5.0 patch4. The experiment consists in a long vertical pipe along which an air-water fluid in bubbly regime moves upwards in adiabatic conditions and atmospheric pressure. The simulations have been first performed in both codes with their original correlations, which are based on the drift flux model for the case of bubbly regime in vertical pipes. Then, a different implementation for the drag force has been undertaken, in order to perform a simulation with equivalent bubble diameter to the experiment. Results show that the calculation obtained from the codes are within the ranges of validity of the experiment with some discrepancies, which leads to the conclusion that the use of a drag correlation approach is more realistic than drift flux model. (author)

  20. Comparison of drift-velocity and drag coefficient approaches for one-dimensional two-fluid models in bubbly flow regime and validation with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Zarzuela, C.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Peña-Monferrer, C.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Two-phase flow simulation has been an extended research topic over the years due to the importance of predicting with accuracy the flow behavior within different installations, including nuclear power plants. Some of them are low pressure events, like low water pressure injection, nuclear refueling or natural circulation. This work is devoted to investigate the level of accuracy of the results when a two-phase flow experiment, which has been carried out at low pressure, is performed in a one-dimensional simulation code. In particular, the codes that have been selected to represent the experiment are the best-estimate system codes RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACE v5.0 patch4. The experiment consists in a long vertical pipe along which an air-water fluid in bubbly regime moves upwards in adiabatic conditions and atmospheric pressure. The simulations have been first performed in both codes with their original correlations, which are based on the drift flux model for the case of bubbly regime in vertical pipes. Then, a different implementation for the drag force has been undertaken, in order to perform a simulation with equivalent bubble diameter to the experiment. Results show that the calculation obtained from the codes are within the ranges of validity of the experiment with some discrepancies, which leads to the conclusion that the use of a drag correlation approach is more realistic than drift flux model. (author)

  1. Studies in boiling heat transfer in two phase flow through tube arrays: nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and maximum heat flux as a function of velocity and quality of Freon-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, R.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficient and the maximum heat flux were studied experimentally as functions of velocity, quality and heater diameter for single-phase flow, and two-phase flow of Freon-113 (trichlorotrifluorethane). Results show: (1) peak heat flux: over 300 measured peak heat flux data from two 0.875-in. and four 0.625-in.-diameter heaters indicated that: (a) for pool boiling, single-phase and two-phase forced convection boiling the only parameter (among hysteresis, rate of power increase, aging, presence and proximity of unheated rods) that has a statistically significant effect on the peak heat flux is the velocity. (b) In the velocity range (0 0 position or the point of impact of the incident fluid) and the top (180 0 position) of the test element, respectively

  2. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  3. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest

  4. Measurements of average heat-transfer and friction coefficients for subsonic flow of air in smooth tubes at high surface and fluid temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Leroy V; Lowdermilk, Warren H; Desmon, Leland G

    1951-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through smooth tubes for an over-all range of surface temperature from 535 degrees to 3050 degrees r, inlet-air temperature from 535 degrees to 1500 degrees r, Reynolds number up to 500,000, exit Mach number up to 1, heat flux up to 150,000 btu per hour per square foot, length-diameter ratio from 30 to 120, and three entrance configurations. Most of the data are for heat addition to the air; a few results are included for cooling of the air. The over-all range of surface-to-air temperature ratio was from 0.46 to 3.5.

  5. Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Friction reduction in microchannel flows can help alleviate the inherently taxing pumping power requirements associated with the dimensions involved. One possible way of achieving friction reduction is through the introduction of surface microtexturing that can lead to a superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state. The Cassie-Baxter state is characterized by the presence of air pockets within the surface microtexturing believed to act as an effective "shear free" (or at least shear reduced) layer, decreasing the overall friction characteristics of the surface. Most work in this area has concentrated on optimizing the surface microtexturing geometry to maximize the friction reduction effects and overall stability of the Cassie-Baxter state. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of partially wetted conditions induced by pressure and the correlation between the liquid-gas interface location within the surface microtexturing and the microchannel flow characteristics. This is mainly attributed to the difficulty in tracking the interface shape and location within the microtexturing in the typical top-down view arrangements used in most studies. In this paper, a rectangular microchannel with regular microtexturing on the sidewalls is used to visualize and track the location of the air-water interface within the roughness elements. While visually tracking the wetting conditions in the microtextures, pressure drops versus flow rates for each microchannel are measured and analyzed in terms of the non-dimensional friction coefficient. The frictional behavior of the Poiseuille flow suggests that (1) the air-water interface more closely resembles a no-slip boundary rather than a shear-free one, (2) the friction is rather insensitive to the degree of microtexturing wetting, and (3) the fully wetted (Wenzel state) microtexturing provides lower friction than the non-wetted one (Cassie state), in corroboration with observations (1) and (2).

  6. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  7. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.

  8. Mass flow and velocity profiles in Neurospora hyphae: partial plug flow dominates intra-hyphal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadeh, Aryan; Lew, Roger R

    2013-11-01

    Movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of Neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. The vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in N. crassa. Profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal Hagen-Poiseuille model of flow at low Reynolds number. Instead, the profiles were flat, consistent with a model of partial plug flow due to the high concentration of organelles in the flowing cytosol. The intra-hyphal pressure gradients were manipulated by localized external osmotic treatments to demonstrate the dependence of velocity (and direction) on pressure gradients within the hyphae. The data support the concept that mass transport, driven by pressure gradients, dominates intra-hyphal transport. The transport occurs by partial plug flow due to the organelles in the cytosol.

  9. Determination of the diffusivity, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis in heterogeneous porous flow. Part I: Analytical solutions with the extended method of moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Vikhansky, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The extended method of moments (EMM) is elaborated in recursive algorithmic form for the prediction of the effective diffusivity, the Taylor dispersion dyadic and the associated longitudinal high-order coefficients in mean-concentration profiles and residence-time distributions. The method applies in any streamwise-periodic stationary d-dimensional velocity field resolved in the piecewise continuous heterogeneous porosity field. It is demonstrated that EMM reduces to the method of moments and the volume-averaging formulation in microscopic velocity field and homogeneous soil, respectively. The EMM simultaneously constructs two systems of moments, the spatial and the temporal, without resorting to solving of the high-order upscaled PDE. At the same time, the EMM is supported with the reconstruction of distribution from its moments, allowing to visualize the deviation from the classical ADE solution. The EMM can be handled by any linear advection-diffusion solver with explicit mass-source and diffusive-flux jump condition on the solid boundary and permeable interface. The prediction of the first four moments is decisive in the optimization of the dispersion, asymmetry, peakedness and heavy-tails of the solute distributions, through an adequate design of the composite materials, wetlands, chemical devices or oil recovery. The symbolic solutions for dispersion, skewness and kurtosis are constructed in basic configurations: diffusion process and Darcy flow through two porous blocks in "series", straight and radial Poiseuille flow, porous flow governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy channel equation and a fracture surrounded by penetrable diffusive matrix or embedded in porous flow. We examine the moments dependency upon porosity contrast, aspect ratio, Péclet and Darcy numbers, but also for their response on the effective Brinkman viscosity applied in flow modeling. Two numerical Lattice Boltzmann algorithms, a direct solver of the microscopic ADE in heterogeneous

  10. Electrokinetic flows in cylindrical and slit capillaries in clays: from pore scale to sample scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obliger, Amael; Jardat, Marie; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Bekri, Samir; Coelho, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Transport on the nanometer scale of clay interlayers and on the macroscopic sample scale can be well characterized experimentally, using either X-ray or neutron diffraction and diffusion on the one hand, and solute diffusion experiments on the other hand. Current imaging techniques do not allow to provide a direct picture of the pore network on the scale of several nanometers to several micrometers. The lack of knowledge of the pore network structure on intermediate scales requires to use numerical models of analog porous media. We attempt to describe the ionic transport in meso (diam. ∼ 10-50 nm) and macro-porosity (diam. > 50 nm) (due to the organization of clays particles) with a multi-scale approach provided by the Pore Network Model (PNM) that takes into consideration the topology of the media. Such an approach requires to know the transport coefficients of solvent and solutes in a throat connecting two pores, modelled as a capillary. The challenge in the case of clays, compared to the usual PNM methods, is to capture the effect of the surface charge of clay minerals on the transport of ions and water, under the effect of macroscopic pressure, salt concentration and electric potential gradients. Solvent and ionic transports are governed by the Stokes, the Nernst-Planck and the Poisson- Boltzmann equations. This set of equations can be solved analytically using the linearized form of the latter in order to get an approximation of the electro-osmotic speed and the ionic density profile. At variant with most previous works, we consider the case of a fixed surface charge instead of fixed surface potential. In addition to the Nernst-Einstein and chemical flows of solute, we calculated analytically the Poiseuille flow of solutes and the electro-osmotic flow of solvent and solutes. When the linearization is not possible, one must use numerical results for transport coefficients

  11. Stopping times in cessation flows of Bingham plastics with slip at the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Maria; Damianou, Yiolanda; Kaoullas, George; Georgiou, Georgios C.

    2012-09-01

    We solve numerically the cessation of axisymmetric Poiseuille flow of a Bingham plastic assuming that slip occurs along the wall. A power-law expression is used to relate the wall shear stress to the slip velocity. The numerical results show that the velocity becomes and remains uniform before complete cessation and that the stopping time is finite only when the exponent sBingham number and the volumetric flow rate decays exponentially. When s>1, the decay is much slower, i.e. polynomial. The asymptotic expressions for the volumetric flow rate in the case of full-slip are also derived.

  12. Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube; Etude experimentale des coefficients d'echanges thermiques, des flux de chaleur critiques et des pertes de charge avec des melanges eau-vapeur en ecoulement turbulent dans un tube vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P; De La Harpe, A; Rebiere, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm{sup 2}, flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x{sub s} > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [French] On a utilise deux tubes en acier inox (avec des diametres de 5 et 10 mm, et des longueurs respectives 400 et 600 mm) chauffes electriquement (50 Hz). Le melange s'ecoule de haut en bas. Les etudes ont porte plus specialement sur des melanges de titres eleves (x > 0,1) a des pressions comprises entre 60 et 90 kg/cm{sup 2} dont l'ecoulement se fait avec film liquide annulaire et gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur de vapeur. Par l'analyse des lois de transfert de chaleur, on a precise les mecanismes d'echanges et l'on a d'autre part determine dans quelles conditions le flux de chaleur critique peut etre depasse sans danger de 'burnout' proprement dit. On peut ainsi obtenir des

  13. Longitudinal pressure-driven flows between superhydrophobic grooved surfaces: Large effective slip in the narrow-channel limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Yariv, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    The gross amplification of the fluid velocity in pressure-driven flows due to the introduction of superhydrophobic walls is commonly quantified by an effective slip length. The canonical duct-flow geometry involves a periodic structure of longitudinal shear-free stripes at either one or both of the bounding walls, corresponding to flat-meniscus gas bubbles trapped within a periodic array of grooves. This grating configuration is characterized by two geometric parameters, namely the ratio κ of channel width to microstructure period and the areal fraction Δ of the shear-free stripes. For wide channels, κ ≫1 , this geometry is known to possess an approximate solution where the dimensionless slip length λ , normalized by the duct semiwidth, is small, indicating a weak superhydrophobic effect. We here address the other extreme of narrow channels, κ ≪1 , identifying large O (κ-2) values of λ for the symmetric configuration, where both bounding walls are superhydrophobic. This velocity enhancement is associated with an unconventional Poiseuille-like flow profile where the parabolic velocity variation takes place in a direction parallel (rather than perpendicular) to the boundaries. Use of matched asymptotic expansions and conformal-mapping techniques provides λ up to O (κ-1) , establishing the approximationλ ˜κ-2Δ/33 +κ-1Δ/2π ln4 +⋯, which is in excellent agreement with a semianalytic solution of the dual equations governing the respective coefficients of a Fourier-series representation of the fluid velocity. No similar singularity occurs in the corresponding asymmetric configuration, involving a single superhydrophobic wall; in that geometry, a Hele-Shaw approximation shows that λ =O (1 ) .

  14. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  15. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  16. Consistent lattice Boltzmann modeling of low-speed isothermal flows at finite Knudsen numbers in slip-flow regime: Application to plane boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato

    2017-07-01

    The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over

  17. Consistent lattice Boltzmann modeling of low-speed isothermal flows at finite Knudsen numbers in slip-flow regime: Application to plane boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Goncalo; Semiao, Viriato

    2017-07-01

    The first nonequilibrium effect experienced by gaseous flows in contact with solid surfaces is the slip-flow regime. While the classical hydrodynamic description holds valid in bulk, at boundaries the fluid-wall interactions must consider slip. In comparison to the standard no-slip Dirichlet condition, the case of slip formulates as a Robin-type condition for the fluid tangential velocity. This makes its numerical modeling a challenging task, particularly in complex geometries. In this work, this issue is handled with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), motivated by the similarities between the closure relations of the reflection-type boundary schemes equipping the LBM equation and the slip velocity condition established by slip-flow theory. Based on this analogy, we derive, as central result, the structure of the LBM boundary closure relation that is consistent with the second-order slip velocity condition, applicable to planar walls. Subsequently, three tasks are performed. First, we clarify the limitations of existing slip velocity LBM schemes, based on discrete analogs of kinetic theory fluid-wall interaction models. Second, we present improved slip velocity LBM boundary schemes, constructed directly at discrete level, by extending the multireflection framework to the slip-flow regime. Here, two classes of slip velocity LBM boundary schemes are considered: (i) linear slip schemes, which are local but retain some calibration requirements and/or operation limitations, (ii) parabolic slip schemes, which use a two-point implementation but guarantee the consistent prescription of the intended slip velocity condition, at arbitrary plane wall discretizations, further dispensing any numerical calibration procedure. Third and final, we verify the improvements of our proposed slip velocity LBM boundary schemes against existing ones. The numerical tests evaluate the ability of the slip schemes to exactly accommodate the steady Poiseuille channel flow solution, over

  18. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  19. Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.

  20. Navier–Stokes flow in converging–diverging distensible tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Sochi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.

  1. Large-scale structures in turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of fully developed turbulent Couette flow is performed with a large computational domain in the streamwise and spanwise directions (40 πh and 6 πh) to investigate streamwise-scale growth mechanism of the streamwise velocity fluctuating structures in the core region, where h is the channel half height. It is shown that long streamwise-scale structures (> 3 h) are highly energetic and they contribute to more than 80% of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress, compared to previous studies in canonical Poiseuille flows. Instantaneous and statistical analysis show that negative-u' structures on the bottom wall in the Couette flow continuously grow in the streamwise direction due to mean shear, and they penetrate to the opposite moving wall. The geometric center of the log layer is observed in the centerline with a dominant outer peak in streamwise spectrum, and the maximum streamwise extent for structure is found in the centerline, similar to previous observation in turbulent Poiseuille flows at high Reynolds number. Further inspection of time-evolving instantaneous fields clearly exhibits that adjacent long structures combine to form a longer structure in the centerline. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).

  2. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....

  3. Torsion effect on fully developed flow in a helical pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques, a series expansion method of perturbed Poiseuille flow valid for low Dean numbers and a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation applicable to intermediate Dean values, are used to investigate the torsion effect on the fully developed laminar flow in a helical pipe of constant circular cross section. For the secondary flow patterns, the results show that the presence of torsion can produce a significant effect if the ratio of the curvature to the torsion is of order unity. The secondary flow is distorted in these cases. It is noted that the torsion effect is, however, usually small, and that the secondary flow has the usual pattern of a pair of counter-rotating vortices of nearly equal strength.

  4. Analytical solutions of couple stress fluid flows with slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devakar M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the exact solutions for fundamental flows namely Couette, Poiseuille and generalized Couette flows of an incompressible couple stress fluid between parallel plates are obtained using slip boundary conditions. The effect of various parameters on velocity for each problem is discussed. It is found that, for each of the problems, the solution in the limiting case as couple stresses approaches to zero is similar to that of classical viscous Newtonian fluid. The results indicate that, the presence of couple stresses decreases the velocity of the fluid.

  5. Blood flow velocity measurements in chicken embryo vascular network via PIV approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Maxim A.; Stiukhina, Elena S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2018-04-01

    A method for measuring of blood velocity in the native vasculature of a chick embryo by the method of micro anemometry from particle images (μPIV) is improved. A method for interrogation regions sorting by the mask of the vasculature is proposed. A method for sorting of the velocity field of capillary blood flow is implemented. The in vitro method was evaluated for accuracy in a glass phantom of a blood vessel with a diameter of 50 μm and in vivo on the bloodstream of a chicken embryo, by comparing the transverse profile of the blood velocity obtained by the PIV method with the theoretical Poiseuille laminar flow profile.

  6. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  7. A new proposal for Lagrangian correlation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinsoy, N.; Tugrul, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The statistical description of dispersion in turbulent flow was first considered by Taylor (Proc. London Math. Soc. 20 (1921) 196) and the statistical properties of the field were determined by Lagrangian correlation coefficient R L (τ). Frenkiel (Adv. Appl. Mech. 3 (1953) 61) has proposed several simple forms for R L (τ). Some workers have investigated for a proper form of the Lagrangian correlation coefficient. In this work, a new proposal for the Lagrangian correlation coefficient is proposed and discussed. It can be written in general form with the one of the Frenkiel's (Adv. Appl. Mech. 3 (1953) 61) Lagrangian correlation coefficient. There is very satisfactory agreement between the new correlation and the experiment

  8. Investigation on Thrust and Moment Coefficients of a Centrifugal Turbomachine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In radial pumps and turbines, the centrifugal through-flow in both the front and the back chambers is quite common. It strongly impacts the core swirl ratio, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. In order to investigate these relationships experimentally, a test rig was designed at the University of Duisburg-Essen and described in this paper. Based on both the experimental and numerical results, correlations are determined to predict the impacts of the centrifugal through-flow on the core swirl ratio, the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient. Two correlations respectively are determined to associate the core swirl ratio with the local through-flow coefficient for both Batchelor type flow and Stewartson type flow. The correlations describing the thrust coefficient and the moment coefficient in a rotor-stator cavity with centripetal through-flow (Hu et al., 2017 are modified for the case of centrifugal through-flow. The Daily and Nece diagram distinguishing between different flow regimes in rotor-stator cavities is extended with a through-flow coordinate into 3D. The achieved results provide a comprehensive data base which is intended to support the calculation of axial thrust and moment coefficients during the design process of radial pumps and turbines in a more accurate manner.

  9. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  10. Lattice fluid dynamics from perfect discretizations of continuum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, E.; Wiese, U.

    1998-01-01

    We use renormalization group methods to derive equations of motion for large scale variables in fluid dynamics. The large scale variables are averages of the underlying continuum variables over cubic volumes and naturally exist on a lattice. The resulting lattice dynamics represents a perfect discretization of continuum physics, i.e., grid artifacts are completely eliminated. Perfect equations of motion are derived for static, slow flows of incompressible, viscous fluids. For Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a channel with a square cross section the equations reduce to a perfect discretization of the Poisson equation for the velocity field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The perfect large scale Poisson equation is used in a numerical simulation and is shown to represent the continuum flow exactly. For nonsquare cross sections one can use a numerical iterative procedure to derive flow equations that are approximately perfect. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  12. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lin; Zheng, Song; Zhai, Qinglan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  13. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin, E-mail: lz@njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zheng, Song [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhai, Qinglan [School of Economics Management and Law, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  14. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  15. Solution of heat equation with variable coefficient using derive

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lebelo, RS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the method of approximating solutions of partial differential equations with variable coefficients is studied. This is done by considering heat flow through a one-dimensional model with variable cross-sections. Two cases...

  16. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...... of separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678ha) located in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and runoff...... measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level. The number of potential subcatchments is limited by the number of available rainfall events with a sufficient spatial variability....

  17. Simulating non-Newtonian flows with the moving particle semi-implicit method with an SPH kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Hao; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are commonly used mesh-free particle methods for free surface flows. The MPS method has superiority in incompressible flow simulation and simple programing. However, the crude kernel function is not accurate enough for the discretization of the divergence of the shear stress tensor by the particle inconsistency when the MPS method is extended to non-Newtonian flows. This paper presents an improved MPS method with an SPH kernel to simulate non-Newtonian flows. To improve the consistency of the partial derivative, the SPH cubic spline kernel and the Taylor series expansion are combined with the MPS method. This approach is suitable for all non-Newtonian fluids that can be described with τ  = μ(|γ|) Δ (where τ is the shear stress tensor, μ is the viscosity, |γ| is the shear rate, and Δ is the strain tensor), e.g., the Casson and Cross fluids. Two examples are simulated including the Newtonian Poiseuille flow and container filling process of the Cross fluid. The results of Poiseuille flow are more accurate than the traditional MPS method, and different filling processes are obtained with good agreement with previous results, which verified the validation of the new algorithm. For the Cross fluid, the jet fracture length can be correlated with We 0.28 Fr 0.78 (We is the Weber number, Fr is the Froude number). (paper)

  18. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Jianzheng

    2007-01-01

    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime

  19. On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...

  20. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  1. Velocity Profiles of Slow Blood Flow in a Narrow Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Huang, Zuqia; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Zhang, Hui

    1998-04-01

    A fractal model is introduced into the slow blood motion. When blood flows slowly in a narrow tube, red cell aggregation results in the formation of an approximately cylindrical core of red cells. By introducing the fractal model and using the power law relation between area fraction φ and distance from tube axis ρ, rigorous velocity profiles of the fluid in and outside the aggregated core and of the core itself are obtained analytically for different fractal dimensions. It shows a blunted velocity distribution for a relatively large fractal dimension (D ˜ 2), which can be observed in normal blood; a pathological velocity profile for moderate dimension (D = 1), which is similar to the Segre-Silberberg effect; and a parabolic profile for negligible red cell concentration (D = 0), which likes in the Poiseuille flow. The project supported by the National Basic Research Project "Nonlinear Science", National Natural Science Foundation of China and the State Education Commission through the Foundation of Doctoral Training

  2. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  3. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  5. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the inequality is sharp for the inverse of the Koebe function k(z) = z/(1 − z)2. An alternative approach to the inverse coefficient problem for functions in the class S has been investigated by Schaeffer and Spencer [27] and FitzGerald [6]. Although, the inverse coefficient problem for the class S has been completely solved ...

  6. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  7. Pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of single and parallel serpentine flow fields for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Man; Kim, Charn Jung; Jeon, Dong Hyup; Nam, Jin Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study numerically investigates pressure drop and flow distribution characteristics of serpentine flow fields (SFFs) that are designed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, which consider the Poiseuille flow with secondary pressure drop in the gas channel (GC) and the Darcy flow in the porous gas diffusion layer (GDL). The numerical results for a conventional SFF agreed well with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations, thus proving the validity of the present flow network model. This model is employed to characterize various single and parallel SFFs, including multi-pass serpentine flow fields (MPSFFs). Findings reveal that under rib convection (convective flow through GDL under an interconnector rib) is an important transport process for conventional SFFs, with its intensity being significantly enhanced as GDL permeability increases. The results also indicate that under rib convection can be significantly improved by employing MPSFFs as the reactant flow field, because of the closely interlaced structure of GC regions that have different path lengths from the inlet. However, reactant flow rate through GCs proportionally decreases as under rib convection intensity increases, suggesting that proper optimization is required between the flow velocity in GCs and the under rib convection intensity in GDLs

  8. Development of a flow controller for long-term sampling of gases and vapors using evacuated canisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Farant, Jean Pierre; Simon, Philippe; Wick, David P

    2002-11-15

    Anthropogenic activities contribute to the release of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into microenvironments. Developing and implementing new air sampling technologies that allow for the characterization of exposures to VOC can be useful for evaluating environmental and health concerns arising from such occurrences. A novel air sampler based on the use of a capillary flow controller connected to evacuated canisters (300 mL, 1 and 6 L) was designed and tested. The capillary tube, used to control the flow of air, is a variation on a sharp-edge orifice flow controller. It essentially controls the velocity of the fluid (air) as a function of the properties of the fluid, tube diameter and length. A model to predict flow rate in this dynamic system was developed. The mathematical model presented here was developed using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the ideal gas law to predict flow into the canisters used to sample for long periods of time. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation shows the relationship between flow rate, pressure gradient, capillary resistance, fluid viscosity, capillary length and diameter. The flow rates evaluated were extremely low, ranging from 0.05 to 1 mL min(-1). The model was compared with experimental results and was shown to overestimate the flow rate. Empirical equations were developed to more accurately predict flow for the 300 mL, 1 and 6 L canisters used for sampling periods ranging from several hours to one month. The theoretical and observed flow rates for different capillary geometries were evaluated. Each capillary flow controller geometry that was tested was found to generate very reproducible results, RSD gas chromatograph. The capillary flow controller was found to exceed the performance of the sorbent samplers in this comparison.

  9. Peltier coefficient measurement in a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Javier; Casanovas, Alejandro; Chimeno, José María

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring the Peltier coefficient in a thermocouple X/Y based on the energy balance at the junction has been proposed recently. This technique needs only the hot and cold temperatures of a thermoelectric module when an electric current flows through it as the operational variables. The temperature evolutions of the two module sides provide an evident and accurate idea of the Peltier effect. From these temperatures, the heat transfer between the module and the ambient is also evaluated. The thermoelectric phenomena are described in the framework of an observable theory. Based on this procedure, an experiment is presented for a university teaching laboratory at the undergraduate level. (paper)

  10. Probabilistic optimization of safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Devictor, N.; Magistris, F. de

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a reliability-based method for the optimization of safety coefficients defined and used in design codes. The purpose of the optimization is to determine the partial safety coefficients which minimize an objective function for sets of components and loading situations covered by a design rule. This objective function is a sum of distances between the reliability of the components designed using the safety coefficients and a target reliability. The advantage of this method is shown on the examples of the reactor vessel, a vapour pipe and the safety injection circuit. (authors)

  11. Drag coefficient Variability and Thermospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Kenneth

    Satellite drag coefficients depend upon a variety of factors: The shape of the satellite, its altitude, the eccentricity of its orbit, the temperature and mean molecular mass of the ambient atmosphere, and the time in the sunspot cycle. At altitudes where the mean free path of the atmospheric molecules is large compared to the dimensions of the satellite, the drag coefficients can be determined from the theory of free-molecule flow. The dependence on altitude is caused by the concentration of atomic oxygen which plays an important role by its ability to adsorb on the satellite surface and thereby affect the energy loss of molecules striking the surface. The eccentricity of the orbit determines the satellite velocity at perigee, and therefore the energy of the incident molecules relative to the energy of adsorption of atomic oxygen atoms on the surface. The temperature of the ambient atmosphere determines the extent to which the random thermal motion of the molecules influences the momentum transfer to the satellite. The time in the sunspot cycle affects the ambient temperature as well as the concentration of atomic oxygen at a particular altitude. Tables and graphs will be used to illustrate the variability of drag coefficients. Before there were any measurements of gas-surface interactions in orbit, Izakov and Cook independently made an excellent estimate that the drag coefficient of satellites of compact shape would be 2.2. That numerical value, independent of altitude, was used by Jacchia to construct his model from the early measurements of satellite drag. Consequently, there is an altitude dependent bias in the model. From the sparce orbital experiments that have been done, we know that the molecules which strike satellite surfaces rebound in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient. As more evidence accumulates on the energy loss, more realistic drag coefficients are being calculated. These improved drag

  12. Unsteady aerodynamic coefficients obtained by a compressible vortex lattice method.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady solutions for the aerodynamic coefficients of a thin airfoil in compressible subsonic or supersonic flows are studied. The lift, the pitch moment, and pressure coefficients are obtained numerically for the following motions: the indicial response (unit step function) of the airfoil, i.e., a sudden change in the angle of attack; a thin airfoil penetrating into a sharp edge gust (for several gust speed ratios); a thin airfoil penetrating into a one-minus-cosine gust and sinusoidal gust...

  13. Quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties for detection of non-calcified plaques in ECG-gated coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques (NCPs) in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties in each vessel branch and extracted flow information to differentiate the presence and absence of stenosis in a vessel segment. Under rest conditions, blood flow in a single vessel branch was assumed to follow Poiseuille's law. For a uniform pressure distribution, two quantitative flow features, the normalized arterial compliance per unit length (Cu) and the normalized volumetric flow (Q) along the vessel centerline, were calculated based on the parabolic Poiseuille solution. The flow features were evaluated for a two-class classification task to differentiate NCP candidates obtained by prescreening as true NCPs and false positives (FPs) in cCTA. For evaluation, a data set of 83 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from 83 patient files with IRB approval. A total of 118 NCPs were identified by experienced cardiothoracic radiologists. The correlation between the two flow features was 0.32. The discriminatory ability of the flow features evaluated as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 for Cu and 0.63 for Q in comparison with AUCs of 0.56-0.69 from our previous luminal features. With stepwise LDA feature selection, volumetric flow (Q) was selected in addition to three other luminal features. With FROC analysis, the test results indicated a reduction of the FP rates to 3.14, 1.98, and 1.32 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. The study indicated that quantitative blood flow analysis has the potential to provide useful features for the detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, K, E-mail: suga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows ({mu}-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn < 1. The evaluated schemes of the {mu}-flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the {mu}-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries. (invited review)

  15. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K

    2013-01-01

    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows (μ-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn < 1. The evaluated schemes of the μ-flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the μ-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries. (invited review)

  16. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node

  17. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  18. Non intrusive measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebay, M.; Mebarki, G.; Padet, J. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Arfaoui, A. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM; Maad, B.R. [Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of cooling methods in thermal systems such as radiators and heat exchangers must be improved in order to enhance performance. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between a solid and a fluid is necessary for the control and the dimensioning of thermal systems. In this study, the pulsed photothermal method was used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on a solid-fluid interface, notably between an air flow and a heated slab mounted on a PVC flat plate. This configuration simulated the electronic air-cooling inside enclosures and racks. The influence of the deflector's inclination angle on the enhancement of heat transfer was investigated using 2 newly developed identification models. The first model was based on a constant heat transfer coefficient during the pulsed experiment, while the second, improved model was based on a variable heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was deduced from the evolution of the transient temperature induced by a sudden deposit of a luminous energy on the front face of the slab. Temperature evolutions were derived by infrared thermography, a camera for cartography and a detector for precise measurement in specific locations. The results show the improvement of measurement accuracies when using a model that considers the temporal evolution of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The deflection of air flow on the upper surface of the heated slab demonstrated better cooling of the slab by the deflection of air flow. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  20. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  1. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  2. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  3. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  4. Structural, micro-structural and kinematic analyses of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the Zagros foreland folded belt, Fars province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Sarshar, Maryam Asadi; Adineh, Sadegh

    2018-02-01

    One of the main characteristic of the Zagros foreland fold-and-thrust belt and the Zagros foreland folded belt are wide distributions of surface extrusion from the Hormuz salt diapirs. This study examines the structure and kinematic of channel flow in the Karmostaj salt diapir in the southwestern part of the Zagros foreland folded belt. This diapir has reached the surface as a result of the channel flow mechanism and has extruded in the southern limb of the Kuh-Gach anticline which is an asymmetric décollement fold with convergence to the south. Structural and microstructural studies and quantitative finite strain (Rs) and kinematic vorticity number (Wk) analyses were carried out within this salt diapir and its namakier. This was in order to investigate the structural evolution in the salt diapiric system, the characteristics and mechanism of the salt flow and the distribution of flow regimes within the salt diapir and interaction of regional tectonics and salt diaprism. The extruded salt has developed a flow foliation sub-parallel to the remnant bedding recorded by different colors, a variety of internal folds including symmetrical and asymmetrical folds and interference fold patterns, shear zones, and boudins. These structures were used to analyze mechanisms and history of diapiric flow and extrusion. The microstructures, reveal various deformation mechanisms in various parts of salt diapir. The measurements of finite strain show that Rs values in the margin of salt diapir are higher than within its namakier which is consistent with the results of structural studies. Mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) measured in steady state deformation of diapir and namakier is Wm = 0.45-0.48 ± 0.13. The estimated mean finite deformation (Wm) values indicate that 67.8% pure shear and 32.2% simple shear deformation were involved; the implications of which are discussed. The vorticity of flow indicates that in the early stage of growth, Poiseuille flow was the dominate

  5. Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuykov Andrey L'vovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

  6. State space analysis of minimal channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelavara, Shreyas Acharya; Duguet, Yohann; Lusseyran, François, E-mail: acharya@limsi.fr [LIMSI-CNRS, Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-06-15

    Turbulence and edge states are investigated numerically in a plane Poiseuille flow driven by a fixed pressure gradient. Simulations are carried out within the minimal flow unit, a concept introduced by Jiménez and Moin (1991 J . Fluid Mech. 225 213–40) to unravel the dynamics of near-wall structures in the absence of outer large-scale motions. For both turbulent and edge regimes the activity appears to be localised near only one wall at a time, and the long term dynamics features abrupt reversals. The dynamics along one reversal is structured around the transient visit to a subspace of symmetric flow fields. An exact travelling wave solution is found to exist very close to this subspace. Additionally the self-similarity of the asymmetric states is addressed. Contrary to most studies focusing on symmetric solutions, the present study suggests that edge states, when localised near one wall, do not scale in outer units. The current study suggests a composite scaling. (paper)

  7. Hydrodynamics beyond Navier-Stokes: the slip flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudistiawan, Wahyu P; Ansumali, Santosh; Karlin, Iliya V

    2008-07-01

    Recently, analytical solutions for the nonlinear Couette flow demonstrated the relevance of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) models to hydrodynamics beyond the continuum limit [S. Ansumali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 124502 (2007)]. In this paper, we present a systematic study of the simplest LB kinetic equation-the nine-bit model in two dimensions--in order to quantify it as a slip flow approximation. Details of the aforementioned analytical solution are presented, and results are extended to include a general shear- and force-driven unidirectional flow in confined geometry. Exact solutions for the velocity, as well as for pertinent higher-order moments of the distribution functions, are obtained in both Couette and Poiseuille steady-state flows for all values of rarefaction parameter (Knudsen number). Results are compared with the slip flow solution by Cercignani, and a good quantitative agreement is found for both flow situations. Thus, the standard nine-bit LB model is characterized as a valid and self-consistent slip flow model for simulations beyond the Navier-Stokes approximation.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Study on Pressure Loss Coefficients of Exhaust Manifold Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristic of exhaust system has an important impact on inlet boundary of the turbine. In this paper, high speed flow in a diesel exhaust manifold junction was tested and simulated. The pressure loss coefficient of the junction flow was analyzed. The steady experimental results indicated that both of static pressure loss coefficients L13 and L23 first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of lateral branch and public manifold. The total pressure loss coefficient K13 always increased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 1 and 3. The total pressure loss coefficient K23 first increased and then decreased with the increase of mass flow ratio of junctions 2 and 3. These pressure loss coefficients of the exhaust pipe junctions can be used in exhaust flow and turbine inlet boundary conditions analysis. In addition, simulating calculation was conducted to analyze the effect of branch angle on total pressure loss coefficient. According to the calculation results, total pressure loss coefficient was almost the same at low mass flow rate of branch manifold 1 but increased with lateral branch angle at high mass flow rate of branch manifold 1.

  9. Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H

    1980-12-15

    Operation of the JOYO experimental fast reactor with the MK-I core has been divided into two phases: (1) 50 MWt power ascension and operation; and (2) 75 MWt power ascension and operation. The 50 MWt power-up tests were conducted in August 1978. In these tests, the measured reactivity loss due to power increases from 15 MWt to 50 MWt was 0.28% ..delta.. K/K, and agreed well with the predicted value of 0.27% ..delta.. K/K. The 75 MWt power ascension tests were conducted in July-August 1979. In the process of the first power increase above 50 MWt to 65 MWt conducted on July 11, 1979, an anomalously large negative power coefficient was observed. The value was about twice the power coefficient values measured in the tests below 50 MW. In order to reproduce the anomaly, the reactor power was decreased and again increased up to the maximum power of 65 MWt. However, the large negative power coefficient was not observed at this time. In the succeeding power increase from 65 MWt to 75 MWt, a similar anomalous power coefficient was again observed. This anomaly disappeared in the subsequent power ascensions to 75 MWt, and the magnitude of the power coefficient gradually decreased with power cycles above the 50 MWt level.

  10. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  11. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  12. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  13. Local, zero-power void coefficient measurements in the ACPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, J B; Thome, F V [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Changes in reactivity may be stimulated in the ACPR by the local introduction of voids into the reactor coolant. The local void coefficients of reactivity which describe this effect are of interest from a reactor safety point-of-view, and their determination is the subject of this presentation. Bottled nitrogen gas was used to produce the voids. The gas was forced out of a small diameter tube which was positioned vertically in the core lattice with its open end below the fuel. The gas was passed through a pressure regulator, a valve, and a flowmeter to establish a steady flow condition, following which a delayed-critical (zero-power) reactor state was established. Correlation of the average volume of core void created by the nitrogen flow with the reactivity worth of the delayed-critical control-rod bank position produced the values of the zero-power void coefficients of reactivity. The void coefficients were determined at various core positions from {approx}6 mm to 142 mm beyond the central irradiation space and for three different flow rates. For the range of void fractions investigated, these coefficients are negative, with values ranging between -$0.02 and -$0.12. Tabular and graphical results of the measurements are presented, and details of the coefficient determination are explained. (author)

  14. Local, zero-power void coefficient measurements in the ACPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, J.B.; Thome, F.V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in reactivity may be stimulated in the ACPR by the local introduction of voids into the reactor coolant. The local void coefficients of reactivity which describe this effect are of interest from a reactor safety point-of-view, and their determination is the subject of this presentation. Bottled nitrogen gas was used to produce the voids. The gas was forced out of a small diameter tube which was positioned vertically in the core lattice with its open end below the fuel. The gas was passed through a pressure regulator, a valve, and a flowmeter to establish a steady flow condition, following which a delayed-critical (zero-power) reactor state was established. Correlation of the average volume of core void created by the nitrogen flow with the reactivity worth of the delayed-critical control-rod bank position produced the values of the zero-power void coefficients of reactivity. The void coefficients were determined at various core positions from ∼6 mm to 142 mm beyond the central irradiation space and for three different flow rates. For the range of void fractions investigated, these coefficients are negative, with values ranging between -$0.02 and -$0.12. Tabular and graphical results of the measurements are presented, and details of the coefficient determination are explained. (author)

  15. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  16. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  17. Flow around turbulence promoters in parallel channel, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    1983-01-01

    Effects of walls on shedding vortex in developed channel flow were investigated putting a cylinder at the center of channels or on a wall for the value of w/d from 2 to 4. Results were compared with the uniform flow result. When a cylinder was put at the center of the channels, non-dimensional frequency plotted against Reynolds number agreed with the uniform flow result at low Reynolds number. However, it increased rapidly with Reynolds number, then it lay considerably above the uniform flow results at high Reynolds number. When a cylinder was put on a wall, non-dimensional frequency was considerably lower than the uniform flow result in the cases of w/d = 3 and 4. In the case of w/d = 2, however, frequency was higher than the uniform flow result at high Reynolds number. In all cases in the present study, the transition Reynolds number increased with decrease in the value of w/d. These results indicate that the increase in shedding frequency was due to the shift in velocity distribution from Poiseuille parabora in the wake region, which obviously increased with Reynolds number and with decrease in channel width. (author)

  18. Thermometric convection coefficients for rocket meteorological sensors (tables)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffanson, F. L.

    1974-01-01

    Values of the convective heat transfer coefficient h, and the recovery factor r, for miniature beads, fine wires, and films in rarefied air flow are shown. Data provide a standard reference for computing consistent operational corrections to rocket meteorological measurements, and for predicting the performance of existing and proposed sensor systems.

  19. A new correlation for two-phase critical discharge coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon; Chun, Moon Hyun

    1989-01-01

    A new simple correlation for subcooled and two-phase critical flow discharge coefficient has been developed by stepwise regression technique. The new discharge coefficient has three independent variables and they are length to hydraulic diameter ratio, degree of subcooling, and stagnation temperature. The new discharge coefficient is applied as a multiplier to homogeneous equilibrium model and Abauf's single phase critical mass flux calculation equation. This method has been tested for its accuracy by comparing with experimental data. Results of the comparison show that the agreement between the predictions with new correlation and the experimental data is good for pipes and nozzles with vertical upward flow for subcooled upstream condition and nozzles with horizontal configuration for two-phase upstream condition

  20. Transport Coefficients for Holographic Hydrodynamics at Finite Energy Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Fang, Li Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong; Leng, Hong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relations between black hole thermodynamics and holographic transport coefficients in this paper. The formulae for DC conductivity and diffusion coefficient are verified for electrically single-charged black holes. We examine the correctness of the proposed expressions by taking charged dilatonic and single-charged STU black holes as two concrete examples, and compute the flows of conductivity and diffusion coefficient by solving the linear order perturbation equations. We then check the consistence by evaluating the Brown-York tensor at a finite radial position. Finally, we find that the retarded Green functions for the shear modes can be expressed easily in terms of black hole thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients

  1. Coefficient of performance of Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Mungan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Stirling coolers transfer heat in or out of the working fluid during all four stages of their operation, and their coefficient of performance depends on whether the non-isothermal heat exchanges are performed reversibly or irreversibly. Both of these possibilities can in principle be arranged. Notably, if the working fluid is an ideal gas, the input of energy in the form of heat during one isochoric step is equal in magnitude to the output during the other isochoric step in the cycle. The theoretical performance of the fridge can then attain the reversible Carnot limit if a regenerator is used, which is a high heat capacity material through which the gas flows. Various Stirling refrigerator configurations are analysed in this article at a level of presentation suitable for an introductory undergraduate thermodynamics course.

  2. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water...

  3. Calibration factor or calibration coefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs was set up in order to establish links between SSDL members and the international measurement system. At the end of 2001, there were 73 network members in 63 Member States. The SSDL network members provide calibration services to end-users at the national or regional level. The results of the calibrations are summarized in a document called calibration report or calibration certificate. The IAEA has been using the term calibration certificate and will continue using the same terminology. The most important information in a calibration certificate is a list of calibration factors and their related uncertainties that apply to the calibrated instrument for the well-defined irradiation and ambient conditions. The IAEA has recently decided to change the term calibration factor to calibration coefficient, to be fully in line with ISO [ISO 31-0], which recommends the use of the term coefficient when it links two quantities A and B (equation 1) that have different dimensions. The term factor should only be used for k when it is used to link the terms A and B that have the same dimensions A=k.B. However, in a typical calibration, an ion chamber is calibrated in terms of a physical quantity such as air kerma, dose to water, ambient dose equivalent, etc. If the chamber is calibrated together with its electrometer, then the calibration refers to the physical quantity to be measured per electrometer unit reading. In this case, the terms referred have different dimensions. The adoption by the Agency of the term coefficient to express the results of calibrations is consistent with the 'International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology' prepared jointly by the BIPM, IEC, ISO, OIML and other organizations. The BIPM has changed from factor to coefficient. The authors believe that this is more than just a matter of semantics and recommend that the SSDL network members adopt this change in terminology. (author)

  4. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  5. The influence of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, A; Pullen, K

    2013-01-01

    The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet.

  6. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  7. A theoretical study of resin flows for thermosetting materials during prepreg processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    A flow model which describes the process of resin consolidation during prepreg lamination was developed. The salient features of model predictions were explored. It is assumed that resin flows in all directions originate from squeezing action between two approaching adjacent fiber/fabric layers. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balance was established for the whole system which is composed of these two types of flow. A flow parameter, CF, shows to be a measure of processibility for the curing resin. For a given external load-F the responses of resin flow during prepreg lamination, as measured by CF, are categorized into three regions: (1) the low CF region where resin flows are inhibited by the high chemoviscosity during initial curing stages; (2) the median CF region where resin flows are properly controllable; and (3) the high CF region where resin flows are ceased due to fiber/fabric compression effects. Resin losses in both directions are calculated. Potential uses of this model and quality control of incoming prepreg material are discussed.

  8. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  9. The partition coefficients of 133Xe between blood and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Karjalainen, P.; Vaeaenaenen, A.; Lahtinen, R.; Alhava, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 133 Xe between blood and haematopoietic bone marrow and homogenised bone have been determined in vitro. The partition coefficient lambda 1 corresponding to haematopoietic marrow was 0.95 ml g -1 while that corresponding to homogenised bone was a function of age, lambda 2 = 3.11 + 0.049(age)(ml g -1 ). These data can be used for calculating regional blood flow in healthy human femur by means of a simple 133 Xe radionuclide method. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  11. Correlation coefficients in neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1978-01-01

    The various angular and polarisation coefficients in neutron decay are the principal sources of information on the β-interaction. Measurements of the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient (a), the neutron-spin-electron-momentum correlation coefficient (A), the neutron-spin-neutrino-momentum correlation coefficient (B), and the triple correlation coefficient D and time-reversal invariance are reviewed and the results discussed. (U.K.)

  12. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Josef

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.

  13. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, 7th, Stanford University, CA, Aug. 21-23, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 ampersand 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on turbulent shear flows are presented, covering topics such as the structure of pressure fluctuations, fossil two-dimensional turbulence in the ocean, turbulence production and eddy structure in wall turbulence, bypass transition in a heated boundary layer, a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow, the evolution of an axisymmetric jet, plane mixing layer development, vortex models of a pseudoturbulent shear flow, numerical techniques for turbulence studies, Reynolds stress in the wall region of turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent structure of a momentumless wake, the near field of the transverse jet. Additional topics include a turbulent boundary layer disturbed by a cylinder, evolving mixing layers, flow analysis in a vortex flowmeter, ejections and bursts in pulsatile turbulent wall flow measurements, a flat plate oscillating in pitch, turbulent buoyant flows, isothermal lobed mixer flows, flow distortion on a turbulent scalar field, two phase flows. In addition, papers on the applications of turbulent shear flow studies are given, including air pollutant deposition, closures, oceanography, instrumentation, heat transfer, rotating flows, combustion, coherent structures, turbulence control, and scalar transport modeling

  14. Optimized open-flow mixing: insights from microbubble streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Lin; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    Microbubble streaming has been developed into a robust and powerful flow actuation technique in microfluidics. Here, we study it as a paradigmatic system for microfluidic mixing under a continuous throughput of fluid (open-flow mixing), providing a systematic optimization of the device parameters in this practically important situation. Focusing on two-dimensional advective stirring (neglecting diffusion), we show through numerical simulation and analytical theory that mixing in steady streaming vortices becomes ineffective beyond a characteristic time scale, necessitating the introduction of unsteadiness. By duty cycling the streaming, such unsteadiness is introduced in a controlled fashion, leading to exponential refinement of the advection structures. The rate of refinement is then optimized for particular parameters of the time modulation, i.e. a particular combination of times for which the streaming is turned ``on'' and ``off''. The optimized protocol can be understood theoretically using the properties of the streaming vortices and the throughput Poiseuille flow. We can thus infer simple design principles for practical open flow micromixing applications, consistent with experiments. Current Address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University.

  15. Experimental investigation of flow and slip transition in nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Li, Long; Mo, Jingwen

    2014-11-01

    Flow slip in nanochannels is sought in many applications, such as sea water desalination and molecular separation, because it can enhance fluid transport, which is essential in nanofluidic systems. Previous findings about the slip length for simple fluids at the nanoscale appear to be controversial. Some experiments and simulations showed that the slip length is independent of shear rate, which agrees with the prediction of classic slip theories. However, there is increasing work showing that slip length is shear rate dependent. In this work, we experimentally investigate the Poiseuille flows in nanochannels. It is found that the flow rate undergoes a transition between two linear regimes as the shear rate is varied. The transition indicates that the non-slip boundary condition is valid at low shear rate. When the shear rate is larger than a critical value, slip takes place and the slip length increases linearly with increasing shear rate before approaching a constant value. The results reported in this work can help advance the understanding of flow slip in nanochannels. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Grant Nos. 615710 and 615312. J. Mo was partially supported by the Postgraduate Scholarship through the Energy Program at HKUST.

  16. On the Decrease of the Oceanic Drag Coefficient in High Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    The sheltering coefficient - prefixing Jeffreys' concept of the exponential wave growth rate at a gas-liquid interface - is shown to be Reynolds number dependent from laboratory measurements of waves and Reynolds stresses. There are two turbulent flow regimes: wind speed range of 2.5 to 30 m/s where the drag coefficients increase with wind speed, and wind speed range of 30 to 50 m/s where sheltering/drag coefficients decrease/saturate with wind speed. By comparing model calculations of drag coefficients - using a fixed sheltering coefficient - with ocean observations over a wind speed range of 1 to 50 m/s a similar Reynolds number dependence of the oceanic sheltering coefficient is revealed. In consequence the drag coefficient is a function of Reynolds number and wave age, and not just wind speed as frequently assumed. The resulting decreasing drag coefficient above 30 m/s is shown to be critical in explaining the rapid intensification so prominent in the climatology of Atlantic hurricanes. The Reynolds number dependence of the sheltering coefficient, when employed in coupled models, should lead to significant improvements in the prediction of intensification and decay of tropical cyclones. A calculation of curvature at the wave crest suggests that at wind speeds above 56.15 m/s all waves-breaking or not-induce steady flow separation leading to a minimum in the drag coefficient. This is further evidence of the veracity of the observations of the oceanic drag coefficient at high winds.

  17. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  18. Method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules in atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.; Bartha, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    A method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules used in atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be introduced. The sticking coefficient is an interesting quantity for comparing different ALD processes and reactors but it cannot be observed easily. The method relies on free molecular flow in nanoscale cylindrical holes. The sticking coefficient is determined for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium in combination with ozone. The proposed method can be applied independent of the type of reactor, precursor delivery system and precursors.

  19. Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)

  20. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  1. Cerebral blood flow and brain shrinkage seen on CT during ACTH therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagi, Yasuyuki; Abe, Jiro; Kawahigashi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    By means of the Doppler ultrasound method, the cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed in 21 children with epilepsy undergoing treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The maximum reduction in the internal carotid velocity, as an index of CBF during therapy, was about 35 percent compared with the values before therapy. Furthermore, sequential computed tomography (CT) examinations of the same subjects were performed to evaluate the change in the area of the intracranial brain parenchyma during therapy. The maximum reduction in the parenchymal area during therapy was about 10 percent. This corresponds to a 20 percent reduction in CBF according to Poiseuille's law, however, the remaining reduction in CBF demonstrated by velocity measurement cannot be explained only by that mechanical vascular factor. From these findings, it is concluded that in order to elucidate the mechanism of the CBF reduction, physiological factors such as changes in metabolism during therapy should also be evaluated in addition to the mechanical and physical causes. (author)

  2. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  3. Determination of mixture coefficients in tests simulating channels of a fuel assembly in a water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.R.

    1983-09-01

    Here, the mixture coefficients are determined in tests which simulate two symmetric and two assymetric coolant channels of a water cooled reactor. It was studies the effects of coolant flow and of the distance among the coolant channels on these coefficients. The technique used to determine the mixture coefficients was to introduce a tracer (methylene blue) into the flow. The determination of the tracer concentration at the end of the channels was made by means of spectrophotometric analysis. (author)

  4. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  5. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  6. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  7. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  8. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  9. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  10. Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating immiscible two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, T; Phillips, T N

    2007-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann equation is often promoted as a numerical simulation tool that is particularly suitable for predicting the flow of complex fluids. This paper develops a two-dimensional 9-velocity (D2Q9) lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible binary fluids with variable viscosities and density ratio using a single relaxation time for each fluid. In the macroscopic limit, this model is shown to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows. This is achieved by constructing a two-phase component of the collision operator that induces the appropriate surface tension term in the macroscopic equations. A theoretical expression for surface tension is determined. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by comparing numerical and theoretical predictions of surface tension as a function of density. The model is also shown to predict Laplace's law for surface tension and Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids. The spinodal decomposition of two fluids of equal density but different viscosity is then studied. At equilibrium, the system comprises one large low viscosity bubble enclosed by the more viscous fluid in agreement with theoretical arguments of Renardy and Joseph (1993 Fundamentals of Two-Fluid Dynamics (New York: Springer)). Two other simulations, namely the non-equilibrium rod rest and the coalescence of two bubbles, are performed to show that this model can be used to simulate two fluids with a large density ratio

  11. Computer aided approximation of flow rate through systemic-pulmonary arterial shunts (SPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, Peter; Montag, Michael; Peters, Franz; Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    2012-02-22

    The discrimination of flow rates through bronchial arteries that are affected by pathological SPAS today still happens solely qualitatively. A reproducible quantification of flow rates, however, would enable the comprehension of phenomena like the intensified shunt perfusion seen in cases of chronic inflammations or the characterization of SPAS that may cause cardiovascular problems. A computational program is developed, that allows the modeling of individual bronchial arteries on the basis of the information provided by angiography. Angiographic images are available from the standard clinical assessment of SPAS. The flow through continuous and geometrically measurable vessel segments and SPAS is given by the law of Hagen-Poiseuille. The discharge through healthy branches is calculated by means of allometric scaling laws. The simulation results are verified by flow experiments in artificial vessel networks made of glass and PE tubing. The experimental set-up mimics realistic, pulsating pressure and flow conditions. When applied to the artificial vessel networks, the model described herein provides results for the volumetric flow rate that differ from values measured in laboratory experiments by volumetric flow through individual SPAS fairly independently from his experience and without the need of measurements additional to the mandatory angiography.

  12. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  13. A low-dimensional tool for predicting force decomposition coefficients for varying inflow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Akhtar, Imran; Hajj, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a low-dimensional tool to predict the effects of unsteadiness in the inflow on force coefficients acting on a circular cylinder using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes from steady flow simulations. The approach is based on combining POD and linear stochastic estimator (LSE) techniques. We use POD to derive a reduced-order model (ROM) to reconstruct the velocity field. To overcome the difficulty of developing a ROM using Poisson's equation, we relate the pressure field to the velocity field through a mapping function based on LSE. The use of this approach to derive force decomposition coefficients (FDCs) under unsteady mean flow from basis functions of the steady flow is illustrated. For both steady and unsteady cases, the final outcome is a representation of the lift and drag coefficients in terms of velocity and pressure temporal coefficients. Such a representation could serve as the basis for implementing control strategies or conducting uncertainty quantification. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  14. Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    A method of parameterizing the coefficients of a dynamical system based of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) representing the flow dynamics of a viscous fluid has been introduced. (A brief description of POD is presented in the immediately preceding article.) The present parameterization method is intended to enable construction of the dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers. The need for this or a similar method arises as follows: A procedure that includes direct numerical simulation followed by POD, followed by Galerkin projection to a dynamical system has been proven to enable representation of flow dynamics by a low-dimensional model at the Reynolds number of the simulation. However, a more difficult task is to obtain models that are valid over a range of Reynolds numbers. Extrapolation of low-dimensional models by use of straightforward Reynolds-number-based parameter continuation has proven to be inadequate for successful prediction of flows. A key part of the problem of constructing a dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers is the problem of understanding and providing for the variation of the coefficients of the dynamical system with the Reynolds number. Prior methods do not enable capture of temporal dynamics over ranges of Reynolds numbers in low-dimensional models, and are not even satisfactory when large numbers of modes are used. The basic idea of the present method is to solve the problem through a suitable parameterization of the coefficients of the dynamical system. The parameterization computations involve utilization of the transfer of kinetic energy between modes as a function of Reynolds number. The thus-parameterized dynamical system accurately predicts the flow dynamics and is applicable to a range of flow problems in the dynamical regime around the Hopf bifurcation. Parameter

  15. Pure axial flow of viscoelastic fluids in rectangular microchannels under combined effects of electro-osmosis and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshadi, Milad; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Abbas

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven axial flows of viscoelastic fluids in a rectangular microchannel with arbitrary aspect ratios. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the complete form of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model with the Gordon-Schowalter convected derivative which covers the upper convected Maxwell, Johnson-Segalman and FENE-P models. Our numerical simulation is based on the computation of 2D Poisson-Boltzmann, Cauchy momentum and PTT constitutive equations. The solution of these governing nonlinear coupled set of equations is obtained by using the second-order central finite difference method in a non-uniform grid system and is verified against 1D analytical solution of the velocity profile with less than 0.06% relative error. Also, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of channel aspect ratio (width to height), wall zeta potential and the Debye-Hückel parameter on 2D velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and the Poiseuille number in the mixed EO/PD flows of viscoelastic fluids with different Weissenberg numbers. Our results show that, for low channel aspect ratios, the previous 1D analytical models underestimate the velocity profile at the channel half-width centerline in the case of favorable pressure gradients and overestimate it in the case of adverse pressure gradients. The results reveal that the inapplicability of the Debye-Hückel approximation at high zeta potentials is more significant for higher Weissenberg number fluids. Also, it is found that, under the specified values of electrokinetic parameters, there is a threshold for velocity scale ratio in which the Poiseuille number is approximately independent of channel aspect ratio.

  16. determination of reaeration coefficient k2 for polluted stream as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include velocity of flow, average depth of flow, DO, self purification ratio (f) and reaeration constant (K2). ... Determination of Reaeration Reaeration Coefficient K2 for Polluted Stream. 175. Table 1: ... and theory on which it is based. The result ...

  17. Gaseous slip flow analysis of a micromachined flow sensor for ultra small flow applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jaesung; Wereley, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The velocity slip of a fluid at a wall is one of the most typical phenomena in microscale gas flows. This paper presents a flow analysis considering the velocity slip in a capacitive micro gas flow sensor based on pressure difference measurements along a microchannel. The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) measurements of a particular channel wall in planar microchannels will be presented while the previous micro gas flow studies have been based on the same TMACs on both wal...

  18. Tomography based determination of permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and interfacial heat transfer coefficient in reticulate porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, Joerg; Meier, Fabian; Friess, Hansmartin; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    A computer tomography based methodology is applied to determine the transport properties of fluid flow across porous media. A 3D digital representation of a 10-ppi reticulate porous ceramic (RPC) sample was generated by X-ray tomographic scans. Structural properties such as the porosity, specific interfacial surface area, pore-size distribution, mean survival time, two-point correlation function s 2 , and local geometry distribution of the RPC sample are directly extracted from the tomographic data. Reference solutions of the fluid flow governing equations are obtained for Re = 0.2-200 by applying finite volume direct pore-level numerical simulation (DPLS) using unstructured, body-fitted, tetrahedral mesh discretization. The permeability and the Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient are determined from the reference solutions by DPLS, and compared to the values predicted by selected porous media flow models, namely: conduit-flow, hydraulic radius theory, drag models, mean survival time bound, s 2 -bound, fibrous bed correlations, and local porosity theory-based models. DPLS is further employed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and to derive a corresponding Nu-correlation, which is compared to empirical correlations

  19. Visualization study of flow in axial flow inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1972-01-01

    A visualization study of the flow through a three ft dia model of a four bladed inducer, which is operated in air at a flow coefficient of 0.065, is reported in this paper. The flow near the blade surfaces, inside the rotating passages, downstream and upstream of the inducer is visualized by means of smoke, tufts, ammonia filament, and lampblack techniques. Flow is found to be highly three dimensional, with appreciable radial velocity throughout the entire passage. The secondary flows observed near the hub and annulus walls agree with qualitative predictions obtained from the inviscid secondary flow theory.

  20. Divergence-free smoothing for MRV data on stenosed carotid artery phantom flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chaehyuk; Ko, Seungbin; Song, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) is a versatile technique for measuring flow velocity using an MRI machine. It is frequently used for visualization and analysis of blood flows. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate hemodynamics parameters like wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) due to its low spatial resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio. We suggest a divergence-free smoothing (DFS) method to correct the erroneous velocity vectors obtained with MRV and improve the estimation accuracy of those parameters. Unlike previous studies on DFS for a wall-free flow, we developed a house code to apply a DFS method to a wall-bounded flow. A Hagen-Poiseuille flow and stenosed carotid artery phantom flows were measured with MRV. Each of them was analyzed for validation of the DFS code and confirmation on the accuracy improvement of hemodynamic parameters. We will discuss the effects of DFS on the improvement of the estimation accuracy of velocity vectors, WSS, OSI and etc in detail This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  1. A 2D nonlinear multiring model for blood flow in large elastic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, Arthur R.; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional nonlinear ;multiring; model to compute blood flow in axisymmetric elastic arteries. This model is designed to overcome the numerical difficulties of three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction simulations of blood flow without using the over-simplifications necessary to obtain one-dimensional blood flow models. This multiring model is derived by integrating over concentric rings of fluid the simplified long-wave Navier-Stokes equations coupled to an elastic model of the arterial wall. The resulting system of balance laws provides a unified framework in which both the motion of the fluid and the displacement of the wall are dealt with simultaneously. The mathematical structure of the multiring model allows us to use a finite volume method that guarantees the conservation of mass and the positivity of the numerical solution and can deal with nonlinear flows and large deformations of the arterial wall. We show that the finite volume numerical solution of the multiring model provides at a reasonable computational cost an asymptotically valid description of blood flow velocity profiles and other averaged quantities (wall shear stress, flow rate, ...) in large elastic and quasi-rigid arteries. In particular, we validate the multiring model against well-known solutions such as the Womersley or the Poiseuille solutions as well as against steady boundary layer solutions in quasi-rigid constricted and expanded tubes.

  2. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region of an axially rotating pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Barea, A; Fabrellas-García, C; Parras, L; Pino, C del, E-mail: cpino@uma.es [Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Ampliación Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga, España (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We conduct experiments in a rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow (RHPF) through flow visualizations when the flow becomes convectively and absolutely unstable at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, Re. We characterize periodic patterns at a very high swirl parameter, L, when the flow overcomes the absolutely unstable region. These non-steady helical filaments wrapped around the axis appear in the developing region of the pipe. Experimentally, we compute the onset of these oscillations in the (L, Re)-plane finding that the rotation rate decreases as the Reynolds number increases in the process of achieving the time-dependent state. Additionally, we report information regarding frequencies and wavelengths that appear downstream of the rotating pipe for convectively and absolutely unstable flows, even for very high swirl parameters at which the flow becomes time-dependent in the developing region. We do not observe variations in the trends of these parameters, so these hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region do not affect the unstable travelling waves downstream of the pipe. (paper)

  3. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  4. Experimental Investigation of Discharge Coefficient in Mesh Panel Bottom Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    keivan bina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom racks is a hydraulic structure which is placed in the bed of stream through which, part of flow in the main channel is diverted. These structures have very wide application in industry, irrigation, drainage and etc. Of course much attention had been paid to the study of such structures, but characteristics of flow through bottom racks are complex. The present study was directed to estimate the discharge coefficient of a new kind of bottom racks including both transverse and longitudinal bars that named "mesh panel racks" without considering any solids in the fluid. This kind of bottom intake has advantages from structural point of view and has less deformation under static and dynamic loads. Laboratory setup with three mesh panel intakes was built and the effects of various parameters such as racks slope, porosity and geometry were explored. A dimensional analysis using Buckingham theory showed the effective hydraulic and geometric factors that affect the discharge coefficient (Cd of bottom racks. Then, a statistical approach to determine the discharge coefficient of a rack structure was developed with linear and nonlinear regression using SPSS software. The efficiency of the proposed technique is high enough that the associated error is limited to 10%. Finally, hydraulic performance of mesh panel intakes was compared with regular type of bottom intakes, which consist of longitudinal bars. For this purpose, diverted discharge through both type of intakes calculated in same situation

  5. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  6. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  7. Transfer coefficients in ultracold strongly coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    We use both analytical and molecular dynamic methods for electron transfer coefficients in an ultracold plasma when its temperature is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we use the approach of nearest neighbor to determine the average electron (ion) diffusion coefficient and to calculate other electron transfer coefficients (viscosity and electrical and thermal conductivities). Molecular dynamics simulations produce electronic and ionic diffusion coefficients, confirming the reliability of these results. The results compare favorably with experimental and numerical data from earlier studies.

  8. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  9. Regression Models for Predicting Force Coefficients of Aerofoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ABDUL AKBAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable sources of energy are attractive and advantageous in a lot of different ways. Among the renewable energy sources, wind energy is the fastest growing type. Among wind energy converters, Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs have received renewed interest in the past decade due to some of the advantages they possess over their horizontal axis counterparts. VAWTs have evolved into complex 3-D shapes. A key component in predicting the output of VAWTs through analytical studies is obtaining the values of lift and drag coefficients which is a function of shape of the aerofoil, ‘angle of attack’ of wind and Reynolds’s number of flow. Sandia National Laboratories have carried out extensive experiments on aerofoils for the Reynolds number in the range of those experienced by VAWTs. The volume of experimental data thus obtained is huge. The current paper discusses three Regression analysis models developed wherein lift and drag coefficients can be found out using simple formula without having to deal with the bulk of the data. Drag coefficients and Lift coefficients were being successfully estimated by regression models with R2 values as high as 0.98.

  10. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  13. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  14. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  16. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  17. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  18. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  19. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  20. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  1. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  2. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  3. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  4. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  5. Flip-flop method: A new T1-weighted flow-MRI for plants studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buy, Simon; Le Floch, Simon; Tang, Ning; Sidiboulenouar, Rahima; Zanca, Michel; Canadas, Patrick; Nativel, Eric; Cardoso, Maida; Alibert, Eric; Dupont, Guillaume; Ambard, Dominique; Maurel, Christophe; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Bertin, Nadia; Goze-Bac, Christophe; Coillot, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    The climate warming implies an increase of stress of plants (drought and torrential rainfall). The understanding of plant behavior, in this context, takes a major importance and sap flow measurement in plants remains a key issue for plant understanding. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which is well known to be a powerful tool to access water quantity can be used to measure moving water. We describe a novel flow-MRI method which takes advantage of inflow slice sensitivity. The method involves the slice selectivity in the context of multi slice spin echo sequence. Two sequences such as a given slice is consecutively inflow and outflow sensitive are performed, offering the possiblility to perform slow flow sensitive imaging in a quite straigthforward way. The method potential is demonstrated by imaging both a slow flow measurement on a test bench (as low as 10 μm.s-1) and the Poiseuille's profile of xylemian sap flow velocity in the xylematic tissues of a tomato plant stem.

  6. Size-selective sorting in bubble streaming flows: Particle migration on fast time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    Steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is an increasingly popular technique in microfluidics because such devices are easily manufactured and generate powerful and highly controllable flows. Combining streaming and Poiseuille transport flows allows for passive size-sensitive sorting at particle sizes and selectivities much smaller than the bubble radius. The crucial particle deflection and separation takes place over very small times (milliseconds) and length scales (20-30 microns) and can be rationalized using a simplified geometric mechanism. A quantitative theoretical description is achieved through the application of recent results on three-dimensional streaming flow field contributions. To develop a more fundamental understanding of the particle dynamics, we use high-speed photography of trajectories in polydisperse particle suspensions, recording the particle motion on the time scale of the bubble oscillation. Our data reveal the dependence of particle displacement on driving phase, particle size, oscillatory flow speed, and streaming speed. With this information, the effective repulsive force exerted by the bubble on the particle can be quantified, showing for the first time how fast, selective particle migration is effected in a streaming flow. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of cellular-scale blood flow in microvascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation method is developed to study cellular-scale blood flow in physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are constructed in silico following published in vivo images and data, and are comprised of bifurcating, merging, and winding vessels. The model resolves large deformation of individual red blood cells (RBC) flowing in such complex networks. The vascular walls and deformable interfaces of the RBCs are modeled using the immersed-boundary methods. Time-averaged hemodynamic quantities obtained from the simulations agree quite well with published in vivo data. Our simulations reveal that in several vessels the flow rates and pressure drops could be negatively correlated. The flow resistance and hematocrit are also found to be negatively correlated in some vessels. These observations suggest a deviation from the classical Poiseuille's law in such vessels. The cells are observed to frequently jam at vascular bifurcations resulting in reductions in hematocrit and flow rate in the daughter and mother vessels. We find that RBC jamming results in several orders of magnitude increase in hemodynamic resistance, and thus provides an additional mechanism of increased in vivo blood viscosity as compared to that determined in vitro. Funded by NSF CBET 1604308.

  8. Laser alteration of accommodation coefficient for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This patent describes a method and an apparatus for separating isotope types by inducing an isotopically selective vibrational excitation of molecules containing at least one atom of the element type whose isotopes are to be separated. Vibrational excitation is induced in the molecules by finely tuned, narrow bandwidth laser radiation applied to a gaseous flow of the molecules. Isotopic separation of the molecules is achieved from the enhanced difference in diffusion rates for the molecules due to an alteration of the accommodation coefficients in the excited molecules. 40 claims, 4 figures

  9. Measurements of the gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2009-07-01

    In this work we present the preliminary studies of the first Townsend coefficient behavior in isobutane for reduced electric fields ranging from 173 Td up to 281 Td by means of signal amplitude analysis. The measurements were based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. The experimental setup consists of two parallel plates housed in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. In our configuration, the primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a fast nitrogen laser (700 ps pulse duration). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen are also presented. (author)

  10. Measurements of the gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara B.; Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B.; Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the preliminary studies of the first Townsend coefficient behavior in isobutane for reduced electric fields ranging from 173 Td up to 281 Td by means of signal amplitude analysis. The measurements were based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. The experimental setup consists of two parallel plates housed in a stainless steel chamber at gas flow regime. In our configuration, the primary electrons are produced by irradiating the cathode with a fast nitrogen laser (700 ps pulse duration). In order to validate the technique and to analyze effects of non-uniformity, results for nitrogen are also presented. (author)

  11. Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    modifying horizontal conductances assembled by the Block-Centered Flow (BCF), Layer-Property Flow (LPF), or Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow Packages (HUF) of MODFLOW-2005. For both conduit flow pipes (CFPM1) and preferential flow layers (CFPM2), critical Reynolds numbers are used to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. Due to conservation of momentum, flow in a laminar state tends to remain laminar and flow in a turbulent state tends to remain turbulent. This delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow is introduced in the CFP, which provides an additional benefit of facilitating convergence of the computer algorithm during iterations of transient simulations. Specifically, the user can specify a higher critical Reynolds number to determine when laminar flow within a pipe converts to turbulent flow, and a lower critical Reynolds number for determining when a pipe with turbulent flow switches to laminar flow. With CFPM1, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is used for laminar flow conditions and the Darcy-Weisbach equation is applied to turbulent flow conditions. With CFPM2, turbulent flow is approximated by reducing the laminar hydraulic conductivity by a nonlinear function of the Reynolds number, once the critical head difference is exceeded. This adjustment approximates the reductions in mean velocity under turbulent ground-water flow conditions.

  12. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  13. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  14. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  15. Weighted congestion coefficient feedback in intelligent transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Chuanfei; Ma Xu; Wang Binghong

    2010-01-01

    In traffic systems, a reasonable information feedback can improve road capacity. In this Letter, we study dynamics of traffic flow with real-time information. And the influence of a feedback strategy named Weighted Congestion Coefficient Feedback Strategy (WCCFS) is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Our model incorporates the effects of adaptability into the cellular automaton models of traffic flow and simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other three information feedback strategies, i.e., vehicle number and flux.

  16. Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun

    2014-03-01

    We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.

  17. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  18. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  19. Spatial Variation of Hydrodynamic Mass Coefficients for Tube Bundle in a Cylindrical Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Keum Hee; Ryu, Ki Wahn [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chi Yong [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Wear of the steam generator (SG) tubes affects the performance of nuclear power plants. Generally, the problem is caused by excessive flow-induced vibration (FIV). In analyzing the FIV, many researchers have used a uniform added mass coefficient for all of the SG tubes. However, the outermost SG tubes have more structural problems than inside tubes. The purpose of this study is to find out the added mass coefficients of each tube in a cylindrical shell

  20. Sharp Spectral Asymptotics and Weyl Formula for Elliptic Operators with Non-smooth Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, Lech [Universite Paris 7 (D. Diderot), Institut de Mathematiques de Paris-Jussieu UMR9994 (France)

    1999-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to give the Weyl formula for eigenvalues of self-adjoint elliptic operators, assuming that first-order derivatives of the coefficients are Lipschitz continuous. The approach is based on the asymptotic formula of Hoermander''s type for the spectral function of pseudo differential operators having Lipschitz continuous Hamiltonian flow and obtained via a regularization procedure of nonsmooth coefficients.

  1. Sharp Spectral Asymptotics and Weyl Formula for Elliptic Operators with Non-smooth Coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Lech

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give the Weyl formula for eigenvalues of self-adjoint elliptic operators, assuming that first-order derivatives of the coefficients are Lipschitz continuous. The approach is based on the asymptotic formula of Hoermander''s type for the spectral function of pseudo differential operators having Lipschitz continuous Hamiltonian flow and obtained via a regularization procedure of nonsmooth coefficients

  2. Quasi-Steady Simulations for the Efficient Generation of Static Aerodynamic Coefficients at Subsonic Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    10 Fig. 5 Pitching-moment coefficient for BF comparing dα variation to steady-state results, CFL = 10 and N = 50...11 Fig. 6 Roll-torque coefficient for BF comparing dα variation to steady-state results, CFL = 10 and N = 50...compute the flow solution. The Goldberg 3-equation k-ε-Rt turbulence model ( Goldberg et. al. 1998) was implemented in this study based on the findings

  3. Recurrence relations between transformation coefficients of hyperspherical harmonics and their application to Moshinsky coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1976-01-01

    Closed formulae and recurrence relations for the transformation of a two-body harmonic oscillator wave function to the hyperspherical formalism are given. With them Moshinsky or Smirnov coefficients are obtained from the transformation coefficients of hyperspheric harmonics. For these coefficients the diagonalization method of Talman and Lande reduces to simple recurrence relations which can be used directly to compute them. New closed formulae for these coefficients are also derived: they are needed to compute the two simplest coefficients which determine the sign for the recurrence relation. (Auth.)

  4. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  5. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  6. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  7. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  8. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  9. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  10. Explicit formulas for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki-Bujnowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem is to obtain explicit algebraic formulas of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for high values of angular momentum. The method of solution is an algebraic method based on the Racah formula using the FORMAC programming language. (Auth.)

  11. Diffusion Coefficients of Several Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Riele, Marcel J.M. te; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine

  12. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  13. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  14. A new approach to estimate Angstrom coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.

    1991-09-01

    A simple quadratic equation to estimate global solar radiation with coefficients depending on some physical atmospheric parameters is presented. The importance of the second order and sensitivity to some climatic variations is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  16. In-situ measurement of electroosmotic drag coefficient in Nafion membrane for the PEMFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe; Morin, Arnaud; Huguet, Patrice; Schott, Pascal; Pauchet, Joël

    2011-11-10

    A new method based on hydrogen pump has been developed to measure the electroosmotic drag coefficient in representative PEMFC operating conditions. It allows eliminating the back-flow of water which leads to some errors in the calculation of this coefficient with previously reported electrochemical methods. Measurements have been performed on 50 μm thick Nafion membranes both extruded and recast. Contrary to what has been described in most of previous published works, the electroosmotic drag coefficient decreases as the membrane water content increases. The same trend is observed for temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. For the same membrane water content, the electroosmotic drag coefficient increases with temperature. In the same condition, there is no difference in drag coefficient for extruded Nafion N112 and recast Nafion NRE212. These results are discussed on the basis of the two commonly accepted proton transport mechanisms, namely, Grotthus and vehicular.

  17. Torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skab, I.; Smaga, I.; Savaryn, V.; Vasylkiv, Yu.; Vlokh, R. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-01-15

    We develop and describe analytically a torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients associated with shear stresses. It is shown that the method enables to increase significantly the accuracy of determination of piezooptic coefficients. The method and the appropriate apparatus are verified experimentally on the example of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  19. The Binomial Coefficient for Negative Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenburg, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of the binomial coefficient in terms of gamma functions also allows non-integer arguments. For nonnegative integer arguments the gamma functions reduce to factorials, leading to the well-known Pascal triangle. Using a symmetry formula for the gamma function, this definition is extended to negative integer arguments, making the symmetry identity for binomial coefficients valid for all integer arguments. The agreement of this definition with some other identities and with the bin...

  20. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  1. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  2. Estimating Subcatchment Runoff Coefficients using Weather Radar and a Downstream Runoff Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate...... the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over...... the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level....

  3. Estimating subcatchment runoff coefficients using weather radar and a downstream runoff sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R; Bassø, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level.

  4. Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis

    2011-07-01

    Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.

  5. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Autoclave processing for composite material fabrication. 1: An analysis of resin flows and fiber compactions for thin laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Manning's roughness Coefficients in Non-vegetated Canals for Irrigation and Drainage Network of Moghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Nasseri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to sensitiveness of flow to roughness coefficient (RC, selection of this coefficient is important in earth canals designing purposes. Precision selection of this coefficient is necessary for design and operation of earthen canals purposes. Overestimation of the actual amount of this coefficient will cause an underestimation for flow velocity. Accordingly, sedimentation in the earth canals will reduce canals’ capacitances. Adversely, underestimation of this coefficient will cause an overestimation for flow velocity and water flux in the earth canals. It will also increase the risk of soil erosion in the channels. This coefficient is expressed by Manning, Chezy and Darcy Weisbach equations. While, hydraulic engineers have selected Manning equation to estimate the flow rate in open channels due to ease of use and acceptable precision in the application of this equation. Water for crop production in Moghan, as one of the most important agricultural centers in Iran, is supplied from Moghan-Meel diversion dam via main canal of irrigation and drainage network with a capacity of 80 m3 s-1 with a length of 116 km. All of the branched 63-channel from the main channel are earthen. Continual sedimentation in the earth canals reduced the capacity of them and re-estimation the capacity of this canals needs to the precise quantities of variables such as roughness coefficient. Because the overestimation of the actual value of the coefficient would reduce the canals’ capacity and underestimation of the coefficient increase the risk of erosion in earth canals. The analysis of the correlation among variables, regression, analysis of statistical distribution of variables, analysis of variance of variables and the analysis of the events probabilities for stochastic variables can be made by statistical methods. Therefore, these methods were applied to analysis of roughness coefficient in the earth canals. Also, due to the importance of roughness

  9. Determination of re-aeration coefficients on high mountain rivers using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Marco

    2001-01-01

    The rivers Machangara and Guayllabamba in Quito, Ecuador, currently are highly polluted, mainly due to human and industrial residues from the city. The objective of this survey is to establish the dynamics of dissolved oxygen in these rivers using the Krypton 85 method to determine the re aeration coefficient in representative sectors of the rivers. In addition, conventional test tracers establish mean flow speed and flow longitudinal dispersion coefficients. The results of this study will be useful for future water quality modelling of these rivers, in order to define their behaviour and auto depurative capacity to treat sludge waters from Quito

  10. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  11. The Split Coefficient Matrix method for hyperbolic systems of gasdynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, S. R.; Anderson, D. A.; Salas, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Split Coefficient Matrix (SCM) finite difference method for solving hyperbolic systems of equations is presented. This new method is based on the mathematical theory of characteristics. The development of the method from characteristic theory is presented. Boundary point calculation procedures consistent with the SCM method used at interior points are explained. The split coefficient matrices that define the method for steady supersonic and unsteady inviscid flows are given for several examples. The SCM method is used to compute several flow fields to demonstrate its accuracy and versatility. The similarities and differences between the SCM method and the lambda-scheme are discussed.

  12. Heat transfer coefficient correlation for convective boiling inside plain and micro fin tubes using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picanco, Marco Antonio Silva; Bandarra Filho, Enio Pedone; Passos, Julio Cesar

    2006-01-01

    Two-phase flow heat transfer has been exhaustively studied over recent years. However, in this field several questions remain unanswered. Heat transfer coefficient prediction related to nucleate and convective boiling have been studied using different approaches, numerical, analytical and experimental. In this work, an experimental analysis, data representation and heat transfer coefficient prediction on two-phase heat transfer on nucleate and convective boiling are presented. An empirical correlation is obtained based on genetic algorithms search engine over a dimensional analysis of the two-phase flow heat transfer problem. (author)

  13. Meta-analysis on Macropore Flow Velocity in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Gao, M.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Macropore flow is ubiquitous in the soils and an important hydrologic process that is not well explained using traditional hydrologic theories. Macropore Flow Velocity (MFV) is an important parameter used to describe macropore flow and quantify its effects on runoff generation and solute transport. However, the dominant factors controlling MFV are still poorly understood and the typical ranges of MFV measured at the field are not defined clearly. To address these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a database created from 246 experiments on MFV collected from 76 journal articles. For a fair comparison, a conceptually unified definition of MFV is introduced to convert the MFV measured with different approaches and at various scales including soil core, field, trench or hillslope scales. The potential controlling factors of MFV considered include scale, travel distance, hydrologic conditions, site factors, macropore morphologies, soil texture, and land use. The results show that MFV is about 2 3 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. MFV is much larger at the trench and hillslope scale than at the field profile and soil core scales and shows a significant positive correlation with the travel distance. Generally, higher irrigation intensity tends to trigger faster MFV, especially at field profile scale, where MFV and irrigation intensity have significant positive correlation. At the trench and hillslope scale, the presence of large macropores (diameter>10 mm) is a key factor determining MFV. The geometric mean of MFV for sites with large macropores was found to be about 8 times larger than those without large macropores. For sites with large macropores, MFV increases with the macropore diameter. However, no noticeable difference in MFV has been observed among different soil texture and land use. Comparing the existing equations to describe MFV, the Poiseuille equation significantly overestimated the

  14. Discharge Coefficient of Rectangular Short-Crested Weir with Varying Slope Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular short-crested weirs are widely used for simple structure and high discharge capacity. As one of the most important and influential factors of discharge capacity, side slope can improve the hydraulic characteristics of weirs at special conditions. In order to systemically study the effects of upstream and downstream slope coefficients S1 and S2 on overflow discharge coefficient in a rectangular short-crested weir the Volume of Fluid (VOF method and the Renormalization Group (RNG κ-ε turbulence model are used. In this study, the slope coefficient ranges from V to 3H:1V and each model corresponds to five total energy heads of H0 ranging from 8.0 to 24.0 cm. Comparisons of discharge coefficients and free surface profiles between simulated and laboratory results display a good agreement. The simulated results show that the difference of discharge coefficients will decrease with upstream slopes and increase with downstream slopes as H0 increases. For a given H0, the discharge coefficient has a convex parabolic relation with S1 and a piecewise linearity relation with S2. The maximum discharge coefficient is always obtained at S2 = 0.8. There exists a difference between upstream and downstream slope coefficients in the influence range of free surface curvatures. Furthermore, a proposed discharge coefficient equation by nonlinear regression is a function of upstream and downstream slope coefficients.

  15. Diffusion of disintegration products of radioactive gases in circular and flat channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of steady state diffusion of the decaying products resulting from the disintegration of a radioactive gas flowing through circular and flat channels is presented. Axial diffusion is neglected and a small diffusion parameter is assumed. Results are obtained for the axial displacement and density distribution of atoms deposited on the walls when the laminar flow is Poiseuille and plug. These results can be used to determine diffusion coefficients of disintegration products. (author)

  16. Lattice cell diffusion coefficients. Definitions and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of equivalent diffusion coefficients for regular lattices of heterogeneous cells have been given by several authors. The paper begins by reviewing these different definitions and the unification of their derivation. This unification makes clear how accurately each definition (together with appropriate cross-section definitions to preserve the eigenvalue) represents the individual reaction rates within the cell. The approach can be extended to include asymmetric cells and whereas before, the buckling describing the macroscopic flux shape was real, here it is found to be complex. A neutron ''drift'' coefficient as well as a diffusion coefficient is necessary to produce the macroscopic flux shape. The numerical calculation of the various different diffusion coefficients requires the solutions of equations similar to the ordinary transport equation for an infinite lattice. Traditional reactor physics codes are not sufficiently flexible to solve these equations in general. However, calculations in certain simple cases are presented and the theoretical results quantified. In difficult geometries, Monte Carlo techniques can be used to calculate an effective diffusion coefficient. These methods relate to those already described provided that correlation effects between different generations of neutrons are included. Again, these effects are quantified in certain simple cases. (author)

  17. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  18. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  19. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  20. Ratio of dialytic coefficients of hydrogen and tritium in permeation through palladium alloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruyuki; Fujita, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Higashi, Kunio; Okada, Sakae.

    1982-01-01

    The dialytic coefficient for hydrogen is especially large in palladium and its alloys. Recently, with the research on fusion reactors, the dialytic coefficient of tritium permeating through solids and its isotopic effect have been the object of interest. The ratio of the dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen has been usually assumed to be 3. The measurement of the dialytic coefficient in solids using pure tritium is practically difficult. Therefore, the authors carried out the experiment to determine the ratio of the dialytic coefficients of pure T 2 and pure H 2 by permeating the mixed gas of T and H through Pd-Au-Ag alloy. The mixed hydrogen gas was filled in a separation cell containing a palladium alloy tube, and the separation factor of tritium and hydrogen was measured by changing pressure, flow rate and temperature. The separation factor depends mainly on the relative dialytic coefficients of tritium and hydrogen, therefore, the ratio of dialytic coefficients can be determined by the simple analysis of the experimental results. This experimental method is suitable to determine the relative value of dialytic coefficients, and the obtained ratio was about 2.1. (Kako, I.)

  1. Computation of Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients using binomial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I.I.; Oezmen, A.; Atav, Ue

    1995-01-01

    Using binomial coefficients the Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients were calculated for extremely large quantum numbers. The main advantage of this approach is directly calculating these coefficients, instead of using recursion relations. Accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers l 1 , and l 2 up to 100. Despite direct calculation, the CPU times are found comparable with those given in the related literature. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Investigation of steady plasma actuation effect on aerodynamic coefficients of oscillating airfoil at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mahboubidoust; Abas Ramiar; Morteza Dardel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is proceeded using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping are considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed to be 12000 and effects of these motions and also different unsteady parameters such as amplitude and reduced frequency on aerodynamic coefficients are studied. For flow control on airfoil, dielectric barrier disc...

  3. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  4. Experimental determination of fission gas adsorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, R.; Underhill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Large charcoal beds have been used for a number of years for the holdup and decay of radioactive isotopes of krypton and xenon. Reliable design of these beds depends on an accurate knowledge of the adsorption coefficient of krypton and xenon on the adsorbents used in these beds. It is somewhat surprising that there is no standard procedure of determining the adsorption coefficient for krypton and xenon. Fundamental information needed to establish a standardized reproducible test procedure is given emphasizing the breakthrough curves commonly used to analyze dynamic adsorption data can lead to serious systematic errors and the fact that the adsorption coefficient, if calculated from the arithmetic holding time, is independent of geometric factors such as the shape of the adsorption bed and the irregular shape of the adsorbent

  5. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  6. Estimating temperature reactivity coefficients by experimental procedures combined with isothermal temperature coefficient measurements and dynamic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masashi; Aoki, Yukinori; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Masatoshi; Hanayama, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    A method to evaluate the moderator coefficient (MTC) and the Doppler coefficient through experimental procedures performed during reactor physics tests of PWR power plants is proposed. This method combines isothermal temperature coefficient (ITC) measurement experiments and reactor power transient experiments at low power conditions for dynamic identification. In the dynamic identification, either one of temperature coefficients can be determined in such a way that frequency response characteristics of the reactivity change observed by a digital reactivity meter is reproduced from measured data of neutron count rate and the average coolant temperature. The other unknown coefficient can also be determined by subtracting the coefficient obtained from the dynamic identification from ITC. As the proposed method can directly estimate the Doppler coefficient, the applicability of the conventional core design codes to predict the Doppler coefficient can be verified for new types of fuels such as mixed oxide fuels. The digital simulation study was carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The numerical analysis showed that the MTC and the Doppler coefficient can be estimated accurately and even if there are uncertainties in the parameters of the reactor kinetics model, the accuracies of the estimated values are not seriously impaired. (author)

  7. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1988-03-01

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value [fr

  8. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. A Simple Measure of Price Adjustment Coefficients.

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Aswath

    1993-01-01

    One measure of market efficiency is the speed with which prices adjust to new information. The author develops a simple approach to estimating these price adjustment coefficients by using the information in return processes. This approach is used to estimate t he price adjustment coefficients for firms listed on the NYSE and the A MEX as well as for over-the-counter stocks. The author finds evidence of a lagged adjustment to new information in shorter return intervals for firms in all market ...

  10. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  11. Transfer of risk coefficients across populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of lifetime risk projections for a Canadian population caused by the uncertainty in the choice of method for transferring excess relative risk coefficients between populations is assessed. Site-specific projections, varied by factors up to 3.5 when excess risk coefficients of the BEIR V relative risk models were transferred to the Canadian population using an additive and multiplicative method. When the risk from all cancers are combined, differences between transfer methods were no longer significant. The Canadian projections were consistent with the ICRP-60 nominal fatal cancer risk estimates. (author)

  12. Reaction rate calculations via transmission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Alder, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission coefficient of a wavepacket traversing a potential barrier can be determined by steady state calculations carried out in imaginary time instead of by real time dynamical calculations. The general argument is verified for the Eckart barrier potential by a comparison of transmission coefficients calculated from real and imaginary time solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The correspondence demonstrated here allows a formulation for the reaction rate that avoids difficulties due to both rare events and explicitly time dependent calculations. 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colligon, J.S.; Patel, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The sputtering coefficient of polycrystalline gold bombarded by 10-40 keV Ar + ions had been measured as a function of total ion dose and shown to exhibit oscillations in magnitude between 30 and 100%. Possible experimental errors which would give rise to such an oscillation have been considered, but it is apparent that these factors are unable to explain the measurements. It is proposed that a change in the Sublimation Energy associated with either bulk damage or formation of surface topographical features arising during ion bombardment may be responsible for the observed variations in sputtering coefficient. (author)

  14. ANL results for LMFR reactivity coefficients benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The fast reactor analysis methods developed at ANL were extensively tested in ZPR and ZPPR experiments, applied to EBR-2 and FFTF test reactors. The basic nuclear data library used was ENDF/B-V.2 with the ETOE-2 data processing code and the ENDF/B-VI. Multigroup constants were generated by Monte Carlo code MCNP 2 -2. Neutron flux calculation were done by DIF3D code applying neutron diffusion theory and finite difference method. The results obtained include basic parameters; fuel and structure regional Doppler coefficients; geometry expansion fuel coefficients; kinetics parameters. In general, agreement between phase 1 and 2 results were excellent

  15. A novel model for smectic liquid crystals: Elastic anisotropy and response to a steady-state flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Meiwes Turrión, Victor; Stieger, Tillmann; Grotjahn, Robin; Hall, Carol K; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin

    2016-10-28

    By means of a combination of equilibrium Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics we investigate the ordered, uniaxial phases (i.e., nematic and smectic A) of a model liquid crystal. We characterize equilibrium behavior through their diffusive behavior and elastic properties. As one approaches the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition, diffusion becomes anisotropic in that self-diffusion D ⊥ in the direction orthogonal to a molecule's long axis is more hindered than self-diffusion D ∥ in the direction parallel to that axis. Close to nematic-smectic A phase transition the opposite is true, D ∥ flow depending on whether the convective velocity is parallel or orthogonal to the plane of smectic layers. We find that in Poiseuille-like flow the viscosity of the smectic A phase is higher than in plug flow. This can be rationalized via the velocity-field component in the direction of the flow. In a sufficiently strong flow these smectic layers are not destroyed but significantly bent.

  16. Theoretical study of turbulent channel flow - Bulk properties, pressure fluctuations, and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Hartke, G. J.; Battaglia, A.; Chasnov, J.; Albrecht, G. F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we apply two theoretical turbulence models, DIA and the recent GISS model, to study properties of a turbulent channel flow. Both models provide a turbulent kinetic energy spectral function E(k) as the solution of a non-linear equation; the two models employ the same source function but different closures. The source function is characterized by a rate n sub s (k) which is derived from the complex eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld (OS) equation in which the basic flow is taken to be of a Poiseuille type. The O-S equation is solved for a variety of Reynolds numbers corresponding to available experimental data. A physical argument is presented whereby the central line velocity characterizing the basic flow, U0 sup L, is not to be identified with the U0 appearing in the experimental Reynolds number. The theoretical results are compared with two types of experimental data: (1) turbulence bulk properties, and (2) properties that depend strongly on the structure of the turbulence spectrum at low wave numbers. The only existing analytical expression for Pi (k) cannot be used in the present case because it applies to the case of a flat plate, not a finite channel.

  17. Effects of fluid flow on heat transfer in large rotating electrical machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancial, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    EDF operates a large number of electrical rotating machines in its electricity generation capacity. Thermal stresses which affect them can cause local heating, sufficient to damage their integrity. The present work contributes to provide methodologies for detecting hot spots in these machines, better understanding the topology of rotating flows and identifying their effects on heat transfer. Several experimental scale model were used by increasing their complexity to understand and validate the numerical simulations. A first study on a turbulent wall jet over a non-confined backward-facing step (half-pole hydro-generator) notes significant differences compared to results from confined case: both of them are present in an hydro-generator. A second study was done on a small confined rotating scale model to determinate the effects of a Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille on temperature distribution and position of hot spots on the heated rotor, by studying the overall flow regimes flow. These studies have helped to obtain a reliable method based on conjugate heat transfer (CHT) simulations. Another method, based on FEM coupled with the use of an inverse method, has been studied on a large model of hydraulic generator so as to solve the computation time issue of the first methodology. It numerically calculates the convective heat transfer from temperature measurements, but depends on the availability of experimental data. This work has also developed new no-contact measurement techniques as the use of a high-frequency pyrometer which can be applied on rotating machines for monitoring temperature. (author)

  18. Comparison between continuous and localized methods to evaluate the flow rate through containment concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason, L., E-mail: ludovic.jason@cea.fr [Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, Mechanics and System Simulation Laboratory (LM2S), F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); LaMSID, UMR CNRS-EDF-CEA 8193, F-92141 Clamart (France); Masson, B. [Electricité de France (EDF), SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The contribution focuses on the gas transfer through reinforced concrete structures. • A continuous approach with a damage–permeability law is investigated. • It is significant, for this case, only when the damage variable crosses the section. • In this case, two localized approaches are compared. • It helps at evaluating a “reference” crack opening for engineering laws. - Abstract: In this contribution, different techniques are compared to evaluate the gas flow rate through a representative section of a reinforced and prestressed concrete containment structure. A continuous approach is first applied which is based on the evaluation of the gas permeability as a function of the damage variable. The calculations show that the flow rate becomes significant only when the damage variable crosses the section. But in this situation, the continuous approach is no longer fully valid. That is why localized approaches, based on a fine description of the crack openings, are then investigated. A comparison between classical simplified laws (Poiseuille flow) and a more refined model which takes into account the evolution of the crack opening in the depth of the section enables to define the validity domain of the simplified laws and especially the definition of the associated “reference opening”.

  19. Experimental study on the minimum drag coefficient of supercritical pressure water in horizontal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Xianliang; Li, Huixiong; Guo, YuMeng; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The minimum drag coefficient phenomenon (MDC) has been observed and further investigated. • Effects of heat flux, mass flux and pressure to MDC have been discussed. • A series of comparisons between existing correlations and data have been conducted. • Two correlations of drag coefficient are proposed for isothermal and nonisothermal flow. - Abstract: Hydraulic resistance and its components are of great importance for understanding the turbulence nature of supercritical fluid and establishing prediction methods. Under supercritical pressures, the hydraulic resistance of the fluid exhibits a “pit” in the regions near its pseudo-critical point, which is hereafter called the minimum drag coefficient phenomenon. However, this special phenomenon was paid a little attention before. Hence systematical experiments have been carried out to investigate the hydraulic resistance of supercritical pressure water in both adiabatic and heated horizontal tubes. Parametric effects of heat flux, pressure and mass fluxes to drag coefficient are further compared. It is found that almost all of the existing correlations don’t agree well with the experimental data due to the insufficient consideration of thermal-properties near the pseudocritical point. Two correlations of the drag coefficients are finally proposed by introducing the new variable of the derivative of density with respect to temperature or Prandtl number, which can better predict the drag coefficient of isothermal and nonisothermal flow respectively.

  20. Friction Coefficient Determination by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino…

  1. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  2. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  3. On finding algebraic expressions for genealogical coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyauskas, J.M.; Shimonis, V.Ch.; Rudzikas, Z.B.

    1979-01-01

    It has been attempted to obtain analytical expressions for genealogical coefficients with one detached electron in the case of L-S coupling. A method of second quantization and tensorial properties of the quasi-spin operator are applied. It is restricted to the states for the classification of which the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient. Three ways of the acquirement of these expressions are discussed: 1. In the recurrent way wave functions of N and N-1 electrons are built, consequently expressing these functions in terms of the creation-annihilation operators. 2. Recurrent summation with the use of evident, simple genealogical coefficients. 3. Using the ratios, connecting the genealogical coefficients with the normalized multiplier. The data are presented in formulae and discussions. The generalization of the Redmond's formula is obtained and relatively simple algebraic expressions of the genealogical coefficients of the equivalent electron configurations, for the distinction of the recurrent terms of which introduction of the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient, are given

  4. Power coefficient anomaly in Joyo, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshioki; Sasaki, Makoto; Nara, Yoshihiko.

    1981-12-01

    In this report, the presumption about the mechanism having caused the power coefficient anomaly in Joyo during the 75 MW power-raising test in 1979 is described. After the previous report, the new information about the results of the post-irradiation examination and the analysis of the power coefficient of Joyo were able to be obtained. From these information, the mechanism of causing the anomaly was presumed as follows. In 50 MW operation, the fuel burnup reached about 10,000 MWD/ton at the end of second cycle, and produced fission gas was almost retained in fuel pellets. When the power was raised from 50 MW to 75 MW for the first time, the fission gas began to be released when 50 MW was somewhat exceeded. The fission gas release caused the temperature rise and cracking of fuel pellets, and elongated fuel stack length abruptly. These phenomena induced to enlarge the fuel expansion reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, and caused the anomalous behavior of power coefficient. After reaching 75 MW, the fuel stack length did not respond normally to reactor power change, and the magnitude of power coefficient became smaller. The reactivity was lost considerably from the core after the anomaly. (Kako, I.)

  5. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  6. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  7. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  8. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  9. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...

  10. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  11. Activity risk coefficients for living generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the new concept of the Activity risk coefficients, ARCs, which are in Probabilistic risk assessment PRA computer codes used for the calculation of the stochastic effects due to low dose exposures. As an example, ARC expressions for the Cloudshine is derived. (author)

  12. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.

  13. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  14. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Normally, a consistent basis for calculating partial factors focuses on a homogeneous reliability index neither depending on which material the structure is constructed of nor the ratio between the permanent and variable actions acting on the structure. Furthermore, the reliability index should n...... the characteristic shape coefficients are based on mean values as specified in background documents to the Eurocodes. Importance of hidden safeties judging the reliability is discussed for wind actions on low-rise structures....... not depend on the type of variable action. A probability based calibration of pressure coefficients have been carried out using pressure measurements on the standard CAARC building modelled on scale of 1:383. The extreme pressures measured on the CAARC building model in the wind tunnel have been fitted.......3, the Eurocode partial factor of 1.5 for variable actions agrees well with the inherent uncertainties of wind actions when the pressure coefficients are determined using wind tunnel test results. The increased bias and uncertainty when pressure coefficients mainly are based on structural codes lead to a larger...

  15. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  16. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  17. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  18. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  19. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  20. Nuclear data propagation with burnup. Impact on SFR reactivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, Laurent; Plisson-Rieunier, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    For the next generation fast reactor design, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) defined global objectives in terms of safety improvement, sustainability, waste minimization and non-proliferation. Among the possibilities studied at CEA, Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) are studied as potential industrial tools for next decade's deployment. Many efforts have been made in the last years to obtain advanced industrial core designs that comply with these goals. Concerning safety issues, particular efforts have been made in order to obtain core designs that can be resilient to accidental transients. The 'safety' level of such new designs is often characterized by their 'natural' behavior under unprotected transients such as loss of flow or hypothetical transient over power. Transient analysis needs several accurate neutronic input data such as reactivity coefficient and kinetic parameters. Beside estimation of the level of 'absolute' values, associated uncertainties have also to be evaluated for the whole set of relevant data. These estimations have to be performed for different core state such as end of cycle core for feedback coefficient. This means that uncertainties have to be obtained not only a fixed time but also have to be propagated all through irradiation. To do so, we need to couple Boltzman and Bateman equations at sensitivities level. The coupling process could be done with the help of the perturbation theory which gives adapted framework suited for deterministic calculation codes. This coupling is currently in progress in ERANOS code system. The actual implementation gives access to estimation of sensitivities for both reactivity coefficients and mass balance. After a brief theoretical description of Boltzman/Bateman coupling capabilities in ERANOS, the study presented in this paper focuses on sensitivity and uncertainties estimation for the main feedback coefficients involved in fast reactor transients: the

  1. Small thermistors for the measurement of heat transfer coefficients; Kleine Thermistoren zur Messung von Waermeuebergangskoeffizienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffrecht, Wieland; Guenther, Andre [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Caspary, Volker [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The measurement of heat transfer coefficients at rotating machine parts is a difficult measurement task and is particularily challenging for fast rotating parts with good thermal conductivity in combination with gaseous flow. This contribution reports about the test of a setup with small thermistors employed to achieve compatibility with the demands of telemetry. (orig.)

  2. Computation of Added Mass and Damping Coefficients of a Horizontal Circular Cylinder in Open Foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents numerical computation of added massand damping coefficients of a slender horizontal cylinder in thefree surface zone, which typically serves as a fish cage floater. A fully viscous two phase flow solver in OpenFOAM was employed in the numerical computation. The purpose...

  3. Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M 5 (3.552 keV) and M 4 (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data

  4. Numerical solution for identification of feedback coefficients in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebizuka, Yoshie; Sakai, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    Quasilinearization technique was studied to determine the Kinetic parameters of nuclear reactors. The method of solution was generalized to the determination of the parameters contained in a nonlinear system with nonlinear boundary conditions. A computer program, SNR-3, was developed to solve the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value equations with generalized boundary conditions. In this paper, the problem formulation and the method of solution are explained for a general type of time dependent problem. A flow chart shows the procedure of numerical solution. The method was then applied to the determination of the critical factor and the reactivity feedback coefficients of reactors to investigate the accuracy and the applicability of the present method. The results showed that the present method was considerably successful, but that the random observation error effected the results of the identification. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2016-03-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.

  6. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  7. Unsteady axisymmetric flow of a micropolar fluid between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of several parameters on dimensionless velocities is presented through plots. The behavior of skin friction and couple stress coefficients is tabulated against various values of the pertinent parameters. Keywords: Unsteady flow, micropolar fluid, radial stretching, skin friction coefficient, couple stress coefficient

  8. Effect of various refining processes for Kenaf Bast non-wood pulp fibers suspensions on heat transfer coefficient in circular pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Muzamil; Kazi, S. N.; Khan, Ghulamullah; Sadri, Rad; Dahari, Mahidzal; Zubir, M. N. M.; Sayuti, M.; Ahmad, Pervaiz; Ibrahim, Rushdan

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a range of non-wood kenaf bast pulp fiber suspensions flowing through a circular pipe heat exchanger test loop. The data were produced over a selected temperature and range of flow rates from the flow loop. It was found that the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient of a fiber suspension is dependent on characteristics, concentration and pulping method of fiber. It was observed that at low concentration and high flow rates, the heat transfer coefficient values of suspensions were observed higher than that of the heat transfer coefficient values of water, on the other hand the heat transfer coefficient values of suspensions decreases at low flow rates and with the increase of their concentration. The heat transfer were affected by varying fiber characteristics, such as fiber length, fiber flexibility, fiber chemical and mechanical treatment as well as different pulping methods used to liberate the fibers. Heat transfer coefficient was decreased with the increase of fiber flexibility which was also observed by previous researchers. In the present work, the characteristics of fibers are correlated with the heat transfer coefficient of suspensions of the fibers. Deviations in fiber properties can be monitored from the flowing fiber suspensions by measuring heat transfer coefficient to adjust the degree of fiber refining treatment so that papers made from those fibers will be more uniform, consistent, within the product specification and retard the paper production loss.

  9. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  10. Experimental determination of contraction coefficient and velocity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jailakshmi Menon

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... Radial gates are widely used to control the flow in irrigation channels and spillways. Radial gates ... upstream water depth for a vertical sluice gate assuming hydrostatic ... energy loss on the discharge characteristics of vertical.

  11. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  12. Weyl q-coefficients for uq(3) and Racah q -coefficients for suq(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asherova, R.M.; Smirnov, Yu.F.; Tolstoy, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    With the aid of the projection-operator technique, the general analytic expression for the elements of the matrix that relates the U and T bases of an arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representation of the uq(3) quantum algebra (Weyl q-coefficients) is obtained for the case where the deformation parameter q is not equal to a square root of unity. The procedure for resummation of q-factorial expressions is used to prove that, modulo phase factors, these Weyl q-coefficients coincide with Racah q-coefficients for the suq(2) quantum algebra. It is also shown that, on the basis of one general formula, the q-analogs of all known general analytic expressions for the 6j symbols (and Racah coefficients) of the Lie algebras of the angular momentum can be obtained by using this resummation procedure. The symmetry properties of these q coefficients are discussed. The result is formulated in the following way: the general formulas for the q-6j symbols (Racah q-coefficients) of the suq(2) quantum algebra are obtained from the general formulas for the conventional 6j symbols (Racah coefficients) of the su(2) Lie algebra by replacing directly all factorials with q-factorials, the symmetry properties of the q-6j symbols being completely coincident with the symmetry properties of the conventional 6j symbols

  13. First-order approximation for the pressure-flow relationship of spontaneously contracting lymphangions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Christopher M; Venugopal, Arun M; Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H

    2008-05-01

    To return lymph to the great veins of the neck, it must be actively pumped against a pressure gradient. Mean lymph flow in a portion of a lymphatic network has been characterized by an empirical relationship (P(in) - P(out) = -P(p) + R(L)Q(L)), where P(in) - P(out) is the axial pressure gradient and Q(L) is mean lymph flow. R(L) and P(p) are empirical parameters characterizing the effective lymphatic resistance and pump pressure, respectively. The relation of these global empirical parameters to the properties of lymphangions, the segments of a lymphatic vessel bounded by valves, has been problematic. Lymphangions have a structure like blood vessels but cyclically contract like cardiac ventricles; they are characterized by a contraction frequency (f) and the slopes of the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship [minimum value of resulting elastance (E(min))] and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship [maximum value of resulting elastance (E(max))]. Poiseuille's law provides a first-order approximation relating the pressure-flow relationship to the fundamental properties of a blood vessel. No analogous formula exists for a pumping lymphangion. We therefore derived an algebraic formula predicting lymphangion flow from fundamental physical principles and known lymphangion properties. Quantitative analysis revealed that lymph inertia and resistance to lymph flow are negligible and that lymphangions act like a series of interconnected ventricles. For a single lymphangion, P(p) = P(in) (E(max) - E(min))/E(min) and R(L) = E(max)/f. The formula was tested against a validated, realistic mathematical model of a lymphangion and found to be accurate. Predicted flows were within the range of flows measured in vitro. The present work therefore provides a general solution that makes it possible to relate fundamental lymphangion properties to lymphatic system function.

  14. Momentum and scalar transport in a localised synthetic turbulence in a channel flow with a short contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, N; Djenidi, L [University of Newcastle, NSW Australia (Australia); Tardu, S, E-mail: nathan.lefeuvre@uon.edu.au [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-22

    A numerical simulation is undertaken to investigate the transport of momentum and a passive scalar in a localised turbulence in a channel with a contraction. The simulation is carried out using a hybrid method which combines the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM, for the velocity field) and the energy equation (for the temperature field). The localised turbulence is generated through pulsed jets issued in the Poiseuille flow developing in the channel at a Reynolds number of about 1000. The aim of the study is twofold : i) determine effect of the contraction on the localised turbulence, and ii) study how the passive scalar behaves in such contracted localised turbulence. The contraction increase the averaged vorticity in the channel flow, which is accompanied by an increase in the averaged kinetic energy. The contraction also tends to reduce the Reynolds stresses. These results are similar those obtained in turbulent pipe flow with an axisymmetric contraction and in a turbulent boundary layer subjected to a favourable pressure gradient. However, it is found that the heat transport in the normal to the wall direction is more dramatically affected (reduced) than that in the direction of the flow.

  15. Meromorphic univalent function with negative coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dernek

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Mn be the classes of regular functions f(z=z−1+a0+a1z+… defined in the annulus 00, (n∈ℕ0, where I0f(z=f(z, If(z=(z−1−z(z−1−2∗f(z, Inf(z=I(In−1f(z, and ∗ is the Hadamard convolution. We denote by Γn=Mn⋃Γ, where Γ denotes the class of functions of the form f(z=z−1+∑k=1∞|ak|zk. We obtained that relates the modulus of the coefficients to starlikeness for the classes Mn and Γn, and coefficient inequalities for the classes Γn.

  16. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  17. Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-03-10

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero. (letter to the editor)

  18. Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero. (letter to the editor)

  19. Asymptotic normalization coefficients and astrophysical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Azhari, A.; Clark, H.L.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Lui, Y.-W.; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

    2000-01-01

    The S factor for the direct capture reaction 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B can be found at astrophysical energies from the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) which provide the normalization of the tails of the overlap functions for 8 B → 7 Be + p. Peripheral transfer reactions offer a technique to determine these ANC's. Using this technique, the 10 B( 7 Be, 8 B) 9 Be and 14 N( 7 Be, 8 B) 13 C reactions have been used to measure the asymptotic normalization coefficient for 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B. These results provide an indirect determination of S 17 (0). Analysis of the existing 9 Be(p, γ) 10 B experimental data within the framework of the R-matrix method demonstrates that experimentally measured ANC's can provide a reasonable determination of direct radiative capture rates. (author)

  20. Differences between charged-current coefficient functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Rogal, M.; Vogt, A.

    2007-08-01

    Second- and third-order results are presented for the structure functions of charged-current deepinelastic scattering in the framework of massless perturbative QCD. We write down the two-loop differences between the corresponding crossing-even and -odd coefficient functions, including those for the longitudinal structure function not covered in the literature so far. At three loops we compute the lowest five moments of these differences for all three structure functions and provide approximate expressions in Bjorken-x space. Also calculated is the related third-order coefficient-function correction to the Gottfried sum rule. We confirm the conjectured suppression of these quantities if the number of colours is large. Finally we derive the second- and third-order QCD contributions to the Paschos-Wolfenstein ratio used for the determination of the weak mixing angle from neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. These contributions are found to be small. (orig.)

  1. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  2. Gate Control Coefficient Effect on CNFET Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudin, Rahmat; Ma'Radzi, Ahmad Alabqari; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2009-01-01

    The development of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) as alternative to existing transistor technology has long been published and discussed. The emergence of this device offers new material and structure in building a transistor. This paper intends to do an analysis of gate control coefficient effect on CNFET performance. The analysis is based on simulation study of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ballistic CNFET. The simulation study used the MOSFET-like CNFET mathematical model to establish the device output characteristic. Based on the analysis of simulation result, it is found that the gate control coefficient contributes to a significant effect on the performance of CNFET. The result also shown the parameter could help to improve the device performance in terms of its output and response as well. Nevertheless, the characteristic of the carbon nanotube that acts as the channel is totally important in determining the performance of the transistor as a whole.

  3. Atomic rate coefficients in a degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The electrons in a dense, degenerate plasma follow Fermi-Dirac statistics, which deviate significantly in this regime from the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approach used by many models. We present methods to calculate the atomic rate coefficients for the Fermi-Dirac distribution and present a comparison of the ionization fraction of carbon calculated using both models. We have found that for densities close to solid, although the discrepancy is small for LTE conditions, there is a large divergence from the ionization fraction by using classical rate coefficients in the presence of strong photoionizing radiation. We have found that using these modified rates and the degenerate heat capacity may affect the time evolution of a plasma subject to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray radiation such as produced in free electron laser irradiation of solid targets.

  4. Relations between coefficients of fractional parentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, L.

    2007-01-01

    For each of the (9/2) (11/2), and (13/2) single j shells we have only one state with J=j v=3 for a five particle system. For four identical particles there can be more than one state of seniority four. We note some 'ratio' relations for the coefficients of fractional parentage for the four and five identical particle systems, which are found in the works of de Shalit and Talmi [Nuclear Shell Theory (Academic Press, New York, 1963)] and Talmi [Simple Models of Complex Nuclei (Harwood Academic, Reading, UK, 1993)] to be useful for explaining the vanishing of a five particle coefficients of fractional parentage (cfp). These relations are used to show that there is a special (g 9/2 ) 4 I=4 v=4 wave function that cannot be admixed with an I=4 v=2 wave function, even with seniority violating interactions

  5. The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04–0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found

  6. Diffusion coefficient calculations for cylindrical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam-Hime, M.

    1983-03-01

    An accurate and general diffusion coefficient calculation for cylindrical cells is described using isotropic scattering integral transport theory. This method has been particularly applied to large regular lattices of graphite-moderated reactors with annular coolant channels. The cells are divided into homogeneous zones, and a zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a collision probability problem. The reflection of neutrons at the cell boundary is accounted for by the conservation of the neutron momentum. The uncorrected diffusion coefficient Benoist's definition is used, and the described formulation does not neglect any effect. Angular correlation terms, energy coupling non-uniformity and anisotropy of the classical flux are exactly taken into account. Results for gas-graphite typical cells are given showing the importance of these approximations

  7. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1965-11-01

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO 2 and 16% PuO 2 /84% depleted UO 2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  8. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  9. Differences between charged-current coefficient functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S.; Rogal, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    Second- and third-order results are presented for the structure functions of charged-current deepinelastic scattering in the framework of massless perturbative QCD. We write down the two-loop differences between the corresponding crossing-even and -odd coefficient functions, including those for the longitudinal structure function not covered in the literature so far. At three loops we compute the lowest five moments of these differences for all three structure functions and provide approximate expressions in Bjorken-x space. Also calculated is the related third-order coefficient-function correction to the Gottfried sum rule. We confirm the conjectured suppression of these quantities if the number of colours is large. Finally we derive the second- and third-order QCD contributions to the Paschos-Wolfenstein ratio used for the determination of the weak mixing angle from neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. These contributions are found to be small. (orig.)

  10. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  12. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  13. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alexander; Marsman, Maarten; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2018-02-01

    Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo (11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, 2015) introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting. For this large class of priors, we show that the (marginal) posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open-source software package JASP.

  14. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, A.; Marsman, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2018-01-01

    Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo (11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, 2015) introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting. For this large class of priors, we show that the (marginal) posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open‐source software package JASP.

  15. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...

  16. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  17. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  18. Moderator temperature coefficient in BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka

    1977-01-01

    Temperature dependences of infinite multiplication factor k sub(infinity) and neutron leakage from the core must be examined for estimation of moderator temperature coefficient. Temperature dependence on k sub(infinity) has been investigated by many researchers, however, the dependence on neutron leakage of a BWR with cruciformed control rods has hardly been done. Because there are difficulties and necessity on calculations of three space dimensional and multi-energy groups neutron distribution in a BWR core. In this study, moderator temperature coefficients of JPDR-II (BWR) core were obtained by calculation with DIFFUSION-ACE, which is newly developed three-dimensional multi-group computer code. The results were compared with experimental data measured from 20 to 275 0 C of the moderator temperature and the good agreement was obtained between calculation and measurement. In order to evaluate neutron leakage from the core, the other two calculations were carried out, adjusting criticality by uniform absorption rate and by material buckling. The former underestimated neutron leakage and the latter overestimated it. Discussion on the results shows that in order to estimate the temperature coefficient of BWR, neutron leakage must be evaluated precisely, therefore the calculation at actual pattern of control rods is necessary. (auth.)

  19. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  20. Numerical determination of lateral loss coefficients for subchannel analysis in nuclear fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    An accurate prediction of cross-flow based on detailed knowledge of the velocity field in subchannels of a nuclear fuel assembly is of importance in nuclear fuel performance analysis. In this study, the low-Reynolds number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been adopted in two adjacent subchannels with cross-flow. The secondary flow is estimated accurately by the anisotropic algebraic Reynolds stress model. This model was numerically calculated by the finite element method and has been verified successfully through comparison with existing experimental data. Finally, with the numerical analysis of the velocity field in such subchannel domain, an analytical correlation of the lateral loss coefficient is obtained to predict the cross-flow rate in subchannel analysis codes. The correlation is expressed as a function of the ratio of the lateral flow velocity to the donor subchannel axial velocity, recipient channel Reynolds number and pitch-to-diameter.

  1. The influence of aerodynamic coefficients on the elements of classic projectile paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir D. Jerković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research on the influence of aerodynamic coefficient values on the trajectory elements and the stability parameters of classic axisymmetric projectiles. It presents the characteristic functions of aerodynamic coefficients with regard to aerodynamic parameters and the projectile body shape. The trajectory elements of the model of classic axisymmetric projectiles and the analyses of their changes were presented with respect to the aerodynamic coefficient values. Introduction Classic axisymmetric projectiles fly through atmosphere using muzzle velocity as initial energy resource, so the aerodynamic force and moment have the most significant influence on the motion of projectiles. The aerodynamic force and moment components represented as aerodynamic coefficients depend on motion velocity i. e. flow velocity, the flow features produced by projectile shape and position in the flow, and angular velocity (rate of the body. The functional dependence of aerodynamic coefficients on certain influential parameters, such as angle of attack and angular velocity components is expressed by the derivative of aerodynamic coefficients. The determination of aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives enables complete definition of the aerodynamic force and moment acting on the classic projectile. The projectile motion problem is considered in relation to defining the projectile stability parameters and the conditions under which the stability occurs. The comparative analyses of aerodynamic coefficient values obtained by numerical methods, semi empirical calculations and experimental research give preliminary evaluation of the quality of the determined values. The flight simulation of the motion of a classic axisymetric projectile, which has the shape defined by the aerodynamic coefficient values, enables the comparative analyses of the trajectory elements and stability characteristics. The model of the classic projectile

  2. Flow shapes and higher harmonics in anisotropic transverse collective flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argintaru, Danut; Baban, Valerica [Constanta Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation and Naval Transport, Constanta (Romania); Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Grossu, Valeriu [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Esanu, Tiberiu; Cherciu, Madalin [Institute of Space Sciences Bucharest-Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper we show that by using a jet-finder algorithm (the Anti-k{sub T} one) on UrQMD/C simulated (Au+Au at 4, 10 and 15A GeV) collisions, we can identify different flow shape structures (single flow stream events, two flow streams events, three flow streams events, etc.) and order the bulk of events in equivalence flow shape classes. Considering these flow streams as the main directions of anisotropic transverse flow, we show that the Fourier coefficients v{sub n} of anisotropic flow are better emphasized when we analyze the different event flow shape classes than when the events are mixed. Also, if we do not know the real orientation of the reaction plane, we can use as reference the Flow stream 1 - the main particle flow stream - orientation (Ψ{sub Flowstream} {sub 1}) to highlight the initial shape of the participant nuclear matter in a central to peripheral collision, and the orientation of the participant plane of order n. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  4. CFD simulation of simultaneous monotonic cooling and surface heat transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihálka, Peter; Matiašovský, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The monotonic heating regime method for determination of thermal diffusivity is based on the analysis of an unsteady-state (stabilised) thermal process characterised by an independence of the space-time temperature distribution on initial conditions. At the first kind of the monotonic regime a sample of simple geometry is heated / cooled at constant ambient temperature. The determination of thermal diffusivity requires the determination rate of a temperature change and simultaneous determination of the first eigenvalue. According to a characteristic equation the first eigenvalue is a function of the Biot number defined by a surface heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of an analysed material. Knowing the surface heat transfer coefficient and the first eigenvalue the thermal conductivity can be determined. The surface heat transport coefficient during the monotonic regime can be determined by the continuous measurement of long-wave radiation heat flow and the photoelectric measurement of the air refractive index gradient in a boundary layer. CFD simulation of the cooling process was carried out to analyse local convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients more in detail. Influence of ambient air flow was analysed. The obtained eigenvalues and corresponding surface heat transfer coefficient values enable to determine thermal conductivity of the analysed specimen together with its thermal diffusivity during a monotonic heating regime.

  5. A lattice based solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation with applications to microchannel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B I; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    An alternative approach for solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation for a lattice architecture is presented. In the proposed method, termed the collisional lattice Boltzmann method (cLBM), the effects of spatial transport are accounted for via a streaming operator, using a lattice framework, and the effects of detailed collisional interactions are accounted for using the full collision operator of the Boltzmann equation. The latter feature is in contrast to the conventional lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) where collisional interactions are modeled via simple equilibrium based relaxation models (e.g. BGK). The underlying distribution function is represented using weights and fixed velocity abscissas according to the lattice structure. These weights are evolved based on constraints on the evolution of generalized moments of velocity according to the collisional Boltzmann equation. It can be shown that the collision integral can be reduced to a summation of elementary integrals, which can be analytically evaluated. The proposed method is validated using studies of canonical microchannel Couette and Poiseuille flows (both body force and pressure driven) and the results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from conventional LBMs and experiments where available. Unlike conventional LBMs, the proposed method does not involve any equilibrium based approximations and hence can be useful for simulation of highly nonequilibrium flows (for a range of Knudsen numbers) using a lattice framework. (paper)

  6. Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann modeling of large-density-ratio two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Xu, Jiangrong; Chen, Jiangxing; Wang, Huili; Chai, Zhenhua; Shi, Baochang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and accurate lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for immiscible two-phase flows, which is able to deal with large density contrasts. This model utilizes two LB equations, one of which is used to solve the conservative Allen-Cahn equation, and the other is adopted to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A forcing distribution function is elaborately designed in the LB equation for the Navier-Stokes equations, which make it much simpler than the existing LB models. In addition, the proposed model can achieve superior numerical accuracy compared with previous Allen-Cahn type of LB models. Several benchmark two-phase problems, including static droplet, layered Poiseuille flow, and spinodal decomposition are simulated to validate the present LB model. It is found that the present model can achieve relatively small spurious velocity in the LB community, and the obtained numerical results also show good agreement with the analytical solutions or some available results. Lastly, we use the present model to investigate the droplet impact on a thin liquid film with a large density ratio of 1000 and the Reynolds number ranging from 20 to 500. The fascinating phenomena of droplet splashing is successfully reproduced by the present model and the numerically predicted spreading radius exhibits to obey the power law reported in the literature.

  7. Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Radtke, Gregg A.; Shan, Xiaowen

    2013-03-01

    A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0.5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

  8. A low-dimensional tool for predicting force decomposition coefficients for varying inflow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    We develop a low-dimensional tool to predict the effects of unsteadiness in the inflow on force coefficients acting on a circular cylinder using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes from steady flow simulations. The approach is based on combining POD and linear stochastic estimator (LSE) techniques. We use POD to derive a reduced-order model (ROM) to reconstruct the velocity field. To overcome the difficulty of developing a ROM using Poisson\\'s equation, we relate the pressure field to the velocity field through a mapping function based on LSE. The use of this approach to derive force decomposition coefficients (FDCs) under unsteady mean flow from basis functions of the steady flow is illustrated. For both steady and unsteady cases, the final outcome is a representation of the lift and drag coefficients in terms of velocity and pressure temporal coefficients. Such a representation could serve as the basis for implementing control strategies or conducting uncertainty quantification. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  9. A numerical model for boiling heat transfer coefficient of zeotropic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Vicencio, Rodrigo; Caviedes Aedo, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Zeotropic mixtures never have the same liquid and vapor composition in the liquid-vapor equilibrium. Also, the bubble and the dew point are separated; this gap is called glide temperature (Tglide). Those characteristics have made these mixtures suitable for cryogenics Joule-Thomson (JT) refrigeration cycles. Zeotropic mixtures as working fluid in JT cycles improve their performance in an order of magnitude. Optimization of JT cycles have earned substantial importance for cryogenics applications (e.g, gas liquefaction, cryosurgery probes, cooling of infrared sensors, cryopreservation, and biomedical samples). Heat exchangers design on those cycles is a critical point; consequently, heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of two-phase zeotropic mixtures are relevant. In this work, it will be applied a methodology in order to calculate the local convective heat transfer coefficients based on the law of the wall approach for turbulent flows. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of zeotropic mixtures in a heated horizontal tube are investigated numerically. The temperature profile and heat transfer coefficient for zeotropic mixtures of different bulk compositions are analysed. The numerical model has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, constant temperature wall, and two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model taking into account continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Local heat transfer coefficient results are compared with available experimental data published by Barraza et al. (2016), and they have shown good agreement.

  10. Enhancement of heat transfer coefficient multi-metallic nanofluid with ANFIS modeling for thermophysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Hyder H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn-water nanofluid is a suspension of the Cu and Zn nanoparticles with the size 50 nm in the water base fluid for different volume fractions to enhance its Thermophysical properties. The determination and measuring the enhancement of Thermophysical properties depends on many limitations. Nanoparticles were suspended in a base fluid to prepare a nanofluid. A coated transient hot wire apparatus was calibrated after the building of the all systems. The vibro-viscometer was used to measure the dynamic viscosity. The measured dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity with all parameters affected on the measurements such as base fluids thermal conductivity, volume factions, and the temperatures of the base fluid were used as input to the Artificial Neural Fuzzy inference system to modeling both dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Then, the ANFIS modeling equations were used to calculate the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient using CFD software. The heat transfer coefficient was determined for flowing flow in a circular pipe at constant heat flux. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was highly affected by the volume fraction of nanoparticles. A comparison of the thermal conductivity ratio for different volume fractions was undertaken. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was found to be higher than its base fluid. Comparisons of convective heat transfer coefficients for Cu and Zn nanofluids with the other correlation for the nanofluids heat transfer enhancement are presented. Moreover, the flow demonstrates anomalous enhancement in heat transfer nanofluids.

  11. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  12. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  13. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  14. Study of MHD Corrosion and Transport of Corrosion Products of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels in the Flowing PbLi and its Application to Fusion Blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Sheida

    hydrodynamic flows. In addition, the corrosion behavior was found to be different between the side wall of the duct (parallel to the magnetic field) and the Hartmann wall (perpendicular to the magnetic field) due to formation of high-velocity jets at the side walls. Further analysis was performed for corrosion in the Hartmann flow, which is the MHD analog of the hydrodynamic Poiseuille flow. The main goal of the analysis is to elucidate the effect of a magnetic field on the corrosion mass loss in the case when the applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow-confining wall. It was found that the corrosion rate is strongly dependent of the ratio between the thickness of the concentration boundary layer and that of the magnetohydrodynamic Hartmann boundary layer. Analysis of the effect of a magnetic field on corrosion of RAFM steel in a turbulent PbLi flow is performed using numerical simulations. As demonstrated, for all three magnetic field orientations, decrease of the corrosion rate occurs as the magnetic field increases. However, a wall-normal magnetic field has a stronger effect on the reduction of the corrosion rate compared to the other two magnetic field orientations due to more intensive turbulence suppression. For the case of a wall-normal magnetic field, a correlation for the turbulent dimensionless mass transfer coefficient (Sherwood number, Sh) has been constructed based on the numerical data, which shows the effect of the flow velocity via the Reynolds number (Re) and that of the applied magnetic field via the Hartmann number (Ha): Sh = Sh0 -- 0.792x( Ha1.289), where Sherwood number in a purely hydrodynamic flow Sh0 is a function of Re. The developed analytical and computational tools have been used in the calculations of the corrosion mass loss in the poloidal ducts of the DCLL blanket under conditions of the so-called US DEMO reactor. The analysis includes parametric studies, using the electrical conductivity of the insulating flow channel insert (FCI

  15. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  16. Vehicle wheel drag coefficient in relation to travelling velocity - CFD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the aerodynamic losses associated with a rotating automobile wheel, a detailed characteristics of the drag coefficient in relation to the applied velocity are necessary. Single drag coefficient value is most often reported for the commercially available vehicles, much less is revealed about the influence of particular car components on the energy consumption in various driving cycles. However, detailed flow potential losses determination is desired for performance estimation. To address these needs, the numerical investigation of an isolated wheel is proposed herein.

  17. Computational error estimates for Monte Carlo finite element approximation with log normal diffusion coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Sandberg, Mattias

    2015-01-07

    The Monte Carlo (and Multi-level Monte Carlo) finite element method can be used to approximate observables of solutions to diffusion equations with log normal distributed diffusion coefficients, e.g. modelling ground water flow. Typical models use log normal diffusion coefficients with H¨older regularity of order up to 1/2 a.s. This low regularity implies that the high frequency finite element approximation error (i.e. the error from frequencies larger than the mesh frequency) is not negligible and can be larger than the computable low frequency error. This talk will address how the total error can be estimated by the computable error.

  18. Computable error estimates for Monte Carlo finite element approximation of elliptic PDE with lognormal diffusion coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Hall, Eric

    2016-01-09

    The Monte Carlo (and Multi-level Monte Carlo) finite element method can be used to approximate observables of solutions to diffusion equations with lognormal distributed diffusion coefficients, e.g. modeling ground water flow. Typical models use lognormal diffusion coefficients with H´ older regularity of order up to 1/2 a.s. This low regularity implies that the high frequency finite element approximation error (i.e. the error from frequencies larger than the mesh frequency) is not negligible and can be larger than the computable low frequency error. We address how the total error can be estimated by the computable error.

  19. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  20. Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Lee, W.

    1991-02-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A-coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of an argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high-intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs